Mental Health
Resources

 email page    print page

All Topic Reviews
50 Signs of Mental IllnessA Beautiful MindA Beautiful MindA Bright Red ScreamA Casebook of Ethical Challenges in NeuropsychologyA Corner Of The UniverseA Lethal InheritanceA Mood ApartA Research Agenda for DSM-VA Slant of SunA War of NervesAbnormal Psychology in ContextADD-Friendly Ways to Organize Your LifeAddiction Recovery ToolsAdvance Directives in Mental HealthAggression and Antisocial Behavior in Children and AdolescentsAl-JununAlmost a PsychopathAlterations of ConsciousnessAm I Okay?American ManiaAmerican Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical NeurosciencesAn American ObsessionAngelheadAnger, Madness, and the DaimonicAnthology of a Crazy LadyApproaching NeverlandAs Nature Made HimAsylumAttention-Deficit Hyperactivity DisorderAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderBeing Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory Betrayal TraumaBetrayed as BoysBetter Than ProzacBetter Than WellBeyond AppearanceBeyond ReasonBinge No MoreBiological UnhappinessBipolar DisorderBipolar DisorderBipolar Disorder DemystifiedBlack-eyed SuzieBlaming the BrainBleeding to Ease the PainBluebirdBlueprints Clinical Cases in PsychiatryBody Image, Eating Disorders, and ObesityBorderline Personality DisorderBrain Circuitry and Signaling in PsychiatryBrave New BrainBreakdown of WillBrief Adolescent Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Therapy Homework PlannerCalm EnergyCassandra's DaughterCaught in the NetChild and Adolescent Treatment for Social Work PracticeChildren Changed by TraumaChronic Fatigue Syndrome (The Facts)Clinical Handbook of Psychological DisordersClinical Manual of Women's Mental HealthCognitive Theories of Mental IllnessCommonsense RebellionCommunity and In-Home Behavioral Health TreatmentComprehending SuicideConcise Guide to Child and Adolescent PsychiatryConquering Post-Traumatic Stress DisorderConscience and ConvenienceConsciousnessConsole and ClassifyContesting PsychiatryCoping With TraumaCopshockCrazy for YouCrazy in AmericaCrazy Like UsCreating HysteriaCritical PsychiatryCruel CompassionCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCulture and Mental HealthCulture and Psychiatric DiagnosisCultures of NeurastheniaDaddy's GirlsDante's CureDarwinian PsychiatryDaughter of the Queen of ShebaDaughters of MadnessDeinstitutionalization And People With Intellectual DisabilitiesDelivered from DistractionDepression In Later LifeDepression SourcebookDepression-Free for LifeDescriptions and PrescriptionsDestructive Trends in Mental HealthDevil in the DetailsDiagnosis: SchizophreniaDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-TRDirty Filthy Love DVDDisorders Of DesireDisrupted LivesDissociative ChildrenDivided MindsDr. Andrew Weil's Guide to Optimum HealthDr. Weisinger's Anger Work-Out BookDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR CasebookDSM-IV-TR in ActionDSM-IV-TR Mental DisordersE-TherapyEccentricsElectroshockEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmergency PsychiatryEmotional and Behavioral Problems of Young ChildrenEmotions and LifeEmpowering People with Severe Mental IllnessEssential PsychopharmacologyEssentials of Cas AssessmentEssentials of Wais-III AssessmentEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics in Mental Health ResearchEthics in Psychiatric ResearchEthics, Culture, and PsychiatryEverything In Its PlaceFamily Experiences With Mental IllnessFatigue as a Window to the BrainFear of IntimacyFinding Iris ChangFinding Meaning in the Experience of DementiaFlorid StatesFolie a DeuxFor the Love of ItForensic Nursing and Multidisciplinary Care of the Mentally Disordered OffenderFountain HouseFrom Madness to Mental HealthFrom Trauma to TransformationGandhi's WayGender and Its Effects on PsychopathologyGender and Mental HealthGenes, Environment, and PsychopathologyGetting Your Life BackGracefully InsaneGrieving Mental IllnessHandbook of AttachmentHandbook of DepressionHandbook