Art and Photography
Resources

 email page    print page

All Topic Reviews
1000 Families2 ¼32 Stories365 Days51 Months5x7A Child's Life and Other StoriesA Couple of Ways of Doing SomethingA Lifetime of SecretsA Storybook LifeA Treasury of Victorian MurderActing OutAddiction and ArtAEIOUAfter PhotographyAliveAlive with Alzheimer'sAlone Together POCAltered StatesAmazing WomenAmelia's WorldAmerica at HomeAmerican AlphabetsAmnesiaAn American LensAn Exact MindAngel's WorldAngry Youth Comix #2Anjos ProibidosAnthony GoicoleaArchitecture of AuthorityArt After Conceptual ArtArt and HomosexualityArt and PhotographyArt in Three DimensionsArt Photography NowArt, Self and KnowledgeArt/PornAs We AreAsylumAttitudeAutoportraitBecoming Edvard MunchBeg the QuestionBelugaBerkoBig Rabbit's Bad MoodBill HensonBlab!Blab! 13BLAB! Vol. 14BLAB! Vol. 15BlanketsBoneyardBoneyardBoy StoriesBreakdownsBright EarthBrüselBurn, Bitchy, BurnBus OdysseyBut Is It Art?CanvasCaricatureChildrenChris VereneChristy ReportCinema PanopticumClass PicturesClick DoubleclickCloserClumsyClyde Fans CoincidencesComing of AgeComing of Age in Ancient GreeceConceptual Art and PaintingConfessions of a Cereal EaterConsider LoveCouch FictionCrumpleCzech EdenCzech Photographic Avant-Garde, 1918-1948Dan & LarryDargerDays With My FatherDead EndDear MomDeus Ex MachinaDigital DiariesDirty StoriesDisasters of WarDixie RoadDomestic VacationsDon't Go Where I Can't FollowDon't You Feel BetterDr. Jekyll & Mr. HydeDrawingsDriftlessEarly ExposuresEcstasyEdouard VuillardEnduring CreationEngland, My EnglandEntering GermanyEpilepticErwin OlafEscape from "Special"EVAEverything Will DisappearEvidenceExploring the Self through PhotographyExposureExpressionism Exquisite CorpseFamilyFamilyFamily LifeFandomaniaFaster than a Speeding BulletFictionsFigure and GroundFragile DVDFred the ClownFreud at WorkFridaFrom Girls to GrrlzFun HomeGeneration DadaGirl CultureGirls, Some Boys and Other CookiesGoing Into TownGood-ByeGraphic WomenGrave MattersGreat Hiking Trails of the WorldH R GigerHans BellmerHappy Halloween, Li'L SantaHauntedHere Is New YorkHey, Wait...High Art LiteHollywood CowboyHouse of JavaHow Art WorksI Am Not This BodyI Love You But I've Chosen RockI Thought I Could FlyI'll Be Your MirrorI'm CrazyIllumineIn My Darkest HourIn Search Of DignityIn the Floyd ArchivesIn the Line of DutyInformation ArtsIntenseInvisible No MoreIt Was A Dark And Silly NightJack Cole and Plastic ManJimmy CorriganJock SturgesJock SturgesJust Between UsKafkaKatharina SieverdingLacan at the SceneLaura Numeroff's 10-Step Guide to Living with Your MonsterLife's a BitchLight in the Dark RoomLine of Beauty and GraceListening to CementLittle LitLi’l SantaLoadsLooking For MayaLost GirlLouis FaurerLouise BourgeoisLove and DesireLove Lust DesireLuckyManufactured LandscapesMass ObservationMaster BreastsMetacreationMisty DawnMnemosyneMomeMona KuhnMy Brain is Hanging Upside DownMy DepressionMy Family AlbumNatural BeautiesNatural