email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
A New Understanding of Mental Disorders A Theory of Feelings Addictions Memory and the Self"Intimate" Violence against Women1001 Solution-Focused Questions101 Healing Stories101 Things I Wish I'd Known When I Started Using Hypnosis50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God8 Keys to Body Brain BalanceA Brief History of Modern PsychologyA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Conceptual History of Psychology: Exploring the Tangled Web A Cooperative SpeciesA Guide to Teaching Introductory PsychologyA History of Modern Experimental PsychologyA History of Psychology in AutobiographyA History of Social PsychologyA History of the BrainA History of the MindA Hole in the HeadA Matter of SecurityA Mind of Its OwnA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Place for ConsciousnessA Short Introduction to Promoting Resilience in ChildrenA Social History of PsychologyA Stroll With William JamesA System Architecture Approach to the BrainA Theory of FreedomA Very Bad WizardAbductedAbout FacesAccounts of InnocenceAction, Emotion and WillAdapting MindsAddiction and Self-ControlADHD & MeADHD in AdultsAdieu to GodAdolescence and Body ImageAdult Bipolar DisordersAdvances in Culture and PsychologyAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAffect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of SelfAffective MappingAgainst EmpathyAgainst HappinessAges and StagesAll Joy and No FunAll Out!All We Have to FearAlterations of ConsciousnessAmerican Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical NeurosciencesAn Argument for MindAncient Bodies, Modern LivesAnd BreatheAnimal MadnessAnimal Tool BehaviorAnimals in TranslationAnomalous CognitionAping MankindArtificial ConsciousnessAspects of PsychologismAsperger Syndrome and Your ChildAsperger Syndrome, Adolescence, and IdentityAssessment and Treatment of Childhood Problems, Second EditionAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAttachedAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutism and the Myth of the Person AloneAutopsy of a Suicidal MindBecoming an Effective PsychotherapistBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing No OneBelievingBetween Two WorldsBeyond AppearanceBeyond BlueBeyond BullyingBeyond MadnessBeyond MelancholyBeyond the BrainBeyond the DSM StoryBig DreamsBiofeedback for the BrainBipolar ChildrenBipolar DisorderBipolar KidsBlackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive DevelopmentBlind SpotsBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlubberlandBlushBodiesBody ConsciousnessBody Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity in YouthBody SenseBody WorkBorderline Personality DisorderBorderline Personality Disorder and the Conversational ModelBorn DigitalBorn to Be GoodBorn Together - Reared ApartBounceBoundaries in Human RelationshipsBounded RationalityBowen Theory's SecretsBozo SapiensBrain and CultureBrain and the GazeBrain Arousal and Information TheoryBrain BugsBrain Change TherapyBrain Circuitry and Signaling in PsychiatryBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-Based Therapy with AdultsBrain-WiseBrainstormBrainstormingBraintrustBrainwashingBrandedBreaking Murphy's LawBright-SidedBuddha's BrainBullying and TeasingBuyologyCan't You Hear Them?CaptureCare of the PsycheCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCerebrum 2007Cerebrum 2010Cerebrum 2015Cerebrum Anthology 2013Changing the SubjectCharacter Strengths and VirtuesCheating LessonsChild and Adolescent Psychological DisordersChildren’s Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness Chomsky NotebookClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyClinical Psychology in Practice ClosureCognition and PerceptionCognition and the BrainCognitive BiologyCognitive DissonanceCognitive FictionsCognitive Mechanisms of Belief ChangeCognitive PragmaticsCognitive ScienceCognitive ScienceCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Therapy of Anxiety DisordersCognitive Unconscious and Human RationalityCold-Blooded KindnessComing of Age in Second LifeCommunication Issues In Autism And Asperger SyndromeCompassion and Healing in Medicine and SocietyComplementary and Alternative Therapies ResearchComprehending ColumbineConfessions of a SociopathConquering Shame and CodependencyConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the Social BrainConsciousness EmergingConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Self-Consciousness, and the Science of Being HumanConstructing PainConsumer NeuroscienceContemporary Debates in Cognitive ScienceConversations on ConsciousnessConviction of the InnocentCooperation and Its EvolutionCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCredit and BlameCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychologyCritical Thinking About PsychologyCross-Cultural PsychologyCrowdsourcingCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCuriousDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous and Severe Personality DisorderDaniel DennettDaughters of MadnessDeafness In MindDeath and ConsciousnessDeath of a ParentDecomposing the WillDeep Brain StimulationDeep ChinaDefining DifferenceDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions of GenderDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDeparting from DevianceDescartes' BabyDescartes's Changing MindDescribing Inner Experience?Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Destructive EmotionsDevelopment of Geocentric Spatial Language and CognitionDevelopment of PsychopathologyDialogues on DifferenceDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Digital HemlockDirty MindsDisgust and Its DisordersDisorders of VolitionDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Doing without ConceptsDrunk Tank PinkEducating People to Be Emotionally IntelligentEffective IntentionsEffective Writing in PsychologyEffortless AttentionEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbracing MindEmbracing UncertaintyEMDR Therapy and Somatic PsychologyEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotionally InvolvedEmotionsEmotionsEmotions and LifeEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions RevealedEmotions, Aggression, and Morality in ChildrenEmotions, Stress, and HealthEmpathyEnjoymentErotic MoralityEscape Your Own PrisonEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthically Challenged ProfessionsEveryday Mind ReadingEvidence for PsiEvidence-Based Mental Health PracticeEvil MenEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution and LearningEvolution, Games, and GodEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolutionary Psychology as Maladapted PsychologyExacting BeautyExperiences of DepressionExperimenterExplaining the BrainExplaining the BrainExplorations in Neuroscience, Psychology and ReligionExploring TranssexualismExpression and the InnerExtending Self-Esteem ResearchExtraordinary BeliefsFact and Value in EmotionFaking ItFatigue as a Window to the BrainFavorite Activities for the Teaching of PsychologyFeeling GoodFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFinding Meaning, Facing FearsFitting In Is OverratedFive Constraints on Predicting BehaviorFlourishingFlow: The Psychology of Optimal ExperienceFolk Psychological NarrativesFooling HoudiniForever YoungFormulation in Psychology and PsychotherapyFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Psychological ThoughtFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom EvolvesFrom Axons to IdentityFrom Madness to Mental HealthFrom Neurons to Self-ConsciousnessFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Symptom to SynapseFrontiers of ConsciousnessGay, Straight, and the Reason WhyGenerosityGenes, Environment, and PsychopathologyGenetic Nature/CultureGeniusGetting Started with EEG NeurofeedbackGetting Under the SkinGlued to GamesGoing SaneGot Parts?Group GeniusGrowing Up GirlGuilt, Shame, and AnxietyGut ReactionsHallucinationHandbook New Sexuality StudiesHandbook of Closeness and IntimacyHandbook of Critical PsychologyHandbook of Emotion RegulationHandbook of EmotionsHandbook of Personality DisordersHandbook of PsychopathyHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Spatial CognitionHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness at WorkHappiness Is.Happy at LastHard to GetHardwired BehaviorHatredHealing the SplitHidden ResourcesHope and DespairHot ThoughtHot ThoughtHouse and PsychologyHow Animals Affect UsHow Animals GrieveHow Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Doctors ThinkHow Enlightenment Changes Your BrainHow Families Still MatterHow History Made the MindHow Infants Know MindsHow Many Friends Does One Person Need?How People ChangeHow Professors ThinkHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Change Someone You LoveHow We ReasonHow We RememberHughes' Outline of Modern PsychiatryHumanHuman BondingHuman Reasoning and Cognitive ScienceHume’s Moral Philosophy and Contemporary PsychologyHypnotismHysteriaiBrainIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIdentifying the MindiDisorderImagination and the Meaningful BrainImitation and the Social MindImpulse Control DisordersImpulsivityIn an Unspoken VoiceIn Defense of SentimentalityIn DoubtIn Search of HappinessIn the Wake of 9/11Individual and Collective Memory ConsolidationInner Experience and NeuroscienceInner PresenceInside the American CoupleIntegrated Behavioral Health CareIntegrating Evolution and DevelopmentIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntellectual DisabilityIntelligenceIntelligence, Destiny, and EducationIntentions and IntentionalityInterdependent MindsInterpreting MindsInto the Minds of MadmenIntoxicating MindsIntrospection VindicatedIntuitionInventing PersonalityInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIs There Anything Good About Men?Issues for Families, Schools and CommunitiesJane Sexes It UpJoint AttentionJoint AttentionJudgment and Decision MakingJust a DogJust BabiesJuvenile-Onset SchizophreniaKarl JaspersKey Thinkers in PsychologyKidding OurselvesKids of CharacterKilling MonstersKnowing EmotionsLack of CharacterLanguage OriginsLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw, Mind and BrainLess Than HumanLet Kids Be KidsLet's Talk About DeathLiving NarrativeLiving with Mild Cognitive ImpairmentLonelinessLooking for SpinozaLossLOT 2Love at Goon ParkMachine ConsciousnessMacrocognitionMade for Each OtherMadnessMadness and Modernism: Insanity in the light of modern art, literature, and thought Making a Good Brain GreatMaking Habits, Breaking HabitsMaking Minds and MadnessMaking Up the MindMale SexualityMan and WomanMan's Search for MeaningMan, Beast, and ZombieManic