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A Theory of Feelings Anger and Forgiveness"My Madness Saved Me"10 Good Questions about Life and Death12 Modern Philosophers50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a GodA Cabinet of Philosophical CuriositiesA Case for IronyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to Buddhist PhilosophyA Companion to FoucaultA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to HumeA Companion to KantA Companion to Phenomenology and ExistentialismA Companion to PragmatismA Companion to the Philosophy of ActionA Companion to the Philosophy of BiologyA Companion to the Philosophy of LiteratureA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Critical Overview of Biological FunctionsA Critique of Naturalistic Philosophies of MindA Cursing Brain?A Delicate BalanceA Farewell to AlmsA Fragile LifeA Frightening LoveA Future for PresentismA Guide to the Good LifeA History of PsychiatryA History of the MindA Life Worth LivingA Manual of Experimental PhilosophyA Map of the MindA Metaphysics of PsychopathologyA Mind So RareA Natural History of Human MoralityA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Natural History of VisionA Parliament of MindsA Philosopher Looks at The Sense of HumorA Philosophical DiseaseA Philosophy of BoredomA Philosophy of Cinematic ArtA Philosophy of CultureA Philosophy of EmptinessA Philosophy of FearA Philosophy of PainA Physicalist ManifestoA Place for ConsciousnessA Question of TrustA Research Agenda for DSM-VA Revolution of the MindA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Stroll With William JamesA Tapestry of ValuesA Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Theory of FreedomA Thousand MachinesA Universe of ConsciousnessA Very Bad WizardA Very Bad Wizard: Morality Behind the CurtainA Virtue EpistemologyA World Full of GodsA World Without ValuesAbout FaceAbout the Beginning of the Hermeneutics of the SelfAction and ResponsibilityAction in ContextAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionAction, Contemplation, and HappinessAction, Emotion and WillAdam SmithAdaptive DynamicsAddictionAddictionAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction Is a ChoiceAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAftermathAfterwarAgainst AdaptationAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HappinessAgainst HealthAgency and ActionAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and EmbodimentAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAl-JununAlain BadiouAlain BadiouAlasdair MacIntyreAlien Landscapes?Altered EgosAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Ethics for TodayAn Intellectual History of CannibalismAn Interpretation of DesireAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy An Introduction to Philosophy of EducationAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of PsychologyAn Introductory Philosophy of MedicineAn Odd Kind of FameAnalytic FreudAnalytic Philosophy in AmericaAncient AngerAncient Models of MindAncient Philosophy of the SelfAngerAnimal LessonsAnimal MindsAnimals Like UsAnnihilationAnother PlanetAnswers for AristotleAnti-ExternalismAnti-Individualism and KnowledgeAntigone’s ClaimAntipsychiatryAre We Hardwired?Are Women Human?Arguing about DisabilityArguing About Human NatureAristotle and the Philosophy of FriendshipAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's ChildrenAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle, Emotions, and EducationArt & MoralityArt After Conceptual ArtArt in Three DimensionsArt, Self and KnowledgeArtificial ConsciousnessArtificial HappinessAspects of PsychologismAsylum to ActionAt the Existentialist CaféAtonement and ForgivenessAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutobiography as PhilosophyAutonomyAutonomy and Mental DisorderAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismBabies by DesignBackslidingBadiouBadiou's DeleuzeBadiou, Balibar, Ranciere: Rethinking EmancipationBare Facts And Naked TruthsBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBattlestar Galactica and PhilosophyBe Like the FoxBeautyBecoming a SubjectBecoming HumanBefore ConsciousnessBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing AmoralBeing HumanBeing Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory Being No OneBeing Realistic about ReasonsBeing ReducedBeing YourselfBelief's Own EthicsBending Over BackwardsBerlin Childhood around 1900Bernard WilliamsBertrand RussellBetter than BothBetter Than WellBetween Two WorldsBeyond HealthBeyond Hegel and NietzscheBeyond KuhnBeyond LossBeyond MelancholyBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond PostmodernismBeyond ReductionBeyond SchizophreniaBeyond the DSM StoryBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics in the ClinicBiological Complexity and Integrative PluralismBiology Is TechnologyBiosBipolar ExpeditionsBlackwell Companion to the Philosophy of EducationBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlues - Philosophy for EveryoneBlushBob Dylan and PhilosophyBody ConsciousnessBody Image And Body SchemaBody ImagesBody LanguageBody MattersBody WorkBody-Subjects and Disordered MindsBoundBoundaries of the MindBoyleBrain Evolution and CognitionBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-WiseBrainchildrenBrains, Buddhas, and BelievingBrainstormingBrave New WorldsBreakdown of WillBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and FaithBrief Therapy Homework PlannerBritain on the CouchBritish Idealism and the Concept of the SelfBrute RationalityBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyBut Is It Art?Camus and SartreCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCarving Nature at Its JointsCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsCassandra's DaughterCato's TearsCausation and CounterfactualsCauses, Laws, and Free WillChanging Conceptions of the Child from the Renaissance to Post-ModernityChanging the SubjectChaosophyCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionCharles DarwinCherishmentChildhood and the Philosophy of EducationChildrenChildren, Families, and Health Care Decision MakingChoices and ConflictChoosing Not to ChooseChristmas - Philosophy for EveryoneCinema, Philosophy, BergmanCinematic MythmakingCity and Soul in Plato's RepublicClassifying MadnessClear and Queer ThinkingClinical EthicsClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyCodependent ForevermoreCoffee - Philosophy for EveryoneCognition and the BrainCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognition Through Understanding: Self-Knowledge, Interlocution, Reasoning, ReflectionCognitive BiologyCognitive FictionsCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Systems and the Extended Mind Cognitive Theories of Mental IllnessCoherence in Thought and ActionCollected Papers, Volume 1Collected Papers, Volume 2College SexComedy IncarnateCommitmentCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentConcealment And ExposureConceptual Analysis and Philosophical NaturalismConceptual Art and PaintingConceptual Issues in Evolutionary BiologyConfessionsConfucianismConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConquest of AbundanceConscience and ConvenienceConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the SelfConsciousness EmergingConsciousness EvolvingConsciousness ExplainedConsciousness in ActionConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Color, and ContentConsole and ClassifyConstructing the WorldConstructive AnalysisContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Philosophy of BiologyContemporary Debates in Philosophy of MindContemporary Debates in Political PhilosophyContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContemporary Perspectives on Natural LawContested Knowledge: Social Theory TodayContesting PsychiatryContext and the AttitudesContinental Philosophy of ScienceControlControlling Our DestiniesConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCopernicus, Darwin and FreudCrazy for YouCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCreating ConsilienceCreating HysteriaCreating Mental IllnessCreating Scientific ConceptsCreating the American JunkieCreation, Rationality and AutonomyCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCrimes of ReasonCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychiatryCritical PsychologyCritical ResistanceCritical Thinking About PsychologyCritical VisionsCross and KhoraCruel CompassionCTRL [SPACE]Cultural Psychology of the SelfCultural Theory: An IntroductionCulture and Psychiatric DiagnosisCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCulture of DeathCultures of NeurastheniaCurious EmotionsCurrent Controversies in Experimental PhilosophyCurrent Controversies in Values and ScienceCustom and Reason in HumeCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCutting God in Half - And Putting the Pieces Together AgainCylons in AmericaDamaged IdentitiesDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous EmotionsDaniel DennettDaniel DennettDark AgesDarwin and DesignDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDarwin, God and the Meaning of LifeDarwinian PsychiatryDarwinian ReductionismDarwinizing CultureDating: Philosophy for EveryoneDeathDeathDeath and CharacterDeath and CompassionDeath and the AfterlifeDebating DesignDebating HumanismDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecomposing the WillDeconstructing PsychotherapyDeconstruction and DemocracyDeeper Than DarwinDeeper than ReasonDefending Science - within ReasonDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDegrees of BeliefDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions and Other Irrational BeliefsDelusions and the Madness of the MassesDementiaDemons, Dreamers, and MadmenDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDennett’s PhilosophyDepression Is a ChoiceDepression, Emotion and the SelfDepthDerrida, Deleuze, PsychoanalysisDescartesDescartes and the Passionate MindDescartes' CogitoDescartes's Changing MindDescartes's Concept of MindDescribing Inner Experience?Descriptions and PrescriptionsDesembodied Spirits and Deanimated Bodies Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Desire and AffectDesire, Love, and IdentityDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDeveloping the VirtuesDiagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersDialectics of the SelfDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital SoulDimensional Models of Personality DisordersDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDisjunctivismDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDispatches from the Freud WarsDisrupted LivesDistractionDisturbed ConsciousnessDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Do We Still Need Doctors?