email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
Anger and Forgiveness"Are You There Alone?"10 Good Questions about Life and DeathA Casebook of Ethical Challenges in NeuropsychologyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to Muslim EthicsA Cooperative SpeciesA Critique of the Moral Defense of VegetarianismA Decent LifeA Delicate BalanceA Fragile LifeA Life for a LifeA Life-Centered Approach to BioethicsA Matter of SecurityA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Natural History of Human MoralityA Philosophical DiseaseA Practical Guide to Clinical Ethics ConsultingA Question of TrustA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Short Stay in SwitzerlandA Tapestry of ValuesA Very Bad WizardA World Without ValuesAction and ResponsibilityAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionActs of ConscienceAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction NeuroethicsAdvance Directives in Mental HealthAfter HarmAftermathAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HealthAgainst MarriageAgainst Moral ResponsibilityAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAging, Biotechnology, and the FutureAlbert Schweitzer's Reverence for LifeAlphavilleAltruismAltruismAmerican EugenicsAmerican PsychosisAn American SicknessAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Evolutionary EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy Ancient Greek and Roman SlaveryAnd a Time to DieAnimal LessonsAnimal RightsAnimal Welfare in a Changing WorldAnimals Like UsApplied Ethics in Mental Health CareAre Women Human?Arguments about AbortionAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle's WayAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAutonomyAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismAutonomy, Consent and the LawBabies by DesignBackslidingBad PharmaBad SoulsBarriers and BelongingBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBeauty JunkiesBefore ForgivingBeing AmoralBeing YourselfBending Over BackwardsBending ScienceBernard WilliamsBetter Humans?Better Than WellBeyond BioethicsBeyond ChoiceBeyond GeneticsBeyond HatredBeyond Humanity?Beyond LossBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond SpeechBeyond the DSM StoryBias in Psychiatric DiagnosisBioethicsBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics at the MoviesBioethics Beyond the HeadlinesBioethics Critically ReconsideredBioethics in a Liberal SocietyBioethics in the ClinicBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical Research and BeyondBiosBioscience EthicsBipolar ChildrenBluebirdBodies out of BoundsBodies, Commodities, and BiotechnologiesBody BazaarBoundBoundaries and Boundary Violations in PsychoanalysisBraintrustBrandedBreaking the SilenceBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyCapital PunishmentCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsChallenging the Stigma of Mental IllnessCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionChild Well-BeingChildrenChildren's RightsChimpanzee RightsChoosing ChildrenChoosing Not to ChooseClinical Dilemmas in PsychotherapyClinical EthicsCloningClose toYouCoercion as CureCoercive Treatment in PsychiatryCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognitive Disability and Its Challenge to Moral Philosophy Comfortably NumbCommonsense RebellionCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompassionate Moral RealismCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentComprehending CareConducting Insanity EvaluationsConfidential RelationshipsConfidentiality and Mental HealthConflict of Interest in the ProfessionsConsuming KidsContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContentious IssuesContesting PsychiatryCrazy in AmericaCreating CapabilitiesCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCriminal Trials and Mental DisordersCritical Perspectives in Public HealthCritical PsychiatryCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCurrent Controversies in BioethicsCurrent Controversies in Values and ScienceCutting to the CoreCyborg CitizenDamaged IdentitiesDeaf Identities in the MakingDeath Is That Man Taking NamesDebating ProcreationDebating Same-Sex MarriageDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecoding the Ethics CodeDefining DifferenceDefining Right and Wrong in Brain ScienceDefining the Beginning and End of LifeDelusions of GenderDementiaDemocracy in What State?Demons of the Modern WorldDescriptions and PrescriptionsDesert and VirtueDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDestructive Trends in Mental HealthDeveloping the VirtuesDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital HemlockDigital SoulDignityDignityDisability BioethicsDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDiscrimination against the Mentally IllDisordered Personalities and CrimeDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDoes Feminism Discriminate against Men?Does Torture Work?Doing HarmDouble Standards in Medical Research in Developing CountriesDown GirlDrugs and JusticeDuty and the BeastDworkin and His CriticsDying in the Twenty-First CenturyEarly WarningEconomics and Youth ViolenceEmbodied RhetoricsEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotional ReasonEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmpathyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEncountering NatureEncountering the Sacred in PsychotherapyEngendering International HealthEnhancing EvolutionEnhancing Human CapacitiesEnoughEros