MindsManlinessMapping the MindMarking the MindMarvelous Learning AnimalMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaningMeaning, Mortality, and ChoiceMedical MusesMeditating SelflesslyMeetings with a Remarkable ManMemoryMemory and DreamsMemory and EmotionMemory And UnderstandingMental BiologyMental IllnessMental Time TravelMetacognitionMetacognition and Theory of MindMethods in MindMindMindMind and BrainMind and ConsciousnessMind GamesMind Games:Mind in LifeMind TimeMind to MindMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMindful AngerMindfulnessMindfulnessMindfulness and AcceptanceMindfulness-Based Treatment Approaches: Clinician's Guide to Evidence Base and ApplicationsMinding AnimalsMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds, Brains, and LawMindsightMindworldsMirrors in the BrainMistakes Were Made (But Not by Me)Models of MadnessMoodMoral Development and RealityMoral MindsMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Mothers and OthersMotivation and Cognitive ControlMotivational Interviewing: Preparing People For ChangeMovies and the MindMulticulturalism and the Therapeutic ProcessMultiplicityMuses, Madmen, and ProphetsMy Family AlbumMyths about SuicideNarrative IdentitiesNarrative PsychiatryNarratives in PsychiatryNaturalizing Intention in ActionNature and NarrativeNature Via NurtureNeither Bad nor MadNerveNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeurochemistry of ConsciousnessNeurodiversityNeuroethicsNeuroLogicNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroscience and PhilosophyNo Child Left DifferentNo Two AlikeNot By Genes AloneNot Much Just Chillin'Not So Abnormal PsychologyNurturing the Older Brain and MindOn AnxietyOn Being an Introvert or Highly Sensitive PersonOn Being HumanOn Being MovedOn Deep History and the BrainOn DesireOn KillingOn Nature and LanguageOn PaedophiliaOn PersonalityOn the Frontier of AdulthoodOn the Origins of Cognitive ScienceOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOnflowOpen MindsOpening Skinner's BoxOrigin of MindOrigins of PsychopathologyOther MindsOut of Our HeadsOut of the WoodsOvercoming Depersonalization DisorderPanpsychism and the Religious AttitudePanpsychism in the WestParenting and the Child's WorldPassionate EnginesPathologies of the WestPatient-Based Approaches to Cognitive NeurosciencePediatric PsychopharmacologyPeople Types and Tiger StripesPerception & CognitionPerception beyond InferencePerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPersonal Development and Clinical PsychologyPerspectives on ImitationPhantoms in the BrainPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhrenologyPhysical RealizationPhysics in MindPieces of LightPlaying with FirePositive PsychologyPositive PsychologyPostcards from the Brain MuseumPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPoverty and Brain Development During ChildhoodPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical Management of Personality DisorderPractical Management of Personality DisorderPredicative MindsPredictably IrrationalPreference, Belief, and SimilarityPrenatal Testosterone in MindPrivileged AccessProcess-Based CBTProcrastinationPromoting Healthy AttachmentsProust Was a NeuroscientistPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsychological AgencyPsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychological Dimensions of the SelfPsychologists Defying the CrowdPsychologyPsychologyPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology for ScreenwritersPsychology of Women: A Handbook of Issues and TheoriesPsychology's GhostsPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology's TerritoriesPsychopathologyPsychopathyPsychosis and EmotionPsychotherapy, American Culture, and Social PolicyPutnam CampPutting a Name to ItQuantum Memory PowerQuietRadical DistortionRadical Embodied Cognitive ScienceRadical ExternalismRadical GraceRapeRe-Visioning PsychiatryReal MaterialismReality CheckReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecovery in Mental IllnessRecreative MindsRedirectReducing Adolescent RiskRegulating EmotionsRelational BeingRelational Mental HealthRelational Suicide AssessmentReliability in Cognitive NeuroscienceRemembering HomeRemembering Our ChildhoodResearch Advances in Genetics and GenomicsResearching Children's ExperienceResilience in ChildrenRestoring ResilienceRethinking ADHDRethinking Learning DisabilitiesRethinking Middle YearsRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfRevolution in PsychologyRoadmap to ResilienceRomance and Sex in Adolescence and Emerging AdulthoodSchadenfreudeSchizophrenia RevealedSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologySecond NatureSecond NatureSecond That EmotionSecond-order Change in PsychotherapySecrets of the MindSee What I'm SayingSee What I'm SayingSeeing and VisualizingSeeing RedSelf and SocietySelf Comes to MindSelf Control in Society, Mind, and BrainSelf-Awareness Deficits in Psychiatric PatientsSelf-CompassionSelf-Consciousness and 'Split' BrainsSelf-RegulationSelf-Representational Approaches to ConsciousnessSelfless InsightSelvesSerial KillersSex at DawnSex on the BrainSex, Time and PowerSexual Coercion in Primates and HumansSexual DisordersSexual FluiditySexual ReckoningsSexualized BrainsShame and GuiltShatteredSimulating MindsSisyphus's BoulderSleepyheadSNAPSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial Psychology and DiscourseSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSoul DustSparkSpiral of EntrapmentSplendors and Miseries of the BrainSports Hypnosis in PracticeStanding at Water's EdgeStich and His CriticsStillpowerStop OverreactingStructure and Agency in Everyday LifeStructures of AgencyStuffStumbling on HappinessSubjectivity and SelfhoodSubstance Abuse and EmotionSuicidalSupersizing the MindSweet DreamsSynaptic SelfTales from Both Sides of the BrainTalking Oneself SoberTalking to BabiesTaming the Troublesome ChildTargeting AutismTeaching Problems and the Problems of TeachingTeleological RealismTen Years of Viewing from WithinTestosterone RexThat's DisgustingThe 5 Elements of Effective ThinkingThe Accidental MindThe Age of EmpathyThe Altruism EquationThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Clinical PsychiatryThe Anatomy of BiasThe Anxious BrainThe Archaeology of MindThe Art and Science of MindfulnessThe Art InstinctThe Art of HypnosisThe Asymmetrical BrainThe Bifurcation of the SelfThe Big Book of ConceptsThe Big DisconnectThe Birth of IntersubjectivityThe Birth of the MindThe Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge ManagementThe Blank SlateThe Body Has a Mind of Its OwnThe Bounds of CognitionThe Boy Who Was Raised as a DogThe BrainThe BrainThe Brain and the Meaning of LifeThe Brain SupremacyThe Brain That Changes ItselfThe Brain's Way of HealingThe Brain: Big Bangs, Behaviors, and BeliefsThe Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive ScienceThe Cambridge Handbook of Situated CognitionThe Character of ConsciousnessThe Chemistry Between UsThe Choice EffectThe Clinical Science of Suicide PreventionThe Cognitive Approach to Conscious MachinesThe Cognitive Behavioral Workbook for Anxiety: A Step-By-Step ProgramThe Cognitive NeurosciencesThe Cognitive-Emotional BrainThe College Fear FactorThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Compass of PleasureThe Compassionate ConnectionThe Concepts of ConsciousnessThe Conscious BrainThe Conscious SelfThe Consuming InstinctThe Creating BrainThe Creative BrainThe Crucible of ConsciousnessThe Crucible of ExperienceThe Cure WithinThe Dao of NeuroscienceThe Developing MindThe Developing MindThe Development of PsychopathologyThe Disappearance of the Social in American Social PsychologyThe Dissolution of MindThe Duty to ProtectThe Educated ParentThe Ego TunnelThe Elephant in the RoomThe Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human ExperienceThe Emotional Foundations of PersonalityThe Emotional Journey of the Alzheimer's FamilyThe Encultured BrainThe Encyclopedia of StupidityThe Enduring Self in People with Alzheimer'sThe Epidemiology of SchizophreniaThe Essential DifferenceThe Ethical BrainThe Evolution of BeautyThe Evolution of ChildhoodThe Evolution of CooperationThe Evolution of LanguageThe Evolution of MindThe Evolving BrainThe Executive BrainThe Faces of TerrorismThe Feeling BrainThe Feeling of What HappensThe First IdeaThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Foundations of Cognitive ArchaeologyThe Fundamentalist MindsetThe GapThe Gender TrapThe Geography of BlissThe Gift of ShynessThe Good LifeThe Good LifeThe Happiness HypothesisThe Happiness of PursuitThe Health Psychology HandbookThe Healthy Aging BrainThe Heart of TraumaThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of PsychologyThe Human FaceThe Human SparkThe Hypomanic EdgeThe Imagery DebateThe Immeasurable MindThe Imprinted BrainThe Incredible Shrinking MindThe Innate MindThe Innate MindThe Integrated SelfThe Intentional BrainThe Language of ThoughtThe Languages of the BrainThe Lexicon of Adlerian PsychologyThe Lie DetectorsThe Lives of the BrainThe Lonely AmericanThe Lust for BloodThe Madness of WomenThe Male BrainThe Man Who Lost His LanguageThe Man Who Shocked the WorldThe Man Who Tasted ShapesThe Man Who Wasn't ThereThe Matter of the MindThe Mature MindThe Mean Girl MotiveThe Meaning of EvilThe Meaning of OthersThe Meaning of the BodyThe Measure of MadnessThe Measure of MindThe Medicalization of Everyday LifeThe Mind and the BrainThe Mind in ContextThe Mind of the ChildThe Mind of the HorseThe Mind's EyeThe Mind, the Body and the WorldThe Mind-Gut ConnectionThe Mindful BrainThe Misleading MindThe Moral MindThe Most Dangerous AnimalThe Most Human HumanThe Mother FactorThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of Depression as DiseaseThe Myth of Mirror NeuronsThe Myth of Self HelpThe Myth of Self-EsteemThe Myth of the Spoiled ChildThe Nature of the SelfThe Necessity Of MadnessThe Neuro RevolutionThe Neuron and the MindThe Neuropsychology of the UnconsciousThe Neuroscience of Human RelationshipsThe Neuroscience of PsychotherapyThe Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social BrainThe New BrainThe New Science of DreamingThe New Science of the MindThe New UnconsciousThe Normal PersonalityThe Origins of FairnessThe Overflowing BrainThe Oxford Companion to the MindThe Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of MindThe Paradoxical PrimateThe Perfectionist's HandbookThe Peripheral MindThe Phenomenology ReaderThe Philosopher's Secret FireThe Philosophical BabyThe Political MindThe Politics of HappinessThe Positive Side of Negative EmotionsThe Postnational SelfThe Postpartum EffectThe Power of PlayThe Praeger Handbook of