email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
Anger and Forgiveness"Are You There Alone?"10 Good Questions about Life and DeathA Casebook of Ethical Challenges in NeuropsychologyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to Muslim EthicsA Cooperative SpeciesA Critique of the Moral Defense of VegetarianismA Decent LifeA Delicate BalanceA Fragile LifeA Life for a LifeA Life-Centered Approach to BioethicsA Matter of SecurityA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Natural History of Human MoralityA Philosophical DiseaseA Practical Guide to Clinical Ethics ConsultingA Question of TrustA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Short Stay in SwitzerlandA Tapestry of ValuesA Very Bad WizardA World Without ValuesAction and ResponsibilityAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionActs of ConscienceAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction NeuroethicsAdvance Directives in Mental HealthAfter HarmAftermathAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HealthAgainst MarriageAgainst Moral ResponsibilityAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAging, Biotechnology, and the FutureAlbert Schweitzer's Reverence for LifeAlphavilleAltruismAltruismAmerican EugenicsAmerican PsychosisAn American SicknessAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Evolutionary EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy Ancient Greek and Roman SlaveryAnd a Time to DieAnimal LessonsAnimal RightsAnimal Welfare in a Changing WorldAnimals Like UsApplied Ethics in Mental Health CareAre Women Human?Arguments about AbortionAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle's WayAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAutonomyAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismAutonomy, Consent and the LawBabies by DesignBackslidingBad PharmaBad SoulsBarriers and BelongingBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBeauty JunkiesBefore ForgivingBeing AmoralBeing YourselfBending Over BackwardsBending ScienceBernard WilliamsBetter Humans?Better Than WellBeyond BioethicsBeyond ChoiceBeyond GeneticsBeyond HatredBeyond Humanity?Beyond LossBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond SpeechBeyond the DSM StoryBias in Psychiatric DiagnosisBioethicsBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics at the MoviesBioethics Beyond the HeadlinesBioethics Critically ReconsideredBioethics in a Liberal SocietyBioethics in the ClinicBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical Research and BeyondBiosBioscience EthicsBipolar ChildrenBluebirdBodies out of BoundsBodies, Commodities, and BiotechnologiesBody BazaarBoundBoundaries and Boundary Violations in PsychoanalysisBraintrustBrandedBreaking the SilenceBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyCapital PunishmentCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsChallenging the Stigma of Mental IllnessCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionChild Well-BeingChildrenChildren's RightsChimpanzee RightsChoosing ChildrenChoosing Not to ChooseClinical Dilemmas in PsychotherapyClinical EthicsCloningClose toYouCoercion as CureCoercive Treatment in PsychiatryCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognitive Disability and Its Challenge to Moral Philosophy Comfortably NumbCommonsense RebellionCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompassionate Moral RealismCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentComprehending CareConducting Insanity EvaluationsConfidential RelationshipsConfidentiality and Mental HealthConflict of Interest in the ProfessionsConsuming KidsContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContentious IssuesContesting PsychiatryCrazy in AmericaCreating CapabilitiesCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCriminal Trials and Mental DisordersCritical Perspectives in Public HealthCritical PsychiatryCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCurrent Controversies in BioethicsCurrent Controversies in Values and ScienceCutting to the CoreCyborg CitizenDamaged IdentitiesDeaf Identities in the MakingDeath Is That Man Taking NamesDebating ProcreationDebating Same-Sex MarriageDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecoding the Ethics CodeDefining DifferenceDefining Right and Wrong in Brain ScienceDefining the Beginning and End of LifeDelusions of GenderDementiaDemocracy in What State?Demons of the Modern WorldDescriptions and PrescriptionsDesert and VirtueDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDestructive Trends in Mental HealthDeveloping the VirtuesDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital HemlockDigital SoulDignityDignityDisability BioethicsDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDiscrimination against the Mentally IllDisordered Personalities and CrimeDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDoes Feminism Discriminate against Men?Does Torture Work?Doing HarmDouble Standards in Medical Research in Developing CountriesDown GirlDrugs and JusticeDuty and the BeastDworkin and His CriticsDying in the Twenty-First CenturyEarly WarningEconomics and Youth ViolenceEmbodied RhetoricsEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotional ReasonEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmpathyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEncountering NatureEncountering the Sacred in PsychotherapyEngendering International HealthEnhancing EvolutionEnhancing Human CapacitiesEnoughEros and the GoodErotic InnocenceErotic MoralityEssays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEthical Choices in Contemporary MedicineEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Dilemmas in PediatricsEthical Issues in Behavioral ResearchEthical Issues in Dementia CareEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in the New GeneticsEthical LifeEthical Reasoning for Mental Health ProfessionalsEthical TheoryEthical WillsEthically Challenged ProfessionsEthicsEthicsEthicsEthics and AnimalsEthics and ScienceEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Discovery of the UnconsciousEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics at the CinemaEthics at the End of LifeEthics Beyond the LimitsEthics Case Book of the American Psychoanalytic AssociationEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics for EveryoneEthics for PsychologistsEthics for the New MillenniumEthics in CyberspaceEthics in Everyday PlacesEthics in Health CareEthics In Health Services ManagementEthics in Mental Health ResearchEthics in PracticeEthics in PsychiatryEthics in PsychologyEthics in Psychotherapy and CounselingEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEthics, Culture, and PsychiatryEthics, Sexual Orientation, and Choices about ChildrenEvaluating the Science and Ethics of Research on HumansEvilEvilEvil GenesEvil in Modern ThoughtEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Ethics and Contemporary BiologyEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolved MoralityExperiments in EthicsExploding the Gene MythExploiting ChildhoodFacing Human SufferingFact and ValueFacts and ValuesFaking ItFalse-Memory Creation in Children and AdultsFat ShameFatal FreedomFellow CreaturesFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist TheoryFinal ExamFirst Do No HarmFirst, Do No HarmFlashpointFlesh WoundsForced to CareForgivenessForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and ReconciliationForgiveness and RetributionForgiveness is Really StrangeFoucault and the Government of DisabilityFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Forensic Mental Health AssessmentFree WillFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will and Reactive AttitudesFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree?Freedom and ValueFreedom vs. InterventionFriendshipFrom Darwin to HitlerFrom Disgust to HumanityFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Silence to VoiceFrom Valuing to ValueFrontiers of JusticeGender in the MirrorGenetic PoliticsGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetics of Original SinGenetics of Original SinGenocide's AftermathGetting RealGluttonyGood WorkGoodness & AdviceGreedGroups in ConflictGrowing Up GirlGut FeminismHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHandbook for Health Care Ethics CommitteesHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of Children's RightsHandbook of PsychopathyHappinessHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHard FeelingsHard LuckHardwired BehaviorHarmful ThoughtsHeal & ForgiveHealing PsychiatryHealth Care Ethics for PsychologistsHeterosyncraciesHistorical and Philosophical Perspectives on Biomedical EthicsHoly WarHookedHookedHow Can I Be Trusted?How Fascism WorksHow Propaganda WorksHow to Do Things with Pornography How to Make Opportunity EqualHow Universities Can Help Create a Wiser WorldHow We HopeHow We Think About DementiaHuman BondingHuman Dignity and Assisted DeathHuman Dignity and Assisted DeathHuman EnhancementHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman TrialsHumanism, What's That?Humanitarian ReasonHumanityHumanizing MadnessI am Not Sick I Don't Need Help!I Was WrongIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIf That Ever Happens to MeImproving Nature?In Defense of FloggingIn Defense of SinIn Love With LifeIn Our Own ImageIn the FamilyIn the Land of the DeafIn the Name of IdentityIn the Wake of 9/11In Two MindsInclusive EthicsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchInnovation in Medical TechnologyInside Assisted LivingInside EthicsIntelligence, Race, and GeneticsIntensive CareInto the Gray ZoneIs Human Nature Obsolete?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is There a Duty to Die?Is There an Ethicist in the House?