email page    print page

All Topic Reviews
A New Understanding of Mental Disorders A Theory of Feelings Addictions Memory and the Self"Intimate" Violence against Women1001 Solution-Focused Questions101 Healing Stories101 Things I Wish I'd Known When I Started Using Hypnosis50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God8 Keys to Body Brain BalanceA Brief History of Modern PsychologyA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Conceptual History of Psychology: Exploring the Tangled Web A Cooperative SpeciesA Guide to Teaching Introductory PsychologyA History of Modern Experimental PsychologyA History of Psychology in AutobiographyA History of Social PsychologyA History of the BrainA History of the MindA Hole in the HeadA Matter of SecurityA Mind of Its OwnA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Place for ConsciousnessA Scientific Search for AltruismA Short Introduction to Promoting Resilience in ChildrenA Social History of PsychologyA Stroll With William JamesA System Architecture Approach to the BrainA Theory of FreedomA Very Bad WizardAbductedAbout FacesAccounts of InnocenceAction, Emotion and WillAdapting MindsAddiction and Self-ControlADHD & MeADHD in AdultsAdieu to GodAdolescence and Body ImageAdult Bipolar DisordersAdvances in Culture and PsychologyAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAffect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of SelfAffective MappingAgainst EmpathyAgainst HappinessAges and StagesAll Joy and No FunAll Out!All We Have to FearAlterations of ConsciousnessAmerican Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical NeurosciencesAn Argument for MindAncient Bodies, Modern LivesAnd BreatheAnimal MadnessAnimal Tool BehaviorAnimals in TranslationAnomalous CognitionAping MankindArtificial ConsciousnessAspects of PsychologismAsperger Syndrome and Your ChildAsperger Syndrome, Adolescence, and IdentityAssessment and Treatment of Childhood Problems, Second EditionAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAttachedAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutism and the Myth of the Person AloneAutopsy of a Suicidal MindBecoming an Effective PsychotherapistBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing No OneBelievingBetween Two WorldsBeyond AppearanceBeyond BlueBeyond BullyingBeyond MadnessBeyond MelancholyBeyond the BrainBeyond the DSM StoryBig DreamsBiofeedback for the BrainBipolar ChildrenBipolar DisorderBipolar KidsBlackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive DevelopmentBlind SpotsBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlubberlandblueprintBlushBodiesBody ConsciousnessBody Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity in YouthBody SenseBody WorkBorderline Personality DisorderBorderline Personality Disorder and the Conversational ModelBorn DigitalBorn to Be GoodBorn Together - Reared ApartBounceBoundaries in Human RelationshipsBounded RationalityBowen Theory's SecretsBozo SapiensBrain and CultureBrain and the GazeBrain Arousal and Information TheoryBrain BugsBrain Change TherapyBrain Circuitry and Signaling in PsychiatryBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-Based Therapy with AdultsBrain-WiseBrainstormBrainstormingBraintrustBrainwashingBrandedBreaking Murphy's LawBright-SidedBuddha's BrainBullying and TeasingBuyologyCan't You Hear Them?CaptureCare of the PsycheCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCerebrum 2007Cerebrum 2010Cerebrum 2015Cerebrum Anthology 2013Changing the SubjectCharacter Strengths and VirtuesCharacter Strengths InterventionsCheating LessonsChild and Adolescent Psychological DisordersChildren’s Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness Chomsky NotebookClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyClinical Psychology in Practice ClosureCognition and PerceptionCognition and the BrainCognitive BiologyCognitive DissonanceCognitive FictionsCognitive Mechanisms of Belief ChangeCognitive PragmaticsCognitive ScienceCognitive ScienceCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Therapy of Anxiety DisordersCognitive Unconscious and Human RationalityCold-Blooded KindnessComing of Age in Second LifeCommunication Issues In Autism And Asperger SyndromeCompassion and Healing in Medicine and SocietyComplementary and Alternative Therapies ResearchComprehending ColumbineConfessions of a SociopathConquering Shame and CodependencyConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the Social BrainConsciousness EmergingConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Self-Consciousness, and the Science of Being HumanConstructing PainConsumer NeuroscienceContemporary Debates in Cognitive ScienceConversations on ConsciousnessConviction of the InnocentCooperation and Its EvolutionCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCredit and BlameCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychologyCritical Thinking About PsychologyCross-Cultural PsychologyCrowdsourcingCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCuriousDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous and Severe Personality DisorderDaniel DennettDaughters of MadnessDeafness In MindDeath and ConsciousnessDeath of a ParentDecomposing the WillDeep Brain StimulationDeep ChinaDefining DifferenceDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions of GenderDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDeparting from DevianceDescartes' BabyDescartes's Changing MindDescribing Inner Experience?Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Destructive EmotionsDevelopment of Geocentric Spatial Language and CognitionDevelopment of PsychopathologyDialogues on DifferenceDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Digital HemlockDirty MindsDisgust and Its DisordersDisorders of VolitionDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Doing without ConceptsDrunk Tank PinkEducating People to Be Emotionally IntelligentEffective IntentionsEffective Writing in PsychologyEffortless AttentionEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbracing MindEmbracing UncertaintyEMDR Therapy and Somatic PsychologyEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotionally InvolvedEmotionsEmotionsEmotions and LifeEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions RevealedEmotions, Aggression, and Morality in ChildrenEmotions, Stress, and HealthEmpathyEnjoymentErotic MoralityEscape Your Own PrisonEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthically Challenged ProfessionsEveryday Mind ReadingEvidence for PsiEvidence-Based Mental Health PracticeEvil MenEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution and LearningEvolution, Games, and GodEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolutionary Psychology as Maladapted PsychologyExacting BeautyExperiences of DepressionExperimenterExplaining the BrainExplaining the BrainExplorations in Neuroscience, Psychology and ReligionExploring TranssexualismExpression and the InnerExtending Self-Esteem ResearchExtraordinary BeliefsFact and Value in EmotionFaking ItFatigue as a Window to the BrainFavorite Activities for the Teaching of PsychologyFeeling GoodFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFinding Meaning, Facing FearsFitting In Is OverratedFive Constraints on Predicting BehaviorFlourishingFlow: The Psychology of Optimal ExperienceFolk Psychological NarrativesFooling HoudiniForever YoungFormulation in Psychology and PsychotherapyFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Psychological ThoughtFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom EvolvesFrom Axons to IdentityFrom Madness to Mental HealthFrom Neurons to Self-ConsciousnessFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Symptom to SynapseFrontiers of ConsciousnessGay, Straight, and the Reason WhyGenerosityGenes, Environment, and PsychopathologyGenetic Nature/CultureGeniusGetting Started with EEG NeurofeedbackGetting Under the SkinGlued to GamesGoing SaneGot Parts?Group GeniusGrowing Up GirlGuilt, Shame, and AnxietyGut ReactionsHallucinationHandbook New Sexuality StudiesHandbook of Closeness and IntimacyHandbook of Critical PsychologyHandbook of Emotion RegulationHandbook of EmotionsHandbook of Personality DisordersHandbook of PsychopathyHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Spatial CognitionHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness at WorkHappiness Is.Happy at LastHard to GetHardwired BehaviorHatredHealing the SplitHidden ResourcesHope and DespairHot ThoughtHot ThoughtHouse and PsychologyHow Animals Affect UsHow Animals GrieveHow Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Doctors ThinkHow Enlightenment Changes Your BrainHow Families Still MatterHow History Made the MindHow Infants Know MindsHow Many Friends Does One Person Need?How People ChangeHow Professors ThinkHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Change Someone You LoveHow We ReasonHow We RememberHughes' Outline of Modern PsychiatryHumanHuman BondingHuman Reasoning and Cognitive ScienceHume’s Moral Philosophy and Contemporary PsychologyHypnotismHysteriaiBrainIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIdentifying the MindiDisorderImagination and the Meaningful BrainImitation and the Social MindImpulse Control DisordersImpulsivityIn an Unspoken VoiceIn Defense of SentimentalityIn DoubtIn Search of HappinessIn the Wake of 9/11Individual and Collective Memory ConsolidationInner Experience and NeuroscienceInner PresenceInside the American CoupleIntegrated Behavioral Health CareIntegrating Evolution and DevelopmentIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntellectual DisabilityIntelligenceIntelligence, Destiny, and EducationIntentions and IntentionalityInterdependent MindsInterpreting MindsInto the Minds of MadmenIntoxicating MindsIntrospection VindicatedIntuitionInventing PersonalityInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIs There Anything Good About Men?Issues for Families, Schools and CommunitiesJane Sexes It UpJoint AttentionJoint AttentionJudgment and Decision MakingJust a DogJust BabiesJuvenile-Onset SchizophreniaKarl JaspersKey Thinkers in PsychologyKidding OurselvesKids of CharacterKilling MonstersKnowing EmotionsLack of CharacterLanguage OriginsLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw, Mind and BrainLess Than HumanLet Kids Be KidsLet's Talk About DeathLiving NarrativeLiving with Mild Cognitive ImpairmentLonelinessLooking for SpinozaLossLOT 2Love at Goon ParkMachine ConsciousnessMacrocognitionMade for Each OtherMadnessMadness and Modernism: Insanity in the light of modern art, literature, and thought Making a Good Brain GreatMaking Habits, Breaking HabitsMaking Minds and MadnessMaking Up the MindMale SexualityMan and WomanMan's Search for MeaningMan, Beast, and ZombieManic MindsManlinessMapping the MindMarking the MindMarvelous Learning AnimalMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaningMeaning, Mortality, and ChoiceMedical MusesMeditating SelflesslyMeetings with a Remarkable ManMemoryMemory and DreamsMemory and EmotionMemory And UnderstandingMental BiologyMental IllnessMental Time TravelMetacognitionMetacognition and Theory of MindMethods in MindMindMindMind and BrainMind and ConsciousnessMind GamesMind Games:Mind in LifeMind TimeMind to MindMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMindful AngerMindfulnessMindfulnessMindfulness and AcceptanceMindfulness-Based Treatment Approaches: Clinician's Guide to Evidence Base and ApplicationsMinding AnimalsMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds, Brains, and LawMindsightMindworldsMirrors in the BrainMistakes Were Made (But Not by Me)Models of MadnessMoodMoral Development and RealityMoral MindsMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Mothers and OthersMotivation and Cognitive ControlMotivational Interviewing: Preparing People For ChangeMovies and the MindMulticulturalism and the Therapeutic ProcessMultiplicityMuses, Madmen, and ProphetsMy Family AlbumMyths about SuicideNarrative IdentitiesNarrative PsychiatryNarratives in PsychiatryNaturalizing Intention in ActionNature and NarrativeNature Via NurtureNeither Bad nor MadNerveNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeurochemistry of ConsciousnessNeurodiversityNeuroethicsNeuroLogicNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroscience and PhilosophyNo Child Left DifferentNo Two AlikeNot By Genes AloneNot Much Just Chillin'Not So Abnormal PsychologyNurturing the Older Brain and MindOn AnxietyOn Being an Introvert or Highly Sensitive PersonOn Being HumanOn Being MovedOn Deep History and the BrainOn DesireOn KillingOn Nature and LanguageOn PaedophiliaOn PersonalityOn the Frontier of AdulthoodOn the Origins of Cognitive ScienceOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOnflowOpen MindsOpening Skinner's BoxOrigin of MindOrigins of PsychopathologyOther MindsOut of Our HeadsOut of the WoodsOvercoming Depersonalization DisorderPanpsychism and the Religious AttitudePanpsychism in the WestParenting and the Child's WorldPassionate EnginesPathologies of the WestPatient-Based Approaches to Cognitive NeurosciencePediatric PsychopharmacologyPeople Types and Tiger StripesPerception & CognitionPerception beyond InferencePerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPersonal Development and Clinical PsychologyPerspectives on ImitationPhantoms in the BrainPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhrenologyPhysical RealizationPhysics in MindPieces of LightPlaying with FirePositive PsychologyPositive PsychologyPostcards from the Brain MuseumPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPoverty and Brain Development During ChildhoodPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical Management of Personality DisorderPractical Management of Personality DisorderPredicative MindsPredictably IrrationalPreference, Belief, and SimilarityPrenatal Testosterone in MindPrivileged AccessProcess-Based CBTProcrastinationPromoting Healthy AttachmentsProust Was a NeuroscientistPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsychological AgencyPsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychological Dimensions of the SelfPsychologists Defying the CrowdPsychologyPsychologyPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology for ScreenwritersPsychology of Women: A Handbook of Issues and TheoriesPsychology's GhostsPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology's TerritoriesPsychopathologyPsychopathyPsychosis and EmotionPsychotherapy, American Culture, and Social PolicyPutnam CampPutting a Name to ItQuantum Memory PowerQuietRadical DistortionRadical Embodied Cognitive ScienceRadical ExternalismRadical GraceRapeRe-Visioning PsychiatryReal MaterialismReality CheckReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecovery in Mental IllnessRecreative MindsRedirectReducing Adolescent RiskRegulating EmotionsRelational BeingRelational Mental HealthRelational Suicide AssessmentReliability in Cognitive NeuroscienceRemembering HomeRemembering Our ChildhoodResearch Advances in Genetics and GenomicsResearching Children's ExperienceResilience in ChildrenRestoring ResilienceRethinking ADHDRethinking Learning DisabilitiesRethinking Middle YearsRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfRevolution in PsychologyRoadmap to ResilienceRomance and Sex in Adolescence