email page    print page

All Topic Reviews
A New Understanding of Mental Disorders A Theory of Feelings Addictions Memory and the Self"Intimate" Violence against Women1001 Solution-Focused Questions101 Healing Stories101 Things I Wish I'd Known When I Started Using Hypnosis50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God8 Keys to Body Brain BalanceA Brief History of Modern PsychologyA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Conceptual History of Psychology: Exploring the Tangled Web A Cooperative SpeciesA Guide to Teaching Introductory PsychologyA History of Modern Experimental PsychologyA History of Psychology in AutobiographyA History of Social PsychologyA History of the BrainA History of the MindA Hole in the HeadA Matter of SecurityA Mind of Its OwnA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Place for ConsciousnessA Scientific Search for AltruismA Short Introduction to Promoting Resilience in ChildrenA Social History of PsychologyA Stroll With William JamesA System Architecture Approach to the BrainA Theory of FreedomA Very Bad WizardAbductedAbout FacesAccounts of InnocenceAction, Emotion and WillAdapting MindsAddiction and Self-ControlADHD & MeADHD in AdultsAdieu to GodAdolescence and Body ImageAdult Bipolar DisordersAdvances in Culture and PsychologyAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAffect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of SelfAffective MappingAgainst EmpathyAgainst HappinessAges and StagesAll Joy and No FunAll Out!All We Have to FearAlterations of ConsciousnessAmerican Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical NeurosciencesAn Argument for MindAncient Bodies, Modern LivesAnd BreatheAnimal MadnessAnimal Tool BehaviorAnimals in TranslationAnomalous CognitionAping MankindArtificial ConsciousnessAspects of PsychologismAsperger Syndrome and Your ChildAsperger Syndrome, Adolescence, and IdentityAssessment and Treatment of Childhood Problems, Second EditionAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAttachedAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutism and the Myth of the Person AloneAutopsy of a Suicidal MindBecoming an Effective PsychotherapistBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing No OneBelievingBetween Two WorldsBeyond AppearanceBeyond BlueBeyond BullyingBeyond MadnessBeyond MelancholyBeyond the BrainBeyond the DSM StoryBig DreamsBiofeedback for the BrainBipolar ChildrenBipolar DisorderBipolar KidsBlackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive DevelopmentBlind SpotsBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlubberlandblueprintBlushBodiesBody ConsciousnessBody Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity in YouthBody SenseBody WorkBorderline Personality DisorderBorderline Personality Disorder and the Conversational ModelBorn DigitalBorn to Be GoodBorn Together - Reared ApartBounceBoundaries in Human RelationshipsBounded RationalityBowen Theory's SecretsBozo SapiensBrain and CultureBrain and the GazeBrain Arousal and Information TheoryBrain BugsBrain Change TherapyBrain Circuitry and Signaling in PsychiatryBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-Based Therapy with AdultsBrain-WiseBrainstormBrainstormingBraintrustBrainwashingBrandedBreaking Murphy's LawBright-SidedBuddha's BrainBullying and TeasingBuyologyCan't You Hear Them?CaptureCare of the PsycheCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCerebrum 2007Cerebrum 2010Cerebrum 2015Cerebrum Anthology 2013Changing the SubjectCharacter Strengths and VirtuesCharacter Strengths InterventionsCheating LessonsChild and Adolescent Psychological DisordersChildren’s Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness Chomsky NotebookClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyClinical Psychology in Practice ClosureCognition and PerceptionCognition and the BrainCognitive BiologyCognitive DissonanceCognitive FictionsCognitive Mechanisms of Belief ChangeCognitive PragmaticsCognitive ScienceCognitive ScienceCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Therapy of Anxiety DisordersCognitive Unconscious and Human RationalityCold-Blooded KindnessComing of Age in Second LifeCommunication Issues In Autism And Asperger SyndromeCompassion and Healing in Medicine and SocietyComplementary and Alternative Therapies ResearchComprehending ColumbineConfessions of a SociopathConquering Shame and CodependencyConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the Social BrainConsciousness EmergingConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Self-Consciousness, and the Science of Being HumanConstructing PainConsumer NeuroscienceContemporary Debates in Cognitive ScienceConversations on ConsciousnessConviction of the InnocentCooperation and Its EvolutionCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCredit and BlameCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychologyCritical Thinking About PsychologyCross-Cultural PsychologyCrowdsourcingCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCuriousDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous and Severe Personality DisorderDaniel DennettDaughters of MadnessDeafness In MindDeath and ConsciousnessDeath of a ParentDecomposing the WillDeep Brain StimulationDeep ChinaDefining DifferenceDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions of GenderDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDeparting from DevianceDescartes' BabyDescartes's Changing MindDescribing Inner Experience?Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Destructive EmotionsDevelopment of Geocentric Spatial Language and CognitionDevelopment of PsychopathologyDialogues on DifferenceDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Digital HemlockDirty MindsDisgust and Its DisordersDisorders of VolitionDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Doing without ConceptsDrunk Tank PinkEducating People to Be Emotionally IntelligentEffective IntentionsEffective Writing in PsychologyEffortless AttentionEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbracing MindEmbracing UncertaintyEMDR Therapy and Somatic PsychologyEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotionally InvolvedEmotionsEmotionsEmotions and LifeEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions RevealedEmotions, Aggression, and Morality in ChildrenEmotions, Stress, and HealthEmpathyEnjoymentErotic MoralityEscape Your Own PrisonEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthically Challenged ProfessionsEveryday Mind ReadingEvidence for PsiEvidence-Based Mental Health PracticeEvil MenEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution and LearningEvolution, Games, and GodEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolutionary Psychology as Maladapted PsychologyExacting BeautyExperiences of DepressionExperimenterExplaining the BrainExplaining the BrainExplorations in Neuroscience, Psychology and ReligionExploring TranssexualismExpression and the InnerExtending Self-Esteem ResearchExtraordinary BeliefsFact and Value in EmotionFaking ItFatigue as a Window to the BrainFavorite Activities for the Teaching of PsychologyFeeling GoodFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFinding Meaning, Facing FearsFitting In Is OverratedFive Constraints on Predicting BehaviorFlourishingFlow: The Psychology of Optimal ExperienceFolk Psychological NarrativesFooling HoudiniForever YoungFormulation in Psychology and PsychotherapyFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Psychological ThoughtFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom EvolvesFrom Axons to IdentityFrom Madness to Mental HealthFrom Neurons to Self-ConsciousnessFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Symptom to SynapseFrontiers of ConsciousnessGay, Straight, and the Reason WhyGenerosityGenes, Environment, and PsychopathologyGenetic Nature/CultureGeniusGetting Started with EEG NeurofeedbackGetting Under the SkinGlued to GamesGoing SaneGot Parts?Group GeniusGrowing Up GirlGuilt, Shame, and AnxietyGut ReactionsHallucinationHandbook New Sexuality StudiesHandbook of Closeness and IntimacyHandbook of Critical PsychologyHandbook of Emotion RegulationHandbook of EmotionsHandbook of Personality DisordersHandbook of PsychopathyHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Spatial CognitionHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness at WorkHappiness Is.Happy at LastHard to GetHardwired BehaviorHatredHealing the SplitHidden ResourcesHope and DespairHot ThoughtHot ThoughtHouse and PsychologyHow Animals Affect UsHow Animals GrieveHow Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Doctors ThinkHow Enlightenment Changes Your BrainHow Families Still MatterHow History Made the MindHow Infants Know MindsHow Many Friends Does One Person Need?How People ChangeHow Professors ThinkHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Change Someone You LoveHow We ReasonHow We RememberHughes' Outline of Modern PsychiatryHumanHuman BondingHuman Reasoning and Cognitive ScienceHume’s Moral Philosophy and Contemporary PsychologyHypnotismHysteriaiBrainIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIdentifying the MindiDisorderImagination and the Meaningful BrainImitation and the Social MindImpulse Control DisordersImpulsivityIn an Unspoken VoiceIn Defense of SentimentalityIn DoubtIn Search of HappinessIn the Wake of 9/11Individual and Collective Memory ConsolidationInner Experience and NeuroscienceInner PresenceInside the American CoupleIntegrated Behavioral Health CareIntegrating Evolution and DevelopmentIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntellectual DisabilityIntelligenceIntelligence, Destiny, and EducationIntentions and IntentionalityInterdependent MindsInterpreting MindsInto the Minds of MadmenIntoxicating MindsIntrospection VindicatedIntuitionInventing PersonalityInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIs There Anything Good About Men?Issues for Families, Schools and CommunitiesJane Sexes It UpJoint AttentionJoint AttentionJudgment and Decision MakingJust a DogJust BabiesJuvenile-Onset SchizophreniaKarl JaspersKey Thinkers in PsychologyKidding OurselvesKids of CharacterKilling MonstersKnowing EmotionsLack of CharacterLanguage OriginsLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw, Mind and BrainLess Than HumanLet Kids Be KidsLet's Talk About DeathLiving NarrativeLiving with Mild Cognitive ImpairmentLonelinessLooking for SpinozaLossLOT 2Love at Goon ParkMachine ConsciousnessMacrocognitionMade for Each OtherMadnessMadness and Modernism: Insanity in the light of modern art, literature, and thought Making a Good Brain GreatMaking Habits, Breaking HabitsMaking Minds and MadnessMaking Up the MindMale SexualityMan and WomanMan's Search for MeaningMan, Beast, and ZombieManic MindsManlinessMapping the MindMarking the MindMarvelous Learning AnimalMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaningMeaning, Mortality, and ChoiceMedical MusesMeditating SelflesslyMeetings with a Remarkable ManMemoryMemory and DreamsMemory and EmotionMemory And UnderstandingMental BiologyMental IllnessMental Time TravelMetacognitionMetacognition and Theory of MindMethods in MindMindMindMind and BrainMind and ConsciousnessMind GamesMind Games:Mind in LifeMind TimeMind to MindMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMindful AngerMindfulnessMindfulnessMindfulness and AcceptanceMindfulness-Based Treatment Approaches: Clinician's Guide to Evidence Base and ApplicationsMinding AnimalsMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds, Brains, and LawMindsightMindworldsMirrors in the BrainMistakes Were Made (But Not by Me)Models of MadnessMoodMoral Development and RealityMoral MindsMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Mothers and OthersMotivation and Cognitive ControlMotivational Interviewing: Preparing People For ChangeMovies and the MindMulticulturalism and the Therapeutic ProcessMultiplicityMuses, Madmen, and ProphetsMy Family AlbumMyths about SuicideNarrative IdentitiesNarrative PsychiatryNarratives in PsychiatryNaturalizing Intention in ActionNature and NarrativeNature Via NurtureNeither Bad nor MadNerveNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeurochemistry of ConsciousnessNeurodiversityNeuroethicsNeuroLogicNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroscience and PhilosophyNo Child Left DifferentNo Two AlikeNot By Genes AloneNot Much Just Chillin'Not So Abnormal PsychologyNurturing the Older Brain and MindOn AnxietyOn Being an Introvert or Highly Sensitive PersonOn Being HumanOn Being MovedOn Deep History and the BrainOn DesireOn KillingOn Nature and LanguageOn PaedophiliaOn PersonalityOn the Frontier of AdulthoodOn the Origins of Cognitive ScienceOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOnflowOpen MindsOpening Skinner's BoxOrigin of MindOrigins of PsychopathologyOther MindsOut of Our HeadsOut of the WoodsOvercoming Depersonalization DisorderPanpsychism and the Religious AttitudePanpsychism in the WestParenting and the Child's WorldPassionate EnginesPathologies of the WestPatient-Based Approaches to Cognitive NeurosciencePediatric PsychopharmacologyPeople Types and Tiger StripesPerception & CognitionPerception beyond InferencePerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPersonal Development and Clinical PsychologyPerspectives on ImitationPhantoms in the BrainPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhrenologyPhysical RealizationPhysics in MindPieces of LightPlaying with FirePositive PsychologyPositive PsychologyPostcards from the Brain MuseumPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPoverty and Brain Development During ChildhoodPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical Management of Personality DisorderPractical Management of Personality DisorderPredicative MindsPredictably IrrationalPreference, Belief, and SimilarityPrenatal Testosterone in MindPrivileged AccessProcess-Based CBTProcrastinationPromoting Healthy AttachmentsProust Was a NeuroscientistPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsychological AgencyPsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychological Dimensions of the SelfPsychologists Defying the CrowdPsychologyPsychologyPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology for ScreenwritersPsychology of Women: A Handbook of Issues and TheoriesPsychology's GhostsPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology's TerritoriesPsychopathologyPsychopathyPsychosis and EmotionPsychotherapy, American Culture, and Social PolicyPutnam CampPutting a Name to ItQuantum Memory PowerQuietRadical DistortionRadical Embodied Cognitive ScienceRadical ExternalismRadical GraceRapeRe-Visioning PsychiatryReal MaterialismReality CheckReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecovery in Mental IllnessRecreative MindsRedirectReducing Adolescent RiskRegulating EmotionsRelational BeingRelational Mental HealthRelational Suicide AssessmentReliability in Cognitive NeuroscienceRemembering HomeRemembering Our ChildhoodResearch Advances in Genetics and GenomicsResearching Children's ExperienceResilience in ChildrenRestoring ResilienceRethinking ADHDRethinking Learning DisabilitiesRethinking Middle YearsRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfRevolution in PsychologyRoadmap to ResilienceRomance and Sex in Adolescence and Emerging AdulthoodSchadenfreudeSchizophrenia RevealedSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologySecond NatureSecond NatureSecond That EmotionSecond-order Change in PsychotherapySecrets of the MindSee What I'm SayingSee What I'm SayingSeeing and VisualizingSeeing RedSelf and SocietySelf Comes to MindSelf Control in Society, Mind, and BrainSelf-Awareness Deficits in Psychiatric PatientsSelf-CompassionSelf-Consciousness and 'Split' BrainsSelf-RegulationSelf-Representational Approaches to ConsciousnessSelfless InsightSelvesSerial KillersSex at DawnSex on the BrainSex, Time and PowerSexual Coercion in Primates and HumansSexual DisordersSexual FluiditySexual ReckoningsSexualized BrainsShame and GuiltShatteredSimulating MindsSisyphus's BoulderSleepyheadSNAPSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial Psychology and DiscourseSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSoul DustSparkSpiral of EntrapmentSplendors and Miseries of the BrainSports Hypnosis in PracticeStanding at Water's EdgeStich and His CriticsStillpowerStop OverreactingStructure and Agency in Everyday LifeStructures of AgencyStuffStumbling on HappinessSubjectivity and SelfhoodSubstance Abuse and EmotionSuicidalSupersizing the MindSweet DreamsSynaptic SelfTales from Both Sides of the BrainTalking Oneself SoberTalking to BabiesTaming the Troublesome ChildTargeting AutismTeaching Problems and the Problems of TeachingTeleological RealismTen Years of Viewing from WithinTestosterone RexThat's DisgustingThe 5 Elements of Effective ThinkingThe Accidental MindThe Age of EmpathyThe Altruism EquationThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Clinical PsychiatryThe Anatomy of BiasThe Anxious BrainThe Archaeology of MindThe Art and Science of MindfulnessThe Art InstinctThe Art of HypnosisThe Asymmetrical BrainThe Bifurcation of the SelfThe Big Book of ConceptsThe Big DisconnectThe Birth of IntersubjectivityThe Birth of the MindThe Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge ManagementThe Blank SlateThe Body Has a Mind of Its OwnThe Bounds of CognitionThe Boy Who Was Raised as a DogThe BrainThe BrainThe Brain and the Meaning of LifeThe Brain Health BookThe Brain SupremacyThe Brain That Changes ItselfThe Brain's Way of HealingThe Brain: Big Bangs, Behaviors, and BeliefsThe Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive ScienceThe Cambridge Handbook of Situated CognitionThe Character of ConsciousnessThe Chemistry Between UsThe Choice EffectThe Clinical Science of Suicide PreventionThe Cognitive Approach to Conscious MachinesThe Cognitive Behavioral Workbook for Anxiety: A Step-By-Step ProgramThe Cognitive NeurosciencesThe Cognitive-Emotional BrainThe College Fear FactorThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Compass of PleasureThe Compassionate ConnectionThe Concepts of ConsciousnessThe Conscious BrainThe Conscious SelfThe Consuming InstinctThe Creating BrainThe Creative BrainThe Crucible of ConsciousnessThe Crucible of ExperienceThe Cure WithinThe Dao of NeuroscienceThe Developing MindThe Developing MindThe Development of PsychopathologyThe Disappearance of the Social in American Social PsychologyThe Dissolution of MindThe Duty to ProtectThe Educated ParentThe Ego TunnelThe Elephant in the RoomThe Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human ExperienceThe Emotional Foundations of PersonalityThe Emotional Journey of the Alzheimer's FamilyThe Encultured BrainThe Encyclopedia of StupidityThe Enduring Self in People with Alzheimer'sThe Epidemiology of SchizophreniaThe Essential DifferenceThe Ethical BrainThe Evolution of BeautyThe Evolution of ChildhoodThe Evolution of CooperationThe Evolution of LanguageThe Evolution of MindThe Evolving BrainThe Executive BrainThe Faces of TerrorismThe Feeling BrainThe Feeling of What HappensThe First IdeaThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Foundations of Cognitive ArchaeologyThe Fundamentalist MindsetThe GapThe Gender TrapThe Geography of BlissThe Gift of ShynessThe Good LifeThe Good LifeThe Happiness HypothesisThe Happiness of PursuitThe Health Psychology HandbookThe Healthy Aging BrainThe Heart of TraumaThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of PsychologyThe Human FaceThe Human SparkThe Hypomanic EdgeThe Imagery DebateThe Immeasurable MindThe Imprinted BrainThe Incredible Shrinking MindThe Innate MindThe Innate MindThe Integrated SelfThe Intentional BrainThe Language of ThoughtThe Languages of the BrainThe Lexicon of Adlerian PsychologyThe Lie DetectorsThe Lives of the BrainThe Lonely AmericanThe Lust for BloodThe Madness of WomenThe Male BrainThe Man Who Lost His LanguageThe Man Who Shocked the WorldThe Man Who Tasted ShapesThe Man Who Wasn't ThereThe Matter of the MindThe Mature MindThe Mean Girl MotiveThe Meaning of EvilThe Meaning of OthersThe Meaning of the BodyThe Measure of MadnessThe Measure of MindThe Medicalization of Everyday LifeThe Mind and the BrainThe Mind in ContextThe Mind of the ChildThe Mind of the HorseThe Mind's EyeThe Mind, the Body and the WorldThe Mind-Gut ConnectionThe Mindful BrainThe Misleading MindThe Moral MindThe Most Dangerous AnimalThe Most Human HumanThe Mother FactorThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of Depression as DiseaseThe Myth of Mirror NeuronsThe Myth of Self HelpThe Myth of Self-EsteemThe Myth of the Spoiled ChildThe Nature of the SelfThe Necessity Of MadnessThe Neuro RevolutionThe Neuron and the MindThe Neuropsychology of the UnconsciousThe Neuroscience of Human RelationshipsThe Neuroscience of PsychotherapyThe Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social BrainThe New BrainThe New Science of DreamingThe New Science of the MindThe New UnconsciousThe Normal PersonalityThe Origins of FairnessThe Overflowing BrainThe Oxford Companion to the MindThe Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of MindThe Paradoxical PrimateThe Perfectionist's HandbookThe Peripheral MindThe Phenomenology ReaderThe Philosopher's Secret FireThe Philosophical BabyThe Political MindThe Politics of HappinessThe Positive Side of Negative EmotionsThe Postnational SelfThe Postpartum EffectThe Power of PlayThe Praeger Handbook of TranssexualityThe Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday LifeThe Primate MindThe Prism of GrammarThe Psychobiology of Trauma and Resilience Across the LifespanThe Psychological Construction of EmotionThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of HappinessThe Psychology of LifestyleThe Psychology of Religious FundamentalismThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of SpiritualityThe Psychology of StereotypingThe Psychology of SuperheroesThe Psychophysiology of Self-AwarenessThe Pursuit of PerfectThe Quest for Mental HealthThe Rational ImaginationThe Ravenous BrainThe Reasons of LoveThe Righteous MindThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Handbook of ConsciousnessThe Science of EvilThe Science of Intimate RelationshipsThe Science of Shame and its Treatment The Second SelfThe Secret History of EmotionThe Secret Lives of BoysThe Self and Its EmotionsThe Self-Sabotage CycleThe Sense of SelfThe Sensitive SelfThe Shape of ThoughtThe Social AnimalThe Social Nature of Mental IllnessThe Social Neuroscience of EmpathyThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Story of Intellectual DisabilityThe Structure of ThinkingThe Survivors ClubThe Talking ApeThe Teenage BrainThe Tell-Tale BrainThe Temperamental ThreadThe Tender CutThe Tending InstinctThe Time ParadoxThe Trauma MythThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trouble with IllnessThe True PathThe Truth About GriefThe Turing TestThe Uncertain SciencesThe Undoing ProjectThe Unhappy ChildThe Upside of IrrationalityThe Varieties of ConsciousnessThe War for Children's MindsThe Well-Tuned BrainThe Wild Girl, Natural Man, and the MonsterThe Winner's BrainThe Wisdom in FeelingThe Woman RacketThe World in My Mind, My Mind in the WorldThe Wow ClimaxThe Yipping TigerThemes, Issues and Debates in PsychologyTheoretical Issues in Psychology: An IntroductionTheory of AddictionTheory of MindThings and PlacesThink CatThink Confident, Be ConfidentThinking about AddictionThinking and SeeingThis Emotional Life: In Search of Ourselves...and HappinessThought and LanguageThought in a Hostile WorldTo Have and To Hurt:Toward an Evolutionary Biology of LanguageToward Replacement Parts for the BrainTrauma and Human ExistenceTrauma, Tragedy, TherapyTreating Attachment DisordersTreating Self-InjuryTreating Self-Injury: A Practical GuideTrue to Our FeelingsTrusting the Subject?Understanding and Treating Borderline Personality DisorderUnderstanding ConsciousnessUnderstanding ParanoiaUnderstanding PeopleUnderstanding TerrorismUnderstanding the BrainUndoing Perpetual StressUnlock the Genius WithinUnsettled MindsUnstrange MindsUnthinkingUnthoughtUs and ThemViolent PartnersVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVision and MindVisual AgnosiaWarrior's DishonourWe Who Are DarkWednesday Is Indigo BlueWelcome to Your BrainWhat Do Women Want?What Dying People WantWhat Have We DoneWhat Intelligence Tests MissWhat Is an Emotion: Classic and Contemporary ReadingsWhat Is Emotion?What is Intelligence?What Is Mental Illness?What Is Thought?What Makes Your Brain Happy and Why You Should Do the Opposite What the Best College Students DoWhat the Dog SawWhat We Know about Emotional IntelligenceWhat We Say MattersWhat's Wrong With Morality?When Boys Become BoysWhen Perfect Isn't Good EnoughWhen the Impossible HappensWhen Walls Become DoorwaysWho's Been Sleeping in Your HeadWho's in Charge?Why Humans Like to CryWhy Love MattersWhy Lyrics LastWhy People CooperateWhy People Die by SuicideWhy Sex Matters: A Darwinian Look at Human BehaviorWhy Smart People Can Be So StupidWhy the Mind is Not a ComputerWhy Us?Why We LieWhy We LoveWhy We SleepWider than the SkyWilliam James at the BoundariesWilling, Wanting, WaitingWittgenstein And PsychologyWomen and Child Sexual AbuseWorking MindsYoga and PsychologyYou Are What You RememberYoung Minds in Social WorldsYour Brain on CubsYour Brain on FoodYour Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings,Your Brain on YogaYour Child in the BalanceZombies and Consciousness

