email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
Anger and Forgiveness"Are You There Alone?"10 Good Questions about Life and DeathA Casebook of Ethical Challenges in NeuropsychologyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to Muslim EthicsA Cooperative SpeciesA Critique of the Moral Defense of VegetarianismA Delicate BalanceA Fragile LifeA Life for a LifeA Life-Centered Approach to BioethicsA Matter of SecurityA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Natural History of Human MoralityA Philosophical DiseaseA Practical Guide to Clinical Ethics ConsultingA Question of TrustA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Short Stay in SwitzerlandA Tapestry of ValuesA Very Bad WizardA World Without ValuesAction and ResponsibilityAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionActs of ConscienceAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction NeuroethicsAdvance Directives in Mental HealthAfter HarmAftermathAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HealthAgainst MarriageAgainst Moral ResponsibilityAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAging, Biotechnology, and the FutureAlbert Schweitzer's Reverence for LifeAlphavilleAltruismAltruismAmerican EugenicsAmerican PsychosisAn American SicknessAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Evolutionary EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy Ancient Greek and Roman SlaveryAnd a Time to DieAnimal LessonsAnimal RightsAnimal Welfare in a Changing WorldAnimals Like UsApplied Ethics in Mental Health CareAre Women Human?Arguments about AbortionAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle's WayAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAutonomyAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismAutonomy, Consent and the LawBabies by DesignBackslidingBad PharmaBad SoulsBarriers and BelongingBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBeauty JunkiesBefore ForgivingBeing AmoralBeing YourselfBending Over BackwardsBending ScienceBernard WilliamsBetter Humans?Better Than WellBeyond BioethicsBeyond ChoiceBeyond GeneticsBeyond HatredBeyond Humanity?Beyond LossBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond SpeechBeyond the DSM StoryBias in Psychiatric DiagnosisBioethicsBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics at the MoviesBioethics Beyond the HeadlinesBioethics Critically ReconsideredBioethics in a Liberal SocietyBioethics in the ClinicBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical Research and BeyondBiosBioscience EthicsBipolar ChildrenBluebirdBodies out of BoundsBodies, Commodities, and BiotechnologiesBody BazaarBoundBoundaries and Boundary Violations in PsychoanalysisBraintrustBrandedBreaking the SilenceBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyCapital PunishmentCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsChallenging the Stigma of Mental IllnessCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionChild Well-BeingChildrenChildren's RightsChimpanzee RightsChoosing ChildrenChoosing Not to ChooseClinical Dilemmas in PsychotherapyClinical EthicsCloningClose toYouCoercion as CureCoercive Treatment in PsychiatryCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognitive Disability and Its Challenge to Moral Philosophy Comfortably NumbCommonsense RebellionCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompassionate Moral RealismCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentComprehending CareConducting Insanity EvaluationsConfidential RelationshipsConfidentiality and Mental HealthConflict of Interest in the ProfessionsConsuming KidsContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContentious IssuesContesting PsychiatryCrazy in AmericaCreating CapabilitiesCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCriminal Trials and Mental DisordersCritical Perspectives in Public HealthCritical PsychiatryCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCurrent Controversies in BioethicsCurrent Controversies in Values and ScienceCutting to the CoreCyborg CitizenDamaged IdentitiesDeaf Identities in the MakingDeath Is That Man Taking NamesDebating ProcreationDebating Same-Sex MarriageDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecoding the Ethics CodeDefining DifferenceDefining Right and Wrong in Brain ScienceDefining the Beginning and End of LifeDelusions of GenderDementiaDemocracy in What State?Demons of the Modern WorldDescriptions and PrescriptionsDesert and VirtueDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDestructive Trends in Mental HealthDeveloping the VirtuesDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital HemlockDigital SoulDignityDignityDisability BioethicsDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDiscrimination against the Mentally IllDisordered Personalities and CrimeDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDoes Feminism Discriminate against Men?Does Torture Work?Doing HarmDouble Standards in Medical Research in Developing CountriesDown GirlDrugs and JusticeDuty and the BeastDworkin and His CriticsDying in the Twenty-First CenturyEarly WarningEconomics and Youth ViolenceEmbodied RhetoricsEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotional ReasonEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmpathyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEncountering NatureEncountering the Sacred in PsychotherapyEngendering International HealthEnhancing EvolutionEnhancing Human CapacitiesEnoughEros and the GoodErotic InnocenceErotic MoralityEssays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEthical Choices in Contemporary MedicineEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Dilemmas in PediatricsEthical Issues in Behavioral ResearchEthical Issues in Dementia CareEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in the New GeneticsEthical LifeEthical Reasoning for Mental Health ProfessionalsEthical TheoryEthical WillsEthically Challenged ProfessionsEthicsEthicsEthicsEthics and AnimalsEthics and ScienceEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Discovery of the UnconsciousEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics at the CinemaEthics at the End of LifeEthics Beyond the LimitsEthics Case Book of the American Psychoanalytic AssociationEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics for EveryoneEthics for PsychologistsEthics for the New MillenniumEthics in CyberspaceEthics in Everyday PlacesEthics in Health CareEthics In Health Services ManagementEthics in Mental Health ResearchEthics in PracticeEthics in PsychiatryEthics in PsychologyEthics in Psychotherapy and CounselingEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEthics, Culture, and PsychiatryEthics, Sexual Orientation, and Choices about ChildrenEvaluating the Science and Ethics of Research on HumansEvilEvil GenesEvil in Modern ThoughtEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Ethics and Contemporary BiologyEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolved MoralityExperiments in EthicsExploding the Gene MythExploiting ChildhoodFacing Human SufferingFact and ValueFacts and ValuesFaking ItFalse-Memory Creation in Children and AdultsFat ShameFatal FreedomFellow CreaturesFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist TheoryFinal ExamFirst Do No HarmFirst, Do No HarmFlashpointFlesh WoundsForced to CareForgivenessForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and ReconciliationForgiveness and RetributionForgiveness is Really StrangeFoucault and the Government of DisabilityFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Forensic Mental Health AssessmentFree WillFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will and Reactive AttitudesFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree?Freedom and ValueFreedom vs. InterventionFriendshipFrom Darwin to HitlerFrom Disgust to HumanityFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Silence to VoiceFrom Valuing to ValueFrontiers of JusticeGender in the MirrorGenetic PoliticsGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetics of Original SinGenetics of Original SinGenocide's AftermathGetting RealGluttonyGood WorkGoodness & AdviceGreedGroups in ConflictGrowing Up GirlGut FeminismHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHandbook for Health Care Ethics CommitteesHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of Children's RightsHandbook of PsychopathyHappinessHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHard FeelingsHard LuckHardwired BehaviorHarmful ThoughtsHeal & ForgiveHealing PsychiatryHealth Care Ethics for PsychologistsHeterosyncraciesHistorical and Philosophical Perspectives on Biomedical EthicsHoly WarHookedHookedHow Can I Be Trusted?How Fascism WorksHow Propaganda WorksHow to Do Things with Pornography How to Make Opportunity EqualHow Universities Can Help Create a Wiser WorldHow We HopeHow We Think About DementiaHuman BondingHuman Dignity and Assisted DeathHuman Dignity and Assisted DeathHuman EnhancementHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman TrialsHumanism, What's That?Humanitarian ReasonHumanityHumanizing MadnessI am Not Sick I Don't Need Help!I Was WrongIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIf That Ever Happens to MeImproving Nature?In Defense of FloggingIn Defense of SinIn Love With LifeIn Our Own ImageIn the FamilyIn the Land of the DeafIn the Name of IdentityIn the Wake of 9/11In Two MindsInclusive EthicsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchInnovation in Medical TechnologyInside Assisted LivingInside EthicsIntelligence, Race, and GeneticsIntensive CareInto the Gray ZoneIs Human Nature Obsolete?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is There a Duty to Die?Is There an Ethicist in the House?