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A Theory of Feelings Anger and Forgiveness"My Madness Saved Me"10 Good Questions about Life and Death12 Modern Philosophers50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a GodA Cabinet of Philosophical CuriositiesA Case for IronyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to Buddhist PhilosophyA Companion to FoucaultA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to HumeA Companion to KantA Companion to Phenomenology and ExistentialismA Companion to PragmatismA Companion to the Philosophy of ActionA Companion to the Philosophy of BiologyA Companion to the Philosophy of LiteratureA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Critique of Naturalistic Philosophies of MindA Cursing Brain?A Delicate BalanceA Farewell to AlmsA Frightening LoveA Future for PresentismA Guide to the Good LifeA History of PsychiatryA History of the MindA Life Worth LivingA Manual of Experimental PhilosophyA Map of the MindA Metaphysics of PsychopathologyA Mind So RareA Natural History of Human MoralityA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Natural History of VisionA Parliament of MindsA Philosopher Looks at The Sense of HumorA Philosophical DiseaseA Philosophy of BoredomA Philosophy of Cinematic ArtA Philosophy of CultureA Philosophy of EmptinessA Philosophy of FearA Philosophy of PainA Physicalist ManifestoA Place for ConsciousnessA Question of TrustA Research Agenda for DSM-VA Revolution of the MindA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Stroll With William JamesA Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Theory of FreedomA Thousand MachinesA Universe of ConsciousnessA Very Bad WizardA Virtue EpistemologyA World Full of GodsA World Without ValuesAbout FaceAbout the Beginning of the Hermeneutics of the SelfAction and ResponsibilityAction in ContextAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionAction, Contemplation, and HappinessAction, Emotion and WillAdam SmithAdaptive DynamicsAddictionAddictionAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction Is a ChoiceAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAftermathAfterwarAgainst AdaptationAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HappinessAgainst HealthAgency and ActionAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and EmbodimentAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAl-JununAlain BadiouAlain BadiouAlasdair MacIntyreAlien Landscapes?Altered EgosAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Ethics for TodayAn Intellectual History of CannibalismAn Interpretation of DesireAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy An Introduction to Philosophy of EducationAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of PsychologyAn Introductory Philosophy of MedicineAn Odd Kind of FameAnalytic FreudAnalytic Philosophy in AmericaAncient AngerAncient Models of MindAncient Philosophy of the SelfAngerAnimal LessonsAnimal MindsAnimals Like UsAnnihilationAnother PlanetAnswers for AristotleAnti-ExternalismAnti-Individualism and KnowledgeAntigone’s ClaimAntipsychiatryAre We Hardwired?Are Women Human?Arguing about DisabilityArguing About Human NatureAristotle and the Philosophy of FriendshipAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's ChildrenAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle, Emotions, and EducationArt & MoralityArt After Conceptual ArtArt in Three DimensionsArt, Self and KnowledgeArtificial ConsciousnessArtificial HappinessAspects of PsychologismAsylum to ActionAtonement and ForgivenessAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutobiography as PhilosophyAutonomyAutonomy and Mental DisorderAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismBabies by DesignBackslidingBadiouBadiou's DeleuzeBadiou, Balibar, Ranciere: Rethinking EmancipationBare Facts And Naked TruthsBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBattlestar Galactica and PhilosophyBeautyBecoming a SubjectBecoming HumanBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing AmoralBeing HumanBeing Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory Being No OneBeing Realistic about ReasonsBeing ReducedBeing YourselfBelief's Own EthicsBending Over BackwardsBerlin Childhood around 1900Bernard WilliamsBertrand RussellBetter than BothBetter Than WellBetween Two WorldsBeyond HealthBeyond Hegel and NietzscheBeyond KuhnBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond PostmodernismBeyond ReductionBeyond the DSM StoryBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics in the ClinicBiological Complexity and Integrative PluralismBiology Is TechnologyBiosBipolar ExpeditionsBlackwell Companion to the Philosophy of EducationBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlues - Philosophy for EveryoneBlushBob Dylan and PhilosophyBody ConsciousnessBody Image And Body SchemaBody ImagesBody LanguageBody MattersBody WorkBody-Subjects and Disordered MindsBoundBoundaries of the MindBoyleBrain Evolution and CognitionBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-WiseBrainchildrenBrains, Buddhas, and BelievingBrainstormingBrave New WorldsBreakdown of WillBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and FaithBrief Therapy Homework PlannerBritain on the CouchBrute RationalityBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyBut Is It Art?Camus and SartreCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCarving Nature at Its JointsCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsCassandra's DaughterCato's TearsCausation and CounterfactualsCauses, Laws, and Free WillChanging Conceptions of the Child from the Renaissance to Post-ModernityChanging the SubjectChaosophyCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionCharles DarwinCherishmentChildhood and the Philosophy of EducationChildrenChildren, Families, and Health Care Decision MakingChoices and ConflictChoosing Not to ChooseChristmas - Philosophy for EveryoneCinema, Philosophy, BergmanCinematic MythmakingCity and Soul in Plato's RepublicClassifying MadnessClear and Queer ThinkingClinical EthicsClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyCodependent ForevermoreCoffee - Philosophy for EveryoneCognition and the BrainCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognition Through Understanding: Self-Knowledge, Interlocution, Reasoning, ReflectionCognitive BiologyCognitive FictionsCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Systems and the Extended Mind Cognitive Theories of Mental IllnessCoherence in Thought and ActionCollected Papers, Volume 1Collected Papers, Volume 2College SexComedy IncarnateCommitmentCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentConcealment And ExposureConceptual Analysis and Philosophical NaturalismConceptual Art and PaintingConceptual Issues in Evolutionary BiologyConfessionsConfucianismConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConquest of AbundanceConscience and ConvenienceConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the SelfConsciousness EmergingConsciousness EvolvingConsciousness ExplainedConsciousness in ActionConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Color, and ContentConsole and ClassifyConstructing the WorldConstructive AnalysisContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Philosophy of BiologyContemporary Debates in Philosophy of MindContemporary Debates in Political PhilosophyContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContemporary Perspectives on Natural LawContested Knowledge: Social Theory TodayContesting PsychiatryContext and the AttitudesContinental Philosophy of ScienceControlControlling Our DestiniesConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCopernicus, Darwin and FreudCrazy for YouCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCreating ConsilienceCreating HysteriaCreating Mental IllnessCreating Scientific ConceptsCreating the American JunkieCreation, Rationality and AutonomyCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCrimes of ReasonCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychiatryCritical PsychologyCritical ResistanceCritical Thinking About PsychologyCritical VisionsCross and KhoraCruel CompassionCTRL [SPACE]Cultural Psychology of the SelfCultural Theory: An IntroductionCulture and Psychiatric DiagnosisCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCulture of DeathCultures of NeurastheniaCurious EmotionsCurrent Controversies in Experimental PhilosophyCustom and Reason in HumeCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCutting God in Half - And Putting the Pieces Together AgainCylons in AmericaDamaged IdentitiesDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous EmotionsDaniel DennettDaniel DennettDark AgesDarwin and DesignDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDarwin, God and the Meaning of LifeDarwinian PsychiatryDarwinian ReductionismDarwinizing CultureDating: Philosophy for EveryoneDeathDeathDeath and CharacterDeath and CompassionDeath and the AfterlifeDebating DesignDebating HumanismDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecomposing the WillDeconstructing PsychotherapyDeconstruction and DemocracyDeeper Than DarwinDeeper than ReasonDefending Science - within ReasonDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDegrees of BeliefDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions and Other Irrational BeliefsDelusions and the Madness of the MassesDementiaDemons, Dreamers, and MadmenDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDennett’s PhilosophyDepression Is a ChoiceDepression, Emotion and the SelfDepthDerrida, Deleuze, PsychoanalysisDescartesDescartes and the Passionate MindDescartes' CogitoDescartes's Changing MindDescartes's Concept of MindDescribing Inner Experience?Descriptions and PrescriptionsDesembodied Spirits and Deanimated Bodies Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Desire and AffectDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDiagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersDialectics of the SelfDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital SoulDimensional Models of Personality DisordersDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDisjunctivismDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDispatches from the Freud WarsDisrupted LivesDistractionDisturbed ConsciousnessDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Do We Still Need Doctors?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Does the Woman Exist?Doing without ConceptsDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDonald DavidsonDonald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the MentalDoubting Darwin?Dreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR CasebookDworkin and His CriticsDying to KnowDynamics in ActionDysthymia and the Spectrum of Chronic DepressionsEccentricsEducational MetamorphosesEffective IntentionsElbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth WantingEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbodied RhetoricsEmbodied Selves and Divided MindsEmbryos under the MicroscopeEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotionEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion and PsycheEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotional ReasonEmotional ReasonEmotional TruthEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmpathyEmpathy and AgencyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpathy in the Context of PhilosophyEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEnchanted LoomsEngaging BuddhismEngineering the Human GermlineEnjoymentEnvyEpicureanismEpistemic LuckEpistemologyEpistemology and EmotionsEpistemology and the Psychology of Human JudgmentEros and the GoodErotic MoralityEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssays in the Metaphysics of Mind Essays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEssays on Nonconceptual ContentEssays on Philosophical CounselingEssays on Reference, Language, and MindEssays on the Concept of Mind in Early-Modern PhilosophyEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEsssential Philosophy of PsychiatryEternal Sunshine of the Spotless MindEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in Human CloningEthical TheoryEthicsEthicsEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics in Plain EnglishEthics in PracticeEthics in Psychiatric ResearchEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEuropean Review of Philosophy. Vol. 5Everyday IrrationalityEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolutionEvolution and the Human MindEvolution's RainbowEvolutionary Origins of MoralityEvolutionary PsychologyExamined LifeExamined LivesExistential AmericaExistentialismExistentialism and Romantic LoveExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and NaturalismExperiments in EthicsExplaining ConsciousnessExplaining the BrainExplaining the Computational MindExplanatory PluralismExploding the Gene MythExploring HappinessExploring the SelfExpression and the InnerExpressions of JudgmentFaces of IntentionFact and ValueFact and Value in EmotionFacts, Values, and NormsFads and Fallacies in the Social SciencesFaith and Wisdom in ScienceFatherhoodFear of KnowledgeFearless SpeechFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFeelings of BeingFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminism and Philosophy of ScienceFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist Interpretations of Rene DescartesFeminist TheoryField Notes from ElsewhereFinding Consciousness in the BrainFingerprints of GodFlesh in the Age of ReasonFolk Psychological NarrativesFolk Psychology Re-AssessedForces of HabitForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and RetributionFoucault 2.0Foucault and PhilosophyFoucault NowFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in PsychologyFour Views on Free WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree Will and Action ExplanationFree Will and LuckFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree: Why Science Hasn't Disproved Free WillFreedomFreedom and DeterminismFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom and ResponsibiltyFreedom and ValueFreedom EvolvesFreedom RegainedFreedom vs. InterventionFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFreudFreud and the Question of PseudoscienceFreud As PhilosopherFreud's AnswerFreud, the Reluctant PhilosopherFriedrich NietzscheFrom Chance to ChoiceFrom Clinic to ClassroomFrom Complexity to LifeFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution for Science and the HumanitiesFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrontiers of ConsciousnessFrontiers of JusticeFurnishing the MindGalileo in PittsburghGenderGender and Mental HealthGender in the MirrorGender TroubleGenesGenes, Women, EqualityGenetic Nature/CultureGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetic SecretsGenocide's AftermathGenomes and What to Make of ThemGerman Idealism and the JewGerman PhilosophyGetting HookedGilles DeleuzeGlobal PhilosophyGluttonyGod and Phenomenal ConsciousnessGoffman's LegacyGoing Amiss in Experimental ResearchGoodness & AdviceGrassroots SpiritualityGrave MattersGrave MattersGreedGreek Models of Mind and SelfGut ReactionsHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHabits of MindHallucinationHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of EmotionsHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness and EducationHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHappiness, Death, and the Remainder of LifeHard LuckHarmful ThoughtsHaving the World in ViewHealing PsychiatryHealing the Soul in the Age of the BrainHealth, Illness and DiseaseHealth, Science, and Ordinary LanguageHegelHeidegger and a Metaphysics of FeelingHeidegger, Metaphysics and the Univocity of BeingHermann von Helmholtz's MechanismHermeneutics As PoliticsHeterophobiaHeterosyncraciesHeuristics and BiasesHeuristics and the LawHidden ResourcesHidden SelvesHiding from HumanityHigh Art LiteHistorical OntologyHistory of Psychiatry and Medical PsychologyHistory, Historicity And ScienceHobbesHomosexualitiesHope and Dread in PsychoanalysisHot ThoughtHow Can I Be Trusted?How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains?How Do We Know Who We Are?How Emotions WorkHow Emotions WorkHow History Made the MindHow Images ThinkHow is Nature Possible?How Propaganda WorksHow Science WorksHow Scientific Practices MatterHow Scientists Explain DiseaseHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Make Opportunity EqualHow to Solve the Mind-Body Problemhow to stop timeHow to Think More About SexHow We HopeHow We ReasonHuman CloningHuman Development, Language and the Future of MankindHuman EnhancementHuman Evolution, Reproduction, and MoralityHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman NatureHuman NatureHuman Nature and the Limits of ScienceHuman-Built WorldHumanismHumanism, What's That?HumanityHumans, Animals, MachinesHumeHumeHume on Motivation and VirtueHusserlHystoriesI of the VortexI Was WrongIdeas that MatterIdentifying the MindIdentity and Agency in Cultural WorldsIgnorance and ImaginationIllnessImagination and Its PathologiesImagination and the Meaningful BrainImagining NumbersImmortal RemainsImproving Nature?In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of HealthIn Defense of SentimentalityIn Love With LifeIn Praise of Athletic BeautyIn Praise of the WhipIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of HappinessIn the Name of GodIn the Name of IdentityIn the Space of ReasonsIn Two MindsIncompatibilism's AllureIndividual Differences in Conscious ExperienceInfinity and PerspectiveInformation ArtsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchIngmar Bergman, Cinematic PhilosopherInhuman ThoughtsInner PresenceInsanityIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntelligent VirtueIntentionIntentionality, Deliberation and AutonomyIntentions and IntentionalityIntentions and IntentionalityInterpreting MindsInterpreting NietzscheIntroducing Greek PhilosophyIntrospection and ConsciousnessIntrospection VindicatedIntuition, Imagination, and Philosophical MethodologyIntuitionismInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIrrationalityIs Academic Feminism Dead?Is It Me or My Meds?