Related Topics
No Two AlikeReview - No Two Alike
Human Nature and Human Individuality
by Judith Rich Harris
WW Norton, 2006
Review by John D. Mullen, PhD
Mar 8th 2006 (Volume 10, Issue 10)

Children are different from each other both when they are young and after they mature.  Why is that?  There was a time when no one hesitated with the answer; they're different because they were reared differently.  Some were spanked, some were not.  Some received authoritarian parenting, some permissive, some authoritative.  Some were toilet trained early and harshly, some were left to cry in the crib and some were cuddled, and so it went.  Anyone reading this review knows this story and knows that the emphasis was on parenting and genes were not a part of the account. 

Behavioral genetics, by studying identical twins, fraternal twins, other siblings and adopted children altered that account in the late twentieth century.  It showed convincingly that genetic variance accounts for a good deal of trait variance, leading to the (oversimplified) formulation:  trait (phenotypic) variance = genotypic variance + environmental variance.  While this seems vaguely like common sense, the admission of genotype as an important factor in human development placed almost the entire corpus of developmental research under suspicion for not controlling for genes.  Agreed, children whose parents read to them regularly become better readers.  But with genes in play the correlation no longer implies that reading to children causes them to become better readers.  Thousand of dissertations, scholarly articles and parenting paperbacks need to be cast into the flames of discarded paradigms.  But behavioral genetics went further.  It failed to detect any significant parenting effects from within the environmental realm of the causation of traits (The exception is pathologically abusive parenting.)

Questions lingered.  If environmental variance accounts for roughly half of phenotypic personality variance, why are siblings raised at home so different?  They seem to share half the genotype and the entire environment.  Even more curiously, why are identical twins reared together so different when they share all of their genes and all of the environment?  Why were the Iranian conjoined twins Laleh and Ladan so different when their genes and environments seemed all but identical?  No Two Alike, this wonderful new book by Judith Rich Harris, takes on this most difficult of questions.  While behavioral genetics has established that genes have an important role in the development of human differences, it is Judith Harris who seeks to uncover the complicated and subtle mechanisms through which the environment in its broadest senses leaves its marks.

In developmental psychology when Robert Plomin of Kings College, London speaks, people listen.  In 2001 Plomin, et. al. provided a comprehensive review of the literature in an article, "Why are children in the same family so different", Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 46, 225-233.  Where "non-shared" environment denotes factors that make people different, they wrote, "We also need to consider the gloomy prospect that chance contributes to non-shared environment in terms of random noise, ..."  They had failed to detect any systematic factors that separate out children, leaving the possibility that they become different as a result of chance events.  These singular events are not literally by chance, of course, but they and their effects are unpredictable.  One sibling finds himself in the sights of a bully and is frequently frightened, another loses control of his bowels in gym class and gains the long-lasting nickname "shitty", a third has counseling from a charismatic therapist and devotes herself to psychology.  These singular events alone do not alter lives.  They create what Plomin, et. al. refer to as a, "... subtle interplay of a concatenation of events."  They set something in motion that gains momentum.  As Kierkegaard has a character say in Either/Or, "The smallest of causes can bring about the greatest of effects."  The prospect of admitting these events into the picture is "gloomy" and the events are "noise" because just as noise grates upon the ear, singular events grate on a scientist's penchant for regularity.

Judith Harris shook the field of socialization research in 1998 with her impressive and hugely popular The Nurture Assumption where she argued (1) that genes are a big part of human developmental variation, (2) the effects of diverse parenting practices are restricted to the home, and (3) environmental effects come largely from peer socialization.  In No Two Alike she seeks to fill in the account of how the variation in the environment contributes to differences among people.

