email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
Anger and Forgiveness"Are You There Alone?"10 Good Questions about Life and DeathA Casebook of Ethical Challenges in NeuropsychologyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to Muslim EthicsA Cooperative SpeciesA Critique of the Moral Defense of VegetarianismA Delicate BalanceA Fragile LifeA Life for a LifeA Life-Centered Approach to BioethicsA Matter of SecurityA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Natural History of Human MoralityA Philosophical DiseaseA Practical Guide to Clinical Ethics ConsultingA Question of TrustA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Short Stay in SwitzerlandA Tapestry of ValuesA Very Bad WizardA World Without ValuesAction and ResponsibilityAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionActs of ConscienceAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction NeuroethicsAdvance Directives in Mental HealthAfter HarmAftermathAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HealthAgainst MarriageAgainst Moral ResponsibilityAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAging, Biotechnology, and the FutureAlbert Schweitzer's Reverence for LifeAlphavilleAltruismAltruismAmerican EugenicsAmerican PsychosisAn American SicknessAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Evolutionary EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy Ancient Greek and Roman SlaveryAnd a Time to DieAnimal LessonsAnimal RightsAnimals Like UsApplied Ethics in Mental Health CareAre Women Human?Arguments about AbortionAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAutonomyAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismAutonomy, Consent and the LawBabies by DesignBackslidingBad PharmaBad SoulsBarriers and BelongingBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBeauty JunkiesBefore ForgivingBeing AmoralBeing YourselfBending Over BackwardsBending ScienceBernard WilliamsBetter Humans?Better Than WellBeyond ChoiceBeyond GeneticsBeyond HatredBeyond Humanity?Beyond LossBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond SpeechBeyond the DSM StoryBias in Psychiatric DiagnosisBioethicsBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics at the MoviesBioethics Beyond the HeadlinesBioethics Critically ReconsideredBioethics in a Liberal SocietyBioethics in the ClinicBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical Research and BeyondBiosBioscience EthicsBipolar ChildrenBluebirdBodies out of BoundsBodies, Commodities, and BiotechnologiesBody BazaarBoundBoundaries and Boundary Violations in PsychoanalysisBraintrustBrandedBreaking the SilenceBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyCapital PunishmentCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsChallenging the Stigma of Mental IllnessCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionChild Well-BeingChildrenChildren's RightsChoosing ChildrenChoosing Not to ChooseClinical Dilemmas in PsychotherapyClinical EthicsCloningClose toYouCoercion as CureCoercive Treatment in PsychiatryCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognitive Disability and Its Challenge to Moral Philosophy Comfortably NumbCommonsense RebellionCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentComprehending CareConducting Insanity EvaluationsConfidential RelationshipsConfidentiality and Mental HealthConflict of Interest in the ProfessionsConsuming KidsContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContentious IssuesContesting PsychiatryCrazy in AmericaCreating CapabilitiesCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCritical Perspectives in Public HealthCritical PsychiatryCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCurrent Controversies in BioethicsCurrent Controversies in Values and ScienceCutting to the CoreCyborg CitizenDamaged IdentitiesDeaf Identities in the MakingDeath Is That Man Taking NamesDebating ProcreationDebating Same-Sex MarriageDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecoding the Ethics CodeDefining DifferenceDefining Right and Wrong in Brain ScienceDefining the Beginning and End of LifeDelusions of GenderDementiaDemocracy in What State?Demons of the Modern WorldDescriptions and PrescriptionsDesert and VirtueDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDestructive Trends in Mental HealthDeveloping the VirtuesDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital HemlockDigital SoulDignityDisability BioethicsDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDiscrimination against the Mentally IllDisordered Personalities and CrimeDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDoes Feminism Discriminate against Men?Does