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A Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Cooperative SpeciesA Mind So RareA Natural History of RapeAcquiring GenomesAdapting MindsAgeing, Health and CareAlas, Poor DarwinAn Introduction to Evolutionary EthicsAncient Bodies, Modern LivesAnimal ArchitectsAping MankindAre We Hardwired?Bang!BehavingBeyond EvolutionBeyond GeneticsBlood MattersBody BazaarBoneBrain Evolution and CognitionBrain StormBrave New BrainBrave New WorldsChoosing ChildrenCloneCloningConceptual Issues in Evolutionary BiologyConsciousness EvolvingContemporary Debates in Philosophy of BiologyControlling Our DestiniesCooperation and Its EvolutionCreatures of AccidentDarwin Loves YouDarwin's Brave New WorldDarwin's Gift to Science and ReligionDarwin's UniverseDarwin's WormsDarwinian ConservatismDarwinian PsychiatryDarwinism and its DiscontentsDarwinism as ReligionDebating DesignDecoding DarknessDefenders of the TruthDo We Still Need Doctors?Doubting Darwin?Early WarningEngineering the Human GermlineEnhancing EvolutionEnoughEntwined LivesEthical Issues in Human CloningEthical Issues in the New GeneticsEvil GenesEvolutionEvolutionEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution and Human Sexual BehaviorEvolution and LearningEvolution and ReligionEvolution and the Human MindEvolution in MindEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolution: The Modern SynthesisEvolutionary Ethics and Contemporary BiologyEvolutionary Origins of MoralityEvolutionary PsychiatryEvolutionary PsychologyEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolutionary Psychology as Maladapted PsychologyExploding the Gene MythFaces of Huntington'sFlesh of My FleshFrom Chance to ChoiceFrom Darwin to HitlerGenesGenes in ConflictGenes on the CouchGenes, Environment, and PsychopathologyGenes, Environment, and PsychopathologyGenes, Women, EqualityGenetic Nature/CultureGenetic PoliticsGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetic SecretsGenetics in the MadhouseGenetics of Criminal and Antisocial BehaviourGenetics of Mental DisordersGenetics of Original SinGenetics of Original SinGenomeGenomeGenome: Updated EditionGenomes and What to Make of ThemGlowing GenesHow Women Got Their Curves and Other Just-So StoriesHuman CloningHuman Evolution, Reproduction, and MoralityImproving Nature?In Our Own ImageIn Pursuit of the GeneIn the Name of GodIngenious GenesInheritanceInside the Human GenomeInside the O'BriensIntegrating Evolution and DevelopmentIntelligence, Race, and GeneticsIs Human Nature Obsolete?Language OriginsLess Than HumanLiberal EugenicsLiving with Our GenesMaking Genes, Making WavesMaking Sense of EvolutionMan As The PrayerMean GenesMenMood GenesMoral OriginsMothers and OthersNature Via NurtureNever Let Me GoNot By Genes AloneOf Flies, Mice, and MenOn the Origin of StoriesOrigin of MindOrigins of Human NatureOrigins of PsychopathologyOur Posthuman FuturePhilosophy of BiologyPlaying God?Playing God?Portraits of Huntington'sPrimates and PhilosophersPromiscuityPsychiatric Genetics and GenomicsPsychologyQuality of Life and Human DifferenceRe-creating MedicineRedesigning HumansResearch Advances in Genetics and GenomicsResponsible GeneticsResponsible GeneticsScience, Seeds and CyborgsSex and WarSociological Perspectives on the New GeneticsStrange BedfellowsStrange BehaviorSubjects of the WorldSubordination and DefeatThe Age of EmpathyThe Agile GeneThe Ape and the Sushi MasterThe Biotech CenturyThe Blank SlateThe Book of LifeThe Boy Who Loved Too MuchThe Bridge to HumanityThe Case Against PerfectionThe Case for PerfectionThe Case of the Female OrgasmThe Century of the GeneThe Common ThreadThe Concept of the Gene in Development and EvolutionThe Debated MindThe Double-Edged HelixThe Epidemiology of SchizophreniaThe Ethics of Choosing ChildrenThe Ethics of Human CloningThe Evolution of CooperationThe Evolution of MindThe Evolution of MindThe Evolved ApprenticeThe Evolving WorldThe Extended Selfish GeneThe Fact of EvolutionThe Folly of FoolsThe Future of Human NatureThe God GeneThe Immortal Life of Henrietta LacksThe Impact of the GeneThe Innate MindThe Innate MindThe Innate Mind: Volume 3The Limits and Lies of Human Genetic ResearchThe Lives of the BrainThe Maladapted MindThe Meme MachineThe Misunderstood GeneThe Moral, Social, and Commercial Imperatives of Genetic Testing and ScreeningThe Most Dangerous AnimalThe New Genetic MedicineThe Nurture AssumptionThe Origin and Evolution of CulturesThe Origins of FairnessThe Paradoxical PrimateThe Perfect BabyThe Robot's RebellionThe Selfish GeneThe Shape of ThoughtThe Shattered SelfThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Story WithinThe Stuff of LifeThe Talking ApeThe Temperamental ThreadThe Terrible GiftThe Theory of OptionsThe Top 10 Myths About EvolutionThe Triple HelixThe Triumph of SociobiologyThe Woman Who Walked into the SeaTwinsUnderstanding CloningUnderstanding the GenomeUnnatural SelectionUnto OthersUp From DragonsVoracious Science and Vulnerable AnimalsWar Against the WeakWhat Genes Can't DoWhat It Means to Be 98 Percent ChimpanzeeWho Owns YouWhose View of Life?Why Evolution Is TrueWhy Think? WondergenesWrestling with Behavioral GeneticsYour Genetic Destiny
