email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
Health Care in America The Happiness of Burnout"Guns Don't Kill People, People Kill People""How Come Boys Get to Keep Their Noses?"17 Lies That Are Holding You Back20 Jazz Funk Greats50 Popular Beliefs That People Think Are TrueA Brief History of the SmileA Child of One's OwnA Citizen Legislature/A People's ParliamentA Clinician's Guide to Legal Issues in PsychotherapyA Colorful History of Popular DelusionsA Cultural History of Modern Science in ChinaA Cursing Brain?A History of Intelligence and "Intellectual Disability"A History of MarriageA History of PsychiatryA Little F'd UpA Loving Approach to Dementia CareA Man's Guide to Healthy AgingA Mind ApartA Mind So RareA Natural History of RapeA Natural History of VisionA Red Heart of MemoriesA Short History of MedicineA Student's Guide to the History And Philosophy of Yoga A Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Therapist's Guide to Understanding Common Medical ProblemsA Universe of ConsciousnessA User's Guide to the BrainA World Full of GodsABC of Eating DisordersABCs to Positive LivingAbnormal Psychology in ContextAbout FaceAccessible Yoga for Every Body DVDActs of ConscienceAdoption Beyond BordersAdvances in Culture and PsychologyAfter HarmAfter the Ecstasy, the LaundryAfter the Globe, Before the WorldAgainst the MachineAging Our WayAging ThoughtfullyAIDS & People with Severe Mental IllnessAkhenatenAl-JununAlgernon, Charlie and IAll About LoveAllergy ReliefAlone TogetherAlpha GirlsAltered EgosAltered StatesAlways On CallAm I Making Myself Clear?Am I Okay?AM/PM YogaAmerica in the FortiesAmerica's JailsAmerican Science Fiction Film and TelevisionAmong the Great ApesAn American ObsessionAn American SicknessAn Anthropologist on MarsAn Illustrated Book of Bad ArgumentsAn Odd Kind of FameAnatomy of an EpidemicAncient Greek and Roman SlaveryAnger, Madness, and the DaimonicAnimal ArchitectsAnimal MadnessAnimal MindsAnimals in TranslationAnother CountryAntimatterAre the Rich Necessary? Updated and Expanded EditionArt and PoliticsArtemis FowlAs Nature Made HimAsylumAsylum on the HillAsylum to ActionAt Liberty to DieAtonement and ForgivenessAttention Deficit DisorderAttitudeAuthentic HappinessBe Very AfraidBeautiful MindsBeauty's NothingBeckett and AnimalsBecoming a DoctorBeing VirtualBelle and Sebastian's If You're Feeling SinisterBest of the Brain from Scientific AmericanBetrayal TraumaBetter Sex Through YogaBeyond AIBeyond GreekBeyond HealthBeyond ReasonBeyond ToleranceBibliotherapyBipolar DisorderBlack Man in a White CoatBlack MassBlind SpotsBlinkBlood and GutsBodies out of BoundsBody Piercing Saved My LifeBorn Standing UpBOSH!Brain LongevityBrain-Based Teaching for All SubjectsBrainchildrenBrainwashingBread Upon the WatersBreaking Murphy's LawBreaking WomenBreathingBrian Eno's Another Green WorldBrief EncountersBritain on the CouchBrothelBuddhism and ScienceBuilding Healthy MindsBullspottingBullying PreventionBurn UnitBuzzC StreetCalling Our Spirits HomeCamp ZCampus Sexual AssaultCan't You Hear Them?Cancer on $5 a Day* *(chemo not included)Cato's TearsCaughtChained to the DeskChickenizing Farms and FoodChild Slaves in the Modern WorldChildren's Learning in a Digital WorldChina on the MindChoices and ConflictChoosing CivilityChronic Fatigue Syndrome (The Facts)Classical Pilates Technique DVDCleopatraClinical Psychopharmacology Made Ridiculously SimpleClosing the AsylumsCognition, Creativity, and BehaviorCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCollege Inc.Coming of Age in AmericaComing of Age in Ancient GreeceConceptual BlockbustingConcrete ReveriesConducting Insanity EvaluationsConfronting Postmaternal ThinkingConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConsciousnessConsider the LobsterConsuming InnocenceContagiousControlConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCool WomenCorpora in Language Acquisition ResearchCorrect EnglishCorrupted CultureCount Us InCovered in InkCreative AngerCreative Core AbsCreative ThinkeringCreative Writing In Health And Social CareCreatures of AccidentCrime and Punishment in AmericaCritical ConditionCritical Perspectives in Public HealthCritical Psychology: An IntroductionCross-Cultural Topics in PsychologyCrossingCrossing the Unknown SeaCruddyCultural Healing and Belief SystemsCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCyber BullyingCyber-Safe Kids, Cyber-Savvy TeensDance the Chakras Yoga WorkoutDancing After HoursDangerous EmotionsDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDeaf Identities in the MakingDeath in the