and the GoodErotic InnocenceErotic MoralityEssays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEthical Choices in Contemporary MedicineEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Dilemmas in PediatricsEthical Issues in Behavioral ResearchEthical Issues in Dementia CareEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in the New GeneticsEthical LifeEthical Reasoning for Mental Health ProfessionalsEthical TheoryEthical WillsEthically Challenged ProfessionsEthicsEthicsEthicsEthics and AnimalsEthics and ScienceEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Discovery of the UnconsciousEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics at the CinemaEthics at the End of LifeEthics Beyond the LimitsEthics Case Book of the American Psychoanalytic AssociationEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics for EveryoneEthics for PsychologistsEthics for the New MillenniumEthics in CyberspaceEthics in Everyday PlacesEthics in Health CareEthics In Health Services ManagementEthics in Mental Health ResearchEthics in PracticeEthics in PsychiatryEthics in PsychologyEthics in Psychotherapy and CounselingEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEthics, Culture, and PsychiatryEthics, Sexual Orientation, and Choices about ChildrenEvaluating the Science and Ethics of Research on HumansEvilEvilEvil GenesEvil in Modern ThoughtEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Ethics and Contemporary BiologyEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolved MoralityExperiments in EthicsExploding the Gene MythExploiting ChildhoodFacing Human SufferingFact and ValueFacts and ValuesFaking ItFalse-Memory Creation in Children and AdultsFat ShameFatal FreedomFellow CreaturesFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist TheoryFinal ExamFirst Do No HarmFirst, Do No HarmFlashpointFlesh WoundsForced to CareForgivenessForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and ReconciliationForgiveness and RetributionForgiveness is Really StrangeFoucault and the Government of DisabilityFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Forensic Mental Health AssessmentFree WillFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will and Reactive AttitudesFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree?Freedom and ValueFreedom vs. InterventionFriendshipFrom Darwin to HitlerFrom Disgust to HumanityFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Silence to VoiceFrom Valuing to ValueFrontiers of JusticeGender in the MirrorGenetic PoliticsGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetics of Original SinGenetics of Original SinGenocide's AftermathGetting RealGluttonyGood WorkGoodness & AdviceGreedGroups in ConflictGrowing Up GirlGut FeminismHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHandbook for Health Care Ethics CommitteesHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of Children's RightsHandbook of PsychopathyHappinessHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHard FeelingsHard LuckHardwired BehaviorHarmful ThoughtsHeal & ForgiveHealing PsychiatryHealth Care Ethics for PsychologistsHeterosyncraciesHistorical and Philosophical Perspectives on Biomedical EthicsHoly WarHookedHookedHow Can I Be Trusted?How Fascism WorksHow Propaganda WorksHow to Do Things with Pornography How to Make Opportunity EqualHow Universities Can Help Create a Wiser WorldHow We HopeHow We Think About DementiaHuman BondingHuman Dignity and Assisted DeathHuman Dignity and Assisted DeathHuman EnhancementHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman TrialsHumanism, What's That?Humanitarian ReasonHumanityHumanizing MadnessI am Not Sick I Don't Need Help!I Was WrongIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIf That Ever Happens to MeImproving Nature?In Defense of FloggingIn Defense of SinIn Love With LifeIn Our Own ImageIn the FamilyIn the Land of the DeafIn the Name of IdentityIn the Wake of 9/11In Two MindsInclusive EthicsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchInnovation in Medical TechnologyInside Assisted LivingInside EthicsIntelligence, Race, and GeneticsIntensive CareInto the Gray ZoneIs Human Nature Obsolete?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is There a Duty to Die?Is There an Ethicist in the House?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJudging Children As ChildrenJust a DogJust BabiesJust CareJustice for ChildrenJustice for HedgehogsJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeJustifiable ConductKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Theory of VirtueKids of CharacterKilling McVeighLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLaw and the BrainLearning About School ViolenceLearning from Baby PLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLegal and Ethical Aspects of HealthcareLegal Aspects of Mental CapacityLegal ConceptionsLegal InsanityLegalizing ProstitutionLet Them Eat ProzacLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberal EugenicsLife After FaithLife at the BottomLife's ValuesLife, Sex, and IdeasListening to the WhispersLiving ProfessionalismLosing Matt ShepardLostLuckyMad in AmericaMad PrideMadhouseMaking Another World PossibleMaking Babies, Making FamiliesMaking Genes, Making WavesMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMalignantMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaning and Moral OrderMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeans, Ends, and PersonsMeans, Ends, and PersonsMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedical Research for HireMedicalized MasculinitiesMedically Assisted DeathMeditations for the HumanistMelancholia and MoralismMental Health Professionals, Minorities and the PoorMental Illness, Medicine and LawMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMetaethical SubjectivismMill's UtilitarianismMind FieldsMind WarsMind WarsModern Theories of JusticeModernity and TechnologyMoney ShotMonsterMoral Acquaintances and Moral DecisionsMoral BrainsMoral ClarityMoral CultivationMoral Development and RealityMoral Dilemmas in Real LifeMoral DimensionsMoral EntanglementsMoral FailureMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral MindsMoral OriginsMoral Panics, Sex PanicsMoral ParticularismMoral PerceptionMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RealismMoral RelativismMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral Status and Human LifeMoral StealthMoral Theory at the MoviesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMoral, Immoral, AmoralMoralismMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMorals, Rights and Practice in the Human ServicesMorals, Rights and Practice in the Human ServicesMore Than HumanMotive and RightnessMovies and the Moral Adventure of LifeMurder in the InnMy Body PoliticMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Sister's KeeperMy Sister's KeeperMy WayNakedNano-Bio-EthicsNarrative MedicineNarrative ProsthesisNatural Ethical FactsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalized BioethicsNeither Bad nor MadNeoconservatismNeonatal BioethicsNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNew Takes in Film-PhilosophyNew Waves in EthicsNew Waves in MetaethicsNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNo Child Left DifferentNo Impact ManNormative EthicsNormativityNothing about us, without us!Oath BetrayedOf War and LawOn AnimalsOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn EvilOn Human RightsOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOn the TakeOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne ChildOne Nation Under TherapyOne World NowOne World NowOur Bodies, Whose Property?Our Bodies, Whose Property?Our Daily MedsOur Faithfulness to the PastOur Posthuman FutureOut of EdenOut of Its MindOut of the ShadowsOverdosed AmericaOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Studies in Normative EthicsOxford Studies in Normative Ethics, Volume 7Oxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPassionate DeliberationPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perfecting VirtuePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonalities on the PlatePersonhood and Health CarePersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPerspectives On Health And Human RightsPharmaceutical FreedomPharmacracyPharmageddonPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhysician-Assisted DyingPicturing DisabilityPilgrim at Tinker CreekPlaying God?Playing God?Political EmotionsPornlandPowerful MedicinesPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical EthicsPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical RulesPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic NeuroethicsPraise and BlamePreferences and Well-BeingPrimates and PhilosophersPro-Life, Pro-ChoiceProcreation and ParenthoodProfits Before People?Progress in BioethicsProperty in the BodyProzac As a Way of LifeProzac on the CouchPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric EthicsPsychiatry and EmpirePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychotropic Drug Prescriber's Survival GuidePublic Health LawPublic Health Law and EthicsPublic PhilosophyPunishing the Mentally IllPunishmentPursuits of WisdomPutting Morality Back Into PoliticsPutting on VirtueQuality of Life and Human DifferenceRaceRadical HopeRadical VirtuesRape Is RapeRe-creating MedicineRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReckoning With HomelessnessReconceiving Medical EthicsRecovery from SchizophreniaRedefining RapeRedesigning HumansReducing the Stigma of Mental IllnessReflections on Ethics and ResponsibilityReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRefuting Peter Singer's Ethical TheoryRegard for Reason in the Moral MindRelative JusticeRelativism and Human RightsReligion ExplainedReprogeneticsRescuing JeffreyRespecting AnimalsResponsibilityResponsibility and PsychopathyResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsResponsible BrainsResponsible GeneticsRethinking CommodificationRethinking Informed Consent in BioethicsRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeReturn to ReasonRevolution in PsychologyRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRisk and Luck in Medical EthicsRobert NozickRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Rule of Law, Misrule of MenRun, Spot, RunRunning on RitalinSatisficing and MaximizingSchadenfreudeSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and EthicsScience in the Private InterestScience, Policy, and the Value-Free IdealScience, Seeds and CyborgsScratching the Surface of BioethicsSecular Philosophy and the Religious TemperamentSeeing the LightSelf-ConstitutionSelf-Made MadnessSelf-Trust and Reproductive AutonomySentimental RulesSex Fiends, Perverts, and PedophilesSex OffendersSex, Family, and the Culture WarsSexual DevianceSexual EthicsSexual PredatorsSexualized BrainsShaping Our SelvesShock TherapyShould I Medicate My Child?ShunnedSick to Death and Not Going to Take It AnymoreSickoSide