Torture Work?Double Standards in Medical Research in Developing CountriesDown GirlDrugs and JusticeDworkin and His CriticsDying in the Twenty-First CenturyEarly WarningEconomics and Youth ViolenceEmbodied RhetoricsEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotional ReasonEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmpathyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEncountering NatureEncountering the Sacred in PsychotherapyEngendering International HealthEnhancing EvolutionEnhancing Human CapacitiesEnoughEros and the GoodErotic InnocenceErotic MoralityEssays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEthical Choices in Contemporary MedicineEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Dilemmas in PediatricsEthical Issues in Behavioral ResearchEthical Issues in Dementia CareEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in the New GeneticsEthical LifeEthical Reasoning for Mental Health ProfessionalsEthical TheoryEthical WillsEthically Challenged ProfessionsEthicsEthicsEthicsEthics and AnimalsEthics and ScienceEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Discovery of the UnconsciousEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics at the CinemaEthics at the End of LifeEthics Case Book of the American Psychoanalytic AssociationEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics for EveryoneEthics for PsychologistsEthics for the New MillenniumEthics in CyberspaceEthics in Everyday PlacesEthics in Health CareEthics In Health Services ManagementEthics in Mental Health ResearchEthics in PracticeEthics in PsychiatryEthics in PsychologyEthics in Psychotherapy and CounselingEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEthics, Culture, and PsychiatryEthics, Sexual Orientation, and Choices about ChildrenEvaluating the Science and Ethics of Research on HumansEvilEvil GenesEvil in Modern ThoughtEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Ethics and Contemporary BiologyEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolved MoralityExperiments in EthicsExploding the Gene MythExploiting ChildhoodFacing Human SufferingFact and ValueFacts and ValuesFaking ItFalse-Memory Creation in Children and AdultsFat ShameFatal FreedomFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist TheoryFinal ExamFirst Do No HarmFirst, Do No HarmFlashpointFlesh WoundsForced to CareForgivenessForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and ReconciliationForgiveness and RetributionForgiveness is Really StrangeFoucault and the Government of DisabilityFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Forensic Mental Health AssessmentFree WillFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will and Reactive AttitudesFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree?Freedom and ValueFreedom vs. InterventionFriendshipFrom Darwin to HitlerFrom Disgust to HumanityFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Silence to VoiceFrom Valuing to ValueFrontiers of JusticeGender in the MirrorGenetic PoliticsGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetics of Original SinGenetics of Original SinGenocide's AftermathGetting RealGluttonyGood WorkGoodness & AdviceGreedGroups in ConflictGrowing Up GirlGut FeminismHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHandbook for Health Care Ethics CommitteesHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of Children's RightsHandbook of PsychopathyHappinessHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHard FeelingsHard LuckHardwired BehaviorHarmful ThoughtsHeal & ForgiveHealing PsychiatryHealth Care Ethics for PsychologistsHeterosyncraciesHistorical and Philosophical Perspectives on Biomedical EthicsHoly WarHookedHookedHow Can I Be Trusted?How Propaganda WorksHow to Do Things with Pornography How to Make Opportunity EqualHow Universities Can Help Create a Wiser WorldHow We HopeHow We Think About DementiaHuman BondingHuman Dignity and Assisted DeathHuman EnhancementHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman TrialsHumanism, What's That?Humanitarian ReasonHumanityHumanizing MadnessI am Not Sick I Don't Need Help!I Was WrongIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIf That Ever Happens to MeImproving Nature?In Defense of FloggingIn Defense of SinIn Love With LifeIn Our Own ImageIn the FamilyIn the Land of the DeafIn the Name of IdentityIn the Wake of 9/11In Two MindsInclusive EthicsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchInnovation in Medical TechnologyInside Assisted LivingInside EthicsIntelligence, Race, and GeneticsIntensive CareInto the Gray ZoneIs Human Nature Obsolete?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is There a Duty to Die?Is There an Ethicist in the House?