TranssexualityThe Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday LifeThe Primate MindThe Prism of GrammarThe Psychobiology of Trauma and Resilience Across the LifespanThe Psychological Construction of EmotionThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of HappinessThe Psychology of LifestyleThe Psychology of Religious FundamentalismThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of SpiritualityThe Psychology of StereotypingThe Psychology of SuperheroesThe Psychophysiology of Self-AwarenessThe Pursuit of PerfectThe Quest for Mental HealthThe Rational ImaginationThe Ravenous BrainThe Reasons of LoveThe Righteous MindThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Handbook of ConsciousnessThe Science of EvilThe Science of Intimate RelationshipsThe Science of Shame and its Treatment The Second SelfThe Secret History of EmotionThe Secret Lives of BoysThe Self and Its EmotionsThe Self-Sabotage CycleThe Sense of SelfThe Sensitive SelfThe Shape of ThoughtThe Social AnimalThe Social Nature of Mental IllnessThe Social Neuroscience of EmpathyThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Story of Intellectual DisabilityThe Structure of ThinkingThe Survivors ClubThe Talking ApeThe Teenage BrainThe Tell-Tale BrainThe Temperamental ThreadThe Tender CutThe Tending InstinctThe Time ParadoxThe Trauma MythThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trouble with IllnessThe True PathThe Truth About GriefThe Turing TestThe Uncertain SciencesThe Undoing ProjectThe Unhappy ChildThe Upside of IrrationalityThe Varieties of ConsciousnessThe War for Children's MindsThe Well-Tuned BrainThe Wild Girl, Natural Man, and the MonsterThe Winner's BrainThe Wisdom in FeelingThe Woman RacketThe World in My Mind, My Mind in the WorldThe Wow ClimaxThe Yipping TigerThemes, Issues and Debates in PsychologyTheoretical Issues in Psychology: An IntroductionTheory of AddictionTheory of MindThings and PlacesThink CatThink Confident, Be ConfidentThinking about AddictionThinking and SeeingThis Emotional Life: In Search of Ourselves...and HappinessThought and LanguageThought in a Hostile WorldTo Have and To Hurt:Toward an Evolutionary Biology of LanguageToward Replacement Parts for the BrainTrauma and Human ExistenceTrauma, Tragedy, TherapyTreating Attachment DisordersTreating Self-InjuryTreating Self-Injury: A Practical GuideTrue to Our FeelingsTrusting the Subject?Understanding and Treating Borderline Personality DisorderUnderstanding ConsciousnessUnderstanding ParanoiaUnderstanding PeopleUnderstanding TerrorismUnderstanding the BrainUndoing Perpetual StressUnlock the Genius WithinUnsettled MindsUnstrange MindsUnthinkingUnthoughtUs and ThemViolent PartnersVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVision and MindVisual AgnosiaWarrior's DishonourWe Who Are DarkWednesday Is Indigo BlueWelcome to Your BrainWhat Do Women Want?What Dying People WantWhat Have We DoneWhat Intelligence Tests MissWhat Is an Emotion: Classic and Contemporary ReadingsWhat Is Emotion?What is Intelligence?What Is Mental Illness?What Is Thought?What Makes Your Brain Happy and Why You Should Do the Opposite What the Best College Students DoWhat the Dog SawWhat We Know about Emotional IntelligenceWhat We Say MattersWhat's Wrong With Morality?When Boys Become BoysWhen Perfect Isn't Good EnoughWhen the Impossible HappensWhen Walls Become DoorwaysWho's Been Sleeping in Your HeadWho's in Charge?Why Humans Like to CryWhy Love MattersWhy Lyrics LastWhy People CooperateWhy People Die by SuicideWhy Sex Matters: A Darwinian Look at Human BehaviorWhy Smart People Can Be So StupidWhy the Mind is Not a ComputerWhy Us?Why We LieWhy We LoveWhy We SleepWider than the SkyWilliam James at the BoundariesWilling, Wanting, WaitingWittgenstein And PsychologyWomen and Child Sexual AbuseWorking MindsYoga and PsychologyYou Are What You RememberYoung Minds in Social WorldsYour Brain on CubsYour Brain on FoodYour Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings,Your Brain on YogaYour Child in the BalanceZombies and Consciousness
During the past two decades philosophers of mind, cognitive scientists and researchers from fields like robotics or dynamical system theory have argued for an embodied, situated, and enactive approach to cognition. In contrast to what has been taken for granted in the 'rules and representation' approach to cognition characteristic of GOFAI ('Good Old Fashioned Artificial Intelligence') and the 'distributed representation' approach of connectionists, they argue that cognitive agents cannot be fully understood without taking into account their bodies (thereby acknowledging the embodied nature of cognition), their environment (thereby acknowledging the situated nature of cognition), and their dynamical interaction with the environment (thereby acknowledging the enactive nature of cognition). This view, on which the environment is a crucial determinant of cognitive processes insofar as cognitive processes emerge out of interactions between cognitive systems and their environment, goes beyond a simple 'the mind as the brain' model, but is still conservative in the sense that cognitive processes are still located within the boundaries of our brains: my beliefs, memories, perceptions may depend upon my environment and my interaction with it, but they are not 'out there' in the environment, they are 'in here', within the boundaries of my skull.