of Self and IdentityHealing the SplitHerbs for the MindHidden SelvesHigh RiskHope and DespairHow Clients Make Therapy WorkHow People ChangeHow to Become a SchizophrenicHow We Think About DementiaHughes' Outline of Modern PsychiatryHumanizing MadnessHysterical MenHystoriesI Hate You-Don't Leave MeI Never Promised You a Rose GardenI Thought I Could FlyI'm CrazyImagining RobertImpulse Control DisordersIn Others' EyesIn Two MindsInsanityIntegrated Behavioral Health CareIntegrative MedicineIntegrative Mental Health CareIntuitionJust CheckingKarl JaspersKissing DoorknobsKundalini Yoga Meditation for Complex Psychiatric DisordersLaw and the BrainLaw, Liberty, and PsychiatryLegal and Ethical Aspects of HealthcareLiberatory PsychiatryLife at the BottomLife at the Texas State Lunatic Asylum, 1857-1997Life Is Not a Game of PerfectLithium for MedeaLiving Outside Mental IllnessLiving with AnxietyLiving With SchizophreniaLiving with SchizophreniaLiving Without Depression and Manic DepressionLost in the MirrorLove's ExecutionerLoving Someone With Bipolar DisorderMad in AmericaMad TravelersMad, Bad and SadMadhouseMadnessMadness at HomeMadness in Buenos AiresManaged Care ContractingMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManic Depression and CreativityMary BarnesMasters of the MindMeasuring PsychopathologyMedia MadnessMedicine As MinistryMelancholy And the Care of the SoulMemory, Brain, and BeliefMental HealthMental Health At The CrossroadsMental Health Issues in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Communities Mental Health MattersMental Health Policy in BritainMental Health Policy in BritainMental Health Professionals, Minorities and the PoorMental IllnessMental Illness and Your TownMental Illness, Medicine and LawMental SlaveryMindfulness in Plain EnglishModels of MadnessMothers Who Kill Their ChildrenMozart's Brain and the Fighter PilotMultifamily Groups in the Treatment of Severe Psychiatric DisordersMuses, Madmen, and ProphetsMyths of ChildhoodNapkin NotesNeural MisfireNew Hope For People With Bipolar DisorderNight Falls FastNo Enemies WithinNolaNormalNot CrazyNovember of the SoulOf Two MindsOn Being Normal and Other DisordersOn Our Own, TogetherOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOrigins of Human NatureOut of Its MindOut of the ShadowsOvercoming Compulsive HoardingPathologies of BeliefPathways through PainPersonal Recovery and Mental IllnessPersonality Disorder: Temperament or Trauma?Pillar of SaltPoints of ViewPoppy ShakespearePosttraumatic Stress DisorderPsychiatric Cultures ComparedPsychiatric Diagnosis and ClassificationPsychiatric Genetics and GenomicsPsychiatric Illness in WomenPsychiatrists and Traditional HealersPsychiatryPsychiatry and ReligionPsychiatry in SocietyPsychological Dimensions of the SelfPsychology and the MediaPsychopathia SexualisPsychopathologyPsychopathyPsychotic DepressionQuitting the Nairobi TrioRaising a Moody ChildRapid Cognitive TherapyRebuilding Shattered LivesReclaiming Soul in Health CareReclaiming the SoulRecollection, Testimony, and Lying in Early ChildhoodRecovery from SchizophreniaRecovery in Mental IllnessRedressing the EmperorRelational Mental HealthRemembering TraumaRepressed SpacesResearch Advances in Genetics and GenomicsRestricted AccessRethinking the DSMReviving OpheliaRewarding Specialties for Mental Health CliniciansSaints, Scholars, and Schizophrenics: Mental Illness in Rural IrelandSchizophreniaSchizophrenia RevealedSchizophrenia: A Scientific Delusion?Self-Determination Theory in the ClinicShunnedShynessSigns of SafetySilencing the VoicesSlackjawSocial Cognition and SchizophreniaSocial Inclusion of People with Mental IllnessSoul Murder RevisitedSounds from the Bell JarSpeaking Our MindsSpontaneous HealingStop PretendingStraight Talk about Psychological Testing for KidsStranger Than FictionStreet CrazyStudy Guide to the DSM-IV-TRSurviving Manic DepressionSurviving SchizophreniaSurviving SchizophreniaTaking Charge of ADHD, Revised EditionTaking the Fear Out of