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJudging Children As ChildrenJust a DogJust BabiesJust CareJustice for ChildrenJustice for HedgehogsJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeJustifiable ConductKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Theory of VirtueKids of CharacterKilling McVeighLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLaw and the BrainLearning About School ViolenceLearning from Baby PLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLegal and Ethical Aspects of HealthcareLegal Aspects of Mental CapacityLegal ConceptionsLegal InsanityLegalizing ProstitutionLet Them Eat ProzacLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberal EugenicsLife After FaithLife at the BottomLife, Sex, and IdeasListening to the WhispersLiving ProfessionalismLosing Matt ShepardLostLuckyMad in AmericaMad PrideMadhouseMaking Another World PossibleMaking Babies, Making FamiliesMaking Genes, Making WavesMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMalignantMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaning and Moral OrderMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeans, Ends, and PersonsMeans, Ends, and PersonsMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedical Research for HireMedicalized MasculinitiesMedically Assisted DeathMeditations for the HumanistMelancholia and MoralismMental Health Professionals, Minorities and the PoorMental Illness, Medicine and LawMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMetaethical SubjectivismMill's UtilitarianismMind FieldsMind WarsMind WarsModern Theories of JusticeModernity and TechnologyMoney ShotMonsterMoral Acquaintances and Moral DecisionsMoral BrainsMoral ClarityMoral CultivationMoral Development and RealityMoral Dilemmas in Real LifeMoral DimensionsMoral EntanglementsMoral FailureMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral MindsMoral OriginsMoral Panics, Sex PanicsMoral ParticularismMoral PerceptionMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RealismMoral RelativismMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral Status and Human LifeMoral StealthMoral Theory at the MoviesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMoral, Immoral, AmoralMoralismMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMorals, Rights and Practice in the Human ServicesMorals, Rights and Practice in the Human ServicesMore Than HumanMotive and RightnessMovies and the Moral Adventure of LifeMurder in the InnMy Body PoliticMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Sister's KeeperMy Sister's KeeperMy WayNano-Bio-EthicsNarrative MedicineNarrative ProsthesisNatural Ethical FactsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalized BioethicsNeither Bad nor MadNeoconservatismNeonatal BioethicsNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNew Takes in Film-PhilosophyNew Waves in EthicsNew Waves in MetaethicsNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNo Child Left DifferentNo Impact ManNormative EthicsNormativityNothing about us, without us!Oath BetrayedOf War and LawOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn EvilOn Human RightsOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOn the TakeOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne ChildOne Nation Under TherapyOne World NowOne World NowOur Bodies, Whose Property?Our Bodies, Whose Property?Our Daily MedsOur Faithfulness to the PastOur Posthuman FutureOut of EdenOut of Its MindOut of the ShadowsOverdosed AmericaOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Studies in Normative EthicsOxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPassionate DeliberationPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perfecting VirtuePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonalities on the PlatePersonhood and Health CarePersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPerspectives On Health And Human RightsPharmaceutical FreedomPharmacracyPharmageddonPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhysician-Assisted DyingPicturing DisabilityPilgrim at Tinker CreekPlaying God?Playing God?Political EmotionsPornlandPowerful MedicinesPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical EthicsPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical RulesPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic NeuroethicsPraise and BlamePreferences and Well-BeingPrimates and PhilosophersPro-Life, Pro-ChoiceProcreation and ParenthoodProfits Before People?Progress in BioethicsProperty in the BodyProzac As a Way of LifeProzac on the CouchPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric EthicsPsychiatry and EmpirePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychotropic Drug Prescriber's Survival GuidePublic Health LawPublic Health Law and EthicsPublic PhilosophyPunishing the Mentally IllPunishmentPursuits of WisdomPutting Morality Back Into PoliticsPutting on VirtueQuality of Life and Human DifferenceRaceRadical HopeRadical VirtuesRape Is RapeRe-creating MedicineRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReckoning With HomelessnessReconceiving Medical EthicsRecovery from SchizophreniaRedefining RapeRedesigning HumansReducing the Stigma of Mental IllnessReflections on Ethics and ResponsibilityReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRefuting Peter Singer's Ethical TheoryRelative JusticeRelativism and Human RightsReligion ExplainedReprogeneticsRescuing JeffreyRespecting AnimalsResponsibilityResponsibility and PsychopathyResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsResponsible GeneticsRethinking CommodificationRethinking Informed Consent in BioethicsRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeReturn to ReasonRevolution in PsychologyRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRisk and Luck in Medical EthicsRobert NozickRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Rule of Law, Misrule of MenRun, Spot, RunRunning on RitalinSatisficing and MaximizingSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and EthicsScience in the Private InterestScience, Policy, and the Value-Free IdealScience, Seeds and CyborgsScratching the Surface of BioethicsSecular Philosophy and the Religious TemperamentSeeing the LightSelf-ConstitutionSelf-Made MadnessSelf-Trust and Reproductive AutonomySentimental RulesSex Fiends, Perverts, and PedophilesSex OffendersSex, Family, and the Culture WarsSexual DevianceSexual EthicsSexual PredatorsSexualized BrainsShaping Our SelvesShock TherapyShould I Medicate My Child?ShunnedSick to Death and Not Going to Take It AnymoreSickoSide EffectsSidewalk StoriesSister CitizenSkeptical FeminismSocial Inclusion of People with Mental IllnessSocial JusticeSociological Perspectives on the New GeneticsSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSovereign VirtueSpeech MattersSpiral of EntrapmentSplit DecisionsSticks and StonesStories MatterSubhumanSubjectivity and Being SomebodySuffering, Death, and IdentitySuicide ProhibitionSurgery JunkiesSurgically Shaping ChildrenTaking Morality SeriouslyTaming the Troublesome ChildTechnology and the Good Life?TestimonyText and Materials on International Human RightsThe Aims of Higher EducationThe Almost MoonThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Forensic PsychiatryThe Animal ManifestoThe Animals' AgendaThe Art of LivingThe Autonomy of MoralityThe Beloved SelfThe Best Things in LifeThe Big FixThe Bioethics ReaderThe Biology and Psychology of Moral AgencyThe Blackwell Guide to Medical EthicsThe Body SilentThe BondThe Book of LifeThe Burden of SympathyThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Textbook of BioethicsThe Case against Assisted SuicideThe Case Against PerfectionThe Case Against PunishmentThe Case for PerfectionThe Case of Terri SchiavoThe Challenge of Human RightsThe Code for Global EthicsThe Colonization Of Psychic SpaceThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Common ThreadThe Connected SelfThe Constitution of AgencyThe Creation of PsychopharmacologyThe Criminal BrainThe Decency WarsThe Difficult-to-Treat Psychiatric PatientThe Disability PendulumThe Disability Rights Movement: From Charity to ConfrontationThe Domain of ReasonsThe Double-Edged HelixThe Duty to ProtectThe Emotional Construction of MoralsThe End of Ethics in a Technological SocietyThe End of Stigma?The Essentials of New York Mental Health LawThe Ethical BrainThe Ethical Dimensions of the Biological and Health SciencesThe Ethics of BioethicsThe Ethics of Choosing ChildrenThe Ethics of Human EnhancementThe Ethics of ParenthoodThe Ethics of SightseeingThe Ethics of the FamilyThe Ethics of the Family in SenecaThe Ethics of the LieThe Ethics of TransplantsThe Ethics of WarThe Ethics ToolkitThe Evolution of Mental Health LawThe Evolution of MoralityThe FamilyThe Fat Studies ReaderThe Forgiveness ProjectThe Form of Practical KnowledgeThe Fountain of YouthThe Freedom ParadoxThe Future of Assisted Suicide and EuthanasiaThe Future of Human NatureThe Good BookThe Good LifeThe Great BetrayalThe Handbook of Disability StudiesThe Healing VirtuesThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of Human RightsThe HorizonThe Idea of JusticeThe Ideal of NatureThe Illusion of Freedom and EqualityThe Immortal Life of Henrietta LacksThe Importance of Being UnderstoodThe Insanity OffenseThe Joy of