EffectsSidewalk StoriesSilent PartnersSister CitizenSkeptical FeminismSocial Dimensions of Moral ResponsibilitySocial Inclusion of People with Mental IllnessSocial JusticeSociological Perspectives on the New GeneticsSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSovereign VirtueSpeech MattersSpiral of EntrapmentSplit DecisionsSticks and StonesStories MatterSubhumanSubjectivity and Being SomebodySuffering and VirtueSuffering, Death, and IdentitySuicide ProhibitionSurgery JunkiesSurgically Shaping ChildrenTaking Morality SeriouslyTaming the Troublesome ChildTechnology and the Good Life?TestimonyText and Materials on International Human RightsThe Moral Psychology of AngerThe Age of CulpabilityThe Age of CulpabilityThe Aims of Higher EducationThe Almost MoonThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Forensic PsychiatryThe Animal ManifestoThe Animals' AgendaThe Art of LivingThe Autonomy of MoralityThe Beloved SelfThe Best Things in LifeThe Big FixThe Bioethics ReaderThe Biology and Psychology of Moral AgencyThe Blackwell Guide to Medical EthicsThe Body SilentThe BondThe Book of LifeThe Burden of SympathyThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Textbook of BioethicsThe Case against Assisted SuicideThe Case Against PerfectionThe Case Against PunishmentThe Case for PerfectionThe Case of Terri SchiavoThe Challenge of Human RightsThe Character GapThe Code for Global EthicsThe Colonization Of Psychic SpaceThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Common ThreadThe Connected SelfThe Constitution of AgencyThe Cow with Ear Tag #1389The Creation of PsychopharmacologyThe Criminal BrainThe Decency WarsThe Difficult-to-Treat Psychiatric PatientThe Disability PendulumThe Disability Rights Movement: From Charity to ConfrontationThe Domain of ReasonsThe Double-Edged HelixThe Duty to ProtectThe Emotional Construction of MoralsThe End of Ethics in a Technological SocietyThe End of Stigma?The Essentials of New York Mental Health LawThe Ethical BrainThe Ethical Dimensions of the Biological and Health SciencesThe Ethics of BioethicsThe Ethics of Choosing ChildrenThe Ethics of Human EnhancementThe Ethics of ParenthoodThe Ethics of SightseeingThe Ethics of the FamilyThe Ethics of the Family in SenecaThe Ethics of the LieThe Ethics of TransplantsThe Ethics of WarThe Ethics ToolkitThe Evolution of Mental Health LawThe Evolution of MoralityThe FamilyThe Fat Studies ReaderThe Forgiveness ProjectThe Forgotten CreedThe Form of Practical KnowledgeThe Fountain of YouthThe Freedom ParadoxThe Future of Assisted Suicide and EuthanasiaThe Future of Human NatureThe Good BookThe Good LifeThe Great BetrayalThe Handbook of Disability StudiesThe Healing VirtuesThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of Human RightsThe HorizonThe Idea of JusticeThe Ideal of NatureThe Illusion of Freedom and EqualityThe Immortal Life of Henrietta LacksThe Importance of Being UnderstoodThe Insanity OffenseThe Joy of SecularismThe Language PoliceThe Last Normal ChildThe Last UtopiaThe Limits of MedicineThe LobotomistThe Love CureThe Lucifer EffectThe Manual of EpictetusThe Mark of ShameThe Meaning of Life and the Great PhilosophersThe Meaning of NiceThe Medicalization of SocietyThe Merck DruggernautThe Mind Has MountainsThe Minority BodyThe Modern Art of DyingThe Modern SavageThe Moral ArcThe Moral BrainThe Moral Demands of MemoryThe Moral FoolThe Moral MindThe Moral Psychology HandbookThe Moral Psychology of DisgustThe Moral Psychology of ForgivenessThe Moral Punishment Instinct The Moral, Social, and Commercial Imperatives of Genetic Testing and ScreeningThe Most Good You Can DoThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of the Moral BrainThe Nature of Moral ResponsibilityThe Nature of NormativityThe New Disability HistoryThe New Genetic MedicineThe New Religious IntoleranceThe Offensive InternetThe Origins of FairnessThe Oxford Handbook of Animal EthicsThe Oxford Handbook of Ethics at the End of LifeThe Oxford Handbook of Food EthicsThe Palgrave Handbook of Practical Animal EthicsThe Perfect BabyThe Philosophical ParentThe Philosophy of NeedThe Philosophy of PornographyThe Philosophy of PsychiatryThe Politics Of LustThe Portable Ethicist for Mental Health Professionals The Power of Religion in the Public SphereThe Price of PerfectionThe Price of TruthThe Problem of PunishmentThe Problem of WarThe Problem of WarThe Prosthetic ImpulseThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe PsychopathThe Purity MythThe Pursuit of PerfectionThe Relevance of Philosophy to LifeThe Right Road to Radical FreedomThe Right to be LovedThe Right to Be ParentsThe Righteous MindThe Root of All EvilThe Routledge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal MindsThe Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of EmpathyThe Rules of InsanityThe Second SexismThe Second-Person StandpointThe Silent World of Doctor and PatientThe Sleep of ReasonThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Speed of DarkThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Story of Cruel and UnusualThe Story WithinThe Stubborn System of Moral ResponsibilityThe Suicide TouristThe Terrible GiftThe Theory of OptionsThe Therapy of DesireThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Triple HelixThe Trolley Problem MysteriesThe Trouble with DiversityThe Truth About the Drug CompaniesThe Ugly LawsThe Varieties of Religious ExperienceThe Virtue of Defiance and Psychiatric EngagementThe Virtues of FreedomThe Virtues of HappinessThe Virtuous