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJudging Children As ChildrenJust a DogJust BabiesJust CareJustice for ChildrenJustice for HedgehogsJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeJustifiable ConductKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Theory of VirtueKids of CharacterKilling McVeighLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLaw and the BrainLearning About School ViolenceLearning from Baby PLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLegal and Ethical Aspects of HealthcareLegal Aspects of Mental CapacityLegal ConceptionsLegal InsanityLegalizing ProstitutionLet Them Eat ProzacLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberal EugenicsLife After FaithLife at the BottomLife's ValuesLife, Sex, and IdeasListening to the WhispersLiving ProfessionalismLosing Matt ShepardLostLuckyMad in AmericaMad PrideMadhouseMaking Another World PossibleMaking Babies, Making FamiliesMaking Genes, Making WavesMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMalignantMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaning and Moral OrderMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeans, Ends, and PersonsMeans, Ends, and PersonsMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedical Research for HireMedicalized MasculinitiesMedically Assisted DeathMeditations for the HumanistMelancholia and MoralismMental Health Professionals, Minorities and the PoorMental Illness, Medicine and LawMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMetaethical SubjectivismMill's UtilitarianismMind FieldsMind WarsMind WarsModern Theories of JusticeModernity and TechnologyMoney ShotMonsterMoral Acquaintances and Moral DecisionsMoral BrainsMoral ClarityMoral CultivationMoral Development and RealityMoral Dilemmas in Real LifeMoral DimensionsMoral EntanglementsMoral FailureMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral MindsMoral OriginsMoral Panics, Sex PanicsMoral ParticularismMoral PerceptionMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RealismMoral RelativismMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral Status and Human LifeMoral StealthMoral Theory at the MoviesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMoral, Immoral, AmoralMoralismMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMorals, Rights and Practice in the Human ServicesMorals, Rights and Practice in the Human ServicesMore Than HumanMotive and RightnessMovies and the Moral Adventure of LifeMurder in the InnMy Body PoliticMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Sister's KeeperMy Sister's KeeperMy WayNakedNano-Bio-EthicsNarrative MedicineNarrative ProsthesisNatural Ethical FactsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalized BioethicsNeither Bad nor MadNeoconservatismNeonatal BioethicsNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNew Takes in Film-PhilosophyNew Waves in EthicsNew Waves in MetaethicsNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNo Child Left DifferentNo Impact ManNormative EthicsNormativityNothing about us, without us!Oath BetrayedOf War and LawOn AnimalsOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn EvilOn Human RightsOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOn the TakeOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne ChildOne Nation Under TherapyOne World NowOne World NowOur Bodies, Whose Property?Our Bodies, Whose Property?Our Daily MedsOur Faithfulness to the PastOur Posthuman FutureOut of EdenOut of Its MindOut of the ShadowsOverdosed AmericaOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Studies in Normative EthicsOxford Studies in Normative Ethics, Volume 7Oxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPassionate DeliberationPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perfecting VirtuePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonalities on the PlatePersonhood and Health CarePersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPerspectives On Health And Human RightsPharmaceutical FreedomPharmacracyPharmageddonPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhysician-Assisted DyingPicturing DisabilityPilgrim at Tinker CreekPlaying God?Playing God?Political EmotionsPornlandPowerful MedicinesPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical EthicsPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical RulesPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic NeuroethicsPraise and BlamePreferences and Well-BeingPrimates and PhilosophersPro-Life, Pro-ChoiceProcreation and ParenthoodProfits Before People?Progress in BioethicsProperty in the BodyProzac As a Way of LifeProzac on the CouchPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric EthicsPsychiatry and EmpirePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychotropic Drug Prescriber's Survival GuidePublic Health LawPublic Health Law and EthicsPublic PhilosophyPunishing