Harris is an unusual figure in academic psychology.  She has no Ph.D. and no academic appointment.  She's a reformed textbook writer from New Jersey who has become a leading developmental theoretician.  Harris delights in retelling the story of her ignominious exile from graduate study at Harvard at the hands of Chairman George A. Miller and her redemption in 1998 when the she received from the American Psychological Association the George A. Miller Award for her 1995 paper, "Where is the Child's Environment", Psychological Review, 102, 458-489.  And Harris, a devotee of mystery writing, is a great storyteller, relating exchanges with researchers who have tried to obscure the details of their work under the glare of Harris' keen eye.  I can think of no rival to Judith Harris' ability to spot confounds in research and to suggest alternative conclusions that are more consistent with the data than the researcher's own.  Let me illustrate:

Harris is not a researcher, at least in the sense that she does not run subjects, have a laboratory or seek research funds.  As a result she must rely upon the data of others to support her critiques and the ideas she promotes.  This places a heavy burden to be certain that first, the research she sights is methodologically adequate to the conclusions drawn and second, that what is reported, even widely reported, was actually what was done.  On this matter, had Harris been canine she would have been a bloodhound-bulldog cross.  Two examples:

First, Harris long ago concluded that, within the realm of the non-pathologically abusive, parenting styles have little effect outside the home.  This was argued in The Nurture Assumption and is argued again in No Two Alike, and God help the researcher who reports data to the contrary.  Following The Nurture Assumption Harris was invited to a conference on parenting sponsored by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD).  One of the organizers reported to Harris, "I had to fight to get you on the program" (53).  Harris' only ally present was David Rowe whose The Limits of Family Influence (1994) preceded Harris' 1998 work.  The conference papers were published as an important anthology, J. G. Borkowski, et. al., Parenting and the child's world: influences on academic, intellectual and social-emotional development. (2002).  Harris provides an amusing account of the conference and a very clear description of the issues involved.  Socialization theorists, who for decades had ignored genetic contributions to personality traits in favor of parenting effects, have now admitted the former into their conversations.  But they continue to reject the behavioral genetic evidence against parenting effects beyond the home.  Their new claim is that parenting effects are mediated through the genes, through gene-environment interactions, so that in the same family one child may flourish under harsh discipline while another withers.  They contend as well that these parenting effects are cancelled out in the behavioral genetic analysis, explaining why no parenting effects turn up despite their existence.  Of course if this were true, then using parenting research to formulate child-rearing advice would be impossible since the same recommendations could have opposite effects upon two children.  But Harris denies that it is true in the sense proposed.  She agrees that the effects of parenting will be mediated through the genes of the child, but that differences as great as to cancel each other out, so-called "crossover effects", are very rare anywhere in nature.  She argues that genetic mediation tends to have "sensitivity effects" where the consequences of an environmental variable run in the same direction though to greater or lesser extents. 

One paper at the conference caught Harris' attention as a serious challenge to her claim that parenting styles do not have consequences beyond the home.  Stephen Suomi does research on Rhesus monkeys at NICHD.  He reported his study that employed two genetic strains of monkeys, one bred to be nervous or "high-reactive" the other to be calm or "low-reactive.'  The monkeys of both groups were reared by adoptive monkey mothers who were either good or bad mothers.  The "low-reactives" turned out okay regardless of having good or bad mothers but the "high-reactives" with bad mothers were social failures while the ones with good mothers were okay.  And the effects of the different mothering persisted even after they left their mothers.  Even with qualifiers about human-monkey differences, this tended to disconfirm Harris' viewpoint and she needed to be convinced, "What surprised me was not that monkeys with good foster mothers did well while they were with their mothers, but that the effects of good mothering persisted ...(61)."  And Harris found Suomi's research sited again in an article by prominent developmentalists six months later.  Since Suomi had been sketchy about his research in the conference talk, Harris found the location of its full description from the references in the developmentalists' article.  It was in a chapter that Suomi contributed to an anthology, but upon checking Harris found no reference to the cross-fostered monkeys.  A call to the first author of the developmentalists' article led to another of the authors who reported that her source was a phone call from Suomi.  Suomi reported by email to Harris that the study involves thirty-six cross fostered monkeys, eighteen of each strain but nothing of the results.  He promised a monograph in 2000.  A literature search turned up a study with fewer than eight monkeys, meaning that a maximum of four were "high-reactives" and a maximum of two of those would be raised by bad foster mothers.  A later book chapter reported a "recent" study, but gave no data and no N.  When it came time for Suomi's conference presentation to appear in print in 2002 there was no mention of cross-fostered monkeys.

The second example of Harris' doggedness (no pun here) involves the revered Harvard developmentalist, Jerome Kagan.  As it happens, Kagan and Harris have several good reasons to think of each other as kindred spirits.  His research from the 1960s pinpointed shyness as a genetic trait.  His study of Guatemalan children emphasized the flexibility of child development at a time when parents were being warned, in this case by John Bowlby, that leaving a child with Grammy even for a fortnight could have serious later implications.  And he has been a persistent critic of early experience theories.  But alas, Kagan and Harris drifted into an adversarial relationship following The Nurture Assumption, after Kagan accused Harris of ignoring research that disagreed with her positions.  A point in question was a claim of Kagan's to have measured children at four months and at school age.  He reports finding that fearful children whose parents (over)protected them were still timid while those whose parents pushed them to try new things were not.  These are parenting effects beyond the home and on a trait with a strong genetic base.  Newsweek duly reported these results in its article on Harris.  She wanted to know the truth.  It turns out that what Kagan had published, in a chapter of a book in 1994, was a preliminary report of a study done by one of his Harvard doctoral students.  Harris found that the retests were done, not at "school age" as Newsweek had reported but at 21 months.  Three years later the graduate student published results that reported retests at four and a half years but eliminated any reference to child-rearing style for that group. 