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Does the Woman Exist?Doing without ConceptsDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDonald DavidsonDonald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the MentalDoubting Darwin?Dreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR CasebookDworkin and His CriticsDying to KnowDynamics in ActionDysthymia and the Spectrum of Chronic DepressionsEccentricsEducational MetamorphosesEffective IntentionsElbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth WantingEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbodied RhetoricsEmbodied Selves and Divided MindsEmbryos under the MicroscopeEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotionEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion and PsycheEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotional ReasonEmotional ReasonEmotional TruthEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions, Value, and AgencyEmpathyEmpathy and AgencyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpathy in the Context of PhilosophyEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEnchanted LoomsEngaging BuddhismEngineering the Human GermlineEnjoymentEnvyEpicureanismEpistemic LuckEpistemologyEpistemology and EmotionsEpistemology and the Psychology of Human JudgmentEros and the GoodErotic MoralityEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssays in the Metaphysics of Mind Essays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEssays on Nonconceptual ContentEssays on Philosophical CounselingEssays on Reference, Language, and MindEssays on the Concept of Mind in Early-Modern PhilosophyEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEsssential Philosophy of PsychiatryEternal Sunshine of the Spotless MindEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in Human CloningEthical TheoryEthicsEthicsEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics in Plain EnglishEthics in PracticeEthics in Psychiatric ResearchEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEuropean Review of Philosophy. Vol. 5Everyday IrrationalityEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolutionEvolution and the Human MindEvolution's RainbowEvolutionary Origins of MoralityEvolutionary PsychologyExamined LifeExamined LivesExistential AmericaExistentialismExistentialism and Romantic LoveExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and NaturalismExperiments in EthicsExplaining ConsciousnessExplaining the BrainExplaining the Computational MindExplanatory PluralismExploding the Gene MythExploring HappinessExploring the SelfExpression and the InnerExpressions of JudgmentExtraordinary Science and PsychiatryFaces of IntentionFact and ValueFact and Value in EmotionFacts, Values, and NormsFads and Fallacies in the Social SciencesFaith and Wisdom in ScienceFatherhoodFear of KnowledgeFearless SpeechFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFeelings of BeingFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminism and Philosophy of ScienceFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist Interpretations of Rene DescartesFeminist TheoryField Notes from ElsewhereFinding Consciousness in the BrainFingerprints of GodFlesh in the Age of ReasonFolk Psychological NarrativesFolk Psychology Re-AssessedForces of HabitForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and RetributionFoucault 2.0Foucault and PhilosophyFoucault NowFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in PsychologyFour Views on Free WillFrank Ramsey (1903-1930)Free WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree Will and Action ExplanationFree Will and LuckFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree: Why Science Hasn't Disproved Free WillFreedomFreedom and DeterminismFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom and ResponsibiltyFreedom and ValueFreedom EvolvesFreedom RegainedFreedom vs. InterventionFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFreudFreud and the Question of PseudoscienceFreud As PhilosopherFreud's AnswerFreud, the Reluctant PhilosopherFriedrich NietzscheFrom Chance to ChoiceFrom Clinic to ClassroomFrom Complexity to LifeFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution for Science and the HumanitiesFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Valuing to ValueFrontiers of ConsciousnessFrontiers of JusticeFurnishing the MindGalileo in PittsburghGenderGender and Mental HealthGender in the MirrorGender TroubleGenesGenes, Women, EqualityGenetic Nature/CultureGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetic SecretsGenocide's AftermathGenomes and What to Make of ThemGerman Idealism and the JewGerman PhilosophyGetting HookedGilles DeleuzeGlobal PhilosophyGluttonyGod and Phenomenal ConsciousnessGoffman's LegacyGoing Amiss in Experimental ResearchGoodness & AdviceGrassroots SpiritualityGrave MattersGrave MattersGreedGreek Models of Mind and SelfGut ReactionsHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHabits of MindHallucinationHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of EmotionsHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness and EducationHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHappiness, Death, and the Remainder of LifeHard LuckHarmful ThoughtsHaving the World in ViewHealing PsychiatryHealing the Soul in the Age of the BrainHealth, Illness and DiseaseHealth, Science, and Ordinary LanguageHegelHeidegger and a Metaphysics of FeelingHeidegger, Metaphysics and the Univocity of BeingHermann von Helmholtz's MechanismHermeneutics As PoliticsHeterophobiaHeterosyncraciesHeuristics and BiasesHeuristics and the LawHidden ResourcesHidden SelvesHiding from HumanityHigh Art LiteHistorical OntologyHistory of Psychiatry and Medical PsychologyHistory, Historicity And ScienceHobbesHomosexualitiesHope and Dread in PsychoanalysisHot ThoughtHow Can I Be Trusted?How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains?How Do We Know Who We Are?How Emotions WorkHow Emotions WorkHow History Made the MindHow Images ThinkHow is Nature Possible?How Propaganda WorksHow Science WorksHow Scientific Practices MatterHow Scientists Explain DiseaseHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Make Opportunity EqualHow to Solve the Mind-Body Problemhow to stop timeHow to Think More About SexHow We HopeHow We ReasonHuman CloningHuman Development, Language and the Future of MankindHuman EnhancementHuman Evolution, Reproduction, and MoralityHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman NatureHuman NatureHuman Nature and the Limits of ScienceHuman-Built WorldHumanismHumanism, What's That?HumanityHumans, Animals, MachinesHumeHumeHume on Motivation and VirtueHusserlHystoriesI of the VortexI Was WrongIdeas that MatterIdentifying the MindIdentity and Agency in Cultural WorldsIgnorance and ImaginationIllnessImagination and Its PathologiesImagination and the Meaningful BrainImagining NumbersImmortal RemainsImproving Nature?In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of HealthIn Defense of SentimentalityIn Love With LifeIn Praise of Athletic BeautyIn Praise of Natural PhilosophyIn Praise of the WhipIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of HappinessIn the Name of GodIn the Name of IdentityIn the Space of ReasonsIn the SwarmIn Two MindsInclusive EthicsIncompatibilism's AllureIndividual Differences in Conscious ExperienceInfinity and PerspectiveInformation ArtsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchIngmar Bergman, Cinematic PhilosopherInhuman ThoughtsInner PresenceInsanityIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntelligent VirtueIntentionIntentionality, Deliberation and AutonomyIntentions and IntentionalityIntentions and IntentionalityInterpreting MindsInterpreting NietzscheIntroducing Greek PhilosophyIntrospection and ConsciousnessIntrospection VindicatedIntuition, Imagination, and Philosophical MethodologyIntuitionismInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIrrationalityIs Academic Feminism Dead?Is It Me or My Meds?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is Oedipus Online?Is Science Neurotic?Is Science Value Free?Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion?Is There a Duty to Die?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJacques LacanJacques RancièreJacques RanciereJean-Paul SartreJohn McDowellJohn SearleJohn Searle's Ideas About Social RealityJohn Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill and the Writing of CharacterJoint AttentionJokesJonathan EdwardsJudging and UnderstandingJustice for ChildrenJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeKantKant and MiltonKant and the Fate of AutonomyKant and the Limits of AutonomyKant and the Role of Pleasure in Moral ActionKant on Freedom, Law, and HappinessKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Anatomy of EvilKant's Anatomy of the Intelligent MindKant's Theory of VirtueKarl JaspersKarl PopperKey Concepts in PhilosophyKierkegaardKierkegaard as PhenomenologistKierkegaard's Concept of DespairKierkegaard's MuseKinds of MindsKinds, Things, and StuffKnowing, Knowledge and BeliefsKnowledge MonopoliesKnowledge, Belief, and CharacterKnowledge, Possibility, and ConsciousnessLacanLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLanguageLanguage in ContextLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Culture, and MindLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw and the BrainLaw, Liberty, and PsychiatryLaws, Mind, and Free WillLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberatory PsychiatryLife and ActionLife at the Texas State Lunatic Asylum, 1857-1997Life Is Not a Game of PerfectLife of the MindLife's FormLife, Death, & MeaningLife, Death, and Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of UtilityLife, Sex, and IdeasLight in the Dark RoomLike a Splinter in Your MindLiving and Dying WellLiving NarrativeLiving Outside Mental IllnessLiving with DarwinLiving With One’s PastLockeLocke LockeLogic and the Art of Memory Loneliness in Philosophy, Psychology, and LiteratureLooking for SpinozaLooking for The StrangerLost SoulsLOT 2LoveLoveLove's ConfusionsLove's VisionLove, Friendship, and the SelfLove, Sex & TragedyLuckyLudwig WittgensteinLustLyingMachine ConsciousnessMad for FoucaultMad TravelersMade with WordsMadness And Death In PhilosophyMadness