This anthology is especially suited to those philosophers of biology who are interested primarily in Darwinism and its philosophical influence. In the preface the editors explain their selection strategy: the best way to introduce the variety of issues in the philosophy of biology is by going back to Darwin's The Origin of Species by Natural Selection (first published 150 years ago) and then see what has happened in the meantime. The result of this editorial strategy is that the most prominent issues in the philosophy of biology appear to have to do with the influence that the idea of natural selection has exerted on philosophy and the human sciences more generally. In a sense, the collection should be more appropriately called "Philosophy of Natural Selection: An Anthology".
I am not at all disputing that natural selection is a very important concept. It clearly is, both biologically and historically. In the first sense because it has been clear for a while, as it is increasingly clear, that natural selection is a fundamental evolutionary process. In the second sense because it has historically attracted much attention from a variety of scholars. In fact, the idea of natural selection has been exploited in every branch of knowledge, partially successfully sometimes (e.g. evolutionary anthropology and archaeology, genetic computing etc.), while others less so (e.g. evolutionary epistemology, evolutionary ethics, evolutionary economics). In any case, its influence has been tremendous. The anthology makes partially clear how far-reaching the concept of selection is by focusing on some of the literature of philosophical interest, especially in ethics and psychology.
The strength of the anthology lies in some good sections and in some appropriate selections. I especially enjoyed the section on Design and Creationism because of the focus on ID and the biochemical challenge (Denton's contribution also belongs here). I also enjoyed the evo-devo section. The two papers in this part, despite being short and technical, are extremely clear and riveting. It is overall a good mix between old classics and new classics (e.g. Brandon, Carroll, Orr & Coyne, Okasha). To re-publish Gould's and Lewontin's The Spandrels of San Marco on its 30th anniversary is a terrific idea, especially given the influence that this great paper still exerts on contemporary practising biologists.
Nonetheless, I have misgivings about this anthology. The first is that the volume introduction is replete with language that is actually surpassed (the jargon of "optimal" genotypes and phenotypes, of genetic "coding" and "determination" of phenotypes that has no more philosophical value in a molecular age), while the presentation of the sections is far too short.
More importantly, the collection is not original. The editors played it safe by producing a volume that is remarkably similar to those already available to the public. Furthermore, I still prefer Hull's and Ruse's The Philosophy of Biology, an anthology published in 1998. One would expect that, in 10 years, some updating would be needed in a field like philosophy of biology. After all, in 10 years a lot of water has passed under the bridge, new research trends have emerged (e.g. synthetic biology, eco-devo), promising research fields have solidly delivered (e.g. genomics, epigenetics), some pseudo-problems do not elicit the same kind of interest they did years ago (e.g the tautology problem), while emerging ones seem more urgent (e.g. molecular "vitalism"). However, the student of biology who seeks sources on new trends of research will be disappointed by this volume. One feels that the editors should have dared a little more by including some new material, particularly in comparison to well-established anthologies and collections like Hull & Ruse or Sober's Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology. In brief, I feel that the present anthology is a missed opportunity.
© 2009 Davide Vecchi
Davide Vecchi did his Ph.D. in philosophy of science at the London School of Economics. He has been Research Fellow at the KLI for Evolution and Cognition Research. His main research interests lie at the interface between biology and philosophy.