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJudging Children As ChildrenJust a DogJust BabiesJust CareJustice for ChildrenJustice for HedgehogsJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeJustifiable ConductKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Theory of VirtueKids of CharacterKilling McVeighLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLaw and the BrainLearning About School ViolenceLearning from Baby PLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLegal and Ethical Aspects of HealthcareLegal Aspects of Mental CapacityLegal ConceptionsLegal InsanityLegalizing ProstitutionLet Them Eat ProzacLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberal EugenicsLife After FaithLife at the BottomLife, Sex, and IdeasListening to the WhispersLiving ProfessionalismLosing Matt ShepardLostLuckyMad in AmericaMad PrideMadhouseMaking Another World PossibleMaking Babies, Making FamiliesMaking Genes, Making WavesMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMalignantMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaning and Moral OrderMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeans, Ends, and PersonsMeans, Ends, and PersonsMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedical Research for HireMedicalized MasculinitiesMedically Assisted DeathMeditations for the HumanistMelancholia and MoralismMental Health Professionals, Minorities and the PoorMental Illness, Medicine and LawMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMetaethical SubjectivismMill's UtilitarianismMind FieldsMind WarsMind WarsModern Theories of JusticeModernity and TechnologyMoney ShotMonsterMoral Acquaintances and Moral DecisionsMoral BrainsMoral ClarityMoral CultivationMoral Development and RealityMoral Dilemmas in Real LifeMoral DimensionsMoral EntanglementsMoral FailureMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral MindsMoral OriginsMoral Panics, Sex PanicsMoral ParticularismMoral PerceptionMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RealismMoral RelativismMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral Status and Human LifeMoral StealthMoral Theory at the MoviesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMoral, Immoral, AmoralMoralismMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMorals, Rights and Practice in the Human ServicesMorals, Rights and Practice in the Human ServicesMore Than HumanMotive and RightnessMovies and the Moral Adventure of LifeMurder in the InnMy Body PoliticMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Sister's KeeperMy Sister's KeeperMy WayNakedNano-Bio-EthicsNarrative MedicineNarrative ProsthesisNatural Ethical FactsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalized BioethicsNeither Bad nor MadNeoconservatismNeonatal BioethicsNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNew Takes in Film-PhilosophyNew Waves in EthicsNew Waves in MetaethicsNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNo Child Left DifferentNo Impact ManNormative EthicsNormativityNothing about us, without us!Oath BetrayedOf War and LawOn AnimalsOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn EvilOn Human RightsOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOn the TakeOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne ChildOne Nation Under TherapyOne World NowOne World NowOur Bodies, Whose Property?Our Bodies, Whose Property?Our Daily MedsOur Faithfulness to the PastOur Posthuman FutureOut of EdenOut of Its MindOut of the ShadowsOverdosed AmericaOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Studies in Normative EthicsOxford Studies in Normative Ethics, Volume 7Oxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPassionate DeliberationPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perfecting VirtuePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonalities on the PlatePersonhood and Health CarePersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPerspectives On Health And Human RightsPharmaceutical FreedomPharmacracyPharmageddonPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhysician-Assisted DyingPicturing DisabilityPilgrim at Tinker CreekPlaying God?Playing God?Political EmotionsPornlandPowerful MedicinesPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical EthicsPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical RulesPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic NeuroethicsPraise and BlamePreferences and Well-BeingPrimates and PhilosophersPro-Life, Pro-ChoiceProcreation and ParenthoodProfits Before People?Progress in BioethicsProperty in the BodyProzac As a Way of LifeProzac on the CouchPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric EthicsPsychiatry and EmpirePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychotropic Drug Prescriber's Survival GuidePublic Health LawPublic Health Law and EthicsPublic PhilosophyPunishing the Mentally IllPunishmentPursuits of WisdomPutting Morality Back Into PoliticsPutting on VirtueQuality of Life and Human DifferenceRaceRadical HopeRadical VirtuesRape Is RapeRe-creating MedicineRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReckoning With HomelessnessReconceiving Medical EthicsRecovery from SchizophreniaRedefining RapeRedesigning HumansReducing the Stigma of Mental IllnessReflections on Ethics and ResponsibilityReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRefuting Peter Singer's Ethical TheoryRegard for Reason in the Moral MindRelative JusticeRelativism and Human RightsReligion ExplainedReprogeneticsRescuing JeffreyRespecting AnimalsResponsibilityResponsibility and PsychopathyResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsResponsible GeneticsRethinking CommodificationRethinking Informed Consent in BioethicsRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeReturn to ReasonRevolution in PsychologyRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRisk and Luck in Medical EthicsRobert NozickRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Rule of Law, Misrule of MenRun, Spot, RunRunning on RitalinSatisficing and MaximizingSchadenfreudeSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and EthicsScience in the Private InterestScience, Policy, and the Value-Free IdealScience, Seeds and CyborgsScratching the Surface of BioethicsSecular Philosophy and the Religious TemperamentSeeing the LightSelf-ConstitutionSelf-Made MadnessSelf-Trust and Reproductive AutonomySentimental RulesSex Fiends, Perverts, and PedophilesSex OffendersSex, Family, and the Culture WarsSexual DevianceSexual EthicsSexual PredatorsSexualized BrainsShaping Our SelvesShock TherapyShould I Medicate My Child?ShunnedSick to Death and Not Going to Take It AnymoreSickoSide EffectsSidewalk StoriesSilent PartnersSister CitizenSkeptical FeminismSocial Dimensions of Moral ResponsibilitySocial Inclusion of People with Mental IllnessSocial JusticeSociological Perspectives on the New GeneticsSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSovereign VirtueSpeech MattersSpiral of EntrapmentSplit DecisionsSticks and StonesStories MatterSubhumanSubjectivity and Being SomebodySuffering and VirtueSuffering, Death, and IdentitySuicide ProhibitionSurgery JunkiesSurgically Shaping ChildrenTaking Morality SeriouslyTaming the Troublesome ChildTechnology and the Good Life?TestimonyText and Materials on International Human RightsThe Moral Psychology of AngerThe Age of CulpabilityThe Age of CulpabilityThe Aims of Higher EducationThe Almost MoonThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Forensic PsychiatryThe Animal ManifestoThe Animals' AgendaThe Art of LivingThe Autonomy of MoralityThe Beloved SelfThe Best Things in LifeThe Big FixThe Bioethics ReaderThe Biology and Psychology of Moral AgencyThe Blackwell Guide to Medical EthicsThe Body SilentThe BondThe Book of LifeThe Burden of SympathyThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Textbook of BioethicsThe Case against Assisted SuicideThe Case Against PerfectionThe Case Against PunishmentThe Case for PerfectionThe Case of Terri SchiavoThe Challenge of Human RightsThe Character GapThe Code for Global EthicsThe Colonization Of Psychic SpaceThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Common ThreadThe Connected SelfThe Constitution of AgencyThe Cow with Ear Tag #1389The Creation of PsychopharmacologyThe Criminal BrainThe Decency WarsThe Difficult-to-Treat Psychiatric PatientThe Disability PendulumThe Disability Rights Movement: From Charity to ConfrontationThe Domain of ReasonsThe Double-Edged HelixThe Duty to ProtectThe Emotional Construction of MoralsThe End of Ethics in a Technological SocietyThe End of Stigma?The Essentials of New York Mental Health LawThe Ethical BrainThe Ethical Dimensions of the Biological and Health SciencesThe Ethics of BioethicsThe Ethics of Choosing ChildrenThe Ethics of Human EnhancementThe Ethics of ParenthoodThe Ethics of SightseeingThe Ethics of the FamilyThe Ethics of the Family in SenecaThe Ethics of the LieThe Ethics of TransplantsThe Ethics of WarThe Ethics ToolkitThe Evolution of Mental Health LawThe Evolution of MoralityThe FamilyThe Fat Studies ReaderThe Forgiveness ProjectThe Forgotten CreedThe Form of Practical KnowledgeThe Fountain of YouthThe Freedom ParadoxThe Future of Assisted Suicide and EuthanasiaThe Future of Human NatureThe Good BookThe Good LifeThe Great BetrayalThe Handbook of Disability StudiesThe Healing VirtuesThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of Human RightsThe HorizonThe Idea of JusticeThe Ideal of NatureThe Illusion of Freedom and EqualityThe Immortal Life of Henrietta LacksThe Importance of Being UnderstoodThe Insanity OffenseThe Joy of SecularismThe Language PoliceThe Last Normal ChildThe Last UtopiaThe Limits of MedicineThe LobotomistThe Love CureThe Lucifer EffectThe Manual of EpictetusThe Mark of ShameThe Meaning of Life and the Great PhilosophersThe Meaning of NiceThe Medicalization of SocietyThe Merck DruggernautThe Mind Has MountainsThe Minority BodyThe Modern Art of DyingThe Modern SavageThe Moral ArcThe Moral BrainThe Moral Demands of MemoryThe Moral FoolThe Moral MindThe Moral Psychology HandbookThe Moral Psychology of ForgivenessThe Moral Punishment Instinct The Moral, Social, and Commercial Imperatives of Genetic Testing and ScreeningThe Most Good You Can DoThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of the Moral BrainThe Nature of Moral ResponsibilityThe Nature of NormativityThe New Disability HistoryThe New Genetic MedicineThe New Religious IntoleranceThe Offensive InternetThe Origins of FairnessThe Oxford Handbook of Animal EthicsThe Oxford Handbook of Ethics at the End of LifeThe Oxford Handbook of Food EthicsThe Palgrave Handbook of Practical Animal EthicsThe Perfect BabyThe Philosophical ParentThe Philosophy of NeedThe Philosophy of PornographyThe Philosophy of PsychiatryThe Politics Of LustThe Portable Ethicist for Mental Health Professionals The Power of Religion in the Public SphereThe Price of PerfectionThe Price of TruthThe Problem of PunishmentThe Problem of WarThe Problem of WarThe Prosthetic ImpulseThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe PsychopathThe Purity MythThe Pursuit of PerfectionThe Relevance of Philosophy to LifeThe Right Road to Radical FreedomThe Right to be LovedThe Right to Be ParentsThe Righteous MindThe Root of All EvilThe Routledge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal MindsThe Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of EmpathyThe Rules of InsanityThe Second SexismThe Second-Person StandpointThe Silent World of Doctor and PatientThe Sleep of ReasonThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Speed of DarkThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Story of Cruel and UnusualThe Story WithinThe Stubborn System of Moral ResponsibilityThe Suicide TouristThe Terrible GiftThe Theory of OptionsThe Therapy of DesireThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Triple HelixThe Trolley Problem MysteriesThe Trouble with DiversityThe Truth About the Drug CompaniesThe Ugly LawsThe Varieties of Religious ExperienceThe Virtue of Defiance and Psychiatric EngagementThe Virtues of FreedomThe Virtues of HappinessThe Virtuous Life in Greek EthicsThe Virtuous PsychiatristThe Voice of Breast Cancer in Medicine and BioethicsThe War Against BoysThe War for Children's MindsThe Whole ChildThe Woman RacketThe Worldwide Practice of TortureTherapy with ChildrenThieves of VirtueThree Generations, No ImbecilesTimes of Triumph, Times of DoubtTolerance Among The VirtuesTolerance and the Ethical LifeTolerationToxic PsychiatryTrauma, Truth and ReconciliationTreatment Kind and FairTrusting on the EdgeTry to RememberUltimate JudgementUnborn in the USA: Inside the War on AbortionUndermining ScienceUnderstanding AbortionUnderstanding CloningUnderstanding EmotionsUnderstanding EvilUnderstanding Kant's EthicsUnderstanding Moral ObligationUnderstanding Physician-Pharmaceutical Industry InteractionsUnderstanding TerrorismUnderstanding the GenomeUnderstanding the Stigma of Mental IllnessUnderstanding Treatment Without ConsentUnhingedUnprincipled VirtueUnsanctifying Human Life: Essays on EthicsUnspeakable Acts, Ordinary PeopleUp in FlamesUpheavals of ThoughtUsers and Abusers of PsychiatryValue-Free Science?Values and Psychiatric DiagnosisValues in ConflictVegetarianismViolence and Mental DisorderVirtue EthicsVirtue, Rules, and JusticeVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVirtues and Their VicesVoracious Science and Vulnerable AnimalsVulnerability, Autonomy, and Applied EthicsWar Against the WeakWar, Torture and TerrorismWarrior's DishonourWeaknessWelfare and Rational CareWhat are you staring at?What Genes Can't DoWhat Have We DoneWhat Is a Human?What Is Good and WhyWhat Is Good and WhyWhat Is the Good Life?What Price Better Health?What Should I Do?What We Owe to Each OtherWhat Would Aristotle Do?What's Good on TVWhat's Normal?What's Wrong with Children's RightsWhat's Wrong with Homosexuality?What's Wrong With Morality?When Is Discrimination Wrong?Who Holds the Moral High Ground?Who Owns YouWho Qualifies for Rights?Whose America?Whose View of Life?Why Animals MatterWhy Animals MatterWhy Does Inequality Matter?Why Honor MattersWhy I Burned My Book and Other Essays on DisabilityWhy Not Kill Them All?Why Punish? How Much?Why Some Things Should Not Be for SaleWisdom, Intuition and EthicsWithout ConscienceWomen and Borderline Personality DisorderWomen and MadnessWondergenesWould You Kill the Fat Man?Wrestling with Behavioral GeneticsWriting About PatientsYou Must Be DreamingYour Genetic DestinyYour Inner FishYouth Offending and Youth Justice Yuck!