and DemocracyMadness at HomeMadness Is CivilizationMaking Natural KnowledgeMaking Sense of EvolutionMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMaking the DSM-5Making the Social WorldMaking TruthMale Female EmailMan, Beast, and ZombieMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManiaManic Depression and CreativityMapping the Edges and the In-betweenMapping the Future of BiologyMarcus AureliusMaster PassionsMatters of the MindMe++Meaning and Moral OrderMeaning and Value in a Secular AgeMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeaning, Basic Self-Knowledge, and MindMeanings of ArtMeasuring HappinessMeasuring PsychopathologyMedia MadnessMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedicine of the PersonMedicine, Mental Health, Religion, Science and Well-BeingMelancholy And the Care of the SoulMelancholy and the Otherness of GodMementoMemory and NarrativeMental ActionsMental CausationMental Causation and OntologyMental HealthMental Health At The CrossroadsMental Health Policy in BritainMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMerleau-PontyMerleau-Ponty and the Possibilities of PhilosophyMetacognition and Theory of MindMetacreationMetaethical SubjectivismMetaethicsMetal and FleshMetaphors of MemoryMetapoliticsMethods in MindMichel FoucaultMill's UtilitarianismMindMindMind and ConsciousnessMind and CosmosMind and MechanismMind GamesMind in a Physical WorldMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind in LifeMind TimeMind's LandscapeMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMind, Brain, and Free WillMind, Reason and ImaginationMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds and PersonsMinds, Brains, and LawMinds, Ethics, and ConditionalsMindshapingMindsightMindworldsMirror, MirrorMixed FeelingsMockingbird YearsModels of the SelfModern Social ImaginariesModern Theories of JusticeModernity and SubjectivityModernity and TechnologyMoody Minds DistemperedMoral BrainsMoral DimensionsMoral FailureMoral ImaginationMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral ParticularismMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology and Human AgencyMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Moral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMotherhoodMotive and RightnessMoving Beyond Prozac, DSM, and the New PsychiatryMultiple Analogies in Science and PhilosophyMultiple Identities & False MemoriesMusic, Madness, and the Unworking of LanguageMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Double UnveiledMy WayNarrativeNarrative and IdentityNarrative MedicineNarrative PsychiatryNarrative Theory and the Cognitive SciencesNatural Ethical FactsNatural Kinds and Conceptual ChangeNatural MindsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalism and the First-Person PerspectiveNaturalism and the Human ConditionNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalized BioethicsNaturalizing the MindNatureNature and NarrativeNear Death ExperienceNeither Bad nor MadNeither Victim nor SurvivorNeuro-Philosophy and the Healthy MindNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neurophilosophy at WorkNeurophilosophy of Free WillNeuropoliticsNeuropsychoanalysis in PracticeNeuroscience and PhilosophyNew Essays on the Explanation of ActionNew Philosophy for a New MediaNew Versions of VictimsNew Waves in Philosophy of ActionNietzscheNietzsche and Buddhist PhilosophyNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNietzsche's TherapyNietzsche, Culture and EducationNietzsche: The Man and His PhilosophyNihil UnboundNoir AnxietyNormative EthicsNormativityNorms of NatureNotebooks 1951-1959Notes Toward a Performative Theory of AssemblyNothing So AbsurdOblivionOn AnxietyOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn Being AuthenticOn BeliefOn BetrayalOn BullshitOn DelusionOn DesireOn EmotionsOn HashishOn Human RightsOn Loving Our EnemiesOn Nature and LanguageOn PersonalityOn ReflectionOn Romantic LoveOn the EmotionsOn the Freud WatchOn the Government of the LivingOn the Human ConditionOn the InternetOn the Meaning of LifeOn the Philosophy of LawOn the Pragmatics of CommunicationOn the Punitive SocietyOn TruthOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne Hundred DaysOnflowOnly a Promise of HappinessOntology of ConsciousnessOpen MindedOpen Your EyesOrgans without BodiesOther MindsOur Last Great IllusionOur Own MindsOur Posthuman FutureOur StoriesOut of Its MindOut of Our HeadsOxford Guide to the MindOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPanic DisorderPanpsychismPanpsychism in the WestPartialityPassionate EnginesPassionate EnginesPathologies of BeliefPathologies of ReasonPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perceiving the WorldPerception & CognitionPerception and Basic BeliefsPerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPerceptual ExperiencePerfecting VirtuePerplexities of ConsciousnessPersistencePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal IdentityPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonal Identity and Fractured SelvesPersonhood and Health CarePersonsPersons and BodiesPersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPersons, Souls and DeathPerspectives on ImitationPerspectives on PragmatismPessimismPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenal ConsciousnessPhenomenal IntentionalityPhenomenology and ExistentialismPhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophersPhilosophers on MusicPhilosophers without GodsPhilosophical CounselingPhilosophical Counselling and the UnconsciousPhilosophical DevicesPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical History and the Problem of ConsciousnessPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in Psychiatry IIPhilosophical MethodologyPhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophical Myths of the FallPhilosophical Perspectives on DepictionPhilosophical Perspectives on Technology and PsychiatryPhilosophical PracticePhilosophical Reflections on DisabilityPhilosophizing About Sex Philosophizing the EverydayPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy and LivingPhilosophy and PsychiatryPhilosophy and PsychotherapyPhilosophy and Science FictionPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the Interpretation of Pop CulturePhilosophy and the Moving ImagePhilosophy and the NeurosciencesPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy As FictionPhilosophy BitesPhilosophy Bites BackPhilosophy for Counselling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy for LifePhilosophy in a New CenturyPhilosophy in an Age of SciencePhilosophy in Children's LiteraturePhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BodyPhilosophy of Film and Motion PicturesPhilosophy of LovePhilosophy of Love, Sex, and MarriagePhilosophy of MindPhilosophy of Mind and CognitionPhilosophy of Personal Identity and Multiple PersonalityPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy of Public HealthPhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhilosophy of the Social SciencesPhilosophy on TapPhilosophy PracticePhilosophy the Day after TomorrowPhilosophy's Role in Counseling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhilosophy, Politics, DemocracyPhotography and PhilosophyPhysical RealizationPhysicalism and Its DiscontentsPhysicalism and Mental CausationPhysicalism, or Something Near EnoughPhysician-Assisted DyingPillar of SaltPin-up GrrrlsPlant MindsPlatoPlatoPlato, Not Prozac!Platonic Ethics, Old and NewPluralistic CasuistryPolarities of ExperiencesPolitical EmotionsPopper, Objectivity and the Growth of KnowledgePornPorn StudiesPornography, Sex, and FeminismPortrait of the Psychiatrist as a Young ManPostcolonial DisordersPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPower and the SelfPower SplitPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical ConflictsPractical Identity and Narrative AgencyPractical PhilosophyPractical RulesPractical Tortoise RaisingPractically ProfoundPracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPragmatic BioethicsPragmatismPragmatism, Old And NewPraise and BlamePredicative MindsPreferences and Well-BeingPrescriptions for the MindPresocraticsPrimary and Secondary QualitiesPrimates and PhilosophersPrivacyPrivileged AccessProblems in MindProblems of RationalityProzac As a Way of LifeProzac BacklashProzac on the CouchPsyche and SomaPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric Cultures ComparedPsychiatric Diagnosis and ClassificationPsychiatric EthicsPsychiatric HegemonyPsychiatric PowerPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry and Philosophy of SciencePsychiatry and ReligionPsychiatry as a Human SciencePsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry in SocietyPsychiatry in the New MilleniumPsychiatry in the Scientific ImagePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsycho-Physical Dualism TodayPsychoanalysis and Narrative MedicinePsychoanalysis and the Philosophy of SciencePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and PhilosophyPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, and the Politics of Human RelationshipsPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPsychotherapy As PraxisPublic PhilosophyPunishmentPure ImmanencePurple HazePursuing MeaningQuality of Life and Human DifferenceQueer PhilosophyQuestions for FreudQuestions for FreudQuine and Davidson on Language, Thought and RealityRaceRace in Contemporary MedicineRadiant CoolRadical AlterityRadical ExternalismRadical HopeRational and Social AgencyRational CausationRational Choice in an Uncertain WorldRationality + Consciousness = Free WillRationality and FreedomRationality and the Reflective MindRationality in ActionRawls, Dewey, and ConstructivismRe-creating MedicineRe-EmergenceRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReading AutobiographyReading Bernard WilliamsReading SartreReadings in the Philosophy of TechnologyReal MaterialismReal Natures and Familiar ObjectsReal ScienceRealism in ActionReason & EmancipationReason in ActionReason in PhilosophyReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReasoning About Rational AgentsReasoning in Biological DiscoveriesReasons from WithinReasons without RationalismReclaiming CognitionReclaiming the SoulReconceiving SchizophreniaReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecreative MindsRediscovering EmotionRediscovering EmpathyReference and ExistenceReference and the Rational MindReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRegulating SexReinventing the SoulRelