email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
Anger and Forgiveness"Are You There Alone?"10 Good Questions about Life and DeathA Casebook of Ethical Challenges in NeuropsychologyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to Muslim EthicsA Cooperative SpeciesA Critique of the Moral Defense of VegetarianismA Delicate BalanceA Fragile LifeA Life for a LifeA Life-Centered Approach to BioethicsA Matter of SecurityA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Natural History of Human MoralityA Philosophical DiseaseA Practical Guide to Clinical Ethics ConsultingA Question of TrustA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Short Stay in SwitzerlandA Tapestry of ValuesA Very Bad WizardA World Without ValuesAction and ResponsibilityAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionActs of ConscienceAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction NeuroethicsAdvance Directives in Mental HealthAfter HarmAftermathAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HealthAgainst MarriageAgainst Moral ResponsibilityAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAging, Biotechnology, and the FutureAlbert Schweitzer's Reverence for LifeAlphavilleAltruismAltruismAmerican EugenicsAmerican PsychosisAn American SicknessAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Evolutionary EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy Ancient Greek and Roman SlaveryAnd a Time to DieAnimal LessonsAnimal RightsAnimal Welfare in a Changing WorldAnimals Like UsApplied Ethics in Mental Health CareAre Women Human?Arguments about AbortionAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle's WayAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAutonomyAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismAutonomy, Consent and the LawBabies by DesignBackslidingBad PharmaBad SoulsBarriers and BelongingBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBeauty JunkiesBefore ForgivingBeing AmoralBeing YourselfBending Over BackwardsBending ScienceBernard WilliamsBetter Humans?Better Than WellBeyond BioethicsBeyond ChoiceBeyond GeneticsBeyond HatredBeyond Humanity?Beyond LossBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond SpeechBeyond the DSM StoryBias in Psychiatric DiagnosisBioethicsBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics at the MoviesBioethics Beyond the HeadlinesBioethics Critically ReconsideredBioethics in a Liberal SocietyBioethics in the ClinicBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical Research and BeyondBiosBioscience EthicsBipolar ChildrenBluebirdBodies out of BoundsBodies, Commodities, and BiotechnologiesBody BazaarBoundBoundaries and Boundary Violations in PsychoanalysisBraintrustBrandedBreaking the SilenceBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyCapital PunishmentCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsChallenging the Stigma of Mental IllnessCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionChild Well-BeingChildrenChildren's RightsChimpanzee RightsChoosing ChildrenChoosing Not to ChooseClinical Dilemmas in PsychotherapyClinical EthicsCloningClose toYouCoercion as CureCoercive Treatment in PsychiatryCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognitive Disability and Its Challenge to Moral Philosophy Comfortably NumbCommonsense RebellionCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompassionate Moral RealismCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentComprehending CareConducting Insanity EvaluationsConfidential RelationshipsConfidentiality and Mental HealthConflict of Interest in the ProfessionsConsuming KidsContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContentious IssuesContesting PsychiatryCrazy in AmericaCreating CapabilitiesCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCriminal Trials and Mental DisordersCritical Perspectives in Public HealthCritical PsychiatryCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCurrent Controversies in BioethicsCurrent Controversies in Values and ScienceCutting to the CoreCyborg CitizenDamaged IdentitiesDeaf Identities in the MakingDeath Is That Man Taking NamesDebating ProcreationDebating Same-Sex MarriageDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecoding the Ethics CodeDefining DifferenceDefining Right and Wrong in Brain ScienceDefining the Beginning and End of LifeDelusions of GenderDementiaDemocracy in What State?Demons of the Modern WorldDescriptions and PrescriptionsDesert and VirtueDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDestructive Trends in Mental HealthDeveloping the VirtuesDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital HemlockDigital SoulDignityDignityDisability BioethicsDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDiscrimination against the Mentally IllDisordered Personalities and CrimeDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDoes Feminism Discriminate against Men?Does Torture Work?Doing HarmDouble Standards in Medical Research in Developing CountriesDown GirlDrugs and JusticeDuty and the BeastDworkin and His CriticsDying in the Twenty-First CenturyEarly WarningEconomics and Youth ViolenceEmbodied RhetoricsEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotional ReasonEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmpathyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEncountering NatureEncountering the Sacred in PsychotherapyEngendering International HealthEnhancing EvolutionEnhancing Human CapacitiesEnoughEros and the GoodErotic InnocenceErotic MoralityEssays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEthical Choices in Contemporary MedicineEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Dilemmas in PediatricsEthical Issues in Behavioral ResearchEthical Issues in Dementia CareEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in the New GeneticsEthical LifeEthical Reasoning for Mental Health ProfessionalsEthical TheoryEthical WillsEthically Challenged ProfessionsEthicsEthicsEthicsEthics and AnimalsEthics and ScienceEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Discovery of the UnconsciousEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics at the CinemaEthics at the End of LifeEthics Case Book of the American Psychoanalytic AssociationEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics for EveryoneEthics for PsychologistsEthics for the New MillenniumEthics in CyberspaceEthics in Everyday PlacesEthics in Health CareEthics In Health Services ManagementEthics in Mental Health ResearchEthics in PracticeEthics in PsychiatryEthics in PsychologyEthics in Psychotherapy and CounselingEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEthics, Culture, and PsychiatryEthics, Sexual Orientation, and Choices about ChildrenEvaluating the Science and Ethics of Research on HumansEvilEvil GenesEvil in Modern ThoughtEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Ethics and Contemporary BiologyEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolved MoralityExperiments in EthicsExploding the Gene MythExploiting ChildhoodFacing Human SufferingFact and ValueFacts and ValuesFaking ItFalse-Memory Creation in Children and AdultsFat ShameFatal FreedomFellow CreaturesFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist TheoryFinal ExamFirst Do No HarmFirst, Do No HarmFlashpointFlesh WoundsForced to CareForgivenessForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and ReconciliationForgiveness and RetributionForgiveness is Really StrangeFoucault and the Government of DisabilityFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Forensic Mental Health AssessmentFree WillFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will and Reactive AttitudesFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree?Freedom and ValueFreedom vs. InterventionFriendshipFrom Darwin to HitlerFrom Disgust to HumanityFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Silence to VoiceFrom Valuing to ValueFrontiers of JusticeGender in the MirrorGenetic PoliticsGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetics of Original SinGenetics of Original SinGenocide's AftermathGetting RealGluttonyGood WorkGoodness & AdviceGreedGroups in ConflictGrowing Up GirlGut FeminismHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHandbook for Health Care Ethics CommitteesHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of Children's RightsHandbook of PsychopathyHappinessHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHard FeelingsHard LuckHardwired BehaviorHarmful ThoughtsHeal & ForgiveHealing PsychiatryHealth Care Ethics for PsychologistsHeterosyncraciesHistorical and Philosophical Perspectives on Biomedical EthicsHoly WarHookedHookedHow Can I Be Trusted?How Fascism WorksHow Propaganda WorksHow to Do Things with Pornography How to Make Opportunity EqualHow Universities Can Help Create a Wiser WorldHow We HopeHow We Think About DementiaHuman BondingHuman Dignity and Assisted DeathHuman Dignity and Assisted DeathHuman EnhancementHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman TrialsHumanism, What's That?Humanitarian ReasonHumanityHumanizing MadnessI am Not Sick I Don't Need Help!I Was WrongIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIf That Ever Happens to MeImproving Nature?In Defense of FloggingIn Defense of SinIn Love With LifeIn Our Own ImageIn the FamilyIn the Land of the DeafIn the Name of IdentityIn the Wake of 9/11In Two MindsInclusive EthicsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchInnovation in Medical TechnologyInside Assisted LivingInside EthicsIntelligence, Race, and GeneticsIntensive CareInto the Gray ZoneIs Human Nature Obsolete?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is There a Duty to Die?Is There an Ethicist in the House?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJudging Children As ChildrenJust a DogJust BabiesJust CareJustice for ChildrenJustice for HedgehogsJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeJustifiable ConductKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Theory of VirtueKids of CharacterKilling McVeighLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLaw and the BrainLearning About School ViolenceLearning from Baby PLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLegal and Ethical Aspects of HealthcareLegal Aspects of Mental CapacityLegal ConceptionsLegal InsanityLegalizing ProstitutionLet Them Eat ProzacLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberal EugenicsLife After FaithLife at the BottomLife, Sex, and IdeasListening to the WhispersLiving ProfessionalismLosing Matt ShepardLostLuckyMad in AmericaMad PrideMadhouseMaking Another World PossibleMaking Babies, Making FamiliesMaking Genes, Making WavesMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMalignantMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaning and Moral OrderMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeans, Ends, and PersonsMeans, Ends, and PersonsMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedical Research for HireMedicalized MasculinitiesMedically Assisted DeathMeditations for the HumanistMelancholia and MoralismMental Health Professionals, Minorities and the PoorMental Illness, Medicine and LawMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMetaethical SubjectivismMill's UtilitarianismMind FieldsMind WarsMind WarsModern Theories of JusticeModernity and TechnologyMoney ShotMonsterMoral Acquaintances and Moral DecisionsMoral BrainsMoral ClarityMoral CultivationMoral Development and RealityMoral Dilemmas in Real LifeMoral DimensionsMoral EntanglementsMoral FailureMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral MindsMoral OriginsMoral Panics, Sex PanicsMoral ParticularismMoral PerceptionMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RealismMoral RelativismMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral Status and Human LifeMoral StealthMoral Theory at the MoviesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMoral, Immoral, AmoralMoralismMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMorals, Rights and Practice in the Human ServicesMorals, Rights and Practice in the Human ServicesMore Than HumanMotive and RightnessMovies and the Moral Adventure of LifeMurder in the InnMy Body PoliticMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Sister's KeeperMy Sister's KeeperMy WayNakedNano-Bio-EthicsNarrative MedicineNarrative ProsthesisNatural Ethical FactsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalized BioethicsNeither Bad nor MadNeoconservatismNeonatal BioethicsNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNew Takes in Film-PhilosophyNew Waves in EthicsNew Waves in MetaethicsNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNo Child Left DifferentNo Impact ManNormative EthicsNormativityNothing about us, without us!Oath BetrayedOf War and LawOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn EvilOn Human RightsOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOn the TakeOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne ChildOne Nation Under TherapyOne World NowOne World NowOur Bodies, Whose Property?Our Bodies, Whose Property?Our Daily MedsOur Faithfulness to the PastOur Posthuman FutureOut of EdenOut of Its MindOut of the ShadowsOverdosed AmericaOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Studies in Normative EthicsOxford Studies in Normative Ethics, Volume 7Oxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPassionate DeliberationPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perfecting VirtuePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonalities on the PlatePersonhood and Health CarePersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPerspectives On Health And Human RightsPharmaceutical FreedomPharmacracyPharmageddonPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhysician-Assisted DyingPicturing DisabilityPilgrim at Tinker CreekPlaying God?Playing God?Political EmotionsPornlandPowerful MedicinesPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical EthicsPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical RulesPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic NeuroethicsPraise and BlamePreferences and Well-BeingPrimates and PhilosophersPro-Life, Pro-ChoiceProcreation and ParenthoodProfits Before People?Progress in BioethicsProperty in the BodyProzac As a Way of LifeProzac on the CouchPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric EthicsPsychiatry and EmpirePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychotropic Drug Prescriber's Survival GuidePublic Health LawPublic Health Law and EthicsPublic PhilosophyPunishing the Mentally IllPunishmentPursuits of WisdomPutting Morality Back Into PoliticsPutting on VirtueQuality of Life and Human DifferenceRaceRadical HopeRadical VirtuesRape Is RapeRe-creating MedicineRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReckoning With HomelessnessReconceiving Medical EthicsRecovery from SchizophreniaRedefining RapeRedesigning HumansReducing the Stigma of Mental IllnessReflections on Ethics and ResponsibilityReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRefuting Peter Singer's Ethical TheoryRegard for Reason in the Moral MindRelative JusticeRelativism and Human RightsReligion ExplainedReprogeneticsRescuing JeffreyRespecting AnimalsResponsibilityResponsibility and PsychopathyResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsResponsible GeneticsRethinking CommodificationRethinking Informed Consent in BioethicsRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeReturn to ReasonRevolution in PsychologyRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRisk and Luck in Medical EthicsRobert NozickRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Rule of Law, Misrule of MenRun, Spot, RunRunning on RitalinSatisficing and MaximizingSchadenfreudeSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and EthicsScience in the Private InterestScience, Policy, and the Value-Free IdealScience, Seeds and CyborgsScratching the Surface of BioethicsSecular Philosophy and the Religious TemperamentSeeing the LightSelf-ConstitutionSelf-Made MadnessSelf-Trust and Reproductive AutonomySentimental RulesSex Fiends, Perverts, and PedophilesSex OffendersSex, Family, and the Culture WarsSexual DevianceSexual EthicsSexual PredatorsSexualized BrainsShaping Our SelvesShock TherapyShould I Medicate My Child?ShunnedSick to Death and Not Going to Take It AnymoreSickoSide EffectsSidewalk StoriesSister CitizenSkeptical FeminismSocial Dimensions of Moral ResponsibilitySocial Inclusion of People with Mental IllnessSocial JusticeSociological Perspectives on the New GeneticsSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSovereign VirtueSpeech MattersSpiral of EntrapmentSplit DecisionsSticks and StonesStories MatterSubhumanSubjectivity and Being SomebodySuffering and VirtueSuffering, Death, and IdentitySuicide ProhibitionSurgery JunkiesSurgically Shaping ChildrenTaking Morality SeriouslyTaming the Troublesome ChildTechnology and the Good Life?TestimonyText and Materials on International Human RightsThe Age of CulpabilityThe Age of CulpabilityThe Aims of Higher EducationThe Almost MoonThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Forensic PsychiatryThe Animal ManifestoThe Animals' AgendaThe Art of LivingThe Autonomy of MoralityThe Beloved SelfThe Best Things in LifeThe Big FixThe Bioethics ReaderThe Biology and Psychology of Moral AgencyThe Blackwell Guide to Medical EthicsThe Body SilentThe BondThe Book of LifeThe Burden of SympathyThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Textbook of BioethicsThe Case against Assisted SuicideThe Case Against PerfectionThe Case Against PunishmentThe Case for PerfectionThe Case of Terri SchiavoThe Challenge of Human RightsThe Character GapThe Code for Global EthicsThe Colonization Of Psychic SpaceThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Common ThreadThe Connected SelfThe Constitution of AgencyThe Cow with Ear Tag #1389The Creation of PsychopharmacologyThe Criminal BrainThe Decency WarsThe Difficult-to-Treat Psychiatric PatientThe Disability PendulumThe Disability Rights Movement: From Charity to ConfrontationThe Domain of ReasonsThe Double-Edged HelixThe Duty to ProtectThe Emotional Construction of MoralsThe End of Ethics in a Technological SocietyThe End of Stigma?The Essentials of New York Mental Health LawThe Ethical BrainThe Ethical Dimensions of the Biological and Health SciencesThe Ethics of BioethicsThe Ethics of Choosing ChildrenThe Ethics of Human EnhancementThe Ethics of ParenthoodThe Ethics of SightseeingThe Ethics of the FamilyThe Ethics of the Family in SenecaThe Ethics of the LieThe Ethics of TransplantsThe Ethics of WarThe Ethics ToolkitThe Evolution of Mental Health LawThe Evolution of MoralityThe FamilyThe Fat Studies ReaderThe Forgiveness ProjectThe Forgotten CreedThe Form of Practical KnowledgeThe Fountain of YouthThe Freedom ParadoxThe Future of Assisted Suicide and EuthanasiaThe Future of Human NatureThe Good BookThe Good LifeThe Great BetrayalThe Handbook of Disability StudiesThe Healing VirtuesThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of Human RightsThe HorizonThe Idea of JusticeThe Ideal of NatureThe Illusion of Freedom and EqualityThe Immortal Life of Henrietta LacksThe Importance of Being UnderstoodThe Insanity OffenseThe Joy of SecularismThe Language PoliceThe Last Normal ChildThe Last UtopiaThe Limits of MedicineThe LobotomistThe Love CureThe Lucifer EffectThe Manual of EpictetusThe Mark of ShameThe Meaning of Life and the Great PhilosophersThe Meaning of NiceThe Medicalization of SocietyThe Merck DruggernautThe Mind Has MountainsThe Minority BodyThe Modern Art of DyingThe Modern SavageThe Moral ArcThe Moral BrainThe Moral Demands of MemoryThe Moral FoolThe Moral MindThe Moral Psychology HandbookThe Moral Punishment Instinct The Moral, Social, and Commercial Imperatives of Genetic Testing and ScreeningThe Most Good You Can DoThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of the Moral BrainThe Nature of Moral ResponsibilityThe Nature of NormativityThe New Disability HistoryThe New Genetic MedicineThe New Religious IntoleranceThe Offensive InternetThe Origins of FairnessThe Oxford Handbook of Animal EthicsThe Oxford Handbook of Ethics at the End of LifeThe Oxford Handbook of Food EthicsThe Palgrave Handbook of Practical Animal EthicsThe Perfect BabyThe Philosophical ParentThe Philosophy of NeedThe Philosophy of PornographyThe Philosophy of PsychiatryThe Politics Of LustThe Portable Ethicist for Mental Health Professionals The Power of Religion in the Public SphereThe Price of PerfectionThe Price of TruthThe Problem of PunishmentThe Problem of WarThe Problem of WarThe Prosthetic ImpulseThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe PsychopathThe Purity MythThe Pursuit of PerfectionThe Relevance of Philosophy to LifeThe Right Road to Radical FreedomThe Right to be LovedThe Right to Be ParentsThe Righteous MindThe Root of All EvilThe Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal MindsThe Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of EmpathyThe Rules of InsanityThe Second SexismThe Second-Person StandpointThe Silent World of Doctor and PatientThe Sleep of ReasonThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Speed of DarkThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Story of Cruel and UnusualThe Story WithinThe Stubborn System of Moral ResponsibilityThe Suicide TouristThe Terrible GiftThe Theory of OptionsThe Therapy of DesireThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Triple HelixThe Trolley Problem MysteriesThe Trouble with DiversityThe Truth About the Drug CompaniesThe Ugly LawsThe Varieties of Religious ExperienceThe Virtue of Defiance and Psychiatric EngagementThe Virtues of FreedomThe Virtues of HappinessThe Virtuous Life in Greek EthicsThe Virtuous PsychiatristThe Voice of Breast Cancer in Medicine and BioethicsThe War Against BoysThe War for Children's MindsThe Whole ChildThe Woman RacketThe Worldwide Practice of TortureTherapy with ChildrenThieves of VirtueThree Generations, No ImbecilesTimes of Triumph, Times of DoubtTolerance Among The VirtuesTolerance and the Ethical LifeTolerationToxic PsychiatryTrauma, Truth and ReconciliationTreatment Kind and FairTrusting on the EdgeTry to RememberUltimate JudgementUnborn in the USA: Inside the War on AbortionUndermining ScienceUnderstanding AbortionUnderstanding CloningUnderstanding EmotionsUnderstanding EvilUnderstanding Kant's EthicsUnderstanding Moral ObligationUnderstanding Physician-Pharmaceutical Industry InteractionsUnderstanding TerrorismUnderstanding the GenomeUnderstanding the Stigma of Mental IllnessUnderstanding Treatment Without ConsentUnhingedUnprincipled VirtueUnsanctifying Human Life: Essays on EthicsUnspeakable Acts, Ordinary PeopleUp in FlamesUpheavals of ThoughtUsers and Abusers of PsychiatryValue-Free Science?Values and Psychiatric DiagnosisValues in ConflictVegetarianismViolence and Mental DisorderVirtue EthicsVirtue, Rules, and JusticeVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVirtues and Their VicesVoracious Science and Vulnerable AnimalsVulnerability, Autonomy, and Applied EthicsWar Against the WeakWar, Torture and TerrorismWarrior's DishonourWeaknessWelfare and Rational CareWhat are you staring at?What Genes Can't DoWhat Have We DoneWhat Is a Human?What Is Good and WhyWhat Is Good and WhyWhat Is the Good Life?What Price Better Health?What Should I Do?What We Owe to Each OtherWhat Would Aristotle Do?What's Good on TVWhat's Normal?What's Wrong with Children's RightsWhat's Wrong with Homosexuality?What's Wrong With Morality?When Is Discrimination Wrong?Who Holds the Moral High Ground?Who Owns YouWho Qualifies for Rights?Whose America?Whose View of Life?Why Animals MatterWhy Animals MatterWhy Does Inequality Matter?Why Honor MattersWhy I Burned My Book and Other Essays on DisabilityWhy Not Kill Them All?Why Punish? How Much?Why Some Things Should Not Be for SaleWisdom, Intuition and EthicsWithout ConscienceWomen and Borderline Personality DisorderWomen and MadnessWondergenesWould You Kill the Fat Man?Wrestling with Behavioral GeneticsWriting About PatientsYou Must Be DreamingYour Genetic DestinyYour Inner FishYouth Offending and Youth Justice Yuck!
I come to this book as a sister, but not a citizen. I am a mixed race woman living in the UK, and there are no doubt resonances and subtleties, particularly of the political scene, that I am not privy to. But in addressing the condition of Black American women, the book has much wider, international, and inter-racial implications. In the introduction Perry lays out her purpose:
"This book is concerned with understanding the emotional realities of black women's lives in order to answer a political, not a personal question. What does it mean to be a black woman and an American citizen?"
And though the book largely talks psychology, her overall aim is political. Politics impacts psychology and psychology impacts politics. In particular, stereotypes guide social policy.
The book is laid out as a multilayered and colorful quilt. The pieces of cloth, old and new, reveal the varying guises of the black woman. She is motif, pattern, theme and design. We see her in literature, in poetry, in the devastation caused by Hurricane Katrina, in myth, in the ubiquitous stereotypes accorded to her from a history of slavery. We hear of her universal shame and dishonor, the way her nameless body is exploited by the media. She makes an appearance in focus groups where her responses are noted. We hear also how she reacts to these conditions, and how, in the face of extreme adversity, she feels compelled to reinvent herself as 'strong' and how in the face of this stereotypical misrecognition she can't be merely human, ordinary. And as the black woman stands before the black church and the transformative power of religion Perry explores her role in the religious community.
Perry vaunts the black woman, holds her up to be seen, because recognition, or more to the point misrecognition, is what this book is all about. Society does not, perhaps, cannot see this woman at the very bottom of society, cannot feel this 'other' woman at the margin of American life. Yet in as much as a society is to be deemed morally good, her life as black woman remains a measure, a barometer for a just society.
"It is African American women, surviving at the nexus of racialized, gendered, and classed dis-privilege, who mark the progress of the nation."
At the center of the quilt detailing the many guises of the black woman, Perry utilizes the notion of 'the crooked room' to illuminate the struggle of the black woman in American life. In a psychological study in the years after World War 2, subjects were asked to sit in a crooked chair in a crooked room and were required to align themselves vertically. In the attempt to stand straight in the crooked room some people were seen to distort their bodies up to 35 degrees yet still report that they were vertical It was left to the few to stand more or less straight in this distorted room.
"When they confront race and gender stereotypes, black women are standing in a crooked room, and they have to figure out which way is up."
To verify these claims Perry conducted focus groups to explore the way in which black women experience how they are perceived by others and how this impacts their self perception. Out of this study three stereotypes emerge, namely, Mammy, Jezebel, and Sapphire. The source of these myths is the relations between black and white communities, but both black women and black men also communicate these myths. The myth of Jezebel is the highly sexualized wanton woman, while Mammy represents an asexual persona who is prepared to put others needs before her own. Sapphire on the other hand is the angry black woman.
She quotes the work of Arendt's The Human Condition (1958) who details a fundamental connection between the public outer self and the inner private self.
"Since our feeling for reality depends utterly upon appearance and therefore upon the existence of a public realm into which things can appear out of the darkness of sheltered existence, even the twilight which illuminates our private and intimate lives is ultimately derived from the much harsher light of the public realm."
But this requirement for privacy is repudiated by the heightened scrutiny both in the public realm and in the scrutiny of the state. The black woman's body is not her body, and the image of the black woman, because of the history of slavery, is still 'owned'. The innate power of her body is exploited to sustain the the power of others, and this undermines any sense of there being a recognition of self in relation to a democratic state and the political social contract.
In the United States, black women tend to live in poverty, are more likely to suffer stress and hypertension, and more likely to be sexually assaulted. Degrading humiliation through the violence and the oppression of stereotyping is the price of the ticket.
"Social ideas like race, gender and class thus have a powerful effect on personal feelings."
The myths are both scurrilous and powerful; having named the problem as the black woman, they lend justification for further oppression. The body and the sexuality of the black woman is a threat to society and the function of the myth is to distort and to control.
In Zora Neale Hurston's, Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937) Janie's desires are dangerous and must be controlled. She is married off by her grandmother to an older man, forcing her to become a female eunuch whereby her desire for life and sex can be controlled. Her husband offers her, through his body, the opportunity to be seen and the status of being an object of desire, which is a distortion of her own wanting. She is imprisoned in a crooked room, a room where she resists, through her own fearlessness, the effort to tame her. Eventually, through the mutuality and recognition she finds with Tea Cake, she is able to make the necessary changes to fulfill her curiosity and personal desire. Perry uses Janie's story to illustrate the impact of the Jezebel myth and the attempt to resist and transcend it.
According to Perry, the black mammy stereotype, the aunt Jemima, is the central figure in the creation of the American psyche and the crooked room. She is asexual, loyal and pleasing, willing to distort, through fear, her own sense of humanity and sense of self. But the object of her service is the white community and this is an image poorly regarded by the black community. However in one of her focus groups Perry discovers a subverted mammy myth in the way that black women regard themselves; the object of service is simply transferred wholesale to the black community.
The black woman as Sapphire, is seen as angry and complaining; 'always angry about something' are the words which accompany her. She is seen as pathological and is endlessly problematized by society. She is the repository of American shame.
After the devastation of Hurricane Katrina, the nameless black woman on the front of Newsweek serves as an image to shame America. Her agonized visage is exploited as a bridge to public understanding of the ordeal faced by her and other black women. Through her face the world witnesses both the humiliation of the personal and the political in the delayed response to help her. The black woman is seen. The political leaders are seen. And though a unique opportunity arose for some kind of understanding and discernment between the personal and the political, no recognition takes place. For a moment, America reclaimed its rightful shame at the plight of one woman, one of many, but the moment passed, and the shame was passed back to her.
Surveys after Katrina revealed the racial disparity between how black and white groups viewed the aftermath of the storm. For while White Americans saw it as a natural disaster, complete with administrative failures, Black Americans saw it as a racial disaster.
In Alice Walker's The Color Purple (1982) both Celie and Shug are black woman characters that are shamed by society, but who through their mutual recognition resist shame and are transformed. And in Toni Morrison's, The Bluest Eye (1970) Perry relates the tragic life of the young black girl, Pecola Breedlove, who internalizes a desire for the white woman image. She is poor, she is ugly and to the world she is unacknowledged and marginalized. This is what society makes her and therefore this is what she is. In response she shrinks away from life; if the community cannot see her, then she will react by not being there. She is an object, dehumanized, a vulnerable, still absorbent child bobbing around in a sea of indifference and contempt.
To counteract the negative stereotyping of black girls and women, Perry tells us that African American mothers and grandmothers instil their daughters with a positive pride in black achievements. She makes references to the term "fictive kinship" which refers to connections and allegiances which black people might have to other black people, as if seeing them as one big family. But she reminds us that this positive identification comes with its own in built negative side. When a black woman distinguishes herself she is applauded but when she fails to live up to this high expectation she is a figure of ridicule and shame in which the whole 'family' partakes.
"The flip side of pride is shame, and like racial pride, racial shame is an important political emotion."
In order to counteract the distortions and images of the crooked room Perry informs us that black women have created yet another image, that of the 'strong' woman. This new self, this new idealized expression serves as a reaction to the crooked room in order to counter the shaming images of society.
"The strong black woman serves as a constructive role model because black women draw encouragement and self assurance from an icon able to overcome great obstacles."
But Perry points out that this image becomes another prison, a defense to hide the fact of human frailty and vulnerability. Like Pecola, the black woman makes herself invisible behind the strong woman image and paradoxically makes herself more likely to be a target of shame.
Perry then turns her attention to the church and to review the role of the black woman in this institution. What she sees is somewhat similar to the political sphere, where the African American woman is present, but still struggling for full recognition. And while black women have been and are at the center of the church both historically, socially and culturally they are subject to a religious doctrine mediated by the image of a black male Christ and black male preachers. The black woman is not merely the mother of the church but the center of the faith community where she expresses herself through preaching, music, literature, art and political organizing. Religion and the church are central to her identity and view of herself. But even here black woman must maintain the image of invulnerability. She must be one thing and not the other and with no place in between. Showing weakness, showing sadness becomes a 'white' thing, and part of the way white women are seen.
Perry ends the book with a portrait of the first lady, Michelle Obama and her relationship to the concept of the crooked room.
"I have chosen Michelle Obama because she is the most visible contemporary example of an African American woman working to stand up in a crooked room. The success in gaining accurate recognition is emblematic, if not typical of black women's citizenship struggles."
She points out that no black woman is immune from racial stereotyping and reveals how Michelle Obama is scrutinized and denigrated as a baby mama, an angry black woman, as terrorist, as hyper-sexualized as well as being subject to the ubiquitous conversation about her body, what she wears and the size of her booty. The usual stereotypes, Jezebel, Mammy and Sapphire raise their ugly heads, but Michelle Obama is seen to resist these (mis)representations. Perry's claim is that Michelle Obama stands up to these distorted claims and pushes them aside. Publicly she gives an impression of softness and warmth, is highly visible and has taken on a safe role as mother and adopted safe social issues to be involved in. There is the suggestion that this woman in the White house has the power to transform the image of black women in America, as she has become one of the most well liked women in the country.
"Defying generations of stereotypes and shame, she has managed to become one of the most popular individuals in the country. Michelle Obama is the living breathing possibility of sister citizenship."
This is a brief overview of what is a lengthy study and a comprehensive analysis of the lives of black women in America.
The research is so extensive, the truth so obvious, and deeply resonant with my own experiences as a black woman in the UK, that I found myself doubting the truth in the truth so to speak. Sometimes I found the book all too painfully accurate.
Where I have a more serious criticism, and I hesitate to enter the political arena too deeply, is with the ending of the book. That Michelle Obama is a special kind of person, married to a special kind of man is too much of a coincidence and too convenient. Perry puts her on a pedestal and sees her as a liberating influence for all black women. Out of all the black women who struggle to realize their integrity, and stand straight in the crooked room, she is the proud example. Michelle Obama has come to recognition because she is the wife of the president, but not in her own right, and her image is undoubtedly manufactured. Is this not another projection, the creation of a new, improved stereotype?
Is the fiction of fictive kinship at play here? 'People like me' are upright citizens. This for me is where the book started to fall down and loose its credibility. Surely the people who stand up in the crooked room, do so alone, without outside reference or opinion.
At the beginning of chapter one, Perry uses Audre Lorde's oft used quote about the master's tools, and yet it is the master tools that she employs to gain an 'objective' view of the black woman. Despite her colorful quilt, she, like the white man, views the black woman from outside. She separates herself from the object of her study, thus making the black woman 'other' to herself.
In the original study, the psychologist is able to stand outside the crooked room and take an objective view of what is upright. But there is no equivalent position outside society; the psychologist, Perry, me, you, Michele Obama, are all in the crooked room together, and all thinking we are standing upright. The master's tool, the objective position, is another myth, that creates yet another stereotype in the image of Michele Obama and Perry herself , 'strong yet soft'.
This is the psychological paradox of identity that Perry does not address; that there can be no identification at all that is not with, or against another, and that does not become a stereotype. We cannot stand straight in the world by means of identifications which are static, but must keep moving like a cyclist to maintain our balance. The demand for completion, for perfection, to have arrived at the meaning of one's being, is a rejection of the process of living, which is always to be learning anew, how to stand upright.
To study black women is to study the whole of society and not a fragment. People like quilts because they offer a vision of wholeness, of integrity but this is not quite what Perry gives us. Black women live in relation to the whole of a society where black and white people are not separate entities and where there is no notion of black without a notion of white. It's not just black women that have to contend with battling with stereotypes, the same is true for white women and black and white men. The crooked room, the dependency on images and cliched references is the society we all live in. She neglects white people and whiteness and what she leaves out is revealing, just as what black women leave out by creating images is also revealing. This is not to criticize the focus of the book, though, merely its scope.
I'm not an African American woman. I'm also looking in a sense from outside. I'm a black woman living in Wales. Actually I'm not black at all because my mother was white and Welsh and my father, black and West Indian. The community I have always lived in is white. But my brown skin condemns me to the stereotypes of blackness and to the notion of the crooked room. I have at once far too many children, in danger of being sexual with white women's husbands, am angry, have an identity problem, am negative and a trouble maker and want to be different. I found this book very liberating because it enabled me to give meaning to my own experiences of being misrecognized.
I can certainly testify to the difficulties facing the black woman and the real hurdles of coming to a true sense of identity given the distortions in society, where attempts at self definition are thwarted at every turn. To stand up, to be myself in a room where I am over prescribed by stereotypes from without is no easy matter.
I agree with Perry that the view of the black woman is distorted and degraded. I agree that in the negotiation of identity between individual and community, what and who the black woman is, is 'already known'. The stuff of racism is the projected view where stereotypes promote the safety and a culture of knowing. For the sake of social homeostasis, the dark body requires classification, then is ignored in order for those in power to function. the dark body fixes the point upon which the political is dependent, a fixed point where those in power can function.
Stereotypes of the black woman are the language and model which sustain the racial differences and hierarchies. The crooked room of society is viewed as democratic, the sense of crookedness, seen as normal life. But the normal life of the black woman is in itself a distortion. 'Others', a kind of symbolic diseased body, must be created, and the body of the dark woman remains a convenient 'mule' for this burden. Distortions of images and the need to maintain the old tropes are manufactured on the body of the black woman.
The crooked room is society, a society which functions from the safety of images and where language is both linear and polarizing. The black woman is defined by a language that does not recognize her. She is systematically subject to stereotype; these images must be kept intact.
But the act of resistance is inevitably another distortion of the self. Because of course black women are sexual, are mothers, are at times angry and at times passive. Just like the rest of humanity.
Audre Lorde tells us in Sister Outsider (1996),
"The white fathers told us: I think therefore I am. The Black mother within each of us – the poet – whispers in our dreams: I feel, therefore I can be free."
The possibility exists that the life of the black woman can be transformed. In her invisibility, her nothingness. she can be complete, be everything she can be without recourse to the opinion of others. Through acceptance of herself through her own embodiment she finds the balm to end the meaninglessness of race and racism for herself. Only then can an undistorted political engagement with the crooked room of society begin.
© 2012 Isabel Adonis
Isabel Adonis is a writer and artist living in Wales. She has a Bachelor of Arts degree in Educational Studies from the University College of North Wales. She's published in New Welsh Review and Urban Welsh.(Parthian)