The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Empathy constitutes a comprehensive, likely the most comprehensive, collection of papers dealing with the most diverse topics and important debates within the philosophy of empathy. Some but not all the approaches to empathy presented are that from the history of philosophy and psychology, just as the phenomenological, the evolutionary, and the neuroscientific approach. Indeed, it is one of the strengths of this book that, despite being primarily concerned with the philosophy of empathy, it provides the reader with a vast interdisciplinary background on empathy. Not less important, it brings together the different traditions in philosophy in the discussion of the common topic of empathy, helping the reader to broaden his knowledge of the phenomena and of the issues at stake in the discussion proper to the various traditions, thus overcoming some limitations that one might experience when constrained to a single philosophical tradition. The literature on empathy abounds in many disciplines, and the deeply interested readers should be aware of it.
This review aims at providing an overview of the book, briefly presenting to the interested reader the topics that discussed and the many strengths of this Handbook, which in my opinion should be on the bookshelf of all those interested in doing research on empathy and of those curious about this so important and yet so complex phenomena. Given the large number of topics discussed and the different approaches adopted by the authors, it will not be possible for me to provide a critical review of every chapter. Rather, I will provide a brief description of any chapter and I will elaborate more on those chapters which focus on the most discussed issues on empathy. Those are the issues on which research on empathy tended to focus and that inspired research on different and newer topics. I would advise the inexpert reader interested in pursuing his own research to read carefully the foundational issues discussed in this book in order to develop an excellent background on empathy and the main related issues, but also to explore the newest and hottest debates on which she or he can contribute with the most original contributions.
The handbook brings together over thirty papers grouped in six parts, respectively dealing with core issues in the philosophy of empathy (Part I), the history of empathy (Part II), empathy and understanding (Part III), empathy and morals (Part IV), empathy and aesthetics (Part V), and empathy and individual differences (Part VI).
An important issue all those who do research on empathy have to deal with is that of making clear what they talk about when they talk abut empathy. This is the issue addressed in the first part of the handbook. Not only empathy is generally thought of as having a cognitive and an affective component, but disagreement exist on what these components consist of and which is the role that they play in the process of empathizing. The first two chapters deal with issue. In Ch. 1, Shannon Spaulding presents the theory theory and the simulation theory approach to cognitive empathy and argues that when empathizing we make use of both approaches depending on the situation we are in. Heidi L. Maibom, in Ch. 2, focuses on affective empathy. As the author highlights, affective empathy is a complex phenomenon, influenced by the situation, the target of empathy, the personality and the cognitive style of the empathizer. Furthermore, it involves personal distress, a feeling of discomfort experienced in response to another person’s distress (Davis, 1980), which might lead to a self-focused and not always positive behavior on the part of the empathizer (cf. Coplan, 2011). Ch. 3 in concerned with the phenomenology of empathy, discussed by Dan Zahavi. When we think about, imagine, or empathize with another person’s feeling we have three different experiences. The author defends a phenomenological reading of empathy, according to which empathy requires bodily proximity, which allows for a distinct experiential grasp and access to the psychological life of the other. In the next two chapters, the discussion moves toward the neuroscience of empathy. Christine Cong Guo discusses, in Ch. 4, neuroimaging studies and lesion studies in order to shed light on the neuroanatomical structures involved in empathy and on their precise contributions. Ch. 5 is devoted to Remy Debes’s discussion of empathy and mirror neurons. The discovery of mirror neurons gave raise to numerous hypothesis and speculations on their role in action anticipation, attribution of mental states and empathy (see, e.g., Rizzolatti & Craighero (2004) for a review of the topic). In Ch.6, Armin W. Schultz discuss the evolution of empathy, with a particular focus on why empathy developed and which are its implications with respect to further questions concerning empathic abilities.