In 1998, Andy Clark and David Chalmers abandoned this last piece of conservatism by launching a forceful attack on any approach to cognition that treats the mind as an essentially intracranial phenomenon. If I rely on a sheet of paper and a pen (or a pocket calculator, a laptop etc.) to calculate the product of 314 and 657, my calculation not only depends upon a dynamical causal coupling between me and my environment, i.e., my manipulation of the symbols on the paper, it is rather partly constituted by my manipulation of the symbols on the paper. I am linked to an external device in a tight, real-time two-way interaction: we are, effectively, a coupled cognitive system. As a consequence, the cognitive processing is not going on in my brain alone, but extends into the environment. In his forthcoming book Supersizing the Mind: Embodiment, Action, and Cognitive Extension, Clark describes this Extended Mind Thesis (EMT) as follows:
[T]hinking and cognizing ... may (at times) depend directly and non-instrumentally upon the ongoing work of the body and/or the extra-organismic environment. ... [T]he actual local operations that realize certain forms of human cognizing include inextricable tangles of feedback, feed-forward and feed-around loops: loops that promiscuously criss-cross the boundaries of brain, body and world. The local mechanisms of mind, if this is correct, are not all in the head. Cognition leaks out into body and world.
EMT's suggestion that cognitive processes like belief, memory, or learning may be extended goes beyond the claim that they are embodied, situated, or enactive, and has over the past years sparked a controversial debate in which Fred Adams from the University of Delaware and Ken Aizawa from the Centenary College of Louisiana have been the most outspoken critics of EMT. In a series of articles they have argued that cognition is 'brain bound' and that cognitive processes, embodied, situated and enactive as they may be, are a completely intracranial affair. They now have put their arguments into book form, and the result is The Bounds of Cognition.
Adams and Aizawa's attack on EMT has three interconnected parts. First, they defend a positive conception of cognition which, if correct, would entail that as a matter of contingent empirical fact cognition currently occurs only in nervous systems. Second, they identify three difficulties that beset the attempts made so far by advocates of EMT to spell out their position in more detail. Third, they discuss five arguments in favor of EMT and argue that they fail to establish that cognitive processes cross, in any significant sense, the boundaries of our brains.
Adams and Aizawa's Positive Conception of Cognition
In chs. 3 and 4, Adams and Aizawa argue for an account of cognition according to which cognitive processes are individuated by specific kinds of information-processing mechanisms that work on specific kinds of representations: "cognitive processes differ from non-cognitive processes in terms of the kinds of mechanisms that operate on non-derived representations" (pp. 12-13).
That cognitive processes involve representations is a widely held view in the philosophy of mind and in cognitive science. What Adams and Aizawa add is that cognition must involve operations on non-derived representations. Roughly, non-derived representations are characteristic of what Searle has called 'intrinsic intentionality', i.e., "representations that mean what they do independently of other representational or intentional capacities" (p. 31) and that are supposed to be captured by the various theories of mental content offered in the philosophy of mind, such as Jerry Fodor's asymmetric causal dependency theory, Fred Dretske's information theoretic semantics, or Robert Cummins' picture theory of mental content (pp. 36-37). Given that "non-derived representations happen to occur these days only in nervous systems" (p. 55), an assumption which Adams and Aizawa motivate in ch. 3, the claim that cognitive processes are operations on non-derived representations entails that cognitive processes are (currently) an entirely intracranial affair (although it is possible that they might cease to be—if some day non-derived representations are not only found 'in here', but also 'out there').