and Emerging AdulthoodSchadenfreudeSchizophrenia RevealedSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologySecond NatureSecond NatureSecond That EmotionSecond-order Change in PsychotherapySecrets of the MindSee What I'm SayingSee What I'm SayingSeeing and VisualizingSeeing RedSelf and SocietySelf Comes to MindSelf Control in Society, Mind, and BrainSelf-Awareness Deficits in Psychiatric PatientsSelf-CompassionSelf-Consciousness and 'Split' BrainsSelf-RegulationSelf-Representational Approaches to ConsciousnessSelfless InsightSelvesSerial KillersSex at DawnSex on the BrainSex, Time and PowerSexual Coercion in Primates and HumansSexual DisordersSexual FluiditySexual ReckoningsSexualized BrainsShame and GuiltShatteredSimulating MindsSisyphus's BoulderSleepyheadSNAPSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial Psychology and DiscourseSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSoul DustSparkSpiral of EntrapmentSplendors and Miseries of the BrainSports Hypnosis in PracticeStanding at Water's EdgeStich and His CriticsStillpowerStop OverreactingStructure and Agency in Everyday LifeStructures of AgencyStuffStumbling on HappinessSubjectivity and SelfhoodSubstance Abuse and EmotionSuicidalSupersizing the MindSweet DreamsSynaptic SelfTales from Both Sides of the BrainTalking Oneself SoberTalking to BabiesTaming the Troublesome ChildTargeting AutismTeaching Problems and the Problems of TeachingTeleological RealismTen Years of Viewing from WithinTestosterone RexThat's DisgustingThe 5 Elements of Effective ThinkingThe Accidental MindThe Age of EmpathyThe Altruism EquationThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Clinical PsychiatryThe Anatomy of BiasThe Anxious BrainThe Archaeology of MindThe Art and Science of MindfulnessThe Art InstinctThe Art of HypnosisThe Asymmetrical BrainThe Bifurcation of the SelfThe Big Book of ConceptsThe Big DisconnectThe Birth of IntersubjectivityThe Birth of the MindThe Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge ManagementThe Blank SlateThe Body Has a Mind of Its OwnThe Bounds of CognitionThe Boy Who Was Raised as a DogThe BrainThe BrainThe Brain and the Meaning of LifeThe Brain Health BookThe Brain SupremacyThe Brain That Changes ItselfThe Brain's Way of HealingThe Brain: Big Bangs, Behaviors, and BeliefsThe Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive ScienceThe Cambridge Handbook of Situated CognitionThe Character of ConsciousnessThe Chemistry Between UsThe Choice EffectThe Clinical Science of Suicide PreventionThe Cognitive Approach to Conscious MachinesThe Cognitive Behavioral Workbook for Anxiety: A Step-By-Step ProgramThe Cognitive NeurosciencesThe Cognitive-Emotional BrainThe College Fear FactorThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Compass of PleasureThe Compassionate ConnectionThe Concepts of ConsciousnessThe Conscious BrainThe Conscious SelfThe Consuming InstinctThe Creating BrainThe Creative BrainThe Crucible of ConsciousnessThe Crucible of ExperienceThe Cure WithinThe Dao of NeuroscienceThe Developing MindThe Developing MindThe Development of PsychopathologyThe Disappearance of the Social in American Social PsychologyThe Dissolution of MindThe Duty to ProtectThe Educated ParentThe Ego TunnelThe Elephant in the RoomThe Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human ExperienceThe Emotional Foundations of PersonalityThe Emotional Journey of the Alzheimer's FamilyThe Encultured BrainThe Encyclopedia of StupidityThe Enduring Self in People with Alzheimer'sThe Epidemiology of SchizophreniaThe Essential DifferenceThe Ethical BrainThe Evolution of BeautyThe Evolution of ChildhoodThe Evolution of CooperationThe Evolution of LanguageThe Evolution of MindThe Evolving BrainThe Executive BrainThe Faces of TerrorismThe Feeling BrainThe Feeling of What HappensThe First IdeaThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Foundations of Cognitive ArchaeologyThe Fundamentalist MindsetThe GapThe Gender TrapThe Geography of BlissThe Gift of ShynessThe Good LifeThe Good LifeThe Happiness HypothesisThe Happiness of PursuitThe Health Psychology HandbookThe Healthy Aging BrainThe Heart of TraumaThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of PsychologyThe Human FaceThe Human SparkThe Hypomanic EdgeThe Imagery DebateThe Immeasurable MindThe Imprinted BrainThe Incredible Shrinking MindThe Innate MindThe Innate MindThe Integrated SelfThe Intentional BrainThe Language of ThoughtThe Languages of the BrainThe Lexicon of Adlerian PsychologyThe Lie DetectorsThe Lives of the BrainThe Lonely AmericanThe Lust for BloodThe Madness of WomenThe Male BrainThe Man Who Lost His LanguageThe Man Who Shocked the WorldThe Man Who Tasted ShapesThe Man Who Wasn't ThereThe Matter of the MindThe Mature MindThe Mean Girl MotiveThe Meaning of EvilThe Meaning of OthersThe Meaning of the BodyThe Measure of MadnessThe Measure of MindThe Medicalization of Everyday LifeThe Mind and the BrainThe Mind in ContextThe Mind of the ChildThe Mind of the HorseThe Mind's EyeThe Mind, the Body and the WorldThe Mind-Gut ConnectionThe Mindful BrainThe Misleading MindThe