Finally, Harris notes somewhat scornfully that Suomi's cross-fostered monkeys and Kagan's once-timid babies continue to get press, rather like academic urban legends, and the above-mentioned lead developmentalist is still teaching his students about Suomi's findings.  She tells a third story about the persistent efforts of a lawyer, Frederic Townsend, to track down the data on which Frank Sullaway drew his amazing conclusions about birth order effects in his Born to Rebel (1996).  It is a story of insult, threats of lawsuit, obfuscation within the scientific community and missing data. 

Harris is persistent not only concerning whether research has been done as reported but whether the methodological assumptions of the research hold water.  She criticizes Kagan-type research for assuming that any changes that take place between time-one and the retest at time-two cannot be caused by genes.  This assumption seems reasonable since one's genotype does not change over time.  But Harris points out that many genes switch on, and thus turn their effects on, at different times in the developmental process.  One does not conclude that male pattern baldness is not genetic simply because hair loss begins post adolescence.  Her second objection is that such research neglects the well-documented phenomenon of child-to-parent effects, that parents alter their behaviors as a result of the child's behaviors.  The child who loves to be read to gets read to and the child who is a hellion as early as his descent through the birth canal receives harsh discipline.  That these children turn out to be great readers and car thieves cannot be automatically attributed to parenting styles.     

I'll give two more examples of Harris' expertise at methodological critique.  Intervention studies are the closest that developmental psychologists can get to controlled experiments and the best way to skirt the correlation-causation problem.  This research randomly selects an experimental and a control group from a population, gives the experimental group parenting training, and then measures the behavior of the children of both groups.  Harris' interest is in the extra-home child behaviors since she denies that parenting styles affect it.  Philip and Carolyn Cowan from UC Berkeley do this research as well as anyone and were good enough to supply Harris with their most recent study.  They concluded that if you improve parent-to-parent and parent-to-child interactions with a four-month program the child's school performance improves.  But Harris was unable find any comparison between the school performance of the children of the experimental and control groups.  When asked, Cowan responded that they were reporting only on the children of the parents who improved as a result of the intervention, the others dropped into the control groups.  Harris says, "Hmm.  So the parents who improved as a result of the intervention had kids who did better in Kindergarten (132)."  Just another correlation study.  Cowan directed Harris to studies by Marion Forgatch who works with David DeGarmo.   In an article in a peer reviewed journal (Harris, despite being outside the academy, has great respect for the peer review process.) Forgatch and DeGarmo created experimental and control groups, administered an intervention to the experimental group that sought to reduce "coercive parenting" among single mothers of young sons and did follow-up reminder calls to the mothers.  They reported that mothers became less coercive and that, "improved parenting correlated significantly with improvements in teacher-reported school adjustment (133)."  The statistic that was missing from the Cowans' study, comparisons between control and experimental groups, was provided in this one.  There were no significant differences in school behaviors between the two groups.

I have taken some time with issues of both academic sociology and research methodology to show how complex it is either to establish parent-to-child effects outside the home or to undermine ideas about them that have been so long and so widely disseminated.  And I wanted as well to give a glimpse at who this person Judith Harris is who has so shaken the establishment in developmental psychology.

Of course it is easier to critique than to build.  But Harris is not only a critic.  In the hubbub surrounding The Nurture Assumption it was largely lost that the book contained a revised socialization theory, one that focused upon the effects of peer culture in the way that previous researchers has emphasized the family.  No Two Alike contains a theory about how it is that this system works.  How, over and above our genotype, does environment shape who we are?   Harris takes as her challenge the most difficult case.  How does environment cause identical twins to have such different personalities?  Her theory is ingenious, subtle and original. 

Harris seems to believe that her theory is wedded to evolutionary psychology and to the theory of the "modular mind".  I don't think that it is.  It can be clearly and completely stated independently of both of these and that it is stronger for its independence.  If evolutionary psychology were simply be the idea that we will have a better understanding of mind and behavior as evolutionary scientists learn more, it would be both true and innocuous.  But its proponents, like Judith Harris' friend Harvard's Stephen Pinker, think of it as more, as an actual methodology, one that includes "reverse engineering".  This in general means asking about some existing but unexamined entity what it must be like, what its components must be, to be able to perform the function that it does.  (Interestingly, a priori approaches to this type of question resembles the transcendental inquiries found in Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason.)  In cognitive science this involves a conceptual mapping of the mind into functional systems and sub-systems without an initial commitment to any specific physical realization.  This mapping leads to the idea of a modular mind, one separated out by evolution into distinct systems with relatively narrow jobs to do.  The idea was developed for lower order cognitive activities in Jerry Fodor's The Modularity of Mind, MIT Press (1983).  Ironically Fodor is a strong critic of Pinker's wider use of modularity in Pinker's How the Mind Works, Norton (1999).  See Fodor's The Mind Doesn't Work That Way, MIT Press. (2000).  I mention that Harris's work is stronger for being independent of all this because first, she doesn't need it and second, it's philosophically contentious.  As Fodor mentions somewhere, we knew a lot about what hands and fingers were for long before we knew anything about their evolution.

So how do identical twins raised in the same household become so different?  By extension, how do any siblings become different.  It's not parenting style.  It's not birth order.  Harris' story proceeds something like the following.  Every person's personality behavioral traits are influenced, by three "systems" or dispositions (this is beyond any genotypic influences).  They are the relationship system, the socialization system, and the status system.  I will describe each.