Life in Greek EthicsThe Virtuous PsychiatristThe Voice of Breast Cancer in Medicine and BioethicsThe War Against BoysThe War for Children's MindsThe Whole ChildThe Woman RacketThe Worldwide Practice of TortureTherapy with ChildrenThieves of VirtueThree Generations, No ImbecilesTimes of Triumph, Times of DoubtTolerance Among The VirtuesTolerance and the Ethical LifeTolerationToxic PsychiatryTrauma, Truth and ReconciliationTreatment Kind and FairTrusting on the EdgeTry to RememberUltimate JudgementUnborn in the USA: Inside the War on AbortionUndermining ScienceUnderstanding AbortionUnderstanding CloningUnderstanding EmotionsUnderstanding EvilUnderstanding Kant's EthicsUnderstanding Moral ObligationUnderstanding Physician-Pharmaceutical Industry InteractionsUnderstanding TerrorismUnderstanding the GenomeUnderstanding the Stigma of Mental IllnessUnderstanding Treatment Without ConsentUnhingedUnprincipled VirtueUnsanctifying Human Life: Essays on EthicsUnspeakable Acts, Ordinary PeopleUp in FlamesUpheavals of ThoughtUsers and Abusers of PsychiatryValue-Free Science?Values and Psychiatric DiagnosisValues in ConflictVegetarianismViolence and Mental DisorderVirtue EthicsVirtue, Rules, and JusticeVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVirtues and Their VicesVoracious Science and Vulnerable AnimalsVulnerability, Autonomy, and Applied EthicsWar Against the WeakWar, Torture and TerrorismWarrior's DishonourWeaknessWelfare and Rational CareWhat are you staring at?What Genes Can't DoWhat Have We DoneWhat Is a Human?What Is Good and WhyWhat Is Good and WhyWhat Is the Good Life?What Price Better Health?What Should I Do?What We Owe to Each OtherWhat Would Aristotle Do?What's Good on TVWhat's Normal?What's Wrong with Children's RightsWhat's Wrong with Homosexuality?What's Wrong With Morality?When Animals SpeakWhen Is Discrimination Wrong?Who Holds the Moral High Ground?Who Owns YouWho Qualifies for Rights?Whose America?Whose View of Life?Why Animals MatterWhy Animals MatterWhy Does Inequality Matter?Why Honor MattersWhy I Burned My Book and Other Essays on DisabilityWhy Not Kill Them All?Why Punish? How Much?Why Some Things Should Not Be for SaleWisdom, Intuition and EthicsWithout ConscienceWomen and Borderline Personality DisorderWomen and MadnessWondergenesWould You Kill the Fat Man?Wrestling with Behavioral GeneticsWriting About PatientsYou Must Be DreamingYour Genetic DestinyYour Inner FishYouth Offending and Youth Justice Yuck!
1. The Set-Up: A Peculiar Form of Human Vulnerability--Culture's
Jonathan Lear's latest book, Radical
Hope: Ethics in the Face of Cultural Devastation (2006) consists in an
inquiry, properly characterized as a form of philosophical anthropology (7),
into "a peculiar form of vulnerability" (6) that is arguably part of
the human condition.
We seem to acquire it as a result of
the fact that we essentially inhabit a way of life. Humans are by nature
cultural animals: we necessarily inhabit a way of life that is expressed in a
culture. But our way of life --whatever it is-- is vulnerable in various ways.
And we, as participants in that way of life, thereby inherit a vulnerability.
Should that way of life break down, that is our problem (6).
Such vulnerability has to do with
the possibility of losing the core concepts in terms of which we understand
ourselves, the world in which we live, and which give meaning to our lives
individually and collectively, and finding ourselves subsequently confronted
with the radical possibility of 'happenings' breaking down and becoming
meaningless. Lear inquires into this peculiar vulnerability in an effort to "grasp
an extreme possibility of human existence -- in part so that we can grasp the
scope and limits of human possibilities" (9-10).
But since, as he puts it, "the
only satisfactory way to investigate this remarkable human possibility is to
locate it in a textured historical context" (8), Lear undertakes a case-study
of the autobiographical testimony of the last great chief of the Crow nation, Plenty
Coups. He focuses on the dramatic events in the early decades of the 20th
century which deprived his people of their traditional way of life (as
warriors, hunters and nomads) and forced them to move onto a reservation --and
this, despite the fact they were never defeated in battle, nor forcibly removed
from their lands. He draws for this purpose on the historical and
anthropological research available on the Crow as well as on oral histories.
The general problem however that he
deals with has to do with what he calls the "blind spot" of any
culture: the inability to conceive of its own destruction and possible
extinction (83). The kinds of questions that his analysis raises and compels us
to ponder include the following: What should a people do in such a situation --when,
for a number of historical contingent reasons, a traditional way of life comes
to an end? How should one face the possibility that one's culture might
collapse? How should we live with this vulnerability? Can we make any sense of
facing up to such a challenge with "courage"? What conception of "courage"
is required? What would "virtue" or "imaginative excellence"
and "courage" (perhaps an appropriately thinned out concept,
as opposed to a thick one) entail in such a context? Can we still have
hope? What kind of hope? Can a form of "radical hope," as "the
hope for revival and for coming back to life in a form that is not yet
intelligible" (95), constitute a legitimate response? If yes, in what
sense and why?
