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Anger and Forgiveness"Are You There Alone?"10 Good Questions about Life and DeathA Casebook of Ethical Challenges in NeuropsychologyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to Muslim EthicsA Cooperative SpeciesA Critique of the Moral Defense of VegetarianismA Decent LifeA Delicate BalanceA Fragile LifeA Life for a LifeA Life-Centered Approach to BioethicsA Matter of SecurityA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Natural History of Human MoralityA Philosophical DiseaseA Practical Guide to Clinical Ethics ConsultingA Question of TrustA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Short Stay in SwitzerlandA Tapestry of ValuesA Very Bad WizardA World Without ValuesAction and ResponsibilityAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionActs of ConscienceAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction NeuroethicsAdvance Directives in Mental HealthAfter HarmAftermathAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HealthAgainst MarriageAgainst 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and ViolenceEvolved MoralityExperiments in EthicsExploding the Gene MythExploiting ChildhoodFacing Human SufferingFact and ValueFacts and ValuesFaking ItFalse-Memory Creation in Children and AdultsFat ShameFatal FreedomFellow CreaturesFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist TheoryFinal ExamFirst Do No HarmFirst, Do No HarmFlashpointFlesh WoundsForced to CareForgivenessForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and ReconciliationForgiveness and RetributionForgiveness is Really StrangeFoucault and the Government of DisabilityFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Forensic Mental Health AssessmentFree WillFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will and Reactive AttitudesFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree?Freedom and ValueFreedom vs. InterventionFriendshipFrom Darwin to HitlerFrom Disgust to HumanityFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Silence to 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Posthuman FutureOut of EdenOut of Its MindOut of the ShadowsOverdosed AmericaOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Studies in Normative EthicsOxford Studies in Normative Ethics, Volume 7Oxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPassionate DeliberationPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perfecting VirtuePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonalities on the PlatePersonhood and Health CarePersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPerspectives On Health And Human RightsPharmaceutical FreedomPharmacracyPharmageddonPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhysician-Assisted DyingPicturing DisabilityPilgrim at Tinker CreekPlaying God?Playing God?Political EmotionsPornlandPowerful MedicinesPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical EthicsPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical RulesPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic NeuroethicsPraise and BlamePreferences and Well-BeingPrimates and PhilosophersPro-Life, Pro-ChoiceProcreation and ParenthoodProfits Before People?Progress in BioethicsProperty in the BodyProzac As a Way of LifeProzac on the CouchPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric EthicsPsychiatry and EmpirePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychotropic Drug Prescriber's Survival GuidePublic Health LawPublic Health Law and EthicsPublic PhilosophyPunishing the Mentally IllPunishmentPursuits of WisdomPutting Morality Back Into PoliticsPutting on VirtueQuality of Life and Human DifferenceRaceRadical HopeRadical VirtuesRape Is RapeRe-creating MedicineRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReckoning With HomelessnessReconceiving Medical EthicsRecovery from SchizophreniaRedefining RapeRedesigning HumansReducing the Stigma of Mental IllnessReflections on Ethics and 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Basic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free Will reprints Philosophical Explorations Volume 16, issue 2, from June 2013, a special issue covering issues surrounding P. F. Strawson's influential essay "Freedom and Resentment" – unfortunately, not reprinted here. P. F. Strawson argued that both compatibilist and incompatibilist accounts of moral responsibility are mistaken because they focus on an agent's merit rather than on judgments of responsibility. In "The Impossibility of Moral Responsibility," Galen Strawson contends that the account of moral responsibility that compatibilist and incompatibilist alike are interested in, what he calls "true moral responsibility," is merit-based and would require a robust form of control inconsistent with the metaphysics of universal causal determinism (or indeterminism). P.F. Strawson contends that this traditional focus on true moral responsibility is mistaken, and we should be more interested in judgments of moral responsibility; the expression of what he calls reactive attitudes, such as gratitude, resentment, and forgiveness. Reactive attitudes, he argues, play an important psychological role with regards to governing interpersonal relationships. Furthermore he contends that our concepts of moral responsibility can be revised in such a way that they would be indifferent to metaphysical questions such as those concerning whether universal causal determinism is true or not.
The book is comprised of a short introduction by editors Maureen Sie and Derk Pereboom, followed by nine articles. The articles tackle an assortment of philosophical questions surrounding the question of whether reactive attitudes are connected with a robust notion of desert, and distinguish between two clusters of questions – first, questions about the nature of desert, and second, questions about the necessary and sufficient conditions for desert.