AirDebunked!DeceptionDecoding DarknessDeep GossipDefenders of the TruthDefining Moments in ScienceDefying DementiaDeinstitutionalization And People With Intellectual DisabilitiesDematerializingDementiaDementia Caregivers Share Their StoriesDementia ReimaginedDemocracy in ChainsDemocracy StrugglesDemons of the Body and MindDemons of the Modern WorldDepression In Later LifeDirty DetailsDiscourse of Twitter and Social MediaDistractedDivine MadnessDMT and the Soul of ProphecyDo-It-Yourself Eye Movement Techniques for Emotional HealingDoes Science Need a Global Language?Doing GoodDoing HarmDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDon't Get Too ComfortableDr. Andrew Weil's Guide to Optimum HealthDr. Andrew Weil's Mindbody ToolkitDreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR Case StudiesDuplicityDutiful DaughtersDying for TimeEarthly Bodies, Magical SelvesEastern Body, Western MindEating AnimalsEccentricsEcological MedicineEducating People to Be Emotionally IntelligentEinstein and OppenheimerElectroshockElliott Smith and the Big NothingEmergence and EmbodimentEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmotionEmotional Intelligence at WorkEmotions RevealedEncyclopedia of Asylum Therapeutics, 1750-1950sEntwined LivesErotic PassionsEssentials of Cas AssessmentEssentials of Wais-III AssessmentEthics for the New MillenniumEvamarie Pilipuf's Yoga Express DVDEvery Day Yoga for Every Body DVDEveryday GreensEveryday IrrationalityEveryday SimplicityEverything Is MiscellaneousEvolutionEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution in MindEvolution's RainbowExploring the Edge Realms of ConsciousnessExuberanceEyes of SophiaFalling for ScienceFalse-Memory Creation in Children and AdultsFamilyFamily Desk Reference to Psychology Family MurderFashion and Its Social AgendasFashion, Desire And AnxietyFast, Fresh & GreenFat and FuriousFear and Other Uninvited GuestsFearless ConfessionsFeminist Philosophy And Science FictionFinal ExamFine LinesFixing My GazeFlesh of My FleshFlesh WoundsFlirting With DangerFlow and YinFlying ColorsFocusFood for Thought:Food, Medicine, and the Quest for Good HealthFool Me TwiceFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFridaFrom Certainty to UncertaintyFrom Joy Division to New OrderFull Frontal Feminism: A Young Woman's Guide to Why Feminism MattersFull Steam Ahead!Galileo Goes to Jail and Other Myths about Science and ReligionGang of Four's EntertainmentGender and Its Effects on PsychopathologyGender and Mental HealthGeneration DigitalGenetics of Mental DisordersGeniusGenomeGetting a Good Night's SleepGetting Inside Your HeadGetting WastedGilded CityGirl in the CurlGirlfightingGirls Gone MildGirls on the VergeGod and the MultiverseGoing Into TownGood FortuneGood KarmaGood MedicineGood WorkGracefully InsaneGrassroots SpiritualityGreat Psychologists and Their TimeGulpHabeas CorpusHalf a Brain Is EnoughHandbook of AttachmentHappinessHappinessHappiness Is.Hate Crimes in CyberspaceHealingHealing SpacesHealth And the MediaHealth OnlineHearing the Person With DementiaHeavier than HeavenHello from Heaven!HelmholtzHelvetica: A documentary filmHemalayaa's Yoga for Young Bodies DVDHemingway's Second WarHerbs for the MindHere Is New YorkHeroes, Rogues, and LoversHeterophobiaHidden MindsHistory of ShitHistory of SuicideHoly Sh*tHoly WarHooked!Hot Body Cool Mind - Level 1Hot Body Cool Mind: Waking Energy Hot Chocolate for the Mystical LoverHot SpotsHotHouseHouse and PsychologyHow Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Doctors ThinkHow Emotions WorkHow History Gets Things WrongHow Not to Get ShotHow Our Lives Become StoriesHow Proust Can Change Your LifeHow Science WorksHow to Be a PatientHow to Build a Robot ArmyHow to Cook Everything VegetarianHow to Do NothingHow to Grow OldHow to Handle a Hard-To-Handle KidHow We AgeHow We Are Changed by WarHumankindHungerHysteria Complicated by EcstasyI Contain MultitudesI Know Who You Are and I Saw What You Did: Social Networks and the Death of PrivacyI of the VortexI Only Say This Because I Love YouI, Little AsylumIdiot AmericaIf Men Could TalkIgnoranceIllness and ImageImagining NumbersImprove Your Writing With NLPIn Bed with MadnessIn Defense of FoodIn Praise of ScienceIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of FatimaIn the Line of DutyIn the Shadows of the NetIn Therapy We TrustIndivisible by TwoInsight Yoga with Sarah PowersIntegrative MedicineIntensive CareInternational Perspectives on Reminiscence, Life Review and Life Story WorkInto the Gray ZoneIntroduction to Ashtanga Yoga DVDIntroduction to Qi YogaIntroduction to Yoga