In effect, he is interested in
exploring the general lessons that can be drawn by members of any culture as
they consider and reflect upon "how a nation comes to life-and-death
decisions at a time of crisis when it can no longer live according to its
founding values" (Coetzee), or "how cultures may seek rescue from
near-death" (Taylor) --and this, even if their culture is apparently still
robust and thriving, and not (yet) even threatened:
2. The Plot--Three Acts, Two Movements: A Catastrophic
Event, the End of All Events, and a Possibly Courageous Response
2.1. A Meditation--"After This, Nothing Happened"
Lear begins (in Part I) by
examining Plenty Coups' enigmatic statement ("After this, nothing
happened") as he is telling his life's story to a white man by the name of
I have not told you half of what
happened when I was young. I can think back and tell you much more of war and
horse-stealing. But when the buffalo went away the hearts of my people fell to
the ground, and they could not lift them up again. After this, nothing
happened. There was little singing anywhere. Besides, you know that part of
my life as well as I do. You saw what happened to us when the buffalo went away
He dissects the context of Plenty
Coups' remark and ponders extensively what he could have meant. He considers some
plausible (psychological and anthropological) interpretations we could give of
such a statement, which readily make sense to us, and which furthermore have
the additional merit of fitting with the principle of charity or humanity
(Davidson, 1984). According to such a principle, we should try to interpret
others as saying something true --guided by our own sense of what is true and of
what they could reasonably believe. However, as Lear shows, it is not here
merely a matter of trauma, depression, or mourning (individual or collective); the
gained plausibility of these interpretations is achieved, in the first case, at
the cost of somehow changing the subject of the claim --from a claim about the
world to one about the state of a psyche, or in the second case, by reading the
remark a kind of shorthand or figure-of-speech for expressing metaphorically
the actual breakdown and end of a way of life. And as such, they are ultimately
inadequate and insufficient for understanding the deeper and darker thought or
insight that it could possibly convey. The interpretations "may well fit
the principle of humanity, but do they fit Plenty Coups' humanity?"
(4). Perhaps we should inquire further into the very conditions which make these
kinds of interpretations possible (8-9).
As suggested above, Lear is not
primarily concerned with what actually happened to the Crow tribe or to any
other group, as he is concerned with "the field of possibilities in which
all human endeavors gain meaning" (7). His work is thus an ethical
inquiry, with an ontological dimension. It deals with the question of how one
should live in relation to a peculiar human possibility. But if we are going to
think about how to live with this possibility (the ethical dimension),
we need to figure out what it is (the ontological dimension). What is
this possibility of things' ceasing to happen? What would it be if it were true
that after a certain point nothing happened?
A philosophical inquiry may naturally
draw on various interpretations and accounts (historical, psychological and
anthropological) of how a traditional culture actually came to an end. But
ultimately, as Lear correctly points out, "what it wants to know is not
about actuality, but about possibility." "If 'things'
ceasing to happen' is a possibility, then it is a possibility we all must
live with --even when our culture is robust and thriving, even if we may never
have to face its becoming actual. It is a possibility that marks us as human.
How should we live with it?" (9) This question (concerned with ought)
belongs properly speaking to a philosophical inquiry, and not to empirical one
(concerned with what is). If this is a human possibility, then what moral
philosophy is interested in is this: How we ought to live with it?
It is here important to keep in
mind a number of crucial distinctions. It is clearly one thing to give an
account of the circumstances under which a way of life actually came to
an end; it is another to give an account of what it would be for it to
end; and it is yet quite another to ask how we ought to live with this
possibility? Lear is quite right in making these distinctions, and pointing to
the ambiguity that exists in the words "a way of life comes to an end."
It is this ambiguity, he claims, that makes it difficult to know what anyone
might mean by saying "after this, nothing happened" (9).
Nevertheless, he goes on to write, "we want to try to understand the
person making such a claim as making as radical a claim as is humanly
possible. And we want to ask, what would it be for such a claim to be true?"
2.2. The Hinge: Central Questions and a Possible Problem
If 'happenings' only have meaning
within a given cultural scheme (e.g., the traditional way of life), then with
the breakdown of cultural scheme one might well expect a similar breakdown of what
has traditionally counted as a 'happening' in the first place. But is it
possible for a cultural scheme with its traditional contents to collapse
and die, and yet endure as a historical entity, with a new conceptual
and moral content, boldly re-constructed and re-interpreted on the basis
of the old and traditional and yet in light the new, and therefore with a
certain (persisting) identity over time? What does it take to make this happen
--so that once again some event can count as a "happening,' and 'happenings'
can once again acquire meaning relative a newly constituted cultural scheme/content?