SecularismThe Language PoliceThe Last Normal ChildThe Last UtopiaThe Limits of MedicineThe LobotomistThe Love CureThe Lucifer EffectThe Manual of EpictetusThe Mark of ShameThe Meaning of NiceThe Medicalization of SocietyThe Merck DruggernautThe Mind Has MountainsThe Modern Art of DyingThe Modern SavageThe Moral ArcThe Moral BrainThe Moral Demands of MemoryThe Moral FoolThe Moral MindThe Moral Psychology HandbookThe Moral Punishment Instinct The Moral, Social, and Commercial Imperatives of Genetic Testing and ScreeningThe Most Good You Can DoThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of the Moral BrainThe Nature of NormativityThe New Disability HistoryThe New Genetic MedicineThe New Religious IntoleranceThe Offensive InternetThe Origins of FairnessThe Oxford Handbook of Animal EthicsThe Oxford Handbook of Ethics at the End of LifeThe Oxford Handbook of Food EthicsThe Perfect BabyThe Philosophical ParentThe Philosophy of NeedThe Philosophy of PornographyThe Philosophy of PsychiatryThe Politics Of LustThe Portable Ethicist for Mental Health Professionals The Power of Religion in the Public SphereThe Price of PerfectionThe Price of TruthThe Problem of PunishmentThe Prosthetic ImpulseThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe PsychopathThe Purity MythThe Pursuit of PerfectionThe Relevance of Philosophy to LifeThe Right Road to Radical FreedomThe Right to Be ParentsThe Righteous MindThe Root of All EvilThe Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal MindsThe Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of EmpathyThe Rules of InsanityThe Second SexismThe Second-Person StandpointThe Silent World of Doctor and PatientThe Sleep of ReasonThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Speed of DarkThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Story of Cruel and UnusualThe Story WithinThe Stubborn System of Moral ResponsibilityThe Suicide TouristThe Terrible GiftThe Theory of OptionsThe Therapy of DesireThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Triple HelixThe Trolley Problem MysteriesThe Trouble with DiversityThe Truth About the Drug CompaniesThe Ugly LawsThe Varieties of Religious ExperienceThe Virtue of Defiance and Psychiatric EngagementThe Virtues of FreedomThe Virtues of HappinessThe Virtuous Life in Greek EthicsThe Virtuous PsychiatristThe Voice of Breast Cancer in Medicine and BioethicsThe War Against BoysThe War for Children's MindsThe Whole ChildThe Woman RacketThe Worldwide Practice of TortureTherapy with ChildrenThieves of VirtueThree Generations, No ImbecilesTimes of Triumph, Times of DoubtTolerance Among The VirtuesTolerance and the Ethical LifeTolerationToxic PsychiatryTrauma, Truth and ReconciliationTreatment Kind and FairTrusting on the EdgeTry to RememberUltimate JudgementUnborn in the USA: Inside the War on AbortionUndermining ScienceUnderstanding AbortionUnderstanding CloningUnderstanding EmotionsUnderstanding EvilUnderstanding Kant's EthicsUnderstanding Moral ObligationUnderstanding Physician-Pharmaceutical Industry InteractionsUnderstanding TerrorismUnderstanding the GenomeUnderstanding the Stigma of Mental IllnessUnderstanding Treatment Without ConsentUnhingedUnprincipled VirtueUnsanctifying Human Life: Essays on EthicsUnspeakable Acts, Ordinary PeopleUp in FlamesUpheavals of ThoughtUsers and Abusers of PsychiatryValue-Free Science?Values and Psychiatric DiagnosisValues in ConflictVegetarianismViolence and Mental DisorderVirtue EthicsVirtue, Rules, and JusticeVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVirtues and Their VicesVoracious Science and Vulnerable AnimalsVulnerability, Autonomy, and Applied EthicsWar Against the WeakWar, Torture and TerrorismWarrior's DishonourWeaknessWelfare and Rational CareWhat are you staring at?What Genes Can't DoWhat Have We DoneWhat Is a Human?What Is Good and WhyWhat Is Good and WhyWhat Is the Good Life?What Price Better Health?What Should I Do?What We Owe to Each OtherWhat Would Aristotle Do?What's Good on TVWhat's Normal?What's Wrong with Children's RightsWhat's Wrong with Homosexuality?What's Wrong With Morality?When Is Discrimination Wrong?Who Holds the Moral High Ground?Who Owns YouWho Qualifies for Rights?Whose America?Whose View of Life?Why Animals MatterWhy Animals MatterWhy I Burned My Book and Other Essays on DisabilityWhy Not Kill Them All?Why Punish? How Much?Why Some Things Should Not Be for SaleWisdom, Intuition and EthicsWithout ConscienceWomen and Borderline Personality DisorderWomen and MadnessWondergenesWould You Kill the Fat Man?Wrestling with Behavioral GeneticsWriting About PatientsYou Must Be DreamingYour Genetic DestinyYour Inner FishYouth Offending and Youth Justice Yuck!