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is Oedipus Online?Is Science Neurotic?Is Science Value Free?Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion?Is There a Duty to Die?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJacques LacanJacques RancièreJacques RanciereJean-Paul SartreJohn McDowellJohn SearleJohn Searle's Ideas About Social RealityJohn Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill and the Writing of CharacterJoint AttentionJokesJonathan EdwardsJudging and UnderstandingJustice for ChildrenJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeKantKant and MiltonKant and the Fate of AutonomyKant and the Limits of AutonomyKant and the Role of Pleasure in Moral ActionKant on Freedom, Law, and HappinessKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Anatomy of EvilKant's Anatomy of the Intelligent MindKant's Theory of VirtueKarl JaspersKarl PopperKey Concepts in PhilosophyKierkegaardKierkegaard as PhenomenologistKierkegaard's Concept of DespairKinds of MindsKinds, Things, and StuffKnowing, Knowledge and BeliefsKnowledge MonopoliesKnowledge, Belief, and CharacterKnowledge, Possibility, and ConsciousnessLacanLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLanguageLanguage in ContextLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Culture, and MindLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw and the BrainLaw, Liberty, and PsychiatryLaws, Mind, and Free WillLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberatory PsychiatryLife and ActionLife at the Texas State Lunatic Asylum, 1857-1997Life Is Not a Game of PerfectLife of the MindLife's FormLife, Death, & MeaningLife, Death, and Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of UtilityLife, Sex, and IdeasLight in the Dark RoomLike a Splinter in Your MindLiving and Dying WellLiving NarrativeLiving Outside Mental IllnessLiving with DarwinLiving With One’s PastLockeLocke LockeLogic and the Art of Memory Loneliness in Philosophy, Psychology, and LiteratureLooking for SpinozaLooking for The StrangerLost SoulsLOT 2LoveLoveLove's ConfusionsLove's VisionLove, Friendship, and the SelfLove, Sex & TragedyLuckyLudwig WittgensteinLustLyingMachine ConsciousnessMad for FoucaultMad TravelersMade with WordsMadness And Death In PhilosophyMadness and DemocracyMadness at HomeMadness Is CivilizationMaking Natural KnowledgeMaking Sense of EvolutionMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMaking the DSM-5Making the Social WorldMaking TruthMale Female EmailMan, Beast, and ZombieMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManiaManic Depression and CreativityMapping the Edges and the In-betweenMapping the Future of BiologyMarcus AureliusMaster PassionsMatters of the MindMe++Meaning and Moral OrderMeaning and Value in a Secular AgeMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeaning, Basic Self-Knowledge, and MindMeasuring HappinessMeasuring PsychopathologyMedia MadnessMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedicine of the PersonMedicine, Mental Health, Religion, Science and Well-BeingMelancholy And the Care of the SoulMelancholy and the Otherness of GodMementoMemory and NarrativeMental ActionsMental CausationMental Causation and OntologyMental HealthMental Health At The CrossroadsMental Health Policy in BritainMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMerleau-PontyMerleau-Ponty and the Possibilities of PhilosophyMetacognition and Theory of MindMetacreationMetaethical SubjectivismMetaethicsMetal and FleshMetaphors of MemoryMetapoliticsMethods in MindMichel FoucaultMill's UtilitarianismMindMindMind and ConsciousnessMind and CosmosMind and MechanismMind GamesMind in a Physical WorldMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind in LifeMind TimeMind's LandscapeMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMind, Brain, and Free WillMind, Reason and ImaginationMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds and PersonsMinds, Brains, and LawMinds, Ethics, and ConditionalsMindshapingMindsightMindworldsMirror, MirrorMixed FeelingsMockingbird YearsModels of the SelfModern Social ImaginariesModern Theories of JusticeModernity and SubjectivityModernity and TechnologyMoody Minds DistemperedMoral DimensionsMoral FailureMoral ImaginationMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral ParticularismMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology and Human AgencyMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Moral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMotherhoodMotive and RightnessMoving Beyond Prozac, DSM, and the New PsychiatryMultiple Analogies in Science and PhilosophyMultiple Identities & False MemoriesMusic, Madness, and the Unworking of LanguageMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Double UnveiledMy WayNarrativeNarrative and IdentityNarrative MedicineNarrative PsychiatryNarrative Theory and the Cognitive SciencesNatural Ethical FactsNatural Kinds and Conceptual ChangeNatural MindsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalism and the First-Person PerspectiveNaturalism and the Human ConditionNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalized BioethicsNaturalizing the MindNatureNature and NarrativeNear Death ExperienceNeither Bad nor MadNeither Victim nor SurvivorNeuro-Philosophy and the Healthy MindNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neurophilosophy at WorkNeurophilosophy of Free WillNeuropoliticsNeuropsychoanalysis in PracticeNeuroscience and PhilosophyNew Essays on the Explanation of ActionNew Philosophy for a New MediaNew Versions of VictimsNew Waves in Philosophy of ActionNietzscheNietzsche and Buddhist PhilosophyNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNietzsche's TherapyNietzsche, Culture and EducationNietzsche: The Man and His PhilosophyNihil UnboundNoir AnxietyNormative EthicsNormativityNorms of NatureNotebooks 1951-1959Notes Toward a Performative Theory of AssemblyNothing So AbsurdOblivionOn AnxietyOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn Being AuthenticOn BeliefOn BullshitOn DelusionOn DesireOn EmotionsOn HashishOn Human RightsOn Loving Our EnemiesOn Nature and LanguageOn PersonalityOn ReflectionOn Romantic LoveOn the EmotionsOn the Freud WatchOn the Government of the LivingOn the Human ConditionOn the InternetOn the Meaning of LifeOn the Philosophy of LawOn the Pragmatics of CommunicationOn the Punitive SocietyOn TruthOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne Hundred DaysOnflowOnly a Promise of HappinessOntology of ConsciousnessOpen MindedOpen Your EyesOrgans without BodiesOther MindsOur Last Great IllusionOur Own MindsOur Posthuman FutureOur StoriesOut of Its MindOut of Our HeadsOxford Guide to the MindOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPanic DisorderPanpsychism in the WestPartialityPassionate EnginesPassionate EnginesPathologies of BeliefPathologies of ReasonPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perceiving the WorldPerception & CognitionPerception and Basic BeliefsPerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPerceptual ExperiencePerfecting VirtuePerplexities of ConsciousnessPersistencePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal IdentityPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonal Identity and Fractured SelvesPersonhood and Health CarePersonsPersons and BodiesPersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPersons, Souls and DeathPerspectives on ImitationPerspectives on PragmatismPessimismPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenal ConsciousnessPhenomenal IntentionalityPhenomenology and ExistentialismPhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophersPhilosophers on MusicPhilosophers without GodsPhilosophical CounselingPhilosophical Counselling and the UnconsciousPhilosophical DevicesPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical History and the Problem of ConsciousnessPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in Psychiatry IIPhilosophical MethodologyPhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophical Myths of the FallPhilosophical Perspectives on DepictionPhilosophical Perspectives on Technology and PsychiatryPhilosophical PracticePhilosophical Reflections on DisabilityPhilosophizing About Sex Philosophizing the EverydayPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy and LivingPhilosophy and PsychiatryPhilosophy and PsychotherapyPhilosophy and Science FictionPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the Interpretation of Pop CulturePhilosophy and the Moving ImagePhilosophy and the NeurosciencesPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy As FictionPhilosophy BitesPhilosophy Bites BackPhilosophy for Counselling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy for LifePhilosophy in a New CenturyPhilosophy in an Age of SciencePhilosophy in Children's LiteraturePhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BodyPhilosophy of Film and Motion PicturesPhilosophy of LovePhilosophy of Love, Sex, and MarriagePhilosophy of MindPhilosophy of Mind and CognitionPhilosophy of Personal Identity and Multiple PersonalityPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy of Public HealthPhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhilosophy of the Social SciencesPhilosophy on TapPhilosophy PracticePhilosophy the Day after TomorrowPhilosophy's Role in Counseling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhilosophy, Politics, DemocracyPhotography and PhilosophyPhysical RealizationPhysicalism and Its DiscontentsPhysicalism and Mental CausationPhysicalism, or Something Near EnoughPhysician-Assisted DyingPillar of SaltPin-up GrrrlsPlatoPlatoPlato, Not Prozac!Platonic Ethics, Old and NewPluralistic CasuistryPolarities of ExperiencesPolitical EmotionsPopper, Objectivity and the Growth of KnowledgePornPorn StudiesPornography, Sex, and FeminismPortrait of the Psychiatrist as a Young ManPostcolonial DisordersPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPower and the SelfPower SplitPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical ConflictsPractical Identity and Narrative AgencyPractical PhilosophyPractical RulesPractical Tortoise RaisingPractically ProfoundPracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPragmatic BioethicsPragmatismPragmatism, Old And NewPraise and BlamePredicative MindsPreferences and Well-BeingPrescriptions for the MindPresocraticsPrimary and Secondary QualitiesPrimates and PhilosophersPrivacyPrivileged AccessProblems in MindProblems of RationalityProzac As a Way of LifeProzac BacklashProzac on the CouchPsyche and SomaPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric Cultures ComparedPsychiatric Diagnosis and ClassificationPsychiatric EthicsPsychiatric PowerPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry and Philosophy of SciencePsychiatry and ReligionPsychiatry as a Human SciencePsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry in SocietyPsychiatry in the New MilleniumPsychiatry in the Scientific ImagePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsycho-Physical Dualism TodayPsychoanalysis and Narrative MedicinePsychoanalysis and the Philosophy of SciencePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and PhilosophyPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, and the Politics of Human RelationshipsPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPsychotherapy As PraxisPublic PhilosophyPunishmentPure ImmanencePurple HazePursuing MeaningQuality of Life and Human DifferenceQueer PhilosophyQuestions for FreudQuestions for FreudQuine and Davidson on Language, Thought and RealityRaceRace in Contemporary MedicineRadiant CoolRadical AlterityRadical ExternalismRadical HopeRational and Social AgencyRational CausationRational Choice in an Uncertain WorldRationality + Consciousness = Free WillRationality and FreedomRationality and the Reflective MindRationality in ActionRawls, Dewey, and ConstructivismRe-creating MedicineRe-EmergenceRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReading AutobiographyReading Bernard WilliamsReading SartreReadings in the Philosophy of TechnologyReal MaterialismReal Natures and Familiar ObjectsReal ScienceRealism in ActionReason & EmancipationReason in ActionReason in PhilosophyReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReasoning About Rational AgentsReasoning in Biological DiscoveriesReasons from WithinReasons without RationalismReclaiming CognitionReclaiming the SoulReconceiving SchizophreniaReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecreative MindsRediscovering EmotionRediscovering EmpathyReference and ExistenceReference and the Rational MindReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRegulating SexReinventing the SoulRelativism and Human RightsRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyReliable ReasoningReligion without GodRelying on OthersRemembering HomeResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsRestraining RageRethinking ExpertiseRethinking IntrospectionRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeRethinking the DSMRethinking the Sociology of Mental HealthRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfReturn to ReasonRevolt, She SaidRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard Rorty's New PragmatismRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRise And Fall of Soul And SelfRitalin NationRobert NozickRousseauRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Derrida on DeconstructionRules, Reason, and Self-KnowledgeSaints, Scholars, and Schizophrenics: Mental Illness in Rural IrelandSartreSartreSartreSartre in Search of an EthicsSatisficing and MaximizingSaving GodScandalous KnowledgeSchizophreniaSchizophrenia and the Fate of the SelfSchizophrenia: A Scientific Delusion?SchopenhauerSchopenhauer's TelescopeScienceScience and EthicsScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and SpiritualityScience and the Pursuit of WisdomScience Fiction and PhilosophyScience Fiction and PhilosophyScience in Civil SocietyScience in DemocracyScience RulesScience WarsScience, Consciousness and Ultimate RealityScience, Policy, and the Value-Free IdealSciences from BelowScientific EvidenceScientific IrrationalismScientific PerspectivismScientific PluralismScientific Realism and the Rationality of ScienceScratching the Surface of BioethicsSecond NatureSecond OpinionsSecond PhilosophySecrets of the MindSecular Philosophy and the Religious TemperamentSecurity, Territory, PopulationSeeing and VisualizingSeeing DoubleSeeing Fictions in FilmSeeing RedSeeing Wittgenstein AnewSeeing, Doing, And KnowingSelfSelf and OtherSelf and SubjectivitySelf, No Self?Self-ConsciousnessSelf-ConstitutionSelf-ExpressionSelf-FulfillmentSelf-Knowledge and ResentmentSelf-Knowledge and Self-DeceptionSelf-Made MadnessSelf-Reference and Self-AwarenessSelf-Representational Approaches to ConsciousnessSelvesSentimental RulesSexing the BodySexualized BrainsShades of LonelinessShame and GuiltShame and NecessityShame and PhilosophyShop Class as SoulcraftShynessSigns, Mind, And RealitySimone de BeauvoirSimple MindednessSimulating MindsSimulation and SimilaritySinging in the FireSisyphus's BoulderSituating SemanticsSix Questions of SocratesSkeptical FeminismSkepticismSketch for a Theory of the EmotionsSleeping With Extra-TerrestrialsSlothSocial EpistemologySocial PhenomenologySocializing MetaphysicsSociological Perspectives on the New GeneticsSocratesSocrates CafeSocrates in LoveSocratic Moral PsychologySoft SubversionsSoren KierkegaardSorting Things OutSoul 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The Age of InsanityReview - The Age of Insanity
Modernity and Mental Health
by John F. Schumaker
Praeger, 2001
Review by James Sage
Jan 19th 2002 (Volume 6, Issue 3)

This thoughtful, provocative volume explores the generalized psychological effects of living in the modern world. The modern world, according to Schumaker, is characterized by a collapse of cultural and religious traditions, a breakdown of personal and social relationships, and the general undermining of spirituality. In place of these traditional cultural structures, modernity supplies structure in terms of vapid consumerism-meaningful existence for the person living in the modern age is threatened by this overt commodification of social living. Meaningful existence in the modern world can be analyzed in terms of consumption; modern relationships and connectedness can be analyzed in terms of economic exchanges; and mental health in the modern world can be analyzed as a series of failures to support the mental health needs of moderns, resulting in novel clusters of psychopathology.

Schumaker aims to give a comprehensive overview of the various ways that modern living fails to meet the mental health needs of modern people. Among the topics treated include psychological defenses and alienation, religion and culture, materialism and consumption, depression and anxiety, spiritual and existential health, as well as the impact of urban living and other ecological conditions such as noise, water, and air pollution. All of these topics are connected with the general aim of the volume, which is to explore the ways in which modern living has failed to meet the mental health needs of people.

While modernity is a varied notion, Schumaker nicely identifies the sense in which he means to address the breakdown of mental health. His principal interest is to identify the cultural changes associated with modernity in order to trace the development of how modern living proves toxic to mental health. Among the various basic "needs" people have are a sense of inter-personal connectedness; identity and personal recognition; transcendence, ritual, and drama; intellectual stimulation and personal growth; and integration with social and cultural traditions. These basic needs are met by traditional cultural and religious frameworks and help provide remedies to some common existential anxieties which can be grouped as follows: inevitability of death, radical freedom, ultimate aloneness, and absence of meaning (see Irvin D. Yalom, Existential Psychotherapy, or his more accessible volume, Love's Executioner). In other words, traditional social institutions (religion in particular) provide meaningful answers to these existential questions. Modernity fails to meet these basic needs, and therefore fails to provide reliable coping strategies for existential anxiety.