The second component of Adams and Aizawa's account of the 'mark of the cognitive' is that the "cognitive differs from the non-cognitive in virtue of the kinds of mechanism that are involved" (p. 57), a claim they defend in ch. 4. Cognitive psychologists try to find the laws governing and the mechanisms implementing cognitive processes, and both the laws and the mechanisms, Adams and Aizawa hold, provide us with a reason for thinking that cognition is an intracranial affair. The laws studied by cognitive psychologists support a brain bound approach to cognition because they "govern processes in the core of the brain, but not combinations of brains, bodies, and environment" (p. 61). Focusing on the mechanisms underlying cognitive processes, Adams and Aizawa maintain in an argument that, despite my best efforts continues to elude me, also supports the view that cognition is going on in brains only (currently at least), because it is good and widespread scientific practice to individuate these mechanisms not only on a functional basis but in terms of their causal powers so that the cognitive processes they implement are sensitive to the material of the mechanisms: "On the hypothesis that differences in realizer properties and processes produce differences in realized properties and processes, we have some non-question-begging, defeasible reason to suppose that cognitive processes are typically brain bound and do not extend from the nervous system into the body and the environment" (p. 70).
Three Problems for EMT
Problem 1. Advocates of EMT, Adams and Aizawa claim in ch. 5, ought to be able to offer an account of cognition which shows that cognition is extended, not only possibly, but actually. But as of yet, they maintain, there is no such remotely plausible theory. The main problem for advocates of EMT is supposedly that in the attempt to defend the claim that cognitive processes can be a partially extracranial affair, they have receded to "low standards for what counts as a cognitive process" because obviously, "the more promiscuous that standards for what constitutes cognition, the less surprising it should be to find that cognition extends into the body and the environment" (p. 76). For instance, Adams and Aizawa criticize the attempt to characterize cognition in terms of information processing and in terms of computation as being too lose, because not all information processing and not all computation is cognitive processing, and the attempt to characterize cognitive processes operationally as the processes that underlie the execution of cognitive tasks, they argue, is a non-starter, because it is impossible to specify what a cognitive task is without already knowing what cognitive processes are. They conclude that "the advocates of extended cognition have not taken an intuitive grasp of the issue. They have, instead, opted for promiscuous theories of the cognitive that include things other than those that cognitive psychologists have traditionally concerned themselves with ... [in order to] allow such things as consumer electronics devices and grandfather clocks to count as cognitive agents" (p. 86).
Problem 2. Defenders of EMT also ought to be more sensitive to the difference between the claim that cognitive processes causally depend upon features of the body and the environment (a plausible claim made by many advocates of the embodied, situated and enactive approach to cognition that is explicitly endorsed by Adams and Aizawa; see ch. 10), and the claim that cognitive processes constitutionally depend upon features of the body and the environment. In what Adams and Aizawa call the 'coupling argument' for EMT (see below), there often "is a more or less subtle move from the observations about the causal dependencies between cognitive processes, on the one hand, and the body and environment, on the other, to a conclusion that there is some constitutive dependency between the cognitive processes and the brain-body-environmental processes (pp. 88-89). In chs. 6 and 7, Adams and Aizawa argue that those who tacitly or knowingly make this move have little to offer to bolster it, since one cannot legitimately infer constitutional dependence from causal dependence: "It simply does not follow from the fact that process X is in some way causally connected to a cognitive process that X is thereby part of that cognitive process." (p. 91). Once attention is paid to the difference between causal dependency and constitutive dependency and to the fact that the latter does not follow from the former, Adams and Aizawa argue, it should be clear that EMT remains unaffected by any kind of evidence that can be amassed for the weaker claim that cognition causally depends upon bodily and environmental processes.
Problem 3. Advocates of EMT, Adams and Aizawa point out further, also ought to pay more attention to the difference between the claim that cognitive systems are extended and the claim that cognitive processes are extended, and to the fact that cognitive processes need not be extended only because cognitive systems are. They admit that "the hypothesis that cognitive systems extend appears to be much less problematic than is the hypothesis that cognition itself extends" (p. 106), but they insist that even if it is possible to spell out the notion of a system in such a way that brain, body, and environment do constitute a single cognitive system, it does not follow from that that cognitive processes are extended, too. Quite generally, they argue, "the fact that something is an X system does not entail that every component of the system does X" (p. 118), and therefore one cannot support EMT by arguing that a cognitive agent and parts of his or her environment form a single cognitive system.
Rebutting Arguments for EMT
The first argument for EMT that Adams and Aizawa are discussing, the one step coupling argument, is hardly an argument at all. It is the more or less subtle move, identified in Problem 2, from the observation that there is a causal dependency between cognitive processes and the body and the environment to the claim that cognitive processes are partly constituted by processes that span brain, body, and environment. Adams and Aizawa dub this move the 'coupling constitution fallacy', and it is a fallacy precisely because, as said above, there is no "plausible argument for going from the causation claim to the extended cognition claim" (p. 91), and so inferring constitutional dependence from causal dependence is in general unwarranted.