Four articles offer distinct metaethical conceptions of the nature of desert, moral responsibility, or reactive attitudes. T. M. Scanlon – previously a skeptic about desert – argues that wrongdoers deserve others to respond negatively in at least some, limited sense merely on the basis that they have acted wrongly. After wrongdoing, the wronged party can justifiably withdraw their trust of the wrongdoer and be less inclined to offer assistance in the future, and the wrongdoer cannot legitimately object to this. Dana Nelkin distinguishes between several different conceptions of blameworthiness, each of which plays different roles. Randolph Clarke argues that it is appropriate for an agent to see herself as blameworthy and intrinsically good for her to suffer as a result. Zac Cogley argues that reactive attitudes have different moral aims connected to their psychological function and distinguishes between three functions – appraisal, communication, and sanction.
The remaining five articles explore what conditions need to be met for an agent to be the appropriate object of praise or blame. Adina Roskies and Bertra Malle contend that contemporary metaethical analysis of desert is flawed, arguing that desert rests upon two distinct features – an eligibility criteria and an assignment criteria. They contend that Strawson's analysis of our ordinary practices hint at these two criteria, and that contemporary psychological research pick out the eligibility and assignment criteria that they advocate. This research, they suggests, shows, as Strawson argued, that our conceptions of moral responsibility and desert do not depend upon any particular metaphysical theory.
Nicole Vincent offers a capacitarian approach to moral responsibility. Vincent's position is a response to Harry Frankfurt's influential article "Alternate Possibilities and Moral Responsibility," in which he argues that alternate possibilities are not relevant to determining whether an agent is morally responsible for their actions. She objects to John Martin Fischer and Mark Ravizza's reason-responsiveness compatibilist capacitarian account, and offers an alternate reason-responsiveness account.
In contrast, Evan Tiffany argues that the practice of blaming someone rests upon the assumption that they possess the metaphysical conditions necessary for robust, libertarian free will. He illustrates this by appealing to the case of recovering drug-addict Doug and social worker Pam. He describes a situation in which unwilling addict Doug fails to attend Pam's birthday celebration because he is trying to obtain drugs. Pam, he says, is disappointed in and frustrated with Doug, but does not blame him, realizing that his behavior is the result of his addiction. Similar behavior from an assumed free, non-addict agent would be blameworthy, but Doug's behavior is not blameworthy because Pam does not believe that he acted freely.
Nadine Elzein examines Manuel Vargas's argument for revisionism about moral responsibility. She distinguishes between two kinds of revisionism – moral revisionism and morally neutral revisionism – and argues that Vargas's free will revisionism doesn't fit either of these categories. Primarily concerned with the Kantian principle prohibiting treating moral agents as means only, she argues that a convincing argument against this principle would have to come from within the theory. In contrast, Vargas's revisionism merely objects to the "expensive metaphysics" required for a libertarian, Kantian conception of free will. She argues that revisionism of freedom and moral responsibility ought to be motivated by moral concerns, rather than metaphysical concerns; as such Vargas's revisionism seems to miss the point.
In the final paper, Daniel Haas argues that compatibilists and incompatibilists often talk past each other; incompatibilists work from a merit based conception of desert, while compatibilists work from a fitness conception of desert. Debate between between compatibilists and incompatibilists that rests upon equivocating between these two concepts of desert is mistaken, but there are discussions worth having. Many conceptions of desert are compatible with determinism, but conceptions of desert resting upon merit are not. He contends that compatibilists and incompatibilists should focus on the nature of desert in question, and suggests that it may be more fruitful to ask whether a plausible theory of moral responsibility could be constructed that does not rest upon merit.
This book contains a number of interesting articles, many of which make substantive contributions to the free will debate. Notably Elzein offers an interesting, robust criticism of revisionism, Tiffany's account of moral responsibility is worthy of both compatibilist and incompatibilist attention, and Scanlon offers an interesting, minimalist account of desert that, like P. F. Strawson's account, is indifferent to metaphysical concerns.
However, the free will debate is complicated and multifaceted, and has generated a wealth of literature in metaethics and metaphysics, as well as more recent topics with a much narrower focus including Frankfurt-style cases and experimental philosophy, each of which is touched upon only briefly in this collection. Experts familiar with the debate surrounding landmark articles will find some of these articles worth their time, however the text is largely intractable to non-experts. Unfortunately the essays in this collection are only loosely connected; as such researchers may be better off tracking down the essays independently than purchasing the book as a whole. Taylor Francis Online offers a PDF version of the volume for purchase for $150, and each article independently for $41.
Strawson, P. F., 1962, "Freedom and Resentment," Proceedings of the British Academy, 48: 1–25.
© 2016 William Simkulet
William Simkulet, Ph.D., University of Wisonsin, Marshfield/Wood County