In a chapter focusing on the self, Schumaker identifies the growing trend of individualism that is part of modern living. Individualism in the context of modernity is especially disrupting as it forces moderns to abandon larger, shared frameworks that provide a sense of meaning. Individualism also alienates the modern person by reinforcing selfish values and narcissistic personalities. Overall, the replacement of traditional cultural frameworks with modern individualism results in a loss of established "coping strategies" or "identity templates" that people use to manage their existence. The modern person, in other words, is left to figure out meaningful existence in complete isolation (which only compounds the anxiety of being alone). Because this is a daunting task for the modern, we find that modern personal identities are temporary, shifting, and fleeting. When the stability provided by traditional cultural frameworks is removed, modern selves are left to grope in the vast expanse of existence-suddenly the search for meaning, belongingness, identity, and ritual prove to be overwhelming. The result is a shallow self who is "trying on" various identities.

The answer to identity that modernity provides is in terms of economics: selfhood and identity are characterized by consumerism. In the modern world, the economic theory of the self is what attempts to provide a framework of meaning and identity. Such a framework, however, leaves the modern person with an extremely shallow self. The self becomes a dynamic bundle of egocentric desires that enables the modern self to remain dissociated from an enduring core identity. While this plastic identity allows for greater manipulation and greater profits, it fails to meet the needs of psychological well-being. The battle cry of the modern self becomes, "I profit, therefore I am!"

As Schumaker traces this detachment from cultural and religious traditions and the increasing shift toward individualism, he identifies modernity as a kind of psychological exile wherein individual selves become metaphorical strangers (both to others and to themselves). Moderns lack a reference point beyond the (ever-changing) self, furthering their general alienation from others. Friendships become symbolic and are carried forth according to economic "management" strategies-which is yet another commodification of a crucial mental health component. A resentful sense of entitlement engulfs the self as moderns employ new lines of defenses to reduce anxiety. These new lines of defenses are aimed at enhancing the capacity to achieve all that is "deserved" from modern existence. In this feeble attempt to adequately pacify one's manufactured needs with materialistic consumption, the identity of the modern self is transformed into a consumer-self.

According to Schumaker, one of the most disturbing results of the modern commodification of the self is the psychic and emotional "deadness" that follows. Mental health workers now speak of the "postemotional" age that is characterized by pathological boredom, self-destructiveness, and the dimming of emotion. A new wave of psychological disorders has been identified wherein moderns combat psychic and emotional deadness with physical pain. The thought here is that while little is actually "felt" emotionally, the need for feeling (in general) is so great that some resort to self-inflicted physical pain just to reassure themselves that they are still alive, that they can still feel. In other words, sometimes moderns bleed just to know that they are still alive. Emotion becomes further removed from the modern self even though, paradoxically, the trend of individualism forces the self to become still more internal. This turn inward is emotionally vacant-emotion, it seems, is even more alien and "external" even for the self-centered modern self.

As the modern self retreats further into itself, it is left groping for stable points of reference. The tendency is to see the self in tension with everything else. The external world, and the people in it, need to be defended against and kept external. This can be seen by looking to the most celebrated examples of modern people: the idealization of the self who is completely free from external obligation (the rugged individualistic mountain man, the self-sufficient business woman, etc.). It's not clear, however, that this complete freedom is a gift. Perhaps this radical freedom is an invitation for self-destruction.

This crisis of the modern self has the potential to lead to rampant narcissism, alienation, intimacy problems, affective impairment, fetishistic attachments, and gaps in self-knowledge. As Schumaker states, "moderns have become distanced from the communal operations that historically have immunized members from a range of psychopathologies" (p. 28). In a world in which economic frameworks are overtaking cultural and religious traditions, the consumer-self renders the modern person attempting to find their place in public life. Consumables become social signifiers and banal consumption becomes the vehicle by which individuals attempt to find their identity. "Modern consciousness is an undifferentiated kaleidoscope of consumer images and choices that must somehow be employed in order to establish a basis for identity and self-evaluation" (p. 30). The endless supply of consumable escapism and the resulting temporary satisfaction results in an unfolding of new frustration, disappointment, and insecurity. "The free-market consumer is psychologically manufactured in order to abandon tradition in favor of a contest with discontent. Other psychological and spiritual coordinates fade into the background, leaving the [modern] person vulnerable to distortion and unreality" (p. 31). As a result of hedonistic self-gratification and the marketing of artificiality and unreality, these momentary escapes merely evade any real meaning as the modern self is directed to avoid existential anxieties, rather than resolving them.