the Mentally IllPunishmentPursuits of WisdomPutting Morality Back Into PoliticsPutting on VirtueQuality of Life and Human DifferenceRaceRadical HopeRadical VirtuesRape Is RapeRe-creating MedicineRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReckoning With HomelessnessReconceiving Medical EthicsRecovery from SchizophreniaRedefining RapeRedesigning HumansReducing the Stigma of Mental IllnessReflections on Ethics and ResponsibilityReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRefuting Peter Singer's Ethical TheoryRegard for Reason in the Moral MindRelative JusticeRelativism and Human RightsReligion ExplainedReprogeneticsRescuing JeffreyRespecting AnimalsResponsibilityResponsibility and PsychopathyResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsResponsible BrainsResponsible GeneticsRethinking CommodificationRethinking Informed Consent in BioethicsRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeReturn to ReasonRevolution in PsychologyRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRisk and Luck in Medical EthicsRobert NozickRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Rule of Law, Misrule of MenRun, Spot, RunRunning on RitalinSatisficing and MaximizingSchadenfreudeSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and EthicsScience in the Private InterestScience, Policy, and the Value-Free IdealScience, Seeds and CyborgsScratching the Surface of BioethicsSecular Philosophy and the Religious TemperamentSeeing the LightSelf-ConstitutionSelf-Made MadnessSelf-Trust and Reproductive AutonomySentimental RulesSex Fiends, Perverts, and PedophilesSex OffendersSex, Family, and the Culture WarsSexual DevianceSexual EthicsSexual PredatorsSexualized BrainsShaping Our SelvesShock TherapyShould I Medicate My Child?ShunnedSick to Death and Not Going to Take It AnymoreSickoSide EffectsSidewalk StoriesSilent PartnersSister CitizenSkeptical FeminismSocial Dimensions of Moral ResponsibilitySocial Inclusion of People with Mental IllnessSocial JusticeSociological Perspectives on the New GeneticsSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSovereign VirtueSpeech MattersSpiral of EntrapmentSplit DecisionsSticks and StonesStories MatterSubhumanSubjectivity and Being SomebodySuffering and VirtueSuffering, Death, and IdentitySuicide ProhibitionSurgery JunkiesSurgically Shaping ChildrenTaking Morality SeriouslyTaming the Troublesome ChildTechnology and the Good Life?TestimonyText and Materials on International Human RightsThe Moral Psychology of AngerThe Age of CulpabilityThe Age of CulpabilityThe Aims of Higher EducationThe Almost MoonThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Forensic PsychiatryThe Animal ManifestoThe Animals' AgendaThe Art of LivingThe Autonomy of MoralityThe Beloved SelfThe Best Things in LifeThe Big FixThe Bioethics ReaderThe Biology and Psychology of Moral AgencyThe Blackwell Guide to Medical EthicsThe Body SilentThe BondThe Book of LifeThe Burden of SympathyThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Textbook of BioethicsThe Case against Assisted SuicideThe Case Against PerfectionThe Case Against PunishmentThe Case for PerfectionThe Case of Terri SchiavoThe Challenge of Human RightsThe Character GapThe Code for Global EthicsThe Colonization Of Psychic SpaceThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Common ThreadThe Connected SelfThe Constitution of AgencyThe Cow with Ear Tag #1389The Creation of PsychopharmacologyThe Criminal BrainThe Decency WarsThe Difficult-to-Treat Psychiatric PatientThe Disability PendulumThe Disability Rights Movement: From Charity to ConfrontationThe Domain of ReasonsThe Double-Edged HelixThe Duty to ProtectThe Emotional Construction of MoralsThe End of Ethics in a Technological SocietyThe End of Stigma?The Essentials of New York Mental Health LawThe Ethical BrainThe Ethical Dimensions of the Biological and Health SciencesThe Ethics of BioethicsThe Ethics of Choosing ChildrenThe Ethics of Human EnhancementThe Ethics of ParenthoodThe Ethics of SightseeingThe Ethics of the FamilyThe Ethics of the Family in SenecaThe Ethics of the LieThe Ethics of TransplantsThe Ethics of WarThe Ethics ToolkitThe Evolution of Mental Health LawThe Evolution of MoralityThe FamilyThe Fat Studies ReaderThe Forgiveness ProjectThe Forgotten CreedThe Form of Practical KnowledgeThe Fountain of YouthThe Freedom ParadoxThe Future of Assisted Suicide and EuthanasiaThe Future of Human NatureThe Good BookThe Good LifeThe Great BetrayalThe Handbook of Disability StudiesThe Healing VirtuesThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of Human RightsThe HorizonThe Idea of JusticeThe Ideal of NatureThe Illusion of Freedom and EqualityThe Immortal Life of Henrietta LacksThe Importance of Being UnderstoodThe Insanity OffenseThe Joy of SecularismThe Language PoliceThe Last Normal ChildThe Last UtopiaThe Limits of MedicineThe LobotomistThe Love CureThe Lucifer