The Relationship System:  It is certainly true that we collect and store data about the individuals that we meet.  Harris compares this to the "mental lexicon" by which we store words and their meanings, here Harris takes her lead from Pinker.  Our "people lexicon" allows us to distinguish and recognize people as individuals, not as class members, e.g., as my friend Antonia, not as an example of Italian, women, communist.  This involves things like face-recognition, but we are able to take its cues from other things as well.  People who are close to identical twins have no trouble distinguishing them even if they don't know how they do it.  While the relationship system is a cognitive skill it is also a motivational device.  People are driven to collect information about other people, and we don't need evolutionary speculation to seek agreement on the existence of this intrinsic motivation.  The relationship system guides our behavior by supplying information about this or that individual. 

The Socialization System:  Having identified individuals we must act in ways that are appropriate to who they are.  This system of instructions is the socialization system which tends to make people of the same group more alike.  Harris has a theory about how socialization works.  She notes studies that show that judgments of facial attractiveness tend to regress to the mean.  Show a person a group of facial photos of strangers and they tend to prefer the one that has been artificially blended from the others.  On a conceptual level this blending creates prototypes that define categories.  Children have a motivation to categorize according to these prototypes and to self-categorize in relation to others.  Thus a young person will categorize herself as girl or African-American or American or New Yorker, etc. depending upon which prototype she is dealing with, and she will switch behaviors accordingly.  Socialization is self-motivated and takes place as the adjustment of one's behaviors to the expectations of the central tendencies of a category. 

The Status System:  Humans everywhere compete with fellow group members.  No reward system or external reinforcers are necessary.  The outcomes of that competition constitute status.  Harris relates studies that show that people react separately to social acceptance and social status.  Bullies can fail at acceptance but succeed at status and so can have adequate self-esteem.  Children by age six or seven have an idea, through pairwise competitions, of their status in their groups.  For boys, who's strongest, fastest, toughest, etc.  Harris believes that self-acceptance derives from the status system (that portion that is not genetic) and, interestingly, that it is adolescent status that is determining.  She argues this on the basis that adolescents that were tall relative to their peers make more money than those peers when they are adults, regardless of their adult height.  The idea is that the earlier height-generated status conveyed a self-confidence that translated into later "status-conferring" positions.  The most conceptually complicated part of determining one's own status is being able to read what other's consider my status to be.  This is a matter of picking up on sometimes subtle clues involving the eye contact, posture, speech, etc. of others.  It is this system that shapes one's personality.

Genes have at least two types of effects upon personality.  There are direct affects where a child is born with a certain level of aggressiveness, openness to change or shyness.  And there are indirect effects, for example, one's size, attractiveness or intelligence affects the status others give to one, a status that is read from others and internalized.  But identical twins have identical genotypes and so these factors do not come into play.  Recall that Harris began the book promising to explain the very different personalities of Lalah and Ladan, the identical, conjoined Iranian twins.  In this case the entire personality difference must be explained by the three systems, particularly by the status system.  How is it that others formed different idea of the status positions of Lalah and Ladan, ideas that were read off from these others by each of the twins?  Here Harris needs to fall back on singular (random) events.  She seems a bit embarrassed by this and is quick to note, "The incidents may be random but their consequences are not (231)."  An unusual and impressively correct answer on a teacher's question can cause others to view you as "smart", a belief that gains momentum in the eyes of others, is read from them into your self-categorization, creating a confidence in academic matters that reinforces others' status judgments, etc.  This is Plomin's "gloomy prospect", and its appearance is somewhat of a disappointment, almost as if an implicit understanding about the rules of the game has been breached.   I think of Lucretius' first century BCE cosmology in which all atoms fall naturally in a straight line toward the center of the universe.  But to explain how a cosmos of colliding atoms arose from this it was necessary for one of them to swerve, ever-so-slightly.  This swerve, a dues ex machima if there ever was one, did not itself fall within the principles of Epicurean physics, but it explained the origins of the motions that did.  Paraphrasing Harris, the swerve may have been random but its consequences were not.  And later, in response to Einstein's 1926 letter to Max Born where he assured us that, "God does not play dice with the universe," Nils Bohr is reported to have said that Einstein should, "Stop trying to tell God what he can do with his dice."  Researchers will likely seek the disappearance of the singular event as a factor in the origins of personality differences at which time Bohr's God will need to decide if they get their way.

This is a very important book.  The community of academic psychologists would do well to get over its arms-length response to this outsider, Judith Harris, and to her sometimes quirkiness.  Her theoretical ideas about the environmental mechanisms of personal individuation deserve the kind of rigorous investigation and testing that is the hallmark of good science.           



© 2006 John D. Mullen


Link: Review by John Mullen of Judith Rich Harris' The Nurture Assumption: Why Children Turn Out the Way They Do

John D. Mullen is professor of Philosophy at Dowling College in Oakdale, New York.  He has written a widely read text, Kierkegaard's Philosophy: Self-deception and cowardice in the present age, Hard Thinking: A Reintroduction of logic to everyday life, and co-authored with Byron M. Roth, Decision Making: Its logic and practice.


Welcome to Metapsychology.

Note that Metapsychology will be moving to a new server in January 2020. We will not put up new reviews during the transition. We thank you for your support and look forward to coming back with a revised format.

We feature over 8300 in-depth reviews of a wide range of books and DVDs written by our reviewers from many backgrounds and perspectives. We update our front page weekly and add more than twenty new reviews each month. Our editor is Christian Perring, PhD. To contact him, use one of the forms available here.

Metapsychology Online reviewers normally receive gratis review copies of the items they review.
Metapsychology Online receives a commission from for purchases through this site, which helps us send review copies to reviewers. Please support us by making your purchases through our Amazon links. We thank you for your support!

Join our Google Group!

Interested in becoming a book reviewer for Metapsychology? To apply, write to our editor.

Metapsychology Online Reviews

Promote your Page too

Metapsychology Online Reviews
ISSN 1931-5716