In recent years, Ruth Macklin's assertion that dignity is a "useless concept"  and Stephen Pinker's discussion of the "stupidity of dignity" are claims which display skepticism about the notion of dignity (p. 2). In response to such claims, this book explains that, despite the skeptical treatment, the notion of dignity has not yet received a treatment that a) assembles all important perspectives and positions, b) examines the arguments that may be enhanced by it, and c) enriches the yet undertheorized role it currently holds in the literature.
In order to give a proper account of the notion of dignity, this book promises to offer 1) an in-depth explanation of the "widely shared intuitions about human dignity in the medical context of terminal illness" (p. 4), 2) to take a step forward towards reconsideration of the arguments in favor of extending the notion of dignity to other issues, i.e. autonomy, self and others, and 3) a clarification of the notion of dignity in general "which might lead to its application in the other contexts as well" (p. 4). The first chapter serves the purpose of an elaborate introduction where Dr. Muders puts forward the promises of the book.
2. Human Dignity, Suicide, and Assisting Others to Die (Jeff Mcmahan)
The central aim of this chapter is to explore what "human dignity" refers to and whether it has any claim on deciding whether suicide or assisted death is permissible. Mcmahan takes help of philosophers like Kant, Cherles Beitz, Rosen, Waldran, Habermas, and Avishai Margalit, to understand the notion of human dignity, but he focuses especially on Kant to establish an argument that he calls "the Lexical Priority Argument" (pp. 21-28). This position is based on two principles; the universal nature of human beings which considers human dignity as an inner worth and higher than other values, and the categorical imperative. Treating human beings as instruments in the case of suicide and assisted death is a violation of these two rules, hence, it is not permissible.
The author shows that in the case of suicide and assisted death, the agent is not used as an instrument but as an end to herself. Therefore, Kant's invocation to "human dignity provides no better ground for objecting to the permissibility of suicide and assisted death" (p. 29). The main argument runs around the term "rational", but in the both cases, i.e. Kant's and in Mcmahan's, we find no explication of what they actually mean by "rational" which, despite the convincing argument in favor of the proposed objective of the chapter, casts doubt on the whole project.
3. Dignity and the Case in Favor of Assisted Death (Ralf Stoecker)
Stoecker begins by asking a simple question – "why should we consider a legal prohibition of assisted suicide as a threat to human dignity?" (p. 30) He considers two answers to the question, a) self-determination and b) to avoid living an undignified life. He largely focuses on the second answer and explicates the relationship between human dignity and assisted death. Towards this end, he takes recourse to historical facts, three examples of suicide cases happened in different parts of the world, empirical data, and empirical research on terminally ill patients. Explaining each point lucidly, analyzing and pointing out the flaws in the arguments of the opponents, he concludes that there is no necessary connection between one's dignity and one's decision to commit suicide. So, one "should not regard suicide as a demand of dignity" (p. 45). Nevertheless, Stoecker defends the right to self-determination, and suggests that the best we can do is to "persuade her but must not interfere" (p. 45).
4. Dignity through Thick and Thin (L. W. Sumner)
Sumner has already published a book, Assisted Death: A Study in Ethics and Law, in which he dealt with "the ethical and legal status of physician-assisted death with scarcely a mention of dignity" (p. 49). This paper, in one sense, advocates the same objective of that book by accommodating the notion of dignity. In his treatment of this notion, he makes a distinction between thin and thick conception of dignity and argues for the thick conception of dignity. In order to defend this position, he leans on empirical research (Linda Ganzini and her colleagues' findings and Harvey Chochinov and his colleagues' results) and Luban and Waldron's analysis of dignity. He provides two reasons in favor of the thick conception of dignity, viz. 1) it is empirically loaded and more informative contra Macklin's claim that dignity is an empty concept, and 2) it "looks not to the content of the speech, but to the speakers" (p. 65). Prof. Sumner's thesis espouses the relational aspect of dignity and takes particular cases of patients. So, if a patient does think that he is being humiliated in his medical observation, but others don't think so (or the visa-versa), should he still be granted medical assistance for his death?