EffectThe Manual of EpictetusThe Mark of ShameThe Meaning of Life and the Great PhilosophersThe Meaning of NiceThe Medicalization of SocietyThe Merck DruggernautThe Mind Has MountainsThe Minority BodyThe Modern Art of DyingThe Modern SavageThe Moral ArcThe Moral BrainThe Moral Demands of MemoryThe Moral FoolThe Moral MindThe Moral Psychology HandbookThe Moral Psychology of DisgustThe Moral Psychology of ForgivenessThe Moral Punishment Instinct The Moral, Social, and Commercial Imperatives of Genetic Testing and ScreeningThe Most Good You Can DoThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of the Moral BrainThe Nature of Moral ResponsibilityThe Nature of NormativityThe New Disability HistoryThe New Genetic MedicineThe New Religious IntoleranceThe Offensive InternetThe Origins of FairnessThe Oxford Handbook of Animal EthicsThe Oxford Handbook of Ethics at the End of LifeThe Oxford Handbook of Food EthicsThe Palgrave Handbook of Practical Animal EthicsThe Perfect BabyThe Philosophical ParentThe Philosophy of NeedThe Philosophy of PornographyThe Philosophy of PsychiatryThe Politics Of LustThe Portable Ethicist for Mental Health Professionals The Power of Religion in the Public SphereThe Price of PerfectionThe Price of TruthThe Problem of PunishmentThe Problem of WarThe Problem of WarThe Prosthetic ImpulseThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe PsychopathThe Purity MythThe Pursuit of PerfectionThe Relevance of Philosophy to LifeThe Right Road to Radical FreedomThe Right to be LovedThe Right to Be ParentsThe Righteous MindThe Root of All EvilThe Routledge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal MindsThe Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of EmpathyThe Rules of InsanityThe Second SexismThe Second-Person StandpointThe Silent World of Doctor and PatientThe Sleep of ReasonThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Speed of DarkThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Story of Cruel and UnusualThe Story WithinThe Stubborn System of Moral ResponsibilityThe Suicide TouristThe Terrible GiftThe Theory of OptionsThe Therapy of DesireThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Triple HelixThe Trolley Problem MysteriesThe Trouble with DiversityThe Truth About the Drug CompaniesThe Ugly LawsThe Varieties of Religious ExperienceThe Virtue of Defiance and Psychiatric EngagementThe Virtues of FreedomThe Virtues of HappinessThe Virtuous Life in Greek EthicsThe Virtuous PsychiatristThe Voice of Breast Cancer in Medicine and BioethicsThe War Against BoysThe War for Children's MindsThe Whole ChildThe Woman RacketThe Worldwide Practice of TortureTherapy with ChildrenThieves of VirtueThree Generations, No ImbecilesTimes of Triumph, Times of DoubtTolerance Among The VirtuesTolerance and the Ethical LifeTolerationToxic PsychiatryTrauma, Truth and ReconciliationTreatment Kind and FairTrusting on the EdgeTry to RememberUltimate JudgementUnborn in the USA: Inside the War on AbortionUndermining ScienceUnderstanding AbortionUnderstanding CloningUnderstanding EmotionsUnderstanding EvilUnderstanding Kant's EthicsUnderstanding Moral ObligationUnderstanding Physician-Pharmaceutical Industry InteractionsUnderstanding TerrorismUnderstanding the GenomeUnderstanding the Stigma of Mental IllnessUnderstanding Treatment Without ConsentUnhingedUnprincipled VirtueUnsanctifying Human Life: Essays on EthicsUnspeakable Acts, Ordinary PeopleUp in FlamesUpheavals of ThoughtUsers and Abusers of PsychiatryValue-Free Science?Values and Psychiatric DiagnosisValues in ConflictVegetarianismViolence and Mental DisorderVirtue EthicsVirtue, Rules, and JusticeVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVirtues and Their VicesVoracious Science and Vulnerable AnimalsVulnerability, Autonomy, and Applied EthicsWar Against the WeakWar, Torture and TerrorismWarrior's DishonourWeaknessWelfare and Rational CareWhat are you staring at?What Genes Can't DoWhat Have We DoneWhat Is a Human?What Is Good and WhyWhat Is Good and WhyWhat Is the Good Life?What Price Better Health?What Should I Do?What We Owe to Each OtherWhat Would Aristotle Do?What's Good on TVWhat's Normal?What's Wrong with Children's RightsWhat's Wrong with Homosexuality?What's Wrong With Morality?When Animals SpeakWhen Is Discrimination Wrong?Who Holds the Moral High Ground?Who Owns YouWho Qualifies for Rights?Whose America?Whose View of Life?Why Animals MatterWhy Animals MatterWhy Does Inequality Matter?Why Honor MattersWhy I Burned My Book and Other Essays on DisabilityWhy Not Kill Them All?Why Punish? How Much?Why Some Things Should Not Be for SaleWisdom, Intuition and EthicsWithout ConscienceWomen and Borderline Personality DisorderWomen and MadnessWondergenesWould You Kill the Fat Man?Wrestling with Behavioral GeneticsWriting About PatientsYou Must Be DreamingYour Genetic DestinyYour Inner FishYouth Offending and Youth Justice Yuck!