ChangingTalking Back to PsychiatryTarnationTeen LoveTelling Is Risky BusinessTelling SecretsThe Age of InsanityThe American Psychiatric Press Textbook of PsychiatryThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook Of Child And Adolescent PsychiatryThe Anger WorkbookThe Anorexic SelfThe Behavioral Medicine Treatment PlannerThe Betty Ford Center Book of AnswersThe Bipolar ChildThe Bipolar Disorder Survival GuideThe Body in PsychotherapyThe Borderline Personality Disorder Survival GuideThe Broken MirrorThe Burden of SympathyThe Cambridge Medical Ethics WorkbookThe Case for Pragmatic PsychologyThe Center Cannot HoldThe Chemical Dependence Treatment Documentation SourcebookThe Chemical Dependence Treatment PlannerThe Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy Treatment PlannerThe Clinical Child Documentation SourcebookThe Clinical Documentation SourcebookThe Complete Adult Psychotherapy Treatment PlannerThe Condition of MadnessThe Construction of Power and Authority in PsychiatryThe Couples Psychotherapy Treatment PlannerThe Criminal BrainThe Cultural Context of Health, Illness, and MedicineThe Day the Voices StoppedThe Death of PsychotherapyThe Depression WorkbookThe Difficult-to-Treat Psychiatric PatientThe Early Stages of SchizophreniaThe Employee Assistance Treatment PlannerThe Employee Assistance Treatment PlannerThe Epidemiology of SchizophreniaThe Essential Family Guide to Borderline Personality DisorderThe Essentials of New York Mental Health LawThe Ethical WayThe Evolution of Mental Health LawThe Explosive ChildThe Fall Of An IconThe Fasting GirlThe Forensic Documentation SourcebookThe Forgotten MournersThe Gift of Adult ADDThe Good EaterThe Green ParrotThe Healing Power of PetsThe Heart of AddictionThe Heroic ClientThe Insanity OffenseThe Invisible PlagueThe Last Time I Wore a DressThe Limits of Autobiography The LobotomistThe Madness of Our LivesThe Mark of ShameThe Meaning of AddictionThe Meaning of MindThe Medical AdvisorThe Mind/Mood Pill BookThe Most Solitary of AfflictionsThe Mozart EffectThe Naked Lady Who Stood on Her HeadThe Older Adult Psychotherapy Treatment PlannerThe OutsiderThe Pastoral Counseling Treatment PlannerThe PDR Family Guide to Natural Medicines & Healing TherapiesThe Places That Scare YouThe Plural SelfThe Problem of EvilThe Psychology of Religion and CopingThe Quiet RoomThe Real World Guide to Psychotherapy PracticeThe Right to Refuse Mental Health TreatmentThe Rise of Mental Health NursingThe Roots of the Recovery Movement in PsychiatryThe Savage GirlThe Self-Help SourcebookThe Talking CureThe Trick Is to Keep BreathingThe Unwell BrainThe Virtuous PsychiatristThe Way of TransitionThe Wing of MadnessThe Wisdom in FeelingTheoretical Evolutions in Person-Centered/Experiential TherapyTherapy's DelusionsTheraScribe 3.0 for WindowsThis is Madness TooThoughts Without a ThinkerThrough the Looking GlassTo Have Or To Be?Toxic PsychiatryTransforming MadnessTraumaTraumatic PastsTraumatic Relationships and Serious Mental DisordersTreating Affect PhobiaTreating Chronic and Severe Mental DisordersTreating Self-InjuryTreatment and Rehabilitation of Severe Mental IllnessTreatment Plans and Interventions for Depression and Anxiety DisordersTwinsUnderstanding and Treating Violent Psychiatric PatientsUnderstanding Child MolestersUnderstanding DepressionUnderstanding ParanoiaUnderstanding the Stigma of Mental IllnessUnderstanding Treatment Without ConsentUnholy MadnessUnspeakable Truths and Happy EndingsUsers and Abusers of PsychiatryViolence and Mental DisorderVoices of MadnessVoices of RecoveryVulnerability to PsychopathologyWarning: Psychiatry Can Be Hazardous to Your Mental HealthWashing My Life AwayWhen History Is a NightmareWhen Someone You Love Is BipolarWhen the Body SpeaksWhen Walls Become DoorwaysWitchcrazeWomen and Borderline Personality DisorderWomen and Mental IllnessWomen Who Hurt ThemselvesWomen's Mental HealthWrestling with the AngelYou Must Be DreamingYour Drug May Be Your ProblemYour Miracle Brain