Lear answers the previous question
positively, and he provides a powerful illustration in answer to the last
question with his case-study of the Crow and Plenty Coups' bold and visionary
effort in leading his people forward against all odds, and beyond
the traditionally accepted yet false alternatives --to fight a war that one
cannot realistically win (or that one is sure to lose) until death or freedom,
or rather freedom in death. And the story he tells us is poignant and deeply
If however the analysis that I am
attributing here to Lear (in the paragraph above) countenances as I am
suggesting something like a scheme/content distinction, it may have to
answer to the strong objections raised against this "third" dogma of
empiricism by Davidson in his well-known paper, "On the Very Idea of a
Conceptual Scheme" (1984). But reasons of space, I cannot discuss this
issue further in the present context. (Cf: Quine's equally well-known paper "Two
Dogmas of Empiricism"].
2.3. "Moral Reasoning at the Abyss": Imaginative
Excellence, Radical Hope, and Courage
In his subsequent discussion of "Ethics
at the Horizon" (Part II) and in his articulation of he aptly calls "A
Critique of Abysmal Reasoning" (Part III), Lear draws more broadly and
creatively on the resources of Philosophy (Plato, Aristotle, Kant, Kierkegaard,
Heidegger, Wittgenstein, Bernard Williams, MacIntyre, etc), Anthropology (Sahlins,
Geertz, etc) and Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud, Winnicott, Lear, etc). He does
so in order to motivate and characterize the relevant notions and concepts for properly
understanding the challenge that Plenty Coups and his people faced, and assessing
the response that he led them to make at such an unprecedented and catastrophic
moment in their history. These notions and concepts include: practical
reason, moral reasoning at the abyss, thin vs. thick moral concepts
(55-65), self, identity and subjectivity (82-100), courage and
hope (118-123), virtue and imagination (124-136). They enable him to
articulate the problem of moral psychology (62-6), and characterize in more
perspicuous terms the structure of the psychological transformation (82-91)
that such a response entailed.
For this purpose, he focuses on the
Crows' thinking and how individual members attempted to live when their values
and lifestyle were being threatened. He examines the role played by 'bravery,' 'courage,'
and 'honor' within the tribe's traditional culture and how these values that
once defined the Crow were tested and undermined when they were forced to
abandon their nomadic, hunter-and-warrior lifestyle, and "lead a life they
did not understand" (56).
He then shows how Plenty Coups,
whose real name means "many achievements." inspired the Crow to use
what Lear describes as the "virtue" of "imaginative excellence"
(117-8). Plenty Coups boldly tried to imagine the kinds of conceptual
resources and ethical values that would be needed or useful to the Crow for making
sense of, and adapting to, their new world and new way of life --even after
their traditional way of life had collapsed. He writes that "Plenty Coups
was able to transform the destruction of a telos into 'a teleological
suspension of the ethical'" (146) --in Kierkegaard's sense of this
expression. He was able in other words to accept the collapse of ethical
life, of the very concepts in terms of which ethical life has
hitherto been understood by somehow summoning a conception or commitment to a
goodness that in fact transcended his current understanding of the good.
According to Lear, Plenty Coups was
able to do this on the basis of traditional resources such as 'dreams-interpretations'
and boldly re-interpreted 'narratives' of past virtues and other ethical
values. He was thus able to undergo a radical psychological transformation and
in so doing, "create a psychological world in which the traditional
virtues of the war eagle and the new virtues of the chickadee
could co-habit. Birds who were not of a feather could nevertheless live
together in facing the challenges of a new world" (81).
The chickadee is a traditional Crow
bird-icon that stands essentially for the virtue of learning from others.
Becoming a chickadee is a virtue --a form of human excellence (80). "He is
least in strength but strongest of mind among his kind. He is willing to work
for wisdom. The Chickadee-person is a good listener. Nothing escapes his ears,
which he has sharpened by constant use. Whenever others are talking together of
their successes and failures, there you will find the Chickadee-person
listening to their words" (70-1, 80). "Part of what it is to acquire
the chickadee virtue is to be able to spot what the 'successes' and the 'wisdom'
of others are--and to learn from them" (81). Chickadee virtue calls for a
new form of courage, yet it draws on the traditional resources of Crow culture
to do so (80). "The only substantive commitment embodied in the chickadee
virtue is that if one listens and learns from others in the right way
--even in radically different circumstances, even with the collapse of one's
world --something good will come of it" (82). "The Chickadee-person
has that special capacity to listen to others and learn from them: 'He is
willing to work for wisdom.' He thus the bird-philosopher --in the sense that
Plato gave that term: he knows that he lacks wisdom, but he yearns for it; and
thus he is led to seek it from others" (90). Finally, "the chickadee
understands that, in a period of cultural onslaught, one not only needs an (ego)
ideal like the chickadee; one also needs to learn new ways to preserve and
transmit it" (145).