Moral MindThe Most Dangerous AnimalThe Most Human HumanThe Mother FactorThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of Depression as DiseaseThe Myth of Mirror NeuronsThe Myth of Self HelpThe Myth of Self-EsteemThe Myth of the Spoiled ChildThe Nature of the SelfThe Necessity Of MadnessThe Neuro RevolutionThe Neuron and the MindThe Neuropsychology of the UnconsciousThe Neuroscience of Human RelationshipsThe Neuroscience of PsychotherapyThe Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social BrainThe New BrainThe New Science of DreamingThe New Science of the MindThe New UnconsciousThe Normal PersonalityThe Origins of FairnessThe Overflowing BrainThe Oxford Companion to the MindThe Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of MindThe Paradoxical PrimateThe Perfectionist's HandbookThe Peripheral MindThe Phenomenology ReaderThe Philosopher's Secret FireThe Philosophical BabyThe Political MindThe Politics of HappinessThe Positive Side of Negative EmotionsThe Postnational SelfThe Postpartum EffectThe Power of PlayThe Praeger Handbook of TranssexualityThe Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday LifeThe Primate MindThe Prism of GrammarThe Psychobiology of Trauma and Resilience Across the LifespanThe Psychological Construction of EmotionThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of HappinessThe Psychology of LifestyleThe Psychology of Religious FundamentalismThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of SpiritualityThe Psychology of StereotypingThe Psychology of SuperheroesThe Psychophysiology of Self-AwarenessThe Pursuit of PerfectThe Quest for Mental HealthThe Rational ImaginationThe Ravenous BrainThe Reasons of LoveThe Righteous MindThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Handbook of ConsciousnessThe Science of EvilThe Science of Intimate RelationshipsThe Science of Shame and its Treatment The Second SelfThe Secret History of EmotionThe Secret Lives of BoysThe Self and Its EmotionsThe Self-Sabotage CycleThe Sense of SelfThe Sensitive SelfThe Shape of ThoughtThe Social AnimalThe Social Nature of Mental IllnessThe Social Neuroscience of EmpathyThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Story of Intellectual DisabilityThe Structure of ThinkingThe Survivors ClubThe Talking ApeThe Teenage BrainThe Tell-Tale BrainThe Temperamental ThreadThe Tender CutThe Tending InstinctThe Time ParadoxThe Trauma MythThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trouble with IllnessThe True PathThe Truth About GriefThe Turing TestThe Uncertain SciencesThe Undoing ProjectThe Unhappy ChildThe Upside of IrrationalityThe Varieties of ConsciousnessThe War for Children's MindsThe Well-Tuned BrainThe Wild Girl, Natural Man, and the MonsterThe Winner's BrainThe Wisdom in FeelingThe Woman RacketThe World in My Mind, My Mind in the WorldThe Wow ClimaxThe Yipping TigerThemes, Issues and Debates in PsychologyTheoretical Issues in Psychology: An IntroductionTheory of AddictionTheory of MindThings and PlacesThink CatThink Confident, Be ConfidentThinking about AddictionThinking and SeeingThis Emotional Life: In Search of Ourselves...and HappinessThought and LanguageThought in a Hostile WorldTo Have and To Hurt:Toward an Evolutionary Biology of LanguageToward Replacement Parts for the BrainTrauma and Human ExistenceTrauma, Tragedy, TherapyTreating Attachment DisordersTreating Self-InjuryTreating Self-Injury: A Practical GuideTrue to Our FeelingsTrusting the Subject?Understanding and Treating Borderline Personality DisorderUnderstanding ConsciousnessUnderstanding ParanoiaUnderstanding PeopleUnderstanding TerrorismUnderstanding the BrainUndoing Perpetual StressUnlock the Genius WithinUnsettled MindsUnstrange MindsUnthinkingUnthoughtUs and ThemViolent PartnersVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVision and MindVisual AgnosiaWarrior's DishonourWe Who Are DarkWednesday Is Indigo BlueWelcome to Your BrainWhat Do Women Want?What Dying People WantWhat Have We DoneWhat Intelligence Tests MissWhat Is an Emotion: Classic and Contemporary ReadingsWhat Is Emotion?What is Intelligence?What Is Mental Illness?What Is Thought?What Makes Your Brain Happy and Why You Should Do the Opposite What the Best College Students DoWhat the Dog SawWhat We Know about Emotional IntelligenceWhat We Say MattersWhat's Wrong With Morality?When Boys Become BoysWhen Perfect Isn't Good EnoughWhen the Impossible HappensWhen Walls Become DoorwaysWho's Been Sleeping in Your HeadWho's in Charge?Why Humans Like to CryWhy Love MattersWhy Lyrics LastWhy People CooperateWhy People Die by SuicideWhy Sex Matters: A Darwinian Look at Human BehaviorWhy Smart People Can Be So StupidWhy the Mind is Not a ComputerWhy Us?Why We LieWhy We LoveWhy We SleepWider than the SkyWilliam James at the BoundariesWilling, Wanting, WaitingWittgenstein And PsychologyWomen and Child Sexual AbuseWorking MindsYoga and PsychologyYou Are What You RememberYoung Minds in Social WorldsYour Brain on CubsYour Brain on FoodYour Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings,Your Brain on YogaYour Child in the BalanceZombies and Consciousness