Related Topics
Mad in AmericaReview - Mad in America
Bad Science, Bad Medicine, and the Enduring Mistreatment of the Mentally Ill
by Robert Whitaker
Perseus Publishing, 2002
Review by Christian Perring, Ph.D.
Jan 16th 2002 (Volume 6, Issue 3)

Mad In America is a powerfully troubling argument against the way that psychiatry treats schizophrenia and other major mental illnesses.  The first two parts of the book set out the history of treatment for the insane in the US and Europe from 1750 until 1950, and Whitaker’s account does not differ significantly from others, such as Edward Shorter’s, although it is shorter and highlights different details.  But while other accounts say that since the Second World War, the availability of neuroleptic medication has meant a dramatic improvement in the treatment of schizophrenia, Whitaker argues the new medications are comparable in their dangerousness and ineffectiveness to the barbaric ‘remedies’ that were forced on patients in earlier times.  The essential question for any reader of Mad In America is whether Whitaker presents compelling evidence for his claims. 

The problem that nearly all readers will face in assessing Whitaker’s criticisms of psychiatry is that they, like me, are not experts in psychopharmacology.  They, like me, will not know the relevant scientific literature concerning the testing of medications or the detailed history of psychiatric treatment in the twentieth century – and, unfortunately, merely having read a few books on the subject does not make one an expert.  Furthermore, if Whitaker is right, then readers will have strong reasons to doubt the opinions of most experts, since one of his main claims is that they do not face the real evidence that is available concerning the danger and lack of effectiveness of medication.  Under the influence of the pharmaceutical industry, from the 1960s psychiatric experts changed their descriptions of neuroleptic drugs from “brain damaging” to “virtually free of side-effects” and ignored the studies that show that unmedicated schizophrenics have a lower rate of relapse than those who take medication.  Whether they are corrupt or simply unwitting pawns of the drug companies, on Whitaker’s view, most psychiatrists do not have an unbiased understanding of the evidence; it follows that readers should read psychiatrists’ predictable protests about Mad in America with a great deal of suspicion.

Most readers of Mad in America will have the luxury of waiting to see what happens in this debate.  We can hope that some neutral institution will be able to assess Whitaker’s claims about both neuroleptic medication and the new ‘atypical’ medications for schizophrenia.  This may require finding researchers who do not have financial relationships with the pharmaceutical industry, and in the US, there are few such people.  Even federal research bodies such as the National Institute of Mental Health employ researchers who are tightly connected with drug companies.  It seems that we may need to look to research done in other countries where there is more done to avoid financial influence tarnishing the objectivity of scientific testing of new medications and more effort is made to evaluate the efficacy of alternative treatments.

However, some readers of this book will themselves have a diagnosis of schizophrenia, or will have a family member or close friend with that diagnosis.  They will face a far more difficult decision: whether to accept the recommendation of psychiatrists to take neuroleptic or atypical medication for their condition, or to take a different course.  On what basis can patients or legal guardians make such a decision?  What can family and friends of people diagnosed with schizophrenia say to them that might be helpful when deliberating about medication?  I know that if I had a family member with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, I would now be very scared about the possible long-term effects of medication after reading Mad in America.  Let me say a little about how I might think through the issues.

Whitaker is not the first person to make worrying claims about the effects of medication for schizophrenia.  The most well known critic of psychiatric medication is Peter Breggin, and he has a large section of his Toxic Psychiatry devoted to the dangers of treatments of psychiatry.  While Breggin has asked some difficult questions, I’ve never found him a very compelling critic of psychiatry: he has been too closely tied with the antipsychiatric view that mental illness is a myth, and his understanding of psychiatric illness often seems problematic.  For example, he thinks that schizophrenia is not a brain disease but is instead a “psychospriritual crisis.”  (Toxic Psychiatry, p. 24).  His writing style seems a little too sensational to ring true, and, far more importantly, his discussion of the empirical literature is on the brief side.  He makes a great many accusations in the hope that some will stick, but in the end, he undermines his own credibility.  While I think it is very important that there should be people focusing on the efficacy and safety of medications, I have not been convinced by Breggin’s arguments that psychiatric medication is always the wrong choice.

