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A Theory of Feelings Anger and Forgiveness Philosophizing Madness from Nietzsche to Derrida"My Madness Saved Me"10 Good Questions about Life and Death12 Modern Philosophers50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a GodA Cabinet of Philosophical CuriositiesA Case for IronyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to Buddhist PhilosophyA Companion to FoucaultA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to HumeA Companion to KantA Companion to Phenomenology and ExistentialismA Companion to PragmatismA Companion to the Philosophy of ActionA Companion to the Philosophy of BiologyA Companion to the Philosophy of LiteratureA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Critical Overview of Biological FunctionsA Critique of Naturalistic Philosophies of MindA Cursing Brain?A Delicate BalanceA Farewell to AlmsA Fragile LifeA Frightening LoveA Future for PresentismA Guide to the Good LifeA History of PsychiatryA History of the MindA Life Worth LivingA Manual of Experimental PhilosophyA Map of the MindA Metaphysics of PsychopathologyA Mind So RareA Minimal LibertarianismA Natural History of Human MoralityA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Natural History of VisionA Parliament of MindsA Philosopher Looks at The Sense of HumorA Philosophical DiseaseA Philosophy for the Science of Well-BeingA Philosophy of BoredomA Philosophy of Cinematic ArtA Philosophy of CultureA Philosophy of EmptinessA Philosophy of FearA Philosophy of PainA Physicalist ManifestoA Place for ConsciousnessA Question of TrustA Research Agenda for DSM-VA Revolution of the MindA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Stroll With William JamesA Tapestry of ValuesA Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Theory of FreedomA Thousand MachinesA Universe of ConsciousnessA Very Bad WizardA Very Bad Wizard: Morality Behind the CurtainA Virtue EpistemologyA World Full of GodsA World Without ValuesAbout FaceAbout the Beginning of the Hermeneutics of the SelfAction and ResponsibilityAction in ContextAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionAction, Contemplation, and HappinessAction, Emotion and WillAdam SmithAdaptive DynamicsAddictionAddictionAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction and Self-ControlAddiction Is a ChoiceAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAftermathAfterwarAgainst AdaptationAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HappinessAgainst HealthAgainst MarriageAgency and ActionAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and EmbodimentAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAl-JununAlain BadiouAlain BadiouAlasdair MacIntyreAlien Landscapes?Altered EgosAmbivalenceAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Ethics for TodayAn Intellectual History of CannibalismAn Interpretation of DesireAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy An Introduction to Philosophy of EducationAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of PsychologyAn Introductory Philosophy of MedicineAn Odd Kind of FameAnalytic FreudAnalytic Philosophy in AmericaAncient AngerAncient Models of MindAncient Philosophy of the SelfAngerAnimal LessonsAnimal MindsAnimals Like UsAnnihilationAnother PlanetAnswers for AristotleAnti-ExternalismAnti-Individualism and KnowledgeAntigone’s ClaimAntipsychiatryAre We Hardwired?Are Women Human?Arguing about DisabilityArguing About Human NatureAristotle and the Philosophy of FriendshipAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's ChildrenAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle's WayAristotle, Emotions, and EducationArt & MoralityArt After Conceptual ArtArt in Three DimensionsArt, Self and KnowledgeArtificial ConsciousnessArtificial HappinessAspects of PsychologismAsylum to ActionAt the Existentialist CaféAtonement and ForgivenessAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutobiography as PhilosophyAutonomyAutonomy and Mental DisorderAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismBabies by DesignBackslidingBadiouBadiou's DeleuzeBadiou, Balibar, Ranciere: Rethinking EmancipationBare Facts And Naked TruthsBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBattlestar Galactica and PhilosophyBe Like the FoxBeautyBecoming a SubjectBecoming HumanBefore ConsciousnessBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing AmoralBeing HumanBeing Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory Being No OneBeing Realistic about ReasonsBeing ReducedBeing YourselfBelief's Own EthicsBending Over BackwardsBerlin Childhood around 1900Bernard WilliamsBertrand RussellBest ExplanationsBetter than BothBetter Than WellBetween Two WorldsBeyond HealthBeyond Hegel and NietzscheBeyond KuhnBeyond LossBeyond MelancholyBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond PostmodernismBeyond ReductionBeyond SchizophreniaBeyond the DSM StoryBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics in the ClinicBiological Complexity and Integrative PluralismBiology Is TechnologyBiosBipolar ExpeditionsBlackwell Companion to the Philosophy of EducationBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlues - Philosophy for EveryoneBlushBob Dylan and PhilosophyBody ConsciousnessBody Image And Body SchemaBody ImagesBody LanguageBody MattersBody WorkBody-Subjects and Disordered MindsBoundBoundaries of the MindBoyleBrain Evolution and CognitionBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-WiseBrainchildrenBrains, Buddhas, and BelievingBrainstormingBrave New WorldsBreakdown of WillBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and FaithBrief Therapy Homework PlannerBritain on the CouchBritish Idealism and the Concept of the SelfBrute RationalityBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyBut Is It Art?Camus and SartreCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCarving Nature at Its JointsCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsCassandra's DaughterCategories We Live ByCato's TearsCausation and CounterfactualsCauses, Laws, and Free WillChanging Conceptions of the Child from the Renaissance to Post-ModernityChanging the SubjectChaosophyCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionCharles DarwinCharles S. Peirce's PhenomenologyCherishmentChildhood and the Philosophy of EducationChildrenChildren, Families, and Health Care Decision MakingChoices and ConflictChoosing Not to ChooseChristmas - Philosophy for EveryoneCinema, Philosophy, BergmanCinematic MythmakingCity and Soul in Plato's RepublicClassifying MadnessClear and Queer ThinkingClinical EthicsClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyCodependent ForevermoreCoffee - Philosophy for EveryoneCognition and the BrainCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognition Through Understanding: Self-Knowledge, Interlocution, Reasoning, ReflectionCognitive BiologyCognitive FictionsCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Systems and the Extended Mind Cognitive Theories of Mental IllnessCoherence in Thought and ActionCollected Papers, Volume 1Collected Papers, Volume 2College SexComedy IncarnateCommitmentCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompassionate Moral RealismCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentConcealment And ExposureConcepts and Causes in the Philosophy of DiseaseConceptual Analysis and Philosophical NaturalismConceptual Art and PaintingConceptual Issues in Evolutionary BiologyConfessionsConfucianismConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConquest of AbundanceConscience and ConvenienceConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Fundamental RealityConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the SelfConsciousness EmergingConsciousness EvolvingConsciousness ExplainedConsciousness in ActionConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Color, and ContentConsole and ClassifyConstructing the WorldConstructive AnalysisContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Philosophy of BiologyContemporary Debates in Philosophy of MindContemporary Debates in Political PhilosophyContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContemporary Perspectives on Natural LawContested Knowledge: Social Theory TodayContesting PsychiatryContext and the AttitudesContinental Philosophy of ScienceControlControlling Our DestiniesConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCopernicus, Darwin and FreudCrazy for YouCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCreating ConsilienceCreating HysteriaCreating Mental IllnessCreating Scientific ConceptsCreating the American JunkieCreation, Rationality and AutonomyCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCrimes of ReasonCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychiatryCritical PsychologyCritical ResistanceCritical Thinking About PsychologyCritical VisionsCross and KhoraCruel CompassionCTRL [SPACE]Cultural Psychology of the SelfCultural Theory: An IntroductionCulture and Psychiatric DiagnosisCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCulture of DeathCultures of NeurastheniaCurious EmotionsCurrent Controversies in Experimental PhilosophyCurrent Controversies in Values and ScienceCustom and Reason in HumeCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCutting God in Half - And Putting the Pieces Together AgainCylons in AmericaDamaged IdentitiesDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous EmotionsDaniel DennettDaniel DennettDark AgesDarwin and DesignDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDarwin, God and the Meaning of LifeDarwinian PsychiatryDarwinian ReductionismDarwinizing CultureDating: Philosophy for EveryoneDeathDeathDeath and CharacterDeath and CompassionDeath and the AfterlifeDebating DesignDebating HumanismDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecomposing the WillDeconstructing PsychotherapyDeconstruction and DemocracyDeeper Than DarwinDeeper than ReasonDefending Science - within ReasonDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDegrees of BeliefDeleuze and the Concepts of CinemaDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions and Other Irrational BeliefsDelusions and the Madness of the MassesDementiaDemons, Dreamers, and MadmenDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDennett’s PhilosophyDepression Is a ChoiceDepression, Emotion and the SelfDepthDerrida, Deleuze, PsychoanalysisDescartesDescartes and the Passionate MindDescartes' CogitoDescartes's Changing MindDescartes's Concept of MindDescribing Inner Experience?Descriptions and PrescriptionsDesembodied Spirits and Deanimated Bodies Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Desire and AffectDesire, Love, and IdentityDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDeveloping the VirtuesDiagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersDialectics of the SelfDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital SoulDimensional Models of Personality DisordersDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDisjunctivismDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDispatches from the Freud WarsDisrupted LivesDistractionDisturbed ConsciousnessDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Do We Still Need Doctors?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Does the Woman Exist?Doing PhilosophyDoing without ConceptsDon't be FooledDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDonald DavidsonDonald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the MentalDoubting Darwin?Down GirlDreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR CasebookDworkin and His CriticsDying to KnowDynamics in ActionDysthymia and the Spectrum of Chronic DepressionsEccentricsEducational MetamorphosesEffective IntentionsElbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth WantingEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbodied RhetoricsEmbodied Selves and Divided MindsEmbryos under the MicroscopeEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotionEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion and PsycheEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotional ReasonEmotional ReasonEmotional TruthEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions, Value, and AgencyEmpathyEmpathy and AgencyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpathy in the Context of PhilosophyEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEnactivist InterventionsEnchanted LoomsEngaging BuddhismEngineering the Human GermlineEnjoymentEnvyEpicureanismEpistemic LuckEpistemologyEpistemology and EmotionsEpistemology and the Psychology of Human JudgmentEros and the GoodErotic MoralityEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssays in the Metaphysics of Mind Essays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEssays on Nonconceptual ContentEssays on Philosophical CounselingEssays on Reference, Language, and MindEssays on the Concept of Mind in Early-Modern PhilosophyEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEsssential Philosophy of PsychiatryEternal Sunshine of the Spotless MindEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in Human CloningEthical TheoryEthicsEthicsEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics in Plain EnglishEthics in PracticeEthics in Psychiatric ResearchEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEuropean Review of Philosophy. Vol. 5Everyday IrrationalityEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolutionEvolution and the Human MindEvolution's RainbowEvolutionary Origins of MoralityEvolutionary PsychologyExamined LifeExamined LivesExistential AmericaExistentialismExistentialism and Romantic LoveExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and NaturalismExperiments in EthicsExplaining ConsciousnessExplaining the BrainExplaining the Computational MindExplanatory PluralismExploding the Gene MythExploring HappinessExploring the SelfExpression and the InnerExpressions of JudgmentExtraordinary Science and PsychiatryFaces of IntentionFact and ValueFact and Value in EmotionFacts and ValuesFacts, Values, and NormsFads and Fallacies in the Social SciencesFaith and Wisdom in ScienceFatherhoodFear of KnowledgeFearless SpeechFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFeelings of BeingFellow CreaturesFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminism and Philosophy of ScienceFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist Interpretations of Rene DescartesFeminist TheoryField Notes from ElsewhereFinding Consciousness in the BrainFingerprints of GodFlesh in the Age of ReasonFolk Psychological NarrativesFolk Psychology Re-AssessedForces of HabitForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and RetributionFoucault 2.0Foucault and PhilosophyFoucault NowFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in PsychologyFour Views on Free WillFrank Ramsey (1903-1930)Free WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree Will and Action ExplanationFree Will and LuckFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree: Why Science Hasn't Disproved Free WillFreedomFreedom and DeterminismFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom and ResponsibiltyFreedom and ValueFreedom EvolvesFreedom RegainedFreedom vs. InterventionFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFreudFreud and the Question of PseudoscienceFreud As PhilosopherFreud's AnswerFreud, the Reluctant PhilosopherFriedrich NietzscheFrom Chance to ChoiceFrom Clinic to ClassroomFrom Complexity to LifeFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution for Science and the HumanitiesFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Valuing to ValueFrontiers of ConsciousnessFrontiers of JusticeFurnishing the MindGalileo in PittsburghGenderGender and Mental HealthGender in the MirrorGender TroubleGenesGenes, Women, EqualityGenetic Nature/CultureGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetic SecretsGenocide's AftermathGenomes and What to Make of ThemGerman Idealism and the JewGerman PhilosophyGetting HookedGilles DeleuzeGlobal PhilosophyGluttonyGod and Phenomenal ConsciousnessGoffman's LegacyGoing Amiss in Experimental ResearchGoodness & AdviceGrassroots SpiritualityGrave MattersGrave MattersGreedGreek Models of Mind and SelfGut ReactionsHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHabits of MindHallucinationHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of EmotionsHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness and EducationHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHappiness, Death, and the Remainder of LifeHard LuckHarmful ThoughtsHaving the World in ViewHealing PsychiatryHealing the Soul in the Age of the BrainHealth, Illness and DiseaseHealth, Science, and Ordinary LanguageHegelHeidegger and a Metaphysics of FeelingHeidegger, Metaphysics and the Univocity of BeingHermann von Helmholtz's MechanismHermeneutics As PoliticsHeterophobiaHeterosyncraciesHeuristics and BiasesHeuristics and the LawHidden ResourcesHidden SelvesHiding from HumanityHigh Art LiteHistorical OntologyHistory of Psychiatry and Medical PsychologyHistory, Historicity And ScienceHobbesHomosexualitiesHope and Dread in PsychoanalysisHot ThoughtHow Can I Be Trusted?How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains?How Do We Know Who We Are?How Emotions WorkHow Emotions WorkHow History Made the MindHow Images ThinkHow is Nature Possible?How Propaganda WorksHow Science WorksHow Scientific Practices MatterHow Scientists Explain DiseaseHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Be a StoicHow to Make Opportunity EqualHow to Solve the Mind-Body Problemhow to stop timeHow to Think More About SexHow We HopeHow We ReasonHuman CloningHuman Development, Language and the Future of MankindHuman EnhancementHuman Evolution, Reproduction, and MoralityHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman NatureHuman NatureHuman Nature and the Limits of ScienceHuman-Built WorldHumanismHumanism, What's That?HumanityHumans, Animals, MachinesHumeHumeHume on Motivation and VirtueHume's True ScepticismHume’s Moral Philosophy and Contemporary PsychologyHusserlHystoriesI Am Dynamite!I of the VortexI Was WrongIdeas that MatterIdentifying the MindIdentity and Agency in Cultural WorldsIgnorance and ImaginationIllnessImagination and Its PathologiesImagination and the Meaningful BrainImagining NumbersImmortal RemainsImproving Nature?In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of HealthIn Defense of SentimentalityIn Love With LifeIn Praise of Athletic BeautyIn Praise of DesireIn Praise of Natural PhilosophyIn Praise of the WhipIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of HappinessIn the Name of GodIn the Name of IdentityIn the Space of ReasonsIn the SwarmIn Two MindsInclusive EthicsIncompatibilism's AllureIndividual Differences in Conscious ExperienceInfinity and PerspectiveInformation ArtsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchIngmar Bergman, Cinematic PhilosopherInhuman ThoughtsInner PresenceInsanityIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntelligent VirtueIntentionIntentionality, Deliberation and AutonomyIntentions and IntentionalityIntentions and IntentionalityInterpreting MindsInterpreting NietzscheIntroducing Greek PhilosophyIntrospection and ConsciousnessIntrospection VindicatedIntuition, Imagination, and Philosophical MethodologyIntuitionismInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIrrationalityIs Academic Feminism Dead?Is It Me or My Meds?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is Oedipus Online?Is Science Neurotic?Is Science Value Free?Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion?Is There a Duty to Die?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJacques LacanJacques RancièreJacques RanciereJean-Paul SartreJohn McDowellJohn SearleJohn Searle's Ideas About Social RealityJohn Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill and the Writing of CharacterJoint AttentionJokesJonathan EdwardsJudging and UnderstandingJustice for ChildrenJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeKantKant and MiltonKant and the Fate of AutonomyKant and the Limits of AutonomyKant and the Role of Pleasure in Moral ActionKant on Freedom, Law, and HappinessKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Anatomy of EvilKant's Anatomy of the Intelligent MindKant's Theory of VirtueKarl JaspersKarl PopperKarl Popper, Science and EnlightenmentKey Concepts in PhilosophyKierkegaardKierkegaard as PhenomenologistKierkegaard's Concept of DespairKierkegaard's MuseKinds of MindsKinds, Things, and StuffKnowing EmotionsKnowing, Knowledge and BeliefsKnowledge MonopoliesKnowledge, Belief, and CharacterKnowledge, Possibility, and ConsciousnessLacanLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLanguageLanguage in ContextLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Culture, and MindLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw and the BrainLaw, Liberty, and PsychiatryLaws, Mind, and Free WillLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberatory PsychiatryLife and ActionLife at the Texas State Lunatic Asylum, 1857-1997Life Is Not a Game of PerfectLife of the MindLife's FormLife, Death, & MeaningLife, Death, and Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of UtilityLife, Sex, and IdeasLight in the Dark RoomLike a Splinter in Your MindLiving and Dying WellLiving NarrativeLiving Outside Mental IllnessLiving with DarwinLiving With One’s PastLockeLocke LockeLogic and the Art of Memory Loneliness in Philosophy, Psychology, and LiteratureLooking for SpinozaLooking for The StrangerLost in DialogueLost SoulsLOT 2LoveLoveLove's ConfusionsLove's VisionLove, Friendship, and the SelfLove, Sex & TragedyLuckyLudwig WittgensteinLustLyingMachine ConsciousnessMad for FoucaultMad TravelersMade with WordsMadness And Death In PhilosophyMadness and DemocracyMadness at HomeMadness Is CivilizationMaking Natural KnowledgeMaking Sense of EvolutionMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMaking the DSM-5Making the Social WorldMaking TruthMale Female EmailMan, Beast, and ZombieMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManiaManic Depression and CreativityMapping the Edges and the In-betweenMapping the Future of BiologyMarcus AureliusMaster PassionsMatters of the MindMe++Meaning and Moral OrderMeaning and Value in a Secular AgeMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeaning, Basic Self-Knowledge, and MindMeanings of ArtMeasuring HappinessMeasuring PsychopathologyMedia MadnessMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedical NihilismMedical ReasoningMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedicine of the PersonMedicine, Mental Health, Religion, Science and Well-BeingMeditations on Self-Discipline and FailureMelancholy And the Care of the SoulMelancholy and the Otherness of GodMementoMemory and NarrativeMental ActionsMental CausationMental Causation and OntologyMental HealthMental Health At The CrossroadsMental Health Policy in BritainMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMerleau-PontyMerleau-Ponty and the Possibilities of PhilosophyMetacognition and Theory of MindMetacreationMetaethical SubjectivismMetaethicsMetal and FleshMetaphors of MemoryMetapoliticsMethods in MindMichel FoucaultMidlifeMill's UtilitarianismMindMindMindMind and ConsciousnessMind and CosmosMind and MechanismMind GamesMind in a Physical WorldMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind in LifeMind the BodyMind TimeMind's LandscapeMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMind, Brain, and Free WillMind, Reason and ImaginationMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds and PersonsMinds, Brains, and LawMinds, Ethics, and ConditionalsMindshapingMindsightMindworldsMirror, MirrorMixed FeelingsMockingbird YearsModels of the SelfModern Social ImaginariesModern Theories of JusticeModernity and SubjectivityModernity and TechnologyMoody Minds DistemperedMoral BrainsMoral DimensionsMoral FailureMoral ImaginationMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral ParticularismMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology and Human AgencyMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Moral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMotherhoodMotive and RightnessMoving Beyond Prozac, DSM, and the New PsychiatryMultiple Analogies in Science and PhilosophyMultiple Identities & False MemoriesMusic, Madness, and the Unworking of LanguageMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Double UnveiledMy WayNarrativeNarrative and IdentityNarrative MedicineNarrative PsychiatryNarrative Theory and the Cognitive SciencesNatural Ethical FactsNatural Kinds and Conceptual ChangeNatural MindsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalism and the First-Person PerspectiveNaturalism and the Human ConditionNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalized BioethicsNaturalizing the MindNatureNature and NarrativeNear Death ExperienceNeither Bad nor MadNeither Victim nor SurvivorNeuro-Philosophy and the Healthy MindNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeuroexistentialismNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neurophilosophy at WorkNeurophilosophy of Free WillNeuropoliticsNeuropsychoanalysis in PracticeNeuroscience and PhilosophyNew Essays on the Explanation of ActionNew Philosophy for a New MediaNew Versions of VictimsNew Waves in Philosophy of ActionNietzscheNietzsche and Buddhist PhilosophyNietzsche and PsychotherapyNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNietzsche's TherapyNietzsche, Culture and EducationNietzsche: The Man and His PhilosophyNihil UnboundNoir AnxietyNormative EthicsNormativityNorms of NatureNotebooks 1951-1959Notes Toward a Performative Theory of AssemblyNothing So AbsurdOblivionOn AnxietyOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn Being AuthenticOn BeliefOn BetrayalOn BullshitOn DelusionOn DesireOn EmotionsOn HashishOn Human NatureOn Human RightsOn Loving Our EnemiesOn Nature and LanguageOn PersonalityOn ReflectionOn Romantic LoveOn the EmotionsOn the Freud WatchOn the Government of the LivingOn the Human ConditionOn the InternetOn the Meaning of LifeOn the Philosophy of LawOn the Pragmatics of CommunicationOn the Punitive SocietyOn TruthOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne Hundred DaysOnflowOnly a Promise of HappinessOntology of ConsciousnessOpen MindedOpen Your EyesOrgans without BodiesOther MindsOur Last Great IllusionOur Own MindsOur Posthuman FutureOur StoriesOut of Its MindOut of Our HeadsOxford Guide to the MindOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Studies in Experimental PhilosophyOxford Studies in Normative EthicsOxford Studies in Normative Ethics, Volume 7Oxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPanic DisorderPanpsychismPanpsychism in the WestPartialityPassionate EnginesPassionate EnginesPathologies of BeliefPathologies of ReasonPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perceiving the WorldPerception & CognitionPerception and Basic BeliefsPerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPerceptual ExperiencePerfecting VirtuePerplexities of ConsciousnessPersistencePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal IdentityPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonal Identity and Fractured SelvesPersonhood and Health CarePersonsPersons and BodiesPersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPersons, Souls and DeathPerspectives on ImitationPerspectives on PragmatismPessimismPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenal ConsciousnessPhenomenal IntentionalityPhenomenologyPhenomenology and ExistentialismPhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhenomenology of IllnessPhilosophersPhilosophers on MusicPhilosophers without GodsPhilosophical CounselingPhilosophical Counselling and the UnconsciousPhilosophical DevicesPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical History and the Problem of ConsciousnessPhilosophical Issues in PharmaceuticsPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in Psychiatry IIPhilosophical MethodologyPhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophical Myths of the FallPhilosophical Perspectives on DepictionPhilosophical Perspectives on Technology and PsychiatryPhilosophical PracticePhilosophical Reflections on DisabilityPhilosophizing About Sex Philosophizing the EverydayPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy and LivingPhilosophy and PsychiatryPhilosophy and PsychotherapyPhilosophy and Science FictionPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the Interpretation of Pop CulturePhilosophy and the Moving ImagePhilosophy and the NeurosciencesPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy As FictionPhilosophy BitesPhilosophy Bites BackPhilosophy for Counselling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy for LifePhilosophy in a New CenturyPhilosophy in an Age of SciencePhilosophy in Children's LiteraturePhilosophy in the Roman EmpirePhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BodyPhilosophy of Film and Motion PicturesPhilosophy of LovePhilosophy of Love, Sex, and MarriagePhilosophy of Love, Sex, and Marriage: An IntroductionPhilosophy of MedicinePhilosophy of MindPhilosophy of Mind and CognitionPhilosophy of Personal Identity and Multiple PersonalityPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy of Public HealthPhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhilosophy of the Social SciencesPhilosophy on TapPhilosophy PracticePhilosophy the Day after TomorrowPhilosophy Within Its Proper BoundsPhilosophy's Role in Counseling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhilosophy, Politics, DemocracyPhotography and PhilosophyPhysical RealizationPhysicalism and Its DiscontentsPhysicalism and Mental CausationPhysicalism, or Something Near EnoughPhysician-Assisted DyingPillar of SaltPin-up GrrrlsPlant MindsPlatoPlatoPlato, Not Prozac!Platonic Ethics, Old and NewPleasurePluralistic CasuistryPolarities of ExperiencesPolitical EmotionsPopper, Objectivity and the Growth of KnowledgePornPorn StudiesPornography, Sex, and FeminismPortrait of the Psychiatrist as a Young ManPositive NihilismPost-TruthPostcolonial DisordersPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPower and the SelfPower SplitPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical ConflictsPractical Identity and Narrative AgencyPractical PhilosophyPractical RulesPractical Tortoise RaisingPractically ProfoundPracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPragmatic BioethicsPragmatismPragmatism, Old And NewPraise and BlamePredicative MindsPreferences and Well-BeingPrescriptions for the MindPresocraticsPrimary and Secondary QualitiesPrimates and PhilosophersPrimitive ColorsPrivacyPrivileged AccessProblems in MindProblems of RationalityProzac As a Way of LifeProzac BacklashProzac on the CouchPsyche and EthosPsyche and SomaPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric Cultures ComparedPsychiatric Diagnosis and ClassificationPsychiatric EthicsPsychiatric HegemonyPsychiatric PowerPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry and Philosophy of SciencePsychiatry and ReligionPsychiatry as a Human SciencePsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry in SocietyPsychiatry in the New MilleniumPsychiatry in the Scientific ImagePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsycho-Physical Dualism TodayPsychoanalysis and Narrative MedicinePsychoanalysis and the Philosophy of SciencePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and PhilosophyPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, and the Politics of Human RelationshipsPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPsychotherapy As PraxisPublic PhilosophyPunishmentPure ImmanencePurple HazePursuing MeaningQuality of Life and Human DifferenceQueer PhilosophyQuestions for FreudQuestions for FreudQuine and Davidson on Language, Thought and RealityRaceRace in Contemporary MedicineRadiant CoolRadical AlterityRadical ExternalismRadical HopeRational and Social AgencyRational CausationRational Choice in an Uncertain WorldRationality + Consciousness = Free WillRationality and FreedomRationality and the Reflective MindRationality in ActionRawls, Dewey, and ConstructivismRe-creating MedicineRe-EmergenceRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReading AutobiographyReading Bernard WilliamsReading SartreReadings in the Philosophy of TechnologyReal MaterialismReal Natures and Familiar ObjectsReal ScienceRealism in ActionReason & EmancipationReason in ActionReason in PhilosophyReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReasoning About Rational AgentsReasoning in Biological DiscoveriesReasons from WithinReasons without RationalismReclaiming CognitionReclaiming the SoulReconceiving SchizophreniaReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecreative MindsRediscovering EmotionRediscovering EmpathyReference and ExistenceReference and the Rational MindReflections on Ethics and ResponsibilityReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRegard for Reason in the Moral MindRegulating SexReinventing the SoulRelativism and Human RightsRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyReliable ReasoningReligion without GodRelying on OthersRemembering HomeResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsRestraining RageRethinking ExpertiseRethinking IntrospectionRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeRethinking the DSMRethinking the Sociology of Mental HealthRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfReturn to ReasonRevolt, She SaidRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard Rorty's New PragmatismRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRise And Fall of Soul And SelfRitalin NationRobert NozickRousseauRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Derrida on DeconstructionRules, Reason, and Self-KnowledgeSaints, Scholars, and Schizophrenics: Mental Illness in Rural 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of FreedomThe Virtues of HappinessThe Volitional BrainThe Wages of SinThe Web of LifeThe Whole ChildThe Wild Girl, Natural Man, and the MonsterThe Wing of MadnessThe Wonder of ConsciousnessThe Work of MourningThe Works of AgencyThe World in My Mind, My Mind in the WorldThe World of PerceptionThe World of PerversionTheoretical Issues in Psychology: An IntroductionTheories of Human NatureTheory and RealityTheory of MindTherapeutic ActionThere is No Such Thing as a Social ScienceThere's Something About Mary Things and PlacesThinking About FeelingThinking about Free WillThinking and SeeingThinking for CliniciansThinking for CliniciansThinking of AnswersThinking through the BodyThinking TwiceThinking with WhiteheadThis is Madness TooThomas KuhnThomas KuhnThomas Kuhn's ""Linguistic Turn"" and the Legacy of Logical EmpiricismThomas SzaszThought in a Hostile WorldThought in ActionThought's FootingThreads of LifeThree Faces of DesireThrough the Looking GlassTime and IdentityTo Have Or To Be?TolerationTortured SubjectsTowards a Science of Consciousness IIITowards Non-BeingTraumaTrauma, Truth and ReconciliationTrue to LifeTrue to Our FeelingsTrusting on the EdgeTrusting the Subject?Truth & PredicationTruth and Truth-MakingTruth and TruthfulnessTruth as One and ManyTuringTwo Great Problems of LearningTwo Regimes of MadnessUgly FeelingsUmbr(a)Unconscious knowing and other essays in psycho-philosophical analysisUnderstanding EmotionsUnderstanding EvilUnderstanding Kant's EthicsUnderstanding LoveUnderstanding MarriageUnderstanding Mental DisordersUnderstanding Moral ObligationUnderstanding PeopleUnderstanding Phenomenal Consciousness Undoing GenderUnifying HinduismUniversitiesUnlearning or 'How NOT to Be Governed?'Unnatural SelectionUnprincipled VirtueUnsanctifying Human Life: Essays on EthicsUnto OthersUpheavals of ThoughtUsers and Abusers of PsychiatryValue-Free Science?Values and Psychiatric DiagnosisVarieties of Anomalous ExperienceVarieties of MeaningVarieties of Practical ReasoningViolence Against WomenViolence and the BodyVirtue, Rules, and JusticeVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVirtues and Their VicesVirtues of ThoughtVision and BrainVision and MindVision's InvisiblesVisual CultureVital NourishmentVulnerability, Autonomy, and Applied EthicsW. K. Clifford and "The Ethics of Belief"Waking LifeWandering SignificanceWays of KnowingWeakness of Will and Practical IrrationalityWeakness of Will from Plato to the PresentWeakness of Will in Renaissance and Reformation ThoughtWelfare and Rational CareWhat Are We?What Art IsWhat Emotions Really AreWhat Good Are the Arts?What If Medicine Disappeared?What Is a Human?What Is an Emotion: Classic and Contemporary ReadingsWhat Is Good and WhyWhat Is Medicine?What is Mental Disorder?What Is Posthumanism?What Is Secular Humanism?What Is the Good Life?What is the Self?What Is This Thing Called Happiness?What Is Thought?What Makes Us Think?What Nietzsche Really SaidWhat Should I Believe?What Should I Do?What We Owe to Each OtherWhat Would Aristotle Do?What's Good on TVWhat's Wrong with Children's RightsWhat's Wrong With Science?When Self-Consciousness BreaksWhere Biology Meets PsychologyWhere the Action IsWhere the Roots Reach for WaterWhispers from the EastWho Rules in ScienceWho Was Jacques Derrida?Who's in Charge?Whose Freud?Why Does Inequality Matter?Why Everyone (Else) Is a HypocriteWhy God Won't Go AwayWhy Read Mill Today?Why the Mind is Not a ComputerWhy Things Matter to PeopleWhy Think?Why Think? Why Truth MattersWhy We DanceWhy We Disagree About Human NatureWider than the SkyWilliam Blake on Self and SoulWilliam James at the BoundariesWilliam James on Ethics and FaithWilling, Wanting, WaitingWisdom Won from IllnessWisdom, Intuition and EthicsWise TherapyWitchcrazeWithin ReasonWithout ConscienceWittgensteinWittgenstein and Approaches To ClarityWittgenstein And PsychologyWittgenstein and PsychotherapyWittgenstein on Freud and FrazerWittgenstein Reads FreudWittgenstein Reads WeiningerWomen, Body, IllnessWomen, Madness and MedicineWords and ImagesWorld, Affectivity, TraumaWritten in the FleshYoga - Philosophy for EveryoneYour Drug May Be Your ProblemZizekZombies and Consciousness
This handbook is a voluminous collection of articles on a wide range of topics related to perception, which is, in the editor's (p .1) words, "the ultimate source of knowledge about contingent facts." Just how voluminous is this collection? The 900+ page tome clocks in at four and one-half pounds and contains forty-five articles by fifty-five contributors. So it occupies a fair bit of shelf-space. It weighs in heavily--and well--on the metaphysics and science of perception, but is unfortunately significantly lighter when it comes to the epistemology of perception. The inclusion of just a few more articles with an epistemic focus would have brought the volume close to being fully comprehensive.
The primary role a volume of this type should serve is to be a sophisticated introduction to a vast swath of the rapidly developing research on topics related to perception. On this score, it delivers in spades. A primary editorial aim looks to be to bring scientific discoveries to bear upon thinking about perception and related issues. In that respect, the volume succeeds admirably, containing, for example, a rich selection of references to the scientific literature. That said, at times, the volume can read more like a scientific or medical text than anything else. And while the philosophical upshot of many of the mentioned scientific discoveries is not always obvious, readers will be rewarded by having, at their fingertips, a robust collection of scientific deliverances which do bear upon the nature perception.
Given the impossibility of thoroughly reviewing even a handful of the articles which appear in a tome of this length and breadth, and given how tedious a review consisting of single-paragraph summaries of forty-five articles would be, I will organize my review topically according to the seven major divisions the editor has opted for. My primary purpose here will be to highlight interesting articles and point out interesting lacunas.
For those who want a summary conclusion, this volume definitely deserves space on the shelf of any student who is beginning to undertake a serious study of perception. Intermediate students will find that the volume serves as a stellar source of references to many of the most important works in the extant literature and also points towards numerous rabbit holes which can, and should, be chased down. Given the broad scope of the included material, advanced students will be able to treat the volume as a useful reference which covers various portions of the literature they may be less familiar with.
Division I: Historical Background
This division sets the historical context from which the current burgeoning field of philosophy of mind has sprung. This first division contains four articles which together trace the development of thought concerning perception from the Early Greeks (Victor Caston, "Perception in Ancient Greek Philosophy") to the Medievals (Dominik Perler, "Perception in Medieval Philosophy") through the Early Moderns (Alison Simmons, "Perception in Early Modern Philosophy") and finally on to the 19th and 20th Century (Gary Hatfield, "Perception in Philosophy and Psychology in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries").
These chapters are not fully comprehensive (e.g., notably absent in the discussion of medieval theories of perception is any mention of John Duns Scotus or Henry of Ghent), but nor should they aspire to full comprehensiveness. They serve their purpose as introductions incredibly well, and though some might maintain that talk of "sensible species" is neither necessary nor helpful in a volume which is designed to serve as an introduction to contemporary research, I would disagree. The editor deserves praise for including this historical material, and contemporary research on historical figures is, of course, a relevant part of this rapidly developing field.
Finally, the section on historical context is fleshed out with three more chapters concerned with, respectively, sense data (Paul Snowdon, "Sense Data"), skepticism (Baron Reed, "Skepticism and Perception"), and phenomenology (Charles Siewert, "Phenomenological Approaches"). These articles are generally well-informed. It is also noteworthy that Franz Brentano has not been overlooked (by Siewert) in a volume with a significant scientific bent. And while I generally enjoyed Snowdon's discussion of sense data, which is historically informed, Snowdon's criticisms of sense-datum theorists struck me as falling a bit flat if one has in mind somewhat more contemporary approaches to sense data (on which, e.g., sense data aren't conceived of as possibly bent immaterial entities). Still, for the purposes of stage-setting, one could hardly ask for a better historical introduction.
Division II: Contemporary Philosophical Approaches
This division appears to be a sort of catch-all category which focuses on presenting fairly abstract (some might say "esoteric") technical philosophical scholarship. One might wonder, for example, why this division comes before the third ("The Senses") which treats (among other things) of vision, audition, and touch. After all, it would seem natural, after providing historical context, to kick off a handbook on perception with a discussion of the five primary sensory modalities. Here I could only speculate as to the editor's decision. That would be a pointless exercise, and so rather than doing that, I'll try to explain why I'd have made the same choice.
In this division one is introduced to some fundamental philosophical positions concerning issues related to perception all of which are receiving widespread contemporary attention and over which there is still widespread disagreement. One can think of these fundamental positions as frameworks (a.k.a. "mini-worldviews") the adoption of which can have a significant influence on one's thinking about perception. Are hallucinatory experiences categorically different in kind from the experiences one has in veridical perception (Heather Logue, "Disjunctivism"), and if so, does this difference have epistemic consequences? Do experiences, perhaps like pictures, represent something as being the case (Bence Nanay, "Perceptual Representation / Perceptual Content")? If so, what do they represent as being the case? And if experiences represent some things as being the case, must one possess concepts in order for them to do so, or is what they represent as being the case independent of the concepts one possesses (Wayne Wright, "Nonconceptual Content")?
The answers one gives to these questions, to which the reader is here introduced, may well shape how one conceives of the relationship between perception and knowledge. It is, I believe, worthwhile to introduce the reader to these questions and their various possible answers before moving on to a more concrete discussion of the senses and their supposed deliverances.
All that said, I have concerns about how well this section manages to achieve all the goals it should. One reason for this concern turns on the general problem that there is no generally accepted manner of using terminology. For example, we are informed (p. 199) that a hallucination of a banana is a "perceptual experience as of a yellow, crescent shaped thing." This is somewhat odd, and likely to be confusing to the reader, since when one hallucinates a banana, one quite arguably doesn't perceive anything at all (and certainly doesn't, say, perceive a banana, since there is no such banana to be perceived). (The idea that hallucination involves perception of sense-data enjoys very little support even though the it is not entirely uncommon to find philosophers who hold that perception involves sense-data in some way. Seeing a banana is to perceive a banana, but if such perceiving somehow involves sense-data, one needn't think that a sense-datum, rather than a banana, is perceived.) I take it that it would be better, here, to speak of a sensory experience as of (or a sensation as of) a banana. Perhaps some readers will be able to determine that this is what is occurring and that perception is not--or need not be--at issue here, though I have my doubts. After all, this is the Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Perception, and one might well be led to believe that hallucination is a form of perception--a claim that is widely granted to be false by contemporary philosophers who work in this area.
Another potential form of terminological confusion arises within this division's discussion of perceptual content where a form of representationalism is floated. And while one form of "representationalism" is here taken up, the term "representationalism" is ambiguous in the literature. In this division, the term is used to pick out theories upon which experiential states somehow represent something or, alternatively, have content. Another common use of the term, however, picks out a theory (more commonly termed intentionalism in the contemporary literature) according to which the representational content of an experience supervenes upon the phenomenology of the experience. This form of representationalism receives almost no mention in this volume--though it is marginally broached (pp. 648-651) by Malika Auvray and Ophelia Deroy in "How Do Synaesthetes Experience the World?" This is a fairly glaring omission.
Furthermore, many will probably find themselves comfortable distinguishing between an experience being a representation and its having representational content. Perhaps analogously, pictures are representations which do not have representational content? And there is a distinction between an experience having intentionality (being about something) and the content of that experience. One could maintain that a perceptual experience of Eiffel Tower is about the Eiffel Tower but nevertheless lacks representational content. Finally, we can, I presume, distinguish between perceptual content and representational content in various ways. Perhaps the perceptual contents of perceptual experiences are objects and properties while the representational contents of those experiences are propositions?
These distinctions do not get clearly drawn (though Wayne Wright's "Nonconceptual Content" draws an elegant and entirely appropriate yet far too often overlooked distinction between content nonconceptualism and state nonconceptualism which will help with making them) and they are critically important issues in the debates concerning the content of experiences. One would expect an article in a handbook of this sort to take some of them up. But the extent to which they are taken up is not clear--especially so given that the primary article devoted to it (Bence Nanay, "Perceptual Representation / Perceptual Content") concerns "perceptual content" which may or may not be equivalent to "representational content". And while readers are instructed that perceptual contents may come in many different forms (e.g., it is floated without explanation that perhaps they are "Russellian gappy" or "Fregean gappy"), this will not be of much benefit to what I take to be a significant portion of this handbook's audience, though granted, readers are referred to other literature (which they will need to consult if they hope to make sense of this).
My point is not that the contributions made in the section "Contemporary Philosophical Approaches" are not valuable. They are, and immensely so. For example, Heather Logue's chapter "Disjunctivism" is one of the clearest and most even-handed introductions to the topic I am aware of. Rather, my sense is that several of these contributions are directed at seriously advanced students. These contributions are by no means readily accessible to "anyone who has an intellectual interest in issues concerning perception" as the cover jacket claims. They are, perhaps, more suited for providing advanced graduate students with a rough and general but nevertheless incomplete sense of the topics along with extensive directions for further research (which research will require having institutional access.) Those who aren't already familiar with extensive swaths of the literature are going to have to work hard to determine what is going on. Given the foundational nature of the subject matter and the extensive debates surrounding these topics, that is to some extent to be expected, but I would have preferred if this division had leaned further in the direction of somewhat more elementary, stage-setting contributions.
Division III: The Senses
The third main division, "The Senses," begins with independent articles on the visual, auditory and tactile faculties. The gustatory and olfactory sense modalities are discussed together in a separate chapter: "The Chemical Senses". This division is rounded out with two further chapters: "The Bodily Senses" and Jesse J. Prinz's excellent "Unconscious Perception". Taken together, this division covers all the five standard sensory modalities and more.
In J. Brendan Richie and Peter Carruthers "The Bodily Senses" we are told (p. 354) that
Interoception is most familiar to philosophers through the conscious bodily sensations it produces. Itches, thermal sensations, sensations of orgasm, heart-beat, thirst, indigestion, shortness of breath, and any form of pain, along with aspects of moods, emotions and affect more generally, are all forms of interoceptive experience.
Here, perhaps, we might expect to find our discussion of inner perception (introspection). Is that not also a potentially important source of knowledge about contingent facts? Yet in this chapter this reader was left somewhat cold. To be clear, I don't mean to suggest that the authors ought to have taken up a discussion of introspection, but given that this was the only included chapter in which it might be thought to get taken up, it didn't seem to be. For the most part (with some minor exceptions), this volume focuses primarily upon outer perception broadly construed so as to include perception of one's bodily states. Nevertheless, this omission is interesting.
A notable aspect of this division is that, when it comes to the better-known or better scientifically investigated outer senses, we get less philosophy and more science. When it comes to the less well-known or less scientifically investigated outer senses, we get more philosophy and less science. Thus David Hilbert's chapter "Vision" contains extensive passages such as the following:
The other two cone-types (M-cones and L-cones) have closely spaced peak sensitivities near the middle of the spectrum. By sampling the retinal image with three spectrally different photoreceptor types, the visual system acquires information about the spectral power distribution of the light falling on it, and not just its intensity. (p. 261)
What the philosophical upshot of this is supposed to be is unclear, not the least because it's unclear what the "visual system" is or what "information" that system actually acquires. Here is another example:
From the retina, the main pathway supporting vision proceeds to the primary visual cortex (V1) by way of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (LGN). (p. 264)
While the science here is interesting, I'm not certain what the philosophical upshot is supposed to be.
What to make of this? I'm unsure. There is no question that good philosophical thinking about perception often depends, in large part, upon familiarity with the science which lies behind perception. In some cases, the science clearly matters when it comes to philosophical theorizing. In other cases, I am inclined to think that it doesn't matter so much. So at times, I am led to suspect that philosophically uninteresting science is trotted out at the expense of engaging in serious philosophy. That said, every chapter within this division provides extensive information which is of incredible scientific or philosophical value to "anybody who has an intellectual interest in issues concerning perception."
Division IV: What We Perceive
This division is the handbook's largest, though the ten chapters it contains are some of the shortest. It covers perception of objects (i.e., apparently perceived "middle-sized dry goods"), color, space, time, speech, music, one's own body, pain, and absences.
The relevance of metaphysics to this section is obvious, and metaphysics is a fairly constant (though not ever-present) theme. After all, if, as according to Peter van Inwagen, there are no middle-sized dry goods, then we (quite plausibly) do not perceive them, for they do not exist to be perceived. Roberto Casati's chapter "Object Perception" attempts to side-step this metaphysical issue in part by assuming that 'middle-dized dry goods' exist but also, and perhaps more interestingly, by treating object perception as primarily concerning what our perceptual systems 'treat' as (individual) objects, whether or not those objects do in fact exist. Of course, Roy Sorensen's very enjoyable chapter "Perceiving Nothings" might be thought to challenge the notion that one cannot perceive what does not exist, but this is not clear, as absences may in fact exist (and so not be the provocative "nothing" which figures in the chapter's title). In any case, there is no blindness to the important metaphysical questions, and that is refreshing.
To point to a few other examples, Robin Le Poidevein's chapter "Perception and Time" provides an interesting (though brief) discussion of presentism and the time-lag problem which leads to a discussion of the respective perceptual merits of the A-theory and the B-theory. And both Peter Ross (in "Primary and Secondary Qualities") and Kathleen Akins and Martin Hahn (in "Colour Perception") are deeply sensitive to the metaphysical question of what color is. While these latter articles are to some extent polemical and defend what we might term a kind of optimism about the ability of scientific progress to divulge the fundamental nature of color, the optimism is clearly fingered in the former article and the phenomenal historical discussion in the latter article completely alleviates any sense of the sort of bias which should not be present in a handbook of this sort. While science is often at the forefront in this collection, those who are somewhat skeptical of making interesting scientific progress when it comes to questions of consciousness will not feel neglected.
Division V: Integrating Sensory Information
No single major theme dominates the articles which comprise this section. Perception, of course, surely often involves the integration of multiple information sources. Perhaps the most well-known example of such integration is provided by the contribution olfactory sources (through retronasal olfaction) make towards perception of flavor. One might then wonder whether there is a gustatory sense which is to be distinguished from a distinct olfactory sense. Following this basic thread, Mohan Matthen (in "The Individuation of the Senses") takes up the question of just how many senses there are and defends a picture on which it is a necessary condition for a source of information to count as a sense faculty that it be a member of a group of information-gathering sources which work, as a system, to modulate "goals, actions, beliefs, and learning" (p. 571).
This strikes me as somewhat odd, for it seems to me that it is at least possible that there be creatures who do not integrate the deliverances of their information-gathering faculties while they nevertheless manage to perceive or sense external reality using various distinct sense faculties. This suggests that Matthen's focus lies squarely on picking out the sense faculties of certain kinds of beings (of which he probably takes humans to be a type). While I would have expected a conception of the sense faculties that is modally robust, it looks like we do not get any such thing--a point which might be further reinforced by Matthen's condition (573) that a sense faculty must involve transducers. While that latter condition does seem plausible if we restrict our focus to human sensory faculties, it does not strike me as metaphysically necessary.(When Matthen tells us what he means by "transducers" he writes (p. 571) that they are "cells that convert incident energy into a neural pulse." Perhaps he really has in mind a broader conception, however, such as that floated by Victor Caston (p. 45) on which they are somewhat more like things which "preserve certain essential features of the perceptible form in a new medium and in doing so transmit information about the character of the objects acting on our sense." We might then read Matthen's conception of transducers as a conception of "human transducers.") That said, I expect numerous readers to disagree or else feel that the offering of a restricted account (suited more for ordinary human perception) is appropriate.
John Campbell's "Perceptual Attention" fits into this division by taking up the question of to what extent conscious attention affects perceptual experiences. This article is notable for being the most detailed discussion (pp. 593-596) of the transparency of experience offered in this volume. (Unfortunately for the volume as a whole, that discussion runs only four pages in length. The volume should have included a serious discussion of the so-called transparency of experience even if it was not provided by Campbell.) As we have already observed, intentionalism receives almost no mention in this volume, and the primary arguments for intentionalism depend upon the so-called transparency of experience. Yet Campbell's treatment of the transparency of experience is brief and not of much help for connecting transparency up with intentionalism. He writes:
The philosopher's idea of a hallucination (as opposed to the analysis of e.g. phenomena relating to schizophrenia or drug use) is the idea of a mental state that is intrinsically just like seeing something, but without the external world being there. But the implication of transparency is that we do not have the conceptual materials even to formulate the idea of such a state. (p. 595)
I find it hard to countenance the suggestion that appeals to the transparency of experience suggest that we lack the requisite conceptual materials to "formulate the idea" of a mental state which is intrinsically just like seeing something.(One might worry about Campbell's use of the phrase "intrinsically just like seeing something." Presumably, for a state to be "intrinsically just like seeing something" it would itself have to be (on a fairly standard construal) a seeing-state. And a hallucination is not plausibly treated as a seeing-state. One arguably doesn't see what one hallucinates. By "intrinsically just like" I take Campbell to be expressing the idea that the relevant states are phenomenologically identical—and, as a consequence, phenomenologically indistinguishable. But perhaps Campbell has something else in mind.) Whether or not experiences are transparent in some or other interesting sense does not obviously bear upon the question of what concepts we can form.
Division VI: Frameworks for Perception
The sixth division is concerned largely with model theory. It begins with Diana Raffman's "Similarity Spaces" which surveys various attempts to provide geometric models of color and pitch. Her short concluding remarks which--albeit somewhat divorced from the main article-- challenge the notion that there are no determinate shades of color, are excellent.
Michael Rescorla's "Bayesian Perceptual Psychology" constitutes a defense of using Bayesian frameworks for modeling the unconscious perceptual processes which yield up the phenomenologically given (termed a "percept" in the article.) Rescorla's article is particularly notable for the Bayesian-based defense of the claim that phenomenal experiences have representational content. Yet the use of highly technical terminology without sufficient explanation of its meaning may obscure the value of this work. I suspect that numerous readers will be mislead into thinking that Rescorla is providing an account of how perceptual processes yield up belief rather than the phenomenologically given.
Three further articles: "Signal Detection Theory," "Information Theory," and "The Modularity of Perception" round out this section. These three articles form a neat bunch, with the first serving as a largely scientific introduction to prospects for separating signals from noise, the second serving as an introduction to Dretske's information-theoretic account of signals, and the third taking up Fodor's hypothesis of the modularity of the mind. None of these articles are light reading. The extent to which they will be accessible to the average student is not clear to me, but the authors have made excellent attempts to provide introductions which, if supplemented with significant further study, will be greatly rewarding. Fortunately, the bibliographies attached to the latter two articles are fully comprehensive.
Division VII: Broader Philosophical Issues
This division contains five articles, one of which should have been included in the second division of the handbook. This is Susanna Siegel and Nicholas Silins' "The Epistemology of Perception" which serves as a stellar, beginner-level introduction to the relationship between perceptual experiences and justification/knowledge. I suspect that the reason for which it appears here, rather than in §2 ("Contemporary Philosophical Approaches") is that the authors are primarily concerned with experiences which may not be perceptual experiences. Yet if one wants to learn about the epistemology of perception, a topic this handbook is somewhat short on, there is no better resource available in this volume than this article and the list of references cited by this article. It is a shame that this chapter found its place here.
The final division is rounded out with an assortment of articles. Despite beginning on a somewhat self-congratulatory tone, Brian Keeley's article "Nonhuman Animal Senses" raises some highly interesting metaphysical questions concerning the individuation and counting of sense modalities and draws attention to the importance of consideration of non-human sensory faculties. This article is both fascinating and appropriately placed.
Similarly appropriately placed, though much more difficult to follow, is Dominic McIver Lopes "Perception and Art". For example, I have little idea what is meant by the phrase "a picture is a representation that depicts" (874). Does this mean that a picture is a representation that represents, and if so, are distinct uses of "represent" in play? That said, Lopes' articles raises an important point with which I am highly sympathetic, have defended, and which is underrepresented in the literature, namely, that the content of experiences may be significantly more logically complex than is ordinarily conceived.
Finally, we have Imogen Dickie's "Perception and Demonstratives" and Robert L. Goldstein and Lisa A. Byrge's "Perceptual Learning". The former neatly presents numerous puzzles surrounding the issue of how we can entertain demonstrative thoughts (such as the thought: 'that beer is pale') about external objects.
Mohan Matthen has done an incredible job of piecing together and organizing a very healthy collection of top-tier articles, many of which make original contributions and most of which serve as excellent introductions to topics in both the philosophy of perception (and the philosophy of mind, more generally.) The handbook is very strong on the science and metaphysics of perception though unfortunately too light on the epistemology of perception, which is, despite the handbook's epistemological lacuna, correctly pitched (p. 1, emphasis added) by the editor as the "ultimate source of knowledge of contingent facts." That said, no volume which aspires to the level of comprehensiveness this volume achieves to can manage to be fully comprehensive. If books such as this become any larger, nobody will print them. Buy this book. It earns its keep and deserves (lots of) space on your shelf.
© 2016 Scott Hagaman
Scott Hagaman has a PhD from Notre Dame University