5. Death with Dignity: A Dangerous Euphemism (Christopher Kaczor & Robert P. George)
The authors argue that dignity can be understood in four senses – dignity as flourishing, dignity as attributed, dignity as intrinsic worth , and dignity as autonomy, and none provide sound arguments in favor of euthanasia. Interestingly, he rejects euphemisms such as "death with dignity" and "right to die with dignity" by showing that it is not about death or dying, but it is precisely about intentional killing. Though each sense of dignity in relation to euthanasia is dealt separately, the authors nevertheless try to boil it down to the sense of dignity as intrinsic worth. With the arguments provided in the chapter, it seems to me that they should have explained more about why human beings have intrinsic value and, therefore, must be treated as ends rather than means.
6. Physical Disability, Dignity, and Physician-Assisted Death (David Wasserman)
Wasserman argues that physical disability provides no stronger dignity-based reason than other kinds of loss for permitting physician assistance in dying (PAD). In showing this, he talks about three senses of dignity, 1) narrative dignity, 2) personal, social, and human dignity, and 3) dignity as basic human functioning. In most cases, it is argued that indignity in physical disability is self-imposed and lacks a social support. Therefore, none of the above-mentioned sense of dignity provides a basis for treating physical disability differently than other sources of perceived dignity. Even the arguments which consider the condition of physical disable person as undignified, can also take their living with these conditions as an extreme act of dignity. So, Wasserman concludes, undermining this line of argumentation and permitting PAD on a special ground will do nothing but will reinforce the stigma.
7. Dementia, Dignity, and Physician Assisted Death (Rebecca Dresser)
Dresser argues that dignity-based arguments are not the sufficient reasons for PAD for dementia patients in early or advanced stages. He sees dementia not only as a medical problem, but also as a cultural problem. Therefore, the public conversation also needs to "consider the social factors that influence conceptions of personal dignity" (p. 121) in addition to "well-reasoned" request, the better understanding of personal dignity, and a possibility for a revision to earlier narrative of patient's life. Dresser argues that the change in environment and social conditions will reduce the indignities associated with dementia but does not specify too clearly how such a change is likely to be effected.
8. Autonomy and the Value of Life as Elements of Human Dignity (Sebastian Muders)
Muders offers a combined approach to explicate dignity in terms of specific interpretations of both autonomy and value of life and argues that both concepts are compatible with each other. The fundamental point of these two concepts is that human beings are free and rational beings. "The argument from autonomy states that we ought to respect a person's dignity by giving due weight to her authority" (p. 141) and on the other hand, the argument from value of life states that we should "act in accordance with the intrinsic worth we have" (p. 142) as human beings in matters of suicide and assisted death. Despite the fact that Muders provides compelling arguments to support his claim, the connection between Darwall's understanding of Kantian theory of dignity and argument from autonomy is not explained at all. The chapter includes other errors, for e.g. the acronym of New Natural Lawyers is misstated as NLL which at the end of chapter is correctly written as NNL.
9. Dignity and Assisted Dying: What Kant got Right (and Wrong) (Michael Cholbi)
Cholbi sets the aim of the chapter to explicate "what Kant's understanding of dignity implies about assisted death" (p.144). He defines Kantian notion of dignity as universal, unified, equal, and inalienable that, in turn, advocates dignity as a source of duties to one self. In this sense, dignity is not a price but is a worth which every human possesses by the very fact that they are human being. He argues at the core that if Kantian position is plausible, then "although death with dignity remains incoherent in Kant's eyes, some instances (that Cholbi calls hopeless cases) of assisted death at least count as deaths not at odds with dignity" (p. 158).