There has recently been something of a resurgence of interest in the
emotions within analytic philosophy, and Peter Goldies collection is a welcome
contribution to this movement. It comprises seven papers arising from a
conference at the University of Londons School of Advanced Studies, as well as
a lengthy introductory article. As the subtitle suggests, these range across a
number of areas in philosophy, primarily epistemology, mind and ethics. There
is no specific issue focused upon; instead, the collection is suggestive of a
philosophical tradition rediscovering a neglected phenomenon. The collection is
to be commended: it raises the profile of the emotions in Anglo-American
analytic philosophy, and succeeds in integrating the emotions into live debates
in mind and ethics.
This book will not be for everyone. Many of the papers will seem rather
dry to those unfamiliar with analytic philosophy and its longstanding neglect
of the emotions. In a similar way, anyone hoping for a systematic account of
the emotions will be disappointed; a number of the contributions spend little
time on the emotions, focusing rather on their relevance to issues within the
analytic tradition. It is not the aim of the book to provide the reader with an
easy way into recent analytic worka better introduction would be Peter
Goldies other recent book, The Emotions:
A Philosophical Exploration (Oxford 2000).
Given the range of issues represented here, it is worthwhile outlining
each of the papers. This should serve to demonstrate that most readers should
find at least something of interest, even if one may not wish to spend time on
all of the papers.
The introduction, by Peter Goldie and Finn Spicer, is helpful, but is
also something of a missed opportunity. It does provide a good account of the
recent history of the emotions within the analytical tradition, and helpfully
outlines the reasons why they have been sidelined. Prominent amongst these is
the thought that the emotions stand in the way of rational deliberationthey
interfere with the workings of reason guided action, as Barry C. Smith puts
it in his contribution (p. 112). Whether this belief is justified is discussed
in a number of the following papers, notably those by Morton and Stocker. The
introduction also provides a summary of some of the recent literature in
philosophy and elsewhere, this constituting a useful background to the various
Nevertheless, one might have hoped for more. The account of the
geography of the area is somewhat brief, and not as much time is spent locating
the various contributions as could have been. One reason for this is that the
introductions authors appear to have an agenda of their own. Rather than just
providing a background for the following papers, they advocate a particular
approach under which we can call the emotion a substance (p. 4). This approach does not feature in any of the
subsequent discussions, and appears as little more than a thumbnail sketch
here. It might have been profitably set aside for detailed discussion
Another problemalbeit an understandable oneconcerns the lack of any
clear account of which mental and behavioral states or dispositions are to
count as emotions. Examples of emotions range from intellectual curiosity to
courage and fear, with little to explain what counts and what does not (for
example, what is merely a sensation, or a behavioral disposition). Michael
Stocker notes that there is disagreement concerning what counts as an emotion,
and calls this an uninteresting matter of classification (p. 68). While there
is some truth to this, in a book focusing on the emotions we might expect a
clearer picture of the subject matter to emerge.
Moving on to the individual contributions, Bill Brewer is concerned with
the connection between the experience of emotion and the behavior typical of
emotional states. This is related to a particular conceptual problem of other
minds: given that ones being in an emotional state is detected and possibly
constituted by ones subjective experiential state, how do we make sense of the
ascription of such emotional states to others?
Part of the answer comes by noting the central role of behavior here.