By way of contrast, I found the arguments of Whitaker far more convincing and worrying.  His writing style, for what it is worth, is clear and careful; even though he goes into the details of empirical studies in surprising depth, and even when he makes extremely grave accusations (backed up by explanations and references to the academic literature as well as interviews) his tone is calm.  The book is well written and the argument is easy to follow.  He keeps his focus on his central claims: current psychiatric treatment for schizophrenia increases the danger of relapse, so patients would be better off with no treatment. 

The clinical approach to schizophrenia that seems most promising to Whitaker is the gentle “moral treatment” started by the York Quakers in England at the end of the eighteenth century and brought to America in the nineteenth century in Philadelphia, Boston, and New York.  By 1841, there were sixteen private and public asylums in the US.  He cites evidence that 60-80% of patients admitted to these asylums in the first half of the nineteenth century were discharged as “cured” or “improved.”  But then other more invasive or brutal treatments started to become popular, and treatment for insanity never again achieved the success it did during that period.  It is clear that Whitaker would favor an attempt to replicate the results of the Quakers achieved in their asylums, treating people with severe mental illnesses gently and giving them time for their period of insanity to pass. 

One of the problems for research into testing new psychiatric medications these days is that it is difficult to find patients who have never taken any psychiatric medication and to compare the results in a double blind studies with patients randomly assigned to either the test group or the control group.  Double blind studies are especially hard to perform because psychiatric medication for schizophrenia has such obvious side effects that patients may be able to tell whether they are getting the medication or a sugar pill, and so the study is not “blind” at all.  Studies that would be able to compare medication against no treatment may be flawed or they simply have not been done.  Far more frequent are comparisons between different medications, where one is shown to be more effective than another.  Whitaker explains some of the methodological problems of many of these experiments, casting doubt on the apparently positive results they give for new medications. 

Also alarming are recent cases of clear fraud that have occurred in some important drug trials.  Whitaker goes into the details, which do not need repeating here.  He acknowledges that these cases of unethical behavior by researchers do not show that medications are unsafe, but they do suggest that there are not sufficient safeguards to prevent breaches in scientific procedure.  The picture he paints is of a testing process that is vulnerable to the corruption of individuals ready to make money from drug companies at any cost, with drug companies ready to turn a blind eye to such irregularities because it helps them in their grab for the huge profits they can make from a new medication. 

Combining this with the history of psychiatry in the first half of the twentieth century, when the mentally ill in America were considered by many prominent scientists and politicians to be genetic defects that should not be allowed to breed, Whitaker’s book leaves one to conclude that psychiatry is in a deep crisis.  In its rush to become more biological and avoid the accusations of being pseudoscientific that came from its affiliation with psychoanalysis, it has linked itself too closely with the financial interests of the pharmaceutical industry.  Psychiatry tries to give the impression that it has left its dark past long behind, but in fact it may actually just be repeating the mistakes of the past.  Whitaker concludes in the last line of the book, “The day will come when people will look back at our current medicines for schizophrenia and the stories we tell to patients about their abnormal brain chemistry, and they will shake their heads in utter disbelief.”

As I have said, Whitaker’s arguments are powerful and need to be taken very seriously.  They put in a difficult position both those who need to decide whether to take medication for schizophrenia, and those who need to decide whether to encourage or discourage someone they love to take medication.  They need to ask whether there are any reasons to doubt Whitaker’s claims.

One issue that will occur to some is that Whitaker is not a psychiatrist himself; he is an investigative journalist.  Some may say that since he himself is not a psychiatric expert, he is not qualified to make judgments on these issues.  But this would be a weak response, since it is simply an ad hominem prejudice, and does not address Whitaker’s argument at all.  He has clearly researched his book very carefully, and has gathered and assessed the views of many researchers in the field, and his arguments cannot be so easily dismissed.

More problematic is the fact that Whitaker does not address the problems of assessing the positive results of the Quaker asylums and comparing them with modern treatments.  Unless one knows what kind of illnesses those people classified as insane in the early nineteenth century actually had, it makes little sense to compare the high rates of success in treatment with the current success rates.  Indeed, it seems that there is very little data concerning the relapse rates for those treated in the asylums, so we have little basis to judge how successful the moral-treatment actually was.