BeautyNerveNerveNew and Used BLAB!New York September 11Night FisherNightswimmingNo More ShavesNot My ShameNotes from a DefeatistNothing ObviousNothing to HideNudes and PortraitsOliviaOlivia Saves the CircusOn City StreetsOne EyeOnly a Promise of HappinessOptic NerveOptic Nerve #11Optic Nerve #9Outlaws, Rebels, Freethinkers & PiratesOutsider ArtOutsider Art and Art TherapyPanic at Toad HallPatrolPaul M. SmithPeculiaPeekPeople Love PhotosPerfect ExamplePersepolisPhilosophersPhonesexPhoto ArtPhoto Icons I (1827-1926)Photographers, Writers, and the American ScenePhotography and LiteraturePhotography and PhilosophyPhotography and SciencePhotography and the USA Photography RebornPicturing DisabilityPlaytimePOPismPortraits of ResiliencePostmodernismPsychedelicQuestions without answersRaptors Raw YouthRay's a LaughRazmatazReclining NudeRed SnowRemembering GeorgyRequisite DistanceRineke DijkstraRippleRobert Doisneau 1912-1994Robert MaxwellRoom to PlayRXSame Difference & Other StoriesSanctumSatan's Sex BookSatellitesSchizophreniaSee Me Feel MeSelf-Taught and Outsider ArtSexSexual ArtSexyBookShadow ChamberSidewalk StoriesSkin DeepSleepwalkSmall FavorsSmile of the BuddhaSpectral EvidenceSpentSshhhh!Stranded in CantonStrange Stories for Strange Kids Stranger PassingStripped BareSummer BlondeSurrealismSymbols in ArtTestimonyThe Aesthetics of DisengagementThe AlcoholicThe Art InstinctThe Art of Adolf WolfliThe Art of MedicineThe BabiesThe Birthday RiotsThe Blue Day BookThe Blue NotebookThe BodyThe Body as ProtestThe Boulevard of Broken DreamsThe Breast BookThe Breathing FieldThe Bristol Board JungleThe Clouds AboveThe Devil and Daniel JohnstonThe Diary of a Teenage GirlThe Education of SophieThe Erotic Lives of WomenThe Face in the LensThe Illustrated Story of OThe Incantations of Daniel JohnstonThe Madonna of the FutureThe Mirror of LoveThe New Erotic PhotographyThe New LifeThe Other PlaceThe PervertThe Philosophy of Andy WarholThe Places We LiveThe Psychology of Art and the Evolution of the Conscious BrainThe Push Man and Other StoriesThe Scar of VisibilityThe September 11 Photo ProjectThe Shiniest JewelThe Speed AbaterThe Steerage and Alfred StieglitzThe Story of Frog Belly Rat BoneThe Story of SexThe Stuff of LifeThe Three ParadoxesThe Transformations of GwenThe Transformations of GwenThe Transparent CityThe TravelersThe ValleyThe Van Gogh BluesThe Wolves in the WallsThe Yellow HouseThinThings as They AreThinking of YouTierney GearonTime and SilenceTina's MouthTits, Ass, and Real EstateTransitionTrauma and Documentary Photography of the FSATravelersTropical BlendTwentieth Century EightballTwilightUnlikelyVagina WarriorsVernacular VisionariesVietnam At PeaceVisual CultureVitamin PhWar Is Only Half the StoryWhat Are You Looking At?What Art IsWhat Good Are the Arts?What Remains: The Life and Work of Sally MannWho Am I, What Am I, Where Am I?Why Comics?William KentridgeWillie DohertyWithWriters on ArtistsYoung PhotographerZip Zip My Brain Harts