Brewer draws upon William James account of emotional experience, and attempts
to address a defect that he finds there. James suggested that emotional
experience is simply the experience of the bodily changes typical of the
emotional state. To feel fear, for example, is just to experience a heightened
pulse, muscular contraction caused by the release of adrenaline and
noradrenaline into your bloodstream, and so on. Brewer concurs with this aspect
of James account, but argues that the account is inadequate as it stands, due
to the fact that it fails to explain the fact that emotions can be directed
towards a particular object. One does not just feel afraidone feels afraid of
the stranger approaching in the unlit alley.
Brewers aim, then, is to provide an account of emotional experience
that ascribes a suitable role to behavior, allows for the intensional aspect of
the experience, and avoids the conceptual problem of other minds noted above.
He attempts this by giving an account that ascribes a central role to an
object, and by tying this object to ones behavior:
(F1) to be frightening is to be thus;
(F2) experiences of being afraid are precisely those which present something in
a certain light, as frightening, that is, as being thus,
where the referent of the behavioral demonstrative figuring in (F1) is the
property, roughly speaking, of eliciting certain behavior in the subject (p.
Daniel Huttos paper is, to a large extent, a response to Brewers. He
argues that Brewers account falls foul of the conceptual problem of other
minds, as it remains unhelpfully tied to an individualistic model of concept
learning (p. 40). The worry is that Brewer gives an account of concept
acquisition that fails to unite the experiential and behavioral aspects of emotional
concepts in the way necessary for one to make sense of the idea that another
can be in the same emotional state as oneself.
In response to this,
Hutto provides an alternative account of concept learning based on Donald
Davidsons account of triangulation. His account is centered on the idea that
we must share with others of our species an ability to attend preconceptually
to features of the world and recognize other similar beings as doing the same.
This intersubjective attending can act as the common ground, which enables us
to acquire emotion concepts that can be ascribed to others as well as oneself.
Huttos paper will be of significant value and interest to those
interested in epistemological issues surrounding the acquisition of concepts,
but may be of less interest to those concerned solely with the emotions. There
is surprisingly little mention of these in the paper, and this, along with its
location early in the book, will not help to endear the book to anyone hostile
to (or skeptical of) the analytic tradition. Nevertheless, those in this
situation should persevere, as the remaining papers merit attention.
The next contribution, from Adam Morton, moves to the area of ethics,
and is a dialogue between two characters, Adam and Eve. The former character
(presumably the voice of the author) argues against seeing the emotions as a
source of self-knowledge. Drawing upon Ronald de Sousas work, the paper
suggests that to feel an emotion is to see oneself as occupying a particular
role in a particular kind of story (p. 56). Seeing oneself through the
clouding influence of emotional thinking in this way is potentially
misleading; the emotions are more likely to obscure the facts of ones
situation than to reveal them.
As should be clear,
Morton (or, at least, his character Adam), concurs with the recent historical
trend of seeing the emotions as standing in the way of rational thought (as
mentioned above). When under the influence of an emotion, one is inclined to
see events from a centered perspectivesuch thought and experience lacks an
objectivity or impartiality that is desirable and, in Mortons account, related
to the possession of virtue.
The dialogue form employed here might similarly be thought to stand in
the way of critical engagement. Its value is not obvious, and it serves
primarily to make Mortons arguments rather more opaque than they might
otherwise have been.
contribution takes an opposing line to Mortons. The paper is concerned with a number of interrelated issues
concerning emotions and values. The largest part of the discussion relates to
issues in moral epistemology, and argues for the thought that emotions
constitute a central route by which we come to detect and recognize value. This
thought, familiar within the Aristotelian tradition, stands in direct contrast
to Mortons thesis, as outlined above.
In support of the claim that the emotions play a key role in the
evaluative judgments we make, Stocker cites a wealth of empirical evidence
drawn from psychology and psychoanalysis. In this context, he draws the
readers attention to an interesting range of cases in which, it is suggested,
a subjects emotional state has a debilitating effect on his/her ability to
assess the situation, or to understand him/herself or others.
A woman who because of grandiosity feels responsible for the well-being
of the entire family, to such an extent that she feels guilty for all
unhappiness suffered by her children (p. 71)
Such claims are not, of course, uncontroversial, but Stocker makes a
good case for the general claim.