This kind of consumer vertigo manifests itself in a variety of ways, resulting in a number of consumption disorders wherein materialistic interests take precedence over more fundamental mental health needs. The opportunity for repetitive, ritualistic, and trance-like consumer behavior replaces meaningful connections with other people. The emphasis on consumerism only reinforces the sense of emptiness (the "after intercourse the animal is sad" phenomenon). As desired consumables are steadily acquired, there is a loss of anticipation, and this results in a further emotional void that is subsequently experienced as failure. The breach between heightened anticipation and actual (empty) experience reinforces the view that the self is empty and requires filling. This is particularly debilitating for mental health, especially as it applies to the body. Not only are moderns plagued by "body image" problems (leading to a variety of eating disorders), moderns must also face deeper troubles revolving around the body more generally. "The body is used as a vehicle by which to rejuvenate a sense of self when identity is threatened" (p. 42). As such, even the "hard body" has been commodified at many levels (e.g., super models, athletes, the sale of vitamins and supplements, etc.). There seems to be no end to the grips of modernity on mental health.

The failure of modern living to provide meaningful frameworks for identity formation, emotional development, a genuine sense of belonging, and long-lasting answers to existential worries leaves the modern self susceptible to observable mental health breakdowns. Clinical depression, suicide, and alienation are at all-time highs; displaced anxiety, callous violence, blind rage, and hyper-competition are more common than ever; in short, the era of the modern age, and the dissolution of tradition and constantly changing yet vacuous social arrangements that comes with it, is seeing the unraveling of traditional support networks upon which mental health depends.

Concerning depression specifically, Schumaker outlines four main theories of depression, which include cognitive theories, learned helplessness, hopelessness theory, and internalization of negative emotion (p. 53-55). He claims, however, that all such theoretical approaches focus on the individual and therefore fail to recognize the cultural underpinnings of depression. Schumaker recommends that we look to variation in culture and provides several examples of cultures with little or no reported depression. While his examples are limited, they do suggest an important point: most theories of depression focus on individuals (neurophysiology or biochemistry) and individual cognitions (negative thoughts, etc.). Analyzing depression in terms of cultural breakdowns may shed light on support systems that have failed to meet the mental health needs of members. For example, postnatal depression is more common in Western societies (where public hype and a great deal of care are given only to expecting mothers) whereas a number of non-Western cultures experience far less postnatal depression (where attention and support are given to the mother both before and after the birth of her child). Simple observations such as these cannot tell us everything there is to be said about depression; they can, however, suggest new directions for investigation sources of psychopathology.

Schumaker also spends a good deal of time on the deleterious mental health effects of competition. "Competition has become the primary way that members [moderns] define their self-worth and signify their value to the abstract social world" (p. 65). In a hyper-competitive world where cooperation is largely invisible and de-valued, one's success is the direct extension of someone else's failure. We even find various cultural traditions being shaped to reinforce (and justify) competition: "there's no progress without competition" and "competition builds character" are common mantras in the modern world. But just what are the effects of competition on mental health? Some empirical studies show that the bulk of competition is toxic to psychological well-being, depletes empathy, and further reinforces the "rugged individualism" that already plagues the modern impoverished notion of personal relationships. In the modern world, all such relationships are transformed into forms of competition. The empirical findings tend to support the view that that self-esteem is actually enhanced by cooperation, not by competition. "Quite interesting is the paradoxical finding that cooperative [activities] have the effect of engendering an internal locus of control that makes people experience greater control over their lives. Research in educational settings confirms that healthy self-esteem is enhanced by cooperative systems, whereas competition-based methods have the reverse effect" (p. 67). As such, the modern competitive self is lead further into isolation, deprived of socially-approved practices that build a sense of connectedness, trust, and cooperation.

Empirical findings also found that "a culture was more likely to produce anxious members if it was competitive; individualistic; futuristic and anticipatory, with an emphasis on planning, saving, and working toward; restrictive of emotional freedom, with reliance on artificiality for success; repressive sexuality; and lacking in overall integrations" (p. 71). It is no wonder, then, that the modern age as become the Age of Anxiety.

The modern emphasis on competition, consumerism, and the displacement of religious and cultural traditions produces more anxiety than ever before. Now, moderns have actually embraced anxiety in the form of competition-induced anxiety disorder and competition fatigue (p. 72), "workaholism" and "work fever" (p. 74), and dissociation disorders which fragments consciousness (p. 80). Again, Schumaker delivers a pungent analysis of the modern situation, where "historically, culture served as the first line of psychological defense" (p. 79) against disruptions of mental well-being. And the future-mindedness of modern living yields high levels of anxiety because the present does not provide any meaningful grounding, and the future is uncertain and carries with it the risk of failure. Ironically, the present is viewed as a hindrance to being somewhere else (the present gets in the way of future success and new opportunities to consume). Thus "the moment" becomes an irritant, and yet, the future is becoming an equally vacuous commodity: the illusory promise of betterment where "consumers survive on brief punctuation of pseudo gratification" (p. 81). In other words, moderns are adrift in a timeless, groundless, meaningless cycle of alienation.

Generally speaking, Schumaker claims that modernity involves an ongoing dissolution and reconstruction of social arrangements, characterized by uncertainty, change, vulnerability, and where acculturation and culture shock are everyday challenges. In this context of constant cultural flux, an seemingly infinite number possibilities present themselves. The resulting choice is stressful, and moderns seek any sense of control that they can get, even the superficial "control" that one gets when ordering a ("make-me-happy") meal at a fast food restaurant. Modern living is characterized by disappearing collective structures which leaves the individual alone in the sanctuary of consumables and abstract cyberspace, where economic exchanges involve even less "real" social interaction than ever before. Where once there was at least minimal human contact at shopping malls, modern technology has seen the advent of cyber malls which are simply making things worse (perpetuating emptiness and a complete lack of personal contact).