Related Topics
Creating a Life of Meaning and CompassionReview - Creating a Life of Meaning and Compassion
by Robert W. Firestone, Lisa A. Firestone and Joyce Catlett
American Psychological Association, 2003
Review by Roy Sugarman, Ph.D.
Dec 22nd 2004 (Volume 8, Issue 52)

The title is one to make most of us in the business cringe, and the APA is of course the 'big' APA, the psychology one, not the other.  Consequently the book is not about psychological or psychiatric nosological categories, but about personal journeys, and the painting, 'giclee on canvas' on the cover is Robert Firestone's own creation.  For those of you who don't know, this term refers to a hi-fi digital reproduction of an original artwork.  So this is a well-rounded family intent on passing on to the world the secrets, or rather the wisdom that is human resource allocated correctly. Metaphor carries away even Daniel Siegel in his foreword, namely, a journey round the world, presumably the Firestones are into sailing, or rather, they have 'friends' who do.

The book further claims to be the result of 40 years of evaluation of the human response of resistance to attempts at change (they mention the high seas, by now I am coming to realize that someone is a sailor).

Statements like "all people exist in a state of conflict between active pursuit of goals in the real world and an inward, self-protective defense system characterized by fantasy gratification and self-nurturance" pepper the book from page xiii onward, and whether you agree with them or not, its heady enough stuff, together with the "death of feeling and compassion in contemporary culture", to whet the appetite of those seeking enlightenment, on or off the regatta.

So the target then of enrichment attempts is to deal with the defenses one develops in childhood against pain, frustration, anxiety, and one hopes, yacht clubs.  In any event, this defensive set of attributions colors us as adults, and we have to bypass or overcome such barriers to switch on fulfillment or whatever makes us self-actualize.

Certainly Viktor Frankl and Martin Seligman were going to be the first to get quoted, but this really is about the 'Circle of Friends.'

This circle refers to an American subculture, a culture of "a lifestyle of freedom, openness and sharing" which instantly reminds me of hippies and Woodstock posters.  So scratching around, one finds The Glendon Association: see the following web page to find the Firestones, their lifework, theories, therapies, and their books there too.  (  The third author is also associated with this organization, a non-profit organization that accepts donations so that its 'high quality and timely' works can be distributed to health professionals, or so they say.

After 30 years of boating and other shared activities, they are sharing their books, articles and documentary films, in this book.  Now I know why I thought, "Hippies" since this circle of friends, this community, grew out of the culture of the '60's in the USA and elsewhere.  In this case, with teenagers in the groups experimenting with drugs, sex and rock 'n roll, a group encounter with adolescents and parents led to a schooner setting sail around the world, sometimes staffed only by about 11 of the kids, and other attempts at creating a lager that would defend against the cold war world establishment.

While they were away on the boat, some of those left behind went into business together.  This and other developments led Firestone One to abandon his practice and go into the group as a participant observer.

So then this book emerges as a set of narratives which catalogue the human response to the cold war age, the plasticization of the USA, the demise of spiritual values, the breakdown of families, and a fair amount of boating, interspersed with psychodynamic commentary on what is going on here.

If life in the 21st Century is challenging, and if our processing of information is inadequate, then we will feel lousy, and there are values thus set out in this book that are regarded as the way out of the trap of everyday life, then, and presumably, now.

"Indeed, the isolation and comfort of contemporary society carry with it the risk of reinforcing psychological defenses that contribute to an inward, self-protective, and somewhat emotionally deadened way of being and living" (page 16).  And they say this as if it was a bad thing: after all, we have Oprah, Dr Phil, Tony Robbins and TV soaps to create such outlets and instruct us in the art of emotion and psychosocial to-ing and fro-ing.

The book begins to discuss the fantasy solutions we all are presumed to have, illusions which substitute for real closeness, warmth, empathy, and meaning, and Frankl again emerges, and of course, real boating.  To be free, we have to be vulnerable, but that is the exact thing our defenses are designed to regulate, and so we have to be aware that there is more, feel unfulfilled and so on.  In healing, we would have to hurt, feel more, be less defended, or as Mad Magazine used to write, I think it was Dave Bergs who said it, turn on, tune in, drop dead.  Existential awareness, a sense of the spiritual, a need for examination of the mystery of life, all would be necessary pathways, without presumably the Timothy Leary vision of the world through LSD lenses.

Thus the authors can define what an 'undefended individual' means, and profile such persons within the circle of friends.

As good motivational literature would do, by chapter two we are looking at the factors that would impede personal development with a juicy quote from Ernie Becker about masses of internal scar tissue and throbbing dreams.

And damaged humanness: blaming parents already, although they admit that to blame mothers and fathers or to be moralistic or punitive about child-rearing responses only compounds the problem (page 39), we are looking at the several factors that cause parents to affect their children adversely.  By now, one is seemingly looking at an extremely American vision of life and the world, and parenting, middle class American values, and even some references to Republican parents and Democrat children-type illustrations.  Not everyone in the world experiences family and parents in the WASP tradition, so many such as my self would have a hard time with some of these arguments, coming from families that did not live in Susan Faludi suburbia.

However I am gratified to see the Milan School actually mentioned on these pages, one of the first times I have seen that in years, and of course Professoressa Palazzoli was of the psychodynamic tradition before she was influenced by the writings of the systemic and ecosystemic theorists like Bateson, husband to Margaret Mead.  Even Boszormenyi-Nagy, Murray Bowen, and Salvador Minuchin get a mention, and that you don't see everyday, telling you where the thinking on these pages found its original impetus.  20th Century responses to 21st Century life as well?

So, much of the influence of the psychoanalytic tradition still carries on with Firestone, even though many cultures would not have struggled with what middle class America found pervasive in the baby boom days. And of course, the above influences all were systemic, ecosystemic or family therapists or theorists, and the focus on psychopathology had been urged out of the patient, to the identified patient within a family; here, the Circle of Friends was an ecosystem, with its own self-regulatory mechanism as can be seen in the writing, the narratives, the testimony that follows.  Pathology is now no longer intrapsychic, but intra-personal, and "with respect to physical or emotional child abuse, virtually no family can withstand close scrutiny" (page 39).

Soon, we are back to discussing the fantasy bond, the one where we imagine that we are one with the family, our real one, not the therapeutic community, so one is self-parenting. For instance, children dread separation, death is the ultimate loss of family by separation then realization of one's own mortality, children retreat into a pre-knowledge-of-death state, and so regress, and other sort of psychodynamic flowcharts close to Firestone's heart.  So this is how psychopathology is described from time to time in this work.  All this increases the defense, the death anxiety defense, so kids can live on.  One therefore must see these as barriers to successful psychosocial existence.

Ambivalence in the reader bounds back and forth between what challenges one might face in the Western TV-drugs-Playstation-type world, and the rest of us for whom this is a somewhat different would, but nevertheless feel the cultural universals that plague the modern world. One in every 115 people is a refugee today, every day millions are displaced, starving, and so on.  There is a story about a rich, unhappy man who asks God for the secret of happiness.  God tells him to go and seek a man who is happy, and then buy his shirt from him.  The man sets out across the world, and finally sees a man working in the fields, singing away and clearly delirious with happiness.  Approaching the man to buy his shirt, he discovers the happy man has no shirt to sell for he is too poor to own one.  The point being that very poor people I know well begin each day with a keen sense that if they can only feed their family this day, then it will be a good one.  As they go to sleep that night, bellies reasonably full, a sense of fulfillment, of achieved self-efficacy, fills their spirits, and so what they have done makes a difference, each and every day.  Such feeling is denied to the rich, they have to refurbish a boat and enter the high seas to create such a sense of self-efficacy.

For the Firestones and friends, it appears that little of such spirit is readily available, and they have to go in search across the world and across their emotional ecosystems to avoid the rush of plenty in the USA that followed WWII.  America certainly owned the disestablishmentarianist movement, but Europe had a go too. However, ownership of such struggles, as I said earlier, appears to be a very American thing, so I will try and pluck out the Universalist application if that is possible.

I suppose it is true that all unhappiness is relative, and needs a vehicle, and here the journey proposed by the Firestones begins with disrupting the fantasy process that believes that attachment has succeeded, but operates in mythology.  As the quote from Anna Freud given here goes, gratification through fantasy is no longer harmless when it occurs in an adult. In fact, the DSM rates it as part of narcissism and psychopathy.  Again there are Universalist claims that all people exist in conflict between an active pursuit of goals in the real world and a dependence on fantasy gratification (page 59).  Fantasy solutions of childhood angst thus have to measure up to the real world, and the rewards of living in the real world may clash with the recalled world as it was. In a way it's like the smell of the steak that lures, compared to the taste of the steak as purchased and consumed. Childhood advertises a life in the future, I can't wait to be an adult and do my own thing, but when I am an adult, I yearn for the carefree days of yore.  The trick is to live in the here and now for the rewards of now, but they are going to feel different to the brochure of Kiddieland.

Again denied, parent bashing remains the subtle theme of such psychodynamic thinking, "If the child is fortunate enough to have mature and loving parents who provide the necessary love-food required for adequate sustenance, he or she would be able to live in a real world and would have less need to depersonalize or develop defenses that function to deny reality and avoid psychological pain and frustration" (page 60).

How much influence parents really have in the post-post-modern world is unclear.  In expensive countries, very little time is spent in a family with both parents working, so kids spend perhaps from 6pm till bedtime, maybe two and a half hours with parents who are cooking food, doing homework, making phone calls and watching The Apprentice on TV, wondering who is getting fired by D Trump. 

"Furthermore, the process of gratifying oneself with internal images or self-parenting mechanisms and the pursuit of gratification in the external world are mutually exclusive" (page 60).  My trouble is that I believe it.  Even Donald Trump has to intervene to teach his apprentices about the real world and shatter their illusions: work hard, take risks, rely on yourself, provide leadership, follow your gut but pay the price, there are no free lunches…'re fired.

So then, coming to the concept of resistance mentioned earlier, resistance to change that is, is the patient's way of cooperating with the world.  Resistance to change is then defined as resistance, by default, to a different, presumably better life.  In this way, the individual protects against anxiety states that arise whenever fantasy processes and the associated self-nurturing behaviors are threatened.  Suffering is thus easier than change, which would challenge a more internal set of corrupt values held over from childhood fantastic attachment. In essence, the adult has to emigrate from the childhood state, adopt a "what was, was" strategy, and take off the fantasy amour.  In essence, the core skeleton was not laid down, and so an insect-like chitinous exoskeleton has replaced the internal self.