DVDInvented KnowledgeInvestigating Digital CrimeIrrationalityIs Shame Necessary?IshtarIt's Up to YouJanis Saffell Beverly Hills YogaJudo with WordsKanye West's My Beautiful Dark Twisted FantasyKids OnlineKilling MonstersKinds of MindsKissing DoorknobsKnowing the Nature of FearKnowledge MonopoliesKundalini Yoga for Beginners & BeyondLandscapes in My MindLaw, Mind and BrainLearning About School ViolenceLearning, Teaching and Education Research in the 21st CenturyLessons Learned on My Way HomeLicentious GothamLies! Lies! Lies!Life CoachingLife MakeoversLimboListening in the Silence, Seeing in the DarkListening to PainListening to the WorldLiteratures of MadnessLittle PeopleLittle Red Riding Hood UncloakedLiving DeeplyLiving Well with Pain and IllnessLiving with ArthritisLiving with SchizophreniaLiving, Thinking, LookingLocking Up Our OwnLoneliness as a Way of LifeLong Shadow of Small GhostsLosing My MindLove and Sex with RobotsLove Your Body, Love Your LifeLove, Sex & TragedyLust in TranslationMad Mary LambMade in AmericaMadhur Jaffrey's World VegetarianMadnessMadness in CivilizationMaidentripMake It CountMake It Fast, Cook It SlowMaking Babies the Hard WayMaking Dying IllegalMaking SpaceMaking the Big LeapMaking Your Mind MatterMale Female EmailMalefemaleMan As The PrayerManaged Care ContractingMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManic Depression and CreativityManlinessManning UpMapping the MindMarriage ConfidentialMary Pope Osborne's Tales from the OdysseyMaster PassionsMasters of the MindMathematical DoodlingsMatters of SubstanceMean GenesMedia ArgumentationMedia in the Digital AgeMediating MadnessMedical AnthropologyMedicine and Health Care in Early ChristianityMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedieval Writings on Female SpiritualityMemoires 1995Memory, Brain, and BeliefMental Health and Social SpaceMental Health MattersMental Illness in Popular MediaMerchants of DoubtMild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer's DiseaseMiles to Go for FreedomMillennium GirlsMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind WarsMind, Matter and Quantum MechanicsMindstormsMisconceptionsMissing PiecesMistakes Were Made (But Not by Me)Mollie Katzen's RecipesMom's OK, She Just ForgetsMonsters, Demons and PsychopathsMoody BitchesMoral PanicsMorals Not KnowledgeMore Than MedicineMortificationMothers Who Kill Their ChildrenMusicophiliaMy Bloody Valentine's LovelessMy Life Among the Serial KillersMy Misspent YouthMy Stroke of InsightNakedNaked CityNarratives in PsychiatryNations Have the Right to KillNatureNear Death ExperienceNeurons and NetworksNeuroscience in Science Fiction FilmsNever Home AloneNever Out of SeasonNew Versions of VictimsNew YorkNew York September 11Not a Crime to Be PoorNot by DesignNot Your Mother's LifeNothing to HideNurembergNymphomaniaOath BetrayedObesityObjects of Our DesireObliquityOdd CouplesOf Spirits & MadnessOf Two MindsOld AgeOn BlindnessOn Fact and FraudOn the BrinkOn the Origin of StoriesOn TrailsOne Nation Under TherapyOpening to Love 365 Days a YearOptimizing Teaching and LearningOtherhoodOur Symphony with AnimalsOut of the DustOutliersOutsider ArtOver My HeadOxford Guide to the MindPainParanoia of Everyday LifeParents Do Make a DifferenceParty GirlPassingPassionate VegetarianPathways through PainPeople Like OurselvesPerceptual NeurosciencePersons and ThingsPestos, Tapenades, and SpreadsPhilosophy of MindPhotography and LiteraturePilates for MenPink ThinkPlanning for UncertaintyPoets on ProzacPostcards from the Brain MuseumPosthumanismPotatoes Not ProzacPower HerbsPower Yoga for HappinessPoxPractical ClassicsPractical Plans for Difficult Conversations in MedicinePracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPrader-Willi SyndromePredictably IrrationalPretty in PunkPretty Is What ChangesPreventing Misbehavior in ChildrenPrime Ministers of CanadaPrint Literacy DevelopmentPrison MadnessPrivate Life in New Kingdom EgyptProblems in MindProtecting the GiftProust and the SquidPrudePsyche on the SkinPsychiatryPsychiatry in the New MilleniumPsychiatrylandPsychologyPsychology and the MediaPsychology for ScreenwritersPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPublic Health LawPunishment in Popular CulturePure Yoga Pilates with Kerry BestwickQuantum ArchetypesQuantum LeapsR.I.P.Race in Contemporary MedicineRacial ParanoiaRaising a Self-StarterRaising AmericaReady for AnythingReady or NotReady or Not, Here Life ComesReal SexReckoning With HomelessnessReclaiming Our ChildrenReclaiming Soul in Health CareRed Lotus YogaRed Meat RepublicReligion ExplainedRemaking