The chapter entitled "Spiritual and Existential Health" is beautifully written and extremely provocative. Some of Schumaker's work in this chapter stems from his earlier work (Religion and Mental Health, 1992, New York: Oxford University Press). After describing the ways that religion can promote mental health (such as reducing anxiety, providing meaningful guidance in life, solving personal conflicts, answering existential anxieties, and supplying social cohesion), Schumaker then traces several ways that traditional religion has been modified. For example, religion is becoming more private and personal. Once popular culture enters the spiritual business, religion becomes individualistic rather than collective. The deep-rooted need for ritual was satisfied with collective religious practices; but without this collective frame of reference, individuals who seek ritual find themselves at a loss with no way of supplying convincing practices on their own.

Another example of the modernization of religion is the decline of participation in traditional religious practices. This is accompanied by a revitalization of quasi-religions that are characterized by idolatry, fundamentalism, and re-enchantment of the world. Furthermore, people who attempt to fill the need for spiritual transcendence are drawn to functional equivalents such as civic religions, the paranormal, UFO-ology, and technology. Each of these provide a mystical dimension to an otherwise purely physical (earthly) existence. Belief in the paranormal, for example, comforts the modern person with the thought that there is something beyond the façade of the material world. Those who seek technology as a replacement for religion find a realm of endless possibilities (What will technology bring next?). The dream of boundless technology brings the modern face to face with the seeming omnipotence of future technology, even though technology itself runs the risk of contributing to the psychic numbness and alienation that continually stalks the modern self.

Consumption itself has become ritualized. Modern forms of consumer-based religion are opening themselves to capitalistic frameworks where salvation and God's grace are measured in terms of earthly (material) success. It seems that wealth and material possessions are nothing less than signs from the Divine that you are blessed. At the same time, the wedding of religion and economics has transformed selfishness into an acceptable way of life ("God helps those who help themselves"). Sacrifice has become the cardinal sin of consumerism ("don't wait, buy now," "you owe it to yourself") where lack of credit reflects impotence and failure. All in all, the displacement of traditional religions has lead to what some have called the modern existential crisis.

In the chapter entitled "Mental Health and the Physical World" Schumaker outlines the ways in which the physical world presents specific challenges to psychological well-being. The effects of urban living, for example, have a tremendous impact on mental health. Urbanization is a forum where a number of factors intersect, including: human population (size, density, and heterogeneity), geography (climate, terrain), culture, politics, and economics. The rapid growth of cities in the modern world has been identified as the source of psychological problems which can be sorted into four broad inter-related categories: (1) environmental (noise pollution, air pollution, toxins, sensory overload, traffic congestion, contagious disease), (2) sociological (crime, violence, housing, crowding, marginalization, poverty, unemployment, industrialization), (3) psychosocial (social structure, homelessness, family disintegration and divorce, rapid social change, cultural confusion, cultural conflict), and (4) psychological (sense of coherence, powerlessness, alienation, fear, anxiety, isolation). The massive number of salient variables associated with urban living only emphasizes the importance of further research in the effects of urbanization on mental health. With respect to noise pollution in particular, studies conducted in Chicago suggest that noise pollution is strongly correlated with increased levels of anxiety and poor academic performance. Researchers found that those who tried to concentrate on a variety of tasks while exposed to noise pollution showed performance levels similar to those who are sleep deprived.

Yet, many people are attracted to urban centers for the opportunities and sources of stimulation that can be provided. Some individuals, in fact, cannot imagine living outside the city at all. While cities offer freedoms, excitement and services that are difficult to find in rural areas, city dwellers also exhibit greater levels of anxiety, lower levels of sympathy and compassion, as well as what some have called ecological pathologies. Ecological pathologies often take the form of environmental dissociation, a kind of dissociation whereby people manage to forget the environmental destruction associated with behavior. Environmental dissociations arise when people are outspoken against clear-cutting, for example, yet they continue to consume beef and paper products at high rates. Researchers have discovered that the increased awareness about environmental destruction has done nothing to reverse the process (p. 162).

Another example of environmental dissociation is the impact of modern Sport Utility Vehicles (SUVs). Many people who own SUVs manage to forget the environmental destruction that owning such a vehicle brings about (SUVs are require a lot of raw resources to manufacture, emit high amounts of pollution, have low fuel efficiency, and do a lot of damage when used off-road). This translates into unnecessary environmental destruction. What is ironic is that the marketing involved with selling SUVs often takes the line of "getting you back to nature" or "visiting a pristine wilderness" and yet by purchasing the SUV consumers are contributing to the very destruction of what they seem to want.

The last chapter ("The New Mental Health Worker") is the weakest chapter in the book. It does very little to support the overall thesis of the book and it fails to provide concrete strategies to assist mental health workers. It should be noted, however, that the strength of this book lies in revealing the consilience of modern conditions that contribute to the breakdown of psychological well-being. The argument throughout has been that modernity has replaced stable cultural institutions with a fragmented kaleidoscope of pseudo-support that ultimately undermines mental health. This final chapter, however, provides little in the way of actual therapeutic techniques to overcome the modern age of insanity.

That said, this book is an excellent starting place for the mental health worker-it helps to locate the places of disruption where psychological well-being is most threatened. Some of these places are not "in the head" at all. Rather, they are "out there" in the changing cultural traditions that provide the "first line of defense" against threats to mental health. Much of what Schumaker presents describes modern sources of existential anxiety and this promises to compliment existentialist psychotherapies, a tradition with greater theoretical depth and a broader range of concrete counseling techniques.

This is not to say that mental health workers won't find this volume useful. It's simply not a quick reference guide for concrete counseling techniques. This book provides the framework, the context, for further work to be done in this field. I expect volumes to follow in Schumaker's footsteps-volumes dedicated explicitly to addressing and resolving the breakdown of mental health associated with modern living. Before such volumes can be written, someone must show that modernity is indeed the culprit behind a cluster of psychopathologies, which is what this superb book from Schumaker does so convincingly.

© 2002 James Sage

James Sage is a Ph.D. candidate in philosophy at the University of Utah. His interests include psychology, evolutionary epistemology, and self-deception.


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