Behavior as an adult has to be goal directed, after insight has been introduced. So the Firestone position is easily recognizable, defining neurosis as an inward defensive process that leads people to invest more in internal fantasy rather than the parentless adult world. Faced with the cruel world, the child-stricken adult comforts internally in a secret world, and thus stays unattached externally, with no rewarding relationships or friends in the real sense that Firestone envisages; one of the pathological pathways involves idealizing the institutions of the past, and maintaining a negative self image, calling now on Ferenczi and Anna Freud again, and the individual's paradoxical response to these perceptions, with projection and so on.

What all this means is that we get locked into an internal world, and can't come out to play as adults would, in a kind of fusion with the external objects rather than in a real relationship where the individual is subsumed, like in the Circle of Friends.

Melanie Klein eat your heart out, for you are seldom quoted, given your presupposition that we are born filled with rage and aggressive impulses.  Carol Gilligan on the other hand, one of my personal favorites (along with Suzi Faludi), is mentioned more often, if only as an archetypical opponent of patriarchal societal influence, Faludi not at all.  Voice therapy is however promoted briefly as a cognitive-affective-behavioral methodology, rather like Michael White's narrative mixed with Carol Gilligan's storytelling mixed with Seligman and Beck.

So the authors move on to challenging the addictive and nurturing lifestyles, namely habit forming attempts to soothe the pain of a less than perfect parenting scheme in childhood. Obviously, these behaviors may not be nicely addictive, just rewarding in some way, which is defined here as less than optimally adaptive, settling for second best.  The way out perhaps is a life of "adventure and travel" (page 102).

Worse than death then is finding out we have never lived in the Laing-ian sense. So we are shown the Promised Land, or the up till now not visualized Promised Land, in other words insight is really outsight when we move our vision across to 'the what' could be.  What it is and what it could be, loss of feeling and 'inwardness'.  In these ways of being, we avoid coping with anger, passivity, and a victimized point of view, all of which come with a sense of entitlement. 

So the book continues, imbuing psychotherapy with the similar, now established litany of a psychodynamic, intrapsychic struggle, with resolution of giving up the safety and limiting stance of the fantasy of a self allocated none of the adult worlds' cost-benefit dilemmas, opting for safety, a lonely and empty safety without true emotions, without true attachments, without true adulthood, or true freedom in the Frankl sense of choice within nothing.

Although heavily psychodynamic in its approach, and peppered with contentious pronouncement about Universalist realities, laden with culture-specific comments in a kind of paradoxical conflation of levels of being, the book is a kind of Celestial Seasoning come of age tea party for aging hippies that, like Woodstock, feels about right on the Nostalgia scale, argues common sense clarities of explanation that have virtually no evidence base since the underlying hypotheses are un-testable, and hence cannot be refuted.  In an evidence based modern world, one would have to argue that unproven theory is just observation, and in this case, just participant observation.

But, there is something compelling about the arguments here, because they feel right in their logic, and look right in the multiple conversation-bytes given along the pages.  We all need a reason to get up in the morning, a reason to escape our internal fantasy world and deal with what is, instead of what was, what is outside and real and what is inside and unworkable fantasy.  Psychotherapy may be the only setting for this in the world of the Firestones and Catlett, for others, it may be in real war, real poverty, real hunger, real perhaps as used by Firestone as 'true'. I don't know what they mean by 'true' as opposed to real. Truth is subjective and objective, real is just so too, and hence, both are not subject to proof, just agreement.

So in order to agree with this tome, with its pronouncement and pretension to alert us to a life of meaning and compassion, via psychotherapy, you have to suspend many aspects of culture, of opposition to the Universalist theme, to an acceptance of the messianic path, truth and real, one comes only to the father via…..?

Is it worth having?  Daniel Siegel and others, me included, find it compelling enough to read, and to reawaken our love for a paradigm almost lost in the 20th Century and now the 21st.  The metaphors created by Freud, reviled by the Feminists, carried on by Klein and others, live on in the post-modernist world, nicely done and filled with earnest writing from a circle of friends. I have to get me some of those.



© 2004 Roy Sugarman


Roy Sugarman, PhD, Clinical Director: Clinical Therapies Programme, Principal Psychologist: South West Sydney Area Health Service, Conjoint Senior Lecturer in Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Australia.


Welcome to Metapsychology.

Note that Metapsychology will be moving to a new server in January 2020. We will not put up new reviews during the transition. We thank you for your support and look forward to coming back with a revised format.

We feature over 8300 in-depth reviews of a wide range of books and DVDs written by our reviewers from many backgrounds and perspectives. We update our front page weekly and add more than twenty new reviews each month. Our editor is Christian Perring, PhD. To contact him, use one of the forms available here.

Metapsychology Online reviewers normally receive gratis review copies of the items they review.
Metapsychology Online receives a commission from for purchases through this site, which helps us send review copies to reviewers. Please support us by making your purchases through our Amazon links. We thank you for your support!

Join our Google Group!

Interested in becoming a book reviewer for Metapsychology? To apply, write to our editor.

Metapsychology Online Reviews

Promote your Page too

Metapsychology Online Reviews
ISSN 1931-5716