The second argument for EMT is the two step coupling argument. Once again, attention is drawn to the causal connections that hold between the brain and parts of the body and the environment, but rather than inferring directly that cognitive processes are extended, it is concluded that brain, body and the environment constitute a single cognitive system. In a second step, it is then added, sometimes tacitly, that since there is an extended cognitive system that spans brain, body and environment, the cognitive processes within that system are also extended, and thus not brain bound. Adams and Aizawa's response is that since the extended cognitive system hypothesis does not entail the extended cognitive processes hypothesis (see Problem 3 above), cognitive processes could be brain bound even if cognitive systems are extended, and so the second step of the argument would fail, even if the extended cognitive system hypothesis could be substantiated.
The third argument, which is discussed in ch. 8 together with the fourth and the fifth, is the cognitive equivalence argument. The idea is that processes that have traditionally been taken to be cognitive can also occur in a functionally or cognitively equivalent way in larger systems spanning brain, body and environment. Hence, since an external process that is cognitively equivalent to an internal cognitive process must itself also be a cognitive process, these larger processes also count as cognitive processes properly so called. The perhaps most famous thought experiment in this regard is that of Otto, who suffers from Alzheimer's disease and instead of his biological memory relies on extensive notebook entries. If certain conditions are met, advocates of EMT (notably Clark and Chalmers) maintain, Otto and his notebook constitute a single cognitive system that is equivalent to the biological memory system of a normal human being, Inga, and in that case the states of Otto's notebook count as his beliefs, or memories, properly so called, although they are stored not internally, but externally. Adams and Aizawa argue that the alleged cognitive equivalence is illusory since there are "numerous psychological differences between Inga and Otto" (p. 136)—Otto and Inga will fare different in a free recall task, will differ with regard to primacy and recency effects, and with regard to depth of processing effects etc. These are "significant divergences" (p. 137) that suffice to undermine any alleged cognitive equivalence.
The fourth argument, the cognitive complementarity argument, is strangely at odds with the cognitive equivalence argument. While the equivalence argument draws attention to the alleged fact that extended processes may in all important and relevant aspects be exactly like the brain bound processes that have traditionally been considered as cognitive, the complementarity argument argues that "because brain processes are of one character and bodily and environmental processes are of another, brain processes and bodily and environmental processes work well together" so that the "combination of intracranial and extracranial processes achieves results that are in some sense superior to those achieved by just the brain alone" (pp. 7-8). This complementarity of processes is then used to argue for the existence of an extended cognitive system which comprises both intra- and extracranial processes. However, Adams and Aizawa observe, since the extended cognitive system hypothesis does not warrant the extended cognitive processes hypothesis (see Problem 3), the complementarity argument does little to bolster EMT.
The fifth argument discussed by Adams and Aizawa, the evolutionary argument, holds that if the development of our cognitive capacities has followed the most efficient evolutionary path, we should expect cognitive processes to be "an essentially hybrid combination of internal and external processes" (p. 147). In response to this argument—which strikes me as an odd argument, and I am unsure whether this is the fault of Mark Rowlands, to which the argument is attributed, or of Adams and Aizawa's presentation of it—they point to a number of processes, including, e.g., human spermatogenesis, phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP, transcription of DNA into RNA, meiosis, mitosis, or filtration of blood in the kidneys, which, even if their development had followed the most efficient evolutionary path, we should obviously not expect to be extended beyond the body into the external world: "All are intraorganismal processes. What does it matter how efficiently they evolved" (p. 149), and they same applies, Adams and Aizawa suggest, to cognitive processes, and therefore we should not expect evolutionary theory to tell us anything about the difference between the cognitive and the non-cognitive, our about the place of the cognitive in the world.
Adams and Aizawa's conclusion in the last sentence of their book is that "there is a scientifically and philosophically motivated reason to believe that there are psychological processes that are found in brains that are unlike processes that span brains, bodies, and environments" (p. 179). I agree. Fortunately for those who (like me) tend to find EMT plausible enough to take it seriously, and for those who (like Andy Clark or Richard Menary) fully endorse it, a 'scientifically and philosophically motivated reason' is just that, a reason, and one of the good things about philosophy is that one can acknowledge that there is a reason, even a good reason, for a position that one rejects. Advocates of EMT must undoubtedly examine the arguments and criticisms that Adams and Aizawa offer in careful detail, because The Bounds of Cognition is the most forceful and most convincing criticism of their position so far. Only time will tell whether it is convincing enough to drive back cognition into the boundaries of our skulls.
(Author's note: Since this review is already lengthy enough and I deemed it important to give readers of Metapsychology an extensive overview over the kinds of problems and arguments that are discussed in the relatively small and unknown debate about EMT, I have deliberately refrained from entering a critical discussion.)
© 2008 Sven Walter
Sven Walter, PhD, Institute of Cognitive Science, University of Osnabrueck, Germany