Also worth noting is the fact that Whitaker spends little time discussing the experience of schizophrenia itself and the seriousness of the illness, and this seems like a weakness of the book. While Breggin downplays the seriousness of the condition by calling it a psychospiritual crisis, Whitaker gives very little description of schizophrenics at all.   But many would say that paying attention to the experience and behavior of schizophrenics shows that they need to be protected against themselves, and that we need to protect society from them.  Whether or not the medications currently in use actually stop the symptomatic delusions or simply stop patients from acting on them, they are effective in changing the behavior of people with schizophrenia.  That much is uncontroversial.  Whitaker has not made a strong case that there is a viable alternative to using medication – unless we bring back large-scale compulsory hospitalization, which was abandoned because it was though too expensive and simply fostered the helplessness of patients. 

In considering how best to treat someone diagnosed with schizophrenia, I’d also keep in mind that the FDA does regulate new medication and the US does have a number of regulatory bodies concerned with the safety of medications.  Whitaker himself often quotes from FDA reports in making his case against medications, and the cases of scientific fraud were ones that were uncovered.  It is certainly not the case that the pharmaceutical industry is unregulated; there are safeguards in place.  Even if these safeguards are not perfect, there’s still reason to think that they are playing an important role.  Unless one is ready to come to the conclusion that government and regulatory bodies are utterly in the pocket of big business and that none of the scientists working in these areas has any integrity, one should acknowledge that there is evidence for the relative safety of FDA approved medication.

Finally, if I were making a decision for a family member, I would also take into account the advice of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals I trust, who have a great deal of experience with the treatment of schizophrenia.  Even though the current health care system is putting psychiatrists into the role of pill-prescribers and leaving other, less well paid, workers to do the rest of the work in the care of the mentally ill, it still remains true that most mental health professionals I know care deeply about their patients.  The health care system may be bureaucratic and may turn individuals into faceless cases, but people who work with patients chose their work for a reason, and that reason is rarely the money, since they could make more money more easily by doing something else.

So, even after being so impressed by Mad in America, I think I would advise a family member diagnosed with schizophrenia to take the advice of psychiatrists if I knew those psychiatrists and had developed a relationship with trust with them.  Most of all, I’d fight to get the best care for my family member.  (I recommend Jay Neugeboren’s book Transforming Madness for an inspiring discussion of the care available for people with severe mental illness; Neugeboren’s discussion indeed lends some credence to Whitaker’s faith in moral-treatment.)  If anything is clear from the available evidence, it is that medication alone will not solve the problems of schizophrenia.  

That said, Mad in America shows how pressing is the need for the public to be able to get an unbiased assessment of current psychiatric treatment, untainted by the profit motive of the pharmaceutical industry.  Even though Whitaker himself could be accused of being overly critical of psychiatry, his argument against schizophrenia medication is cogent enough to urgently require an answer.  I strongly recommend this book to anyone interested in the current state of psychiatry. 

© 2002 Christian Perring. First Serial Rights.

Christian Perring, Ph.D., is Chair of the Philosophy Department at Dowling College, Long Island. He is editor of Metapsychology Online Review. His main research is on philosophical issues in psychiatry. He is especially interested in exploring how philosophers can play a greater role in public life, and he is keen to help foster communication between philosophers, mental health professionals, and the general public.


Share

Welcome to MHN's unique book review site Metapsychology. We feature over 7900 in-depth reviews of a wide range of books and DVDs written by our reviewers from many backgrounds and perspectives. We update our front page weekly and add more than thirty new reviews each month. Our editor is Christian Perring, PhD. To contact him, use one of the forms available here.

Can't remember our URL? Access our reviews directly via 'metapsychology.net'


Metapsychology Online reviewers normally receive gratis review copies of the items they review.
Metapsychology Online receives a commission from Amazon.com for purchases through this site, which helps us send review copies to reviewers. Please support us by making your Amazon.com purchases through our Amazon links. We thank you for your support!


Join our e-mail list!: Metapsychology New Review Announcements: Sent out monthly, these announcements list our recent reviews. To subscribe, click here.

Interested in becoming a book reviewer for Metapsychology? Currently, we especially need thoughtful reviewers for books in fiction, self-help and popular psychology. To apply, write to our editor.

Metapsychology Online Reviews

Promote your Page too

Metapsychology Online Reviews
ISSN 1931-5716