It is by following the virtue and wisdom of the chickadee
that Plenty Coups was able to insure the survival of his people and their continued
hold on their lands (134; 146-7).
Through his dream-vision, Plenty Coups
was able to take a valued and honored spiritual force and put it to creative
use in facing up to new challenges. Thus, although [he] was advocating a new
way of life for the Crow, he was drawing upon the past in vibrant ways. And I
think a case can be made that Plenty Coups offered the Crow a traditional
way of going forward (154).
The Crow could then form new subjectivities and a new
identity --even as they no longer could be warriors, hunters, and nomads.
In his undertaking, Plenty Coups
exhibited a form of "genuine courage" (113)--that in Lear's analysis
fits with Aristotle's characterization and method, properly understood-- in
which "radical hope" is in fact a key ingredient (117-123). It is the
hope that something 'good' for the Crow is still possible in the future (94) --even
though the cultural framework in terms of which the notion of 'good' makes
sense is itself being swept aside (91-100). The radical form of hopefulness
embedded in Plenty Coups' vision was that even with the death of the traditional
forms of Crow subjectivity, the Crow can nevertheless survive --and flourish
again (99). It's as if his motto was: "The Crow is dead, long live the
Crow. This is a form of hope that seems to survive the destruction of a way
of life" (96). As paradoxical as this may sound, this is what gave the
Crow the necessary conceptual and moral tools to overcome despair, and lead a
meaningful life anew.
Though it may be incredibly
difficult to hold onto this commitment in the midst of subjective catastrophe,
it is not impossible. And it is at least conceivable that this is just what
Plenty Coups did (96).
Lear concludes his narrative of the Crows' struggle for
continued survival by showing that, unlike Sitting Bull, the last chief of the
Sioux, Plenty Coups was both personally and historically vindicated in his "courageous"
effort to lead his people to accept a third way, that of creative adaptation,
beyond the traditionally accepted alternatives of death or freedom (Coetzee).
His response of "radical hope" against all odds (for revival and
coming back to life in a form that is not yet fully intelligible) was not only
courageous but morally legitimate.
3. The Ending: A Final Assessment and a Couple of Possible
In closing, I can only add my comments
of well-deserved praise to an already long list of similar comments by
illustrious commentators, such as Charles Taylor, Alasdair MacIntyre, and J.M.
Coetzee. Lear's book is not only a masterfully crafted and deeply moving narrative,
but it also offers us a timely philosophical reflection that is highly relevant
to our current condition at this juncture of history. Needless to say, we live
in an age of deep and profound angst that the world itself, as we know
it, is vulnerable and could break down. We only have to think about the
sometimes extremist ways in which the so-called "guardians of cultural-national
purity and integrity" around the world affirm their distinctiveness and
right to exist as such (against what they perceive as a creeping and threatening
cosmopolitanism) in order to get a sense of the anxiety that such affirmations typically
hide. On a more global scale, we are confronted with the threat of global
warming, nuclear conflagration, weapons of mass destruction, the possible
extinction of the "book culture," and even the demise of Western
We live at a time of a heightened
sense that civilizations are themselves vulnerable (to destruction, devastation
and extinction). Events around the world --terrorist attacks, violent social
upheavals, and even natural catastrophes--have left us with an uncanny sense
of menace. We seem to be aware of a shared vulnerability that we cannot
quite name. I suspect that this feeling has provoked the widespread intolerance
that we see around us today --from all points on the political spectrum. It
is as though, without insistence that our outlook is correct, the outlook
itself might collapse. Perhaps if we could give a name to our shared sense
of vulnerability, we could find better ways to live with it (7; my addition in
parentheses; italics added).
Lear may be right when he says that
"if we could give a name to our shared sense of vulnerability, perhaps
we could find better ways to live with it." But, being naturally more
pessimistically inclined, and therefore arguably more realistic, I sincerely doubt
if this will suffice.
Besides, over and beyond the
compelling and brilliant analysis provided by Lear in his defense of, and parti-pris
with, Plenty Coups, one question keeps nagging me, and it stems from what might
be considered to be Sitting Bull's objection to Plenty Coups' 'historical compromise'
and 'selling-off' to the white man (148-154): Can we truly say without further
qualification that Plenty Coups was vindicated both personally and historically
in view of what (we now know) happened to the Crow over the years --since the
collapse of their traditional form of life? And this question naturally invites
other related ones: To what extent are the descendants of the Crow today still
Crow in their way of life, beliefs, values, and practices? Could it be that the
Crow people survived by no longer being Crow in any recognizable and
respectable way? Is the only way to survive as a Crow to be a non-Crow?
Davidson, D. . Inquiries into Truth and
Interpretation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
© 2007 Nader N. Chokr
Nader N. Chokr, Ph.D.,
Professor of Philosophy & Social Sciences, School of Philosophy and Social
Development, Shandong University, China. firstname.lastname@example.org