A further theme is that emotions are not only a central epistemic route
to value, but also can be partly constitutive of value. A lack of emotion can,
in some instances, be a moral fault, as when one fails to feel remorse in an
appropriate situation. Presumably, the converse can also be truefeeling
excessively emotional might be blameworthy, for example when one is required to
be objective or clinical in ones opinions (jury service might provide one
Remaining in the moral arena, Simon Blackburns paper asks How
Emotional is the Virtuous Person? The paper concerns the debate between
rationalists, who hold that to have a reason for something involves the
apprehension of a reason, and expressivists, who hold that it is to have an
attitude or passion akin to desire (p. 82).
Focusing on desire, Blackburn draws upon a passage from Augustine, and
Does the pull of the will and of love get reflected by the belief that
some things need doing? Or does reason require us to believe that some things
and thereby exert
rational control over the direction that the pull and the will of love takes?
Blackburn can be seen as rejecting both positions represented by Morton
and Stocker above. Accounts of the kind endorsed by Morton generally hold that
emotions prevent one apprehending reasons - they prevent the kind of cool,
detached apprehension of the facts traditionally favored by the post-Cartesian
rationalist. Stocker, on the other hand, holds that emotions are ways of
apprehending reasons. Against both of these, Blackburn rejects the rationalist
assumption in favor of the expressivist position. He holds that to have a
reason is not to apprehend that something is the case, but rather to desire
something. To take this line is to give a positive answer to the first question
asked above and a negative answer to the second.
Although Blackburns paper is not focused on the emotions, it does
provide an answer to the titular question. Given that on the expressivist
account, to have a reason to do x is
just to desire that x, the virtuous
person must have desires. In fact, the virtuous person is exactly as emotional
as the rest of us (p. 95). The difference lies in the fact that the desires of
the virtuous are aimed at the correct targets.
Peter Goldies paper marks a return to epistemological territory with a
discussion of our ability to predict and explain the emotional states and
responses of others. He argues that the
imagination can have little role to play in this areaidentifying how someone
will react to an action is not a matter of imaginative identification with that
person. Simulation, while potentially useful as a predictive and explanatory
tool for other unemotional behavior, does not play a central role with respect
to the emotional states of others. This is because individuals emotional
responses vary wildly, and any attempt to put oneself in the shoes of another
is in danger of making an unjust presupposition of identity concerning the
range of emotional responses in the two cases.
Instead, it is argued that one must have a body of information about
how people generally act, as well as information about the subjects particular
character. The more information available here, the more likely that one will
be able to predict the subjects emotional responses. This body of information
is not, it should be noted, a theoryfor
familiar reasons, Goldie rejects the idea that there can be laws of human behavior
as there are scientific laws. Goldie, then, might be expected to reject the
suggestion that he holds a theory-theory of emotional understanding, if (the
first) theory is read in this scientistic way.
Goldie does allow some role for the imagination, though. He argues that
acentral imaginingimagining, that is, from no point of viewcan allow us to
construct predictive narratives about the behavior of others. Such imagining
employs the body of information, and is can be seen as a means of applying this
information on Goldies account.
The concluding paper, by Barry C. Smith, is again epistemological in
focus. He draws our attention to the failure on the part of most contemporary
theories of folk psychology to leave any explanatory space whatsoever for the
emotions. He argues for a place for the emotions in rational psychology, and
justifies this by noting the place that the emotions have in the day-to-day
judging of others. Smith also claims that we cannot treat emotions as a
particular variety of sensation; although certain emotional states (such as
joy) might be predominantly sensational, there are others that appear to have a
more dispositional nature.
The second half of Smiths paper comprises a discussion of the range of
emotional phenomena and a suggestion to the effect that Goldie fails to grant a
sufficient place to ones own emotions in our understanding of the emotional
states of others. The roles played by the emotions in understanding oneself,
others, and the world are many and varied, and if we are to give any systematic
account of these we must distinguish between those emotions which are stable
over time and the emotional outbursts that may well restrict rational
As the preceding will hopefully have suggested, this volume is a
worthwhile contribution to the growing literature on the emotions. The
disparate nature of the papers should serve to demonstrate the richness of the
emotions as a topic of study, and well as to indicate the amount of work still
needing doing within Anglo-American philosophy. I would expect this book to be
of real influence in directing future work within this area.
2003 Chris Lindsay
Lindsay teaches philosophy at the University of Glasgow, Scotland.