a WorldRepublic.com 2.0Rethinking CommodificationRethinking Middle YearsReviving OpheliaReviving the LeftRewarding Specialties for Mental Health CliniciansRick SingsRights, Risk and Restraint-Free Care of Older PeopleSabbathSame DifferenceSamuel BeckettSatisfactionSavedScared SickScienceScience and NonbeliefScience in the MarketplaceScience TalkScience WarsScience, Consciousness and Ultimate RealitySecond OpinionsSeeds of HopeSelected Ambient Works Volume IISelf Hypnosis for Cosmic ConsciousnessSelf-Help NationSelf-Help, Inc.Selling the Fountain of YouthSells like Teen SpiritSerious ShoppingSeven Challenges To Change Your Life DVDSex, Mom, and GodSex, Time and PowerSexing the BodySexual Orientation and School PolicySexy FeminismShadow, Self, SpiritShop Class as SoulcraftShrink RapSick to Death and Not Going to Take It AnymoreSimulation and Its DiscontentsSinfully VeganSister CitizenSleeping With Extra-TerrestrialsSlut!Snake Oil ScienceSnoopSo Brilliantly CleverSocial RepresentationsSolar Flow Yoga DVDSold on LanguageSome Kind of GeniusSometimes Madness Is WisdomSorting Things OutSoul Made FleshSounds from the Bell JarSoupsSpace, Place and Mental HealthSpeaking Our MindsSpiritual CrisisSpontaneous HealingStates of MindStatus AnxietyStiffedStill HereStill LivesStrange BehaviorStrategies of Commitment and Other EssaysStrength, Grace, HealingStroke DiariesStumbling on HappinessSun SalutationsSuper Natural CookingSuperhumanSuperstitionSupersurvivorsSurgery JunkiesSwordfishtrombonesSylvia Plath ReadsTalk to HerTalking About RaceTalking Back to PsychiatryTalking Heads' Fear of MusicTalking ScienceTeach Yourself MeditationTeaching OnlineTeaching SexTech GenerationTeen LoveTeenageTextbook of Cultural PsychiatryThanks!The 101 Best Graphic NovelsThe Age of American UnreasonThe Alice Behind WonderlandThe American HotelThe American ParadoxThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Clinical PsychiatryThe Americanization of Social ScienceThe Anatomy of HopeThe Anatomy of MelancholyThe Angelica Home KitchenThe Antibiotic EraThe Ape and the Sushi MasterThe Architecture of MadnessThe Arctic IncidentThe Art of ChoosingThe Art of Exceptional LivingThe Audience EffectThe Bard on the BrainThe Barmaid's BrainThe Beginner's Guide to Healthy EatingThe Better to Eat You WithThe Biotech CenturyThe Birth of PleasureThe Birth of the PillThe Black DeathThe Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge ManagementThe Book of the PenisThe Brain That Changes ItselfThe Breathing FieldThe Bridge to HumanityThe Brooklyn Nobody KnowsThe Bully SocietyThe Cafe Brenda CookbookThe Call of the WeirdThe Cambridge Illustrated History of MedicineThe Case against EducationThe Case Against SugarThe Childless RevolutionThe Clitoral TruthThe Collected SchizophreniasThe Complete Guide to Herbal MedicinesThe Complete Vegetarian HandbookThe Consolations of PhilosophyThe Contemplative HeartThe Couch and the TreeThe Course of Gay and Lesbian LivesThe Creation of the Modern WorldThe Cult of PharmacologyThe Cultural Origins of Human CognitionThe Culture of FearThe Culture of PunishmentThe Da Vinci DogThe Dark Night of the SoulThe Deadly TruthThe Decency WarsThe Digital MindThe Disobedience Of The Daughter Of The SunThe Diversity DelusionThe Drum That Beats Within UsThe Dynamic NeuronThe Easy Yoga WorkbookThe Emotional BrainThe Emotional Journey of the Alzheimer's FamilyThe Employee Assistance Treatment PlannerThe End of MaterialismThe End of WarThe English and their HistoryThe Enigma of HealthThe Era of ChoiceThe Eternity CubeThe EvangelicalsThe Event of LiteratureThe Evolving WorldThe f WordThe Fabulous ImaginationThe Faces of TerrorismThe Farm Colonies: Caring for New York City's Mentally Ill In Long Island's State HospitalsThe Fat Studies ReaderThe Fate of Early MemoriesThe Female ThingThe Fight Against DoubtThe Final LeapThe Firmament of TimeThe Five Things We Cannot Change ...The ForgettingThe Game of TruthThe Get Healthy, Go Vegan CookbookThe Gift of FearThe Gold Leaf Lady and Other Parapsychological InvestigationsThe Good Enough ChildThe Great BetrayalThe Greatest Experiment Ever Performed on WomenThe Guide for White Women Who Teach Black BoysThe HandThe Handbook of Disability StudiesThe Happiness HypothesisThe Healing Remedies SourcebookThe Health Psychology HandbookThe Healthy KitchenThe Heart of YogaThe Hedgehog's DilemmaThe Hero's JourneyThe History of Rhetoric and the Rhetoric of HistoryThe History of White PeopleThe Homework MythThe Hungry SoulThe Identity CodeThe Immortalization Commission:The Importance of Being LazyThe Indian VegetarianThe Insider's