Related Topics
How Art WorksReview - How Art Works
A Psychological Exploration
by Ellen Winner
Oxford University Press, 2018
Review by Christian Perring
Jul 23rd 2019 (Volume 23, Issue 30)

Ellen Winner sets out the psychological study of art in a methodical and approachable fashion. She says what she will show, she shows it, and then she summarizes what she has shown. Her approach is very much empirically based, with many experiments explained and discussed. The questions she addresses are often inspired by philosophical discussion but she sticks to the empirical issues. Most of the experiments she discusses are relatively simple and thus don't attempt to capture the sophistication of some fancy psychological theories of art (such as psychoanalytic) which are essentially untestable. But it is surprising how far the psychological experiments can go and how they come up with results that we might not have expected.

Here is a list of the questions that are addressed in the book and that Winner sets out in her conclusion.

Can art be defined?

Does music express emotion to the listener?

Does music evoke emotion in the listener?

Do pictures express emotion to the viewer?

Does visual art evoke emotion in the viewer?

Why do we enjoy negative emotions from art?

Are aesthetic judgement based on anything objective?

Do our beliefs about effort shape our aesthetic judgments?

What is wrong with a beautiful perfect fake?

Could a child have made that Jackson Pollock?

Does art make us smarter?

Does fiction make us more empathetic?

Can art be therapeutic?

Who makes art and why?

Of course, there will be semantic debates over what it means to express emotion, what emotions are, what counts as aesthetic judgment, and philosophers can debate about whether the experiments show what they claim to show. But the experiments that Winner presents are certainly worth discussing. Some of the studies look at what people believe about art or how they categorize art, or whether children can distinguish art from non-art, and it turns out that they are pretty good at it. People say that nonvocal music does express emotions, and they tend to agree on some basic emotions expressed by western music. She goes on to argue that music tends to elicit atypical kinds of emotions. And so it goes. There is much investigation of the extent to which our responses are culturally-dependent or whether they can be found cross-culturally and in both art-experts and also the artistically uneducated. As indicated, it turns out that some of our responses to art are relatively culturally-independent. Winner entertains some possible psychological explanations of that.

One of the nicest chapters is on our responses to duplicated art and its value, and our beliefs about the importance of the authenticity of the artwork. Winner argues that our responses are best explained by a belief that art is best when it has been physically touched and created by the artist themselves. It's a surprising folk theory of art value that apparently is widespread.

Maybe the most philosophically important result concerns the objectivity of aesthetic judgment. There is a fair amount of evidence that our judgments are completely explained by our familiarity with artworks and our cultural learning, and so there's little room for the possibility of an independent objective judgment explaining our reactions to art. Winner holds out for the possibility that objective judgment may still have some role to play in explaining our aesthetic responses, but admits that there is no evidence so far that it will.

The final chapters are directly relevant to social policy of promoting art and art-making. Many claims are made for the beneficial effects of listening to classical music, viewing paintings, reading novels, watching plays, and so on. It turns out that there's little empirical evidence for any of this. There is some evidence that engaging in theatre can be beneficial to people. Winner takes pains to reassure readers that she is not against the support of the arts, but she is clear that many of the arguments for why society should support the arts have no good empirical backing.

So How Art Works is a welcome book that will be of interest to empirically minded readers curious about how we think about art and the effects of immersing oneself in art. None of it going to answer aesthetic debates about the value of high art, but it can ground discussion and can help to separate out philosophical issues from psychological ones. Given the state of current philosophy of art, it is a book that could have a very beneficial impact on philosophy.

 

© 2019 Christian Perring

 

Christian Perring teaches in NYC.


Share

Welcome to Metapsychology. We feature over 8200 in-depth reviews of a wide range of books and DVDs written by our reviewers from many backgrounds and perspectives. We update our front page weekly and add more than twenty new reviews each month. Our editor is Christian Perring, PhD. To contact him, use one of the forms available here.


Metapsychology Online reviewers normally receive gratis review copies of the items they review.
Metapsychology Online receives a commission from Amazon.com for purchases through this site, which helps us send review copies to reviewers. Please support us by making your Amazon.com purchases through our Amazon links. We thank you for your support!


Join our e-mail list!: Metapsychology New Review Announcements: Sent out monthly, these announcements list our recent reviews. To subscribe, click here.

Interested in becoming a book reviewer for Metapsychology? To apply, write to our editor.

Metapsychology Online Reviews

Promote your Page too

Metapsychology Online Reviews
ISSN 1931-5716