10. Two Competing Conceptions of Human Dignity (Luke Gormally)
Gormally discusses the two competing conceptions of human dignity (autonomy-based conception and egalitarian conception of intrinsic dignity) with relation to assisted death in order to show whether one or the other conception provides the sound reasoning to legalization of assisted suicide or not. He argues against the autonomy-based conception because of its arbitrariness, and advocates that "doctor should rely on an entirely defensible egalitarian conception of intrinsic dignity" (p. 174). Though he thinks that the egalitarian conception is defensible, however, he opposes any legalization of assistance in death because the legal prohibition of assistance in suicide saves patients and preserves the integrity of doctors.
11. The Value of Life and the Dignity of Persons (Willaim J. Fitzpatrick)
Fitzpatrick argues that the notion of human dignity is more fundamental than the value of life. He explicates that the idea of value of human life (sanctity of life) gets its meaning and normative significance when the whole idea is viewed the point of view of human dignity. In this sense, the value of life has no independent force. He further argues that "human dignity is importantly person-focused and is best understood as that special form of value that is given appropriate recognition through an irreducibly personal engagement that incorporate loving concern and respect for the person in question" (p. 177). As the author himself points out that the main aim is not to show straightforward answers to end-of-life quandaries, but to point out and advocate a framework for discerning human dignity and the value of human life.
12. Could Suicide Really Be a Fundamental Human Right?: A Triple Threat (Margaret P. Battin)
Battin begins with a question – Can we really consider suicide as a fundamental human right? This particular chapter is a reconsideration of what he had already advocated earlier in a paper published almost three and a half decades ago. He defended suicide as a fundamental human right. He develops argument from the notion of dignity and shows a linguistic triple threat in this notion. He further demonstrates various cases – historical, cross cultural, current, and direct experience, and shows that even this will not help us as it provides many intuitions to deal with. We will not come to a final solution, but at the same time, it hints that "the problem is too complex, more fractured, but therefore also more interesting than we might have realized in advance" (p. 217).
13. Human Dignity and the Right to Assisted Suicide (Holger Baumann & Peter Schaber)
The authors of this chapter argue in favor of the moral permissibility of assisted suicide. "If a person competently requests another person to assist her in dying, she thereby exercises how normative power to make the act permissible" (p. 218). In defence of this claim, they develop a version of status-based conception in contrast with value-based conception in that they have a deontic rather than axiological basis. From this particular account of dignity, consent becomes the crucial factor. So, if a person gives a consent to assist in her dying, it will be morally permissible. Though the conclusion strongly follows from their account of dignity, but the grounds on which a competent person gives her consent is not very clear. When can we claim that a person is "competent" enough to give consent? And on what ground?
As far as I have discerned from this book, it encompasses a detailed analysis of the notion of dignity not only with relation to assisted death, but with relation to value of life, autonomy/self-determination, and human rights. This book is not only for philosophers, students of philosophy, medical students, or people who are working on bio-ethics, but it opens doors for each one of us who demands a dignified life. I hope this book will definitely enrich their understanding of dignity.
To summarize, this book is a valuable contribution to the field of ethics in general and medical ethics in particular, and it deserves a careful study. "As Marcus Aurelius says: 'In short, know this: Human lives are brief and trivial. Yesterday a blob of semen; tomorrow embalming fluid, ash.' We will all die but we don't need to treat death like the enemy and we must not let our fear of becoming ash lead us into prolonging our lives beyond any meaning, purpose or pleasure", or in one word, without dignity.
 Macklin, Ruth. "Dignity is a Useless Concept," British Medical Journal 327 (2003): 1419-1420.
 Pinker, Stephen. "The stupidity of dignity", The New Republic, May 28, 2008. https://newrepublic.com/article/64674/the-stupidity-dignity
 Sulmasy, P. Daniel. "Dignity and Bioethics: History Theory, and Selected Applications," in Human Dignity and Bioethics: Essays Commissioned by the President's Council on Bioethics, ed. By Adam Schulman and others, 469 – 501.
 Cathy Rentzenbrink, A fate worse than death. March 16, 2018. https://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/magazine/a-fate-worse-than-death
© 2018 Prashant Kumar
Prashant Kumar, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, Delhi, India