Guide to Mental Health Resources OnlineThe Insider's Guide to Mental Health Resources OnlineThe Insider's Guide to Mental Health Resources OnlineThe Insider's Guide to Mental Health Resources OnlineThe Intelligibility of NatureThe Interdisciplinary Science of ConsumptionThe Intuitive WriterThe Invisible PlagueThe Irreducible Needs of ChildrenThe Irritable Male SyndromeThe Jewel Tree of TibetThe Joy of MeditatingThe Language ImperativeThe Language Of YogaThe Language PoliceThe Language WarsThe Last PhysicianThe Last Self-Help Book You'll Ever NeedThe Law Is a White DogThe Lie DetectorsThe Little Book of Healthy TeasThe Little Book of HeartbreakThe Little Soy BookThe Little Yoga BookThe Lives and Loves of Daisy and Violet HiltonThe Lives of AnimalsThe Lolita EffectThe Lonely PatientThe Loss of Self: A Family Resource for the Care of Alzheimer's Disease and Related DisordersThe Lucifer EffectThe Lucifer PrincipleThe Madness of Adam and EveThe Madwoman in the AtticThe Magic of RealityThe Making of Dr. PhilThe Manual of EpictetusThe Marketplace of IdeasThe Mature MindThe Measure of Our DaysThe Meat Lover's Meatless CookbookThe Medical AdvisorThe Medicalization of SocietyThe Metaphysical ClubThe Mind's PastThe Misunderstood GeneThe MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive SciencesThe Monster WithinThe Mood CureThe Moral Intelligence of ChildrenThe Mystery of Mary RogersThe Myth of Freedom and the Way of MeditationThe Nature FixThe New BrainThe New Cancer SurvivorsThe NineThe Nordic Theory of EverythingThe Norm ChroniclesThe Normal OneThe Obesity EpidemicThe Omnivorous MindThe Orchid ThiefThe Origin and Evolution of CulturesThe Origin of AnxietiesThe Oxford Book of Modern Science WritingThe Oxford Illustrated History of the WorldThe Pain AntidoteThe Paradox of ChoiceThe Paradox of SleepThe Paranoia SwitchThe Passion PlanThe Pastoral Counseling Treatment PlannerThe PatchThe Patient as Agent of Health and Health CareThe PDR Family Guide to Natural Medicines & Healing TherapiesThe Physics of ConsciousnessThe PlaceboThe Placebo Effect and HealthThe Playful BrainThe Pocket Life CoachThe Portfolio and the DiagramThe Power of FocusThe Power of Full EngagementThe Praeger Handbook of Learning and the BrainThe Private Life of the BrainThe Professor and the MadmanThe Psychoanalytic MysticThe Psychology of Religion and CopingThe Psychology Of The InternetThe Psychotherapy Documentation PrimerThe Quantum UniverseThe Quarter-Acre FarmThe Race for ConsciousnessThe Real Rules for GirlsThe Red DevilThe Republican BrainThe Richer SexThe Rise and Fall of Classical GreeceThe Rise of Mental Health NursingThe Roman Search for WisdomThe Root of All EvilThe Routledge Companion to Landscape StudiesThe Same Stuff as StarsThe Savage CityThe Science of Good and EvilThe Science of Optimism and HopeThe Scientific AttitudeThe Scientist In The CribThe Seat of the SoulThe Second SelfThe Secret History of DreamingThe Secret Lives of GirlsThe Secret World of Doing NothingThe Seven Sins of MemoryThe ShakeressThe ShallowsThe Social Psychology of StigmaThe Sociology of PhilosophiesThe Sociopath Next DoorThe Soul Knows No BarsThe Spa DeckThe Spiritual Anatomy of EmotionThe Split MindThe Star ThrowerThe Story Is TrueThe Storytelling AnimalThe Strange Case of Hellish NellThe Symmetry of GodThe Talking CureThe Thing You Think You Cannot DoThe Thorn NecklaceThe Three CulturesThe Three Failures of CreationismThe Toxic ConsumerThe Triumph of NarrativeThe True PathThe Truth About AnimalsThe Truth About Chronic PainThe UndertakingThe Volitional BrainThe Wages of SinThe War Against BoysThe Way of StretchingThe Way We Eat NowThe Weblog HandbookThe Weight of the NationThe Why CaféThe Wild Ass’s SkinThe Will to Live and Other MysteriesThe Wisdom of FrugalityThe Wisdom of PsychopathsThe Wisdom of Your DreamsThe Words We Live ByThe World of CaffeineThe Worldwide Practice of TortureThe Worst-Case Scenario Survival HandbookThe Wow ClimaxTheaters of MadnessTheatre and AnimalsTheories of Scientific MethodTherapeutic LandscapesTheraScribe 4.0Think CatThink SmartThinking for a ChangeThinking With AnimalsThrough Deaf EyesToo Big to FailTooning InTop ChefTortured SubjectsTotal AstangaTotal PilatesTotally WiredTowards a Science of Consciousness IIITrain Your Brain to Get RichTransforming MadnessTraumatic PastsTreating People WellTreatment and Rehabilitation of Severe Mental IllnessTreatment Kind and FairTribal ScienceTrick or TreatmentTrusting DoctorsTry to RememberTutoring as a Successful BusinessTwelve Examples of IllusionTwinsUnder the Medical GazeUnderstanding and Treating