Part II groups together five chapters on the history of empathy. It is widely now that the term ‘empathy’ originated by a translation of the German term ‘Einfühlung.’ There is an aesthetic history of this term, which Derek Matravers discusses in Ch. 7. As it was characterized by Robert Vischer, Einfühlung involved a distinction between active processes and mere bodily reaction, a form of passive mirroring and a projection of oneself into an object, which is this way imbued with content. His ideas were later developed by Theodore Lipps, which had a great influence in the later discussions of empathy. Empathy has a great importance also in the phenomenological tradition, as James Jardine and Thomas Szanto show in Ch. 8, especially in the work of Husserl and Stein, both critics of Lipps. The two phenomenologists characterize empathy as a sui generis intentional experience which has two different forms: a basic forms, which is perception-like, and an imagination-like higher-order form. Empathy was also central to the work of Hume and Smith. In Ch. 9, Imola Ilyes explores their conceptions of empathy and the role that empathy play on moral motivation in the Humean and Smithian philosophy. Ch. 10 focuses instead on empathy in the twentieth-century psychology. Here are discussed the cognitive tradition, which as Piaget as the most important exponent, the affective tradition of Stotland and colleagues, and the multidimensional tradition based on the work of Hoffmann and Eisenberg. Part II closes with Ch. 11, which introduces the non-western perspective on empathy by discussing empathy, compassion, and self-other exchanging in Indo-Tibetan Buddhism.
With Part III we enter the topic of empathy and understanding. Karsten Stueber (Ch. 12) explores the claim that we can make sense of the notion of reasons for acting only in light of our empathic capacities, while Ian Ravenscroft (Ch. 13) focuses on the role that mirror and reconstructive empathy might play in understanding what is like to feel the emotions of someone else and on the limitation that our empathic capacities might represent for such understanding. The hot topic of empathy and direct perception, once confined to the phenomenological tradition, is discussed by Shaun Gallagher in Ch. 14. Gallagher interestingly concludes that our answer to whether we can perceive others’ mental states might depend on whether we hold that the mind is embodied and situated and that mental states consist of patterns of which some elements might be perceived. Other interesting perspectives on this issue are that of Dan Zahavi (2011) and the critical perspective of Jacob (2011). Ch. 15 focuses on empathy and intersubjectivity. To what extent one is connected or distinct from the target of her empathy? And to what extent a blurry self-other distinction might undermine the empathizing process? Joshua May provides here his perspective on such issues. Adam Morton (Ch.16) focuses instead on the problem of “fake empathy.” When we imagine people’s mental state, we might get them wrong, especially if we are presented with inadequate evidence. However, people want to be treated empathically and the same time they want the other person’s empathic feeling to be real. This considered, it is difficult to take a stand on how one should act when an empathic behavior is required. The last chapter of this part discusses the importance of empathizing with experiences of psychiatric illness (Matthew Radcliffe, Ch. 17).
Part IV is devoted to the discussion of empathy and morals. This part of the book covers all the main topic of empathy and morality: empathy and altruism (Tomas Schramme, Ch. 18), empathy and moral judgement (Antti Kauppinnen, Ch. 19), empathy and moral motivation (Alison E. Denham, Ch. 20), empathy and moral responsibility (David Shoemaker, Ch. 21), empathy and legal responsibility (Ishtiyaque Haji, Ch. 22), and empathy and care ethics (Maurice Hamington, Ch. 23). Whether empathy is necessary to morality is a long debated issue, which saw on the one hand sentimentalists arguing for a primary role of empathy in moral judgment, reasoning, or behavior and rationalist arguing that reason is instead the primary source of morality (cf. Gill, 2006 for a review of the topic). However, an important question to address before entering such discussion is with respect to which aspect empathy plays a necessary, positive, negative, or just important role. The role of empathy in moral judgment is arguably the prominent issue in the contemporary debate. Kappinnen (Ch. 19) discusses three hypotheses on the role of empathy in making good moral judgments: the casual hypotheses, the constitution hypothesis, and the explanation hypothesis. In his view, the constitutive and causal hypothesis of empathy are implausible but empathy still plays an important role for people who lack perspective-taking abilities show serious difficulties in moral reasoning. The role of empathy in moral motivation and moral responsibility occupy the other chapters of part IV and offer the most valuable insights and informed discussion to those interested in the more practical questions related to legal responsibility, care ethics, and medical ethics.
Part V addresses the role of empathy in aesthetic. Does the painter have to empathize with the subject of her painting? And does the viewer converge emotionally with the subject of the painting to appreciate the artist’s work? Those interested in such issues should definitely read Noël Carroll’s discussion in Ch. 25. For those interested in empathy in music, literature, and film the following three chapters are recommended instead (Jenefer Robinson, Ch. 26; Eileen John; Ch. 27). In the last chapter, Kathleen Stock discusses the problem of empathy and imaginative resistance. Who might ever empathize with someone killing her own child? Arguably none. This is what is called ‘imaginative resistance’.
Part VI is devoted to the topic of empathy and individual differences. Douglas Hollan (Ch. 30) discusses the important topic of empathy across cultures. The work discussed is ethnographic in nature, rather than merely theoretical, and helps us to examine why, why, and under which conditions empathy becomes central to human life and which aspects of empathy, biologically based or not, are shared among cultures. Importantly, ethnographic studies emphasize the variability of the experience, expression, and evaluation of empathy among cultures and implicitly challenge any conception of empathy as innate and uniform, and its moral and political clarify. Vivian P. Ta and William Ickes discuss the issue of empathy accuracy in Ch. 31. Can we really know what other people are thinking and feeling? Though we might be prone to answer negatively to this question, empirical research show that it is possible. The process by which we know what someone else is feeling or thinking is called in psychology ‘empathic inference’ and can variable levels of accuracy. This phenomenon and its implications are extensively discussed in this chapter. The next discussion on empathy and psychopathology (Ch. 32). Here Jeanette Kennett brings back again to the importance of empathy in morality discussing the useful insights that autism and psychopathy provide on the connected issues. Differences between the two populations and the respective deficit that they experience in empathic abilities are discussed. Central to this chapter is the effect that alexithymia ― a condition affecting the capacity to experience, identify, and share emotions ― might have on empathic and moral impairments in these populations. Finally, Ch. 33 is devoted to Robyn Bluhm’s discussion of gender and empathy. The research on empathy and gender took three different approaches: firstly, that from the developmental psychology, successively Baron-Cohen’s approach, which saw women as having an “empathic brain” as opposed to the “systematizing brain” of men (e.g., Baron-Cohen, 2009), and finally the neuroscientific approach which is still quite recent. Whether differences in gender have a sociological or biological basis and whether research have been strongly biased by the way empathy was conceived or cultural norms are all question to some extent addressed in this chapter and that future research should certainly try to answer.
Overall, the Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Empathy is fully recommended to all those who aims at pursuing their own research on empathy and on any of the related topics. Suggestions for further and highly specialized reading will be found all over the book as well as in the introduction. The best quality of this book is that it discusses its main topics in all the relevant aspects, bringing together foundational and the newest trends in the philosophy of empathy. Moreover, I would highly recommend this book to the layman brought to it by personal curiosity concerning the charming ad complex phenomena of empathy. Such a reader will found here the likely most comprehensive collection of papers on empathy, embracing the perspective of various disciplines and several philosophical traditions. Though in the papers collected the authors presents original perspectives and argue for their own view on the topic, the layman would find this book easily accessible due to the excellent introduction written by Heidi L. Maibom (also editor of the book) and the introductory remarks often present at the beginning of any chapter.
Coplan, Amy and Peter Goldie. (2011) Empathy: Philosophical and Psychological Perspectives. Oxford University Press, 2011.
Davis, M. H. (1980). Individual differences in empathy: A multidimensional approach. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40(7-B), 3480.
Jacob, Pierre (2011). The Direct-Perception Model of Empathy: a Critique. Review of Philosophy and Psychology, 2 (3):519-540.
Gill, M. B. (2007). Moral Rationalism vs. Moral Sentimentalism: Is Morality More Like Math or Beauty? Philosophy Compass. Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 16–30
Rizzolatti, G. & Craighero, L. (2004). The Mirror-Neuron System. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2004. 27:169–92.
Zahavi, Dan (2001). Beyond empathy: Phenomenological approaches to intersubjectivity. Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (5-7):151-167.
© 2018 Flavia Felletti
Flavia Felletti, PhD Researcher, University of Duisburg-Essen