Violent Psychiatric PatientsUnderstanding Child MolestersUnderstanding FitnessUnforgettableUnholy MadnessUnscientific AmericaUnspeakable Acts, Ordinary PeopleUnto OthersUp From DragonsUrban Tourism and Urban ChangeUseful BodiesValues in ConflictVarieties of Anomalous ExperienceVegan ExpressVegan Recipes from the Middle EastVegetarian Turkish CookingVegetarianoVertigo VisionsVictorian Popularizers of ScienceViniyoga Therapy for the Low Back, Sacrum and HipsViolence Against WomenVoices Of Alzheimer'sVoices of CaregivingVoices of MadnessVoluntary SimplicityWaking Up to What You DoWalkingWalking a Literary LabyrinthWall: A World DividedWarWays of HearingWays of KnowingWays of KnowingWe Shall Be No MoreWe Shall Not Be MovedWe've Got BlogWellbeingWhat Emotions Really AreWhat I Learned in Medical SchoolWhat in the World Are Your Kids Doing Online?What Makes Us Think?What Nietzsche Really SaidWhat Our Children Teach UsWhat Science Offers the HumanitiesWhat Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and LiteracyWhat's Holding You Back? What's So Wrong with Being Absolutely RightWhen a Family Member Has DementiaWhen Experiments TravelWhen Good Thinking Goes BadWhen History Is a NightmareWhen Johnny and Jane Come Marching HomeWhen Mothers KillWhen Sex Goes to SchoolWhen Someone You Know Is Living in a Dementia Care CommunityWhen Things Fall ApartWhere Biology Meets PsychologyWhere Good Ideas Come FromWhere is the Mango Princess?Wherever You Go, There You AreWhile They SleptWhispers from the EastWhite Privilege UnmaskedWhite RageWho Rules in ScienceWhy Are We Attracted to Sad Music?Why Does E=mc2?Why Don't Students Like SchoolWhy God Won't Go AwayWhy Have Kids?Will They Ever Trust Us Again?WisdomWise Mind, Open MindWitch Beliefs and Witch Trials in the Middle AgesWitchcrazeWith Their EyesWithin ReasonWomanWomen and Mental IllnessWorking With Emotional IntelligenceWriting in FlowYogaYoga & Pilates Workouts for DummiesYoga Beauty BodyYoga for EveryoneYoga for People Who Can't Be Bothered to Do ItYoga for Regular GuysYoga for Regular Guys DVDYoga In BedYoga on DemandYoga SanctuaryYoga SculptYoga ShaktiYoga To Go's Yoga Quick Fixes DVDYogalosophyYou Are Not Your IllnessYou'd Be So Pretty If . . .Your Miracle BrainZen Encounters with LonelinessZen-Brain Reflections
In 1901 a C.A. Andrews could write that The Middle Ages had fixed institutions, blind faith, and acceptance of authority that "is characteristic of a period in which there existed no true idea of human progress". ("Introduction", Two Classic Utopias, Dover reprint, NY 2003.) Josiah Ober dismissively states that "an expanding common culture cannot at once be an adequate cause and a primary effect of Hellenic greatness", (p. 14), to explain the world of the Greek poleis we need to move forward in time to the contemporary world of self-consciously knowledge-based enterprises.
Apart from a vague suggestion that wealth and health may have some correlation and equally vague mentionings that urban living can be healthy, Ober's book offers next to nothing about health, mental or otherwise (unless implicitly, cf. remark on mentality below) as data are difficult to interpret and contradictory, for our readership. What does occupy the author is economy, namely the history of what he calls, the "efflorescence" of Classical Greece. The importance of which he emphasizes is that this explanation of classical Greek efflorescence has "more-than-superficial similarity to ... contemporary democratic society", whence "[i]nsofar as we value democracy and insofar as Greek democratic exceptionalism did anticipate exceptional conditions of modernity, we have strong reasons to want to know whether Greece's "doom" must also be our own -- and if not, why not", (p. xvii, p. 295) -- leaving you to wonder to whom that 'our' refers.
Ober repeats several times that the question his explanations are to answer is how economic efflorescence is possible without central authority. For the latter, efficient centralized-authority societies, it's taken for granted. He plays a rather crude ping-pong borrowed from Hobbes -- besides whom Aristotle and Douglass North seemingly provide his peak political luminaries -- of central vs. decentralized governance (that is, acc. to Ober, democracy, citizens' centered governance, citizen-centric politics, -- he describes 'the agora' as were it Addison going to the Royal Exchange). For all intents and purposes these could be the only two options when all's said and told, yet one would expect that someone presenting himself as a top student of political theory might be less simplistic.
History is a changeling and has often invaded all disciplines. It's widely held that history has to be constantly up-dated, re-written, overhauled in the light of the presumed advance of human knowledge and world views. The light in this case is a compound of geography, climate, archaeology, demography, batteries of economic and social theories, etc., the view political. All here in the form of contextualist economy, meaning neither this, nor that, but any context of choice is permitted.
Ober presents his "hypothesis" thus: "Fair rules and competition within a marketlike ecology of states promoted capital investment, innovation, and rational cooperation in a context of low transaction costs" (p. 103). Does that sound Greek to you? If it strikes you as the current state of the economic "arts" along with his vocabulary of network, ecology, experts, and such, you no doubt recognize the current jargon as does of course the singular focus of economy on 'growth', spiced with an economist nomenclature of rent, wage, GDP, GNP, income, labor mobility, per capita consumption, etc. -- notably, the only one missing: inflation -- even stretching to lamenting that some historians fail to grasp 'the value of deficit financing' (p. 284). (Despite a referenced superabundant 34 page bibliography, spot checks cast doubt on reliability; such as for example Ober claims: "Higher levels of urbanization correlate, historically, with higher incomes and economic intensification" (p. 88) referring to a Science article in which Bloom, Canning, and Fink conclude: "the notion that a larger fraction of a country's population living in urban areas improves economic performance does not seem to have empirical support".)
Out of c. 1100 poleis on record, Ober mentions perhaps 50, touches on about 25, and of those on three in particular Sparta, Syracuse, and mainly Athens, and a general assumption that the other 1000-some poleis emulated Athens. Reaching for the aura of scientific precision. No exact amounts (a daily wage of 1 drachma/day in "the later fifth century", only anecdotal evidence for "late fourth century", a house is estimated to cost 6-15 years income, p. 90), no city-state account(s) cited or known; from so rare particulars, almost all further estimates are necessarily highly conjectural, wrung out via model machinations, etc., are still derived a wealth increase of 15-20 % in the period 800-300 BCE, yielding an annual aggregate economic growth rate of 0.6-0.9 %, (p. 83). Timeframes are similarly loose (into the fifth century; in the late 4th century; into the forties; etc.), unusual for bottom line aficionados it all floats. The book features 48 maps, figures, and tables probably intended to certify the narrative, but some spread of tabulations and graphic curves remain mere decoration.
Ober operates with a tripartite society -- poor, middle, elite -- and with labour, wage, and redistribution in the popular contemporary sense. He seems to hold a low opinion of "manual labor-intensive subsistence farming" life quality (e.g., p. 112), and doesn't even mention the expertise it takes. Specialized 'expert' is reserved for, you guessed it, military men and political aids, the latter referred to once as taught "political science" by "the sophists", (p. 206).
Wealth is mere 'above subsistence level' (whatever that may be here, there, or anywhere). But a big middle class raises consumption, hence indicate wealth (p. 89). For example, he gauges how 'big' by a change in house area. Well, during any 500 year period, people build houses like this and like that (incl. a generalization of a bigger house is wealth "symbol" in today's US) -- to take haste off such a generalization one would have to check whether the size of igloos, wigwams, Japanese paper houses, Yemen adobe houses, etc., is indeed 'indicator' of wealth -- it could be merely fashions, ecology of building materials, a way of life in which many people live together, or ...
As far as I can tell Ober never explains what 'lower transaction costs' are, nor estimates what they tally up to, only they are a constant Oberlish plus-side, some decisive circumstance as 'context' for growth (p. 115f). There is no way to measure consumption (p. 82). Greek and other mercenaries' pay went up, yet Ober leaves where their consumption went untold.
The bulk of the book is all the same the well-rehearsed conflict and war accounts (I believe without any new detail), never mind all the preparations and inputs from the theory panoply, and by then wealth is tacitly measured, not by degree of welfare, but by who can afford to mobilize the biggest army. Which Philip, Alexander, and then Rome eventually did, bringing about the political fall for the "poleis ecology".
That much said, much could and should be said about Ober's methods and logic; I shall however select a couple of brief notes here.
Ober points out that sources are scarce (e.g., p. 130, 141), which is agreed all around. They are in fact rather an accidentally preserved disparate collection, so one can arbitrarily model, reconstruct, hypothesize, extrapolate to one's delight. (Again p. 77 "we cannot answer the comparative welfare question directly ... indirect way to approach the question"; p. 91 "it is not possible to calculate ... on basis of a plausible model of wealth distribution ... I estimate ..."; p. 130 "It is not possible, given the state of our evidence ... But the emergence of the framework can be modelled ..."; p. 251 "There is no way for us to determine the value added (or lost) by the increased employment of experts by the Athenian state... it seems reasonable to guess..." in view of "the inefficiencies arising from all-amateur government" they increased governmental productivity and not bureaucratic bloat; p. 279 "Many details ... remain murky, due to the fragmentary nature of our sources. But we can dispel much of the fog by making informed guesses based on the evidence we do have"; et passim.) When 'evidence' is scant, many many hypotheses will be compatible and favor none of them in particular. When Ober claims his does conform with the evidence, that therefore is on other grounds.
He categorizes his explanans as an hypothesis, but appears to have some trouble telling it from his conclusions. With a little tip of the hat to the philosophy of science, his hypothesis, he says, to preserve scientific status should be falsifiable, yet he only offers counterfactuals as would-be falsifications (e.g., p. 120f, 252, 306). In that way, all descriptions happen to be viable, incorrigible hypotheses. Of course, Ober can't think of anything falsifying his grounds.
Again, hypotheses should have predictive capacity (p. 109), and so his does: having posited the explanandum, the explanans unsurprisingly turn out to be "Just so" stories. Gratuitous verification. Ober can't really mean predict -- he must mean slides of his framework. The kind of circularity much historical explanation suffers.
Ober's (hypo)thesis of drawing "a causal arrow from democratic reforms to superior [economic] performance" (p. 170) resorts to a strangely conglomerate cause. One may well wonder whether 'competition' and 'rational cooperation' are strictly compatible. Can a 'rule', can a 'fair rule' cause anything? and what is to be understood by fairness (Ober's coinage 'rule egalitarianism' means "in practice that many people within a society, rather than just a few elite people, have equal high standing in respect to major institutions: e.g., to property, law, and personal security ... in sum, they can expect to be treated fairly". (p. 110). But what's fair? let alone just?) -- except here something putatively geared to growth? Is (a or) several decentralized authorities marketlike? and, if so, does it cause innovation? (the sorts of innovation Ober does mention are in siege weaponry, man of war construction, and military tactics). These are questions, not answers, obviously, but they put that mark on the 'cause' of "The Wealthy Hellas effect arose from uncounted individual choices but was not readily predicted by them", (p. 104) -- a shadow of an invisible second hand out? However, such determinism is a rather vulgar, far from a correct grasp of 'causation'; as I recently had another occasion to point out, causation does not describe a process, cause and effect are not separate events and take no time, nor therefore several centuries; it's an explanatory concept, ("Time Frees Practically", Phenomenological Reviews, Dec. 27, 2016) and the proposed "context" of this "economic event" are rather specious. Speaking of fairness,
What he and his political theorist confreres term the "monopoly of violence", quite a cute term, and take to be an ineluctable societal component, yet whether that be wielded by central, decentral, internal, external, foreign or extraterrestrial, or otherwise, it seems (with their approval) to remain violence and the victims wouldn't know the difference. It has been suggested it could depend on victims' consent to the given monopoly, which would surely save the fairest day.
Again and again Ober mentions together with the material flourish the cultural flourish of Hellas, yet never details, let alone clarifies what that is. In other words, he seems to take for granted the old adage of the "cradle of civilization". How can he reconcile that with one city sacking another, plunder and demolish it, then killing all the males and enslaving or selling the women and children, (p. 69), with an efflorescence in human capital, an advance of any kind, writing without flinching, as proof of democracies' beneficial efflorescence? How can assorted schools, picked as the Greek contributions to civilization, (categories still used today: skeptics, stoics, Platonists, etc.), balance out the constant warmongering occupying those same societies? (On that score, Ober's discarding Aristotle's teleological naturalism (such as described, e.g., in Ethica Nicomachea 1124ff), as "clearly (in light of evolutionary science) mistaken and unhelpful in achieving my goal", (p. 53) to be replaced by 'economic growth', is hardly arguable.)
Ober, ping-pong mentioned above, apparently thinks Hobbesian sovereign and contemporay democratism are the only unfoggy parameter points worth considering, -- I don't know, perhaps the welfare of any and all humans does reside in 'equalization' (p. 252), a true idea of human progress, but whether so or not, does it follow it's a mold to impose on historiography? That I shan't say either -- Ober, on the other hand, in no uncertain terms, with or without his empirical leanings, practice so.
Either an expression of a misunderstanding or of his own ideology, when Ober asserts "They [rulers in Sicily] were not social reformers, in that they did little to address problems arising from inequality" (p. 177, similarly p. 252 et passim) the implication seems to be that something is a 'social reform' if and only if directed at equality, known as the egalitarianism fallacy. And further as well "with the right systems of production and distribution", (p. 51, my italics). Which is the core of his grounds. A more accurate title would be "In Praise of Democratic Egalitarianism".
It is my good luck reading at the same time a fine book The Surviving Image about Aby Warburg and the concept of cultural history, by a Georges Didi-Huberman, where there's different life and depth in ways of thinking about history, historical understanding; that I can recommend.
© 2017 Lars Aagaard-Mogensen and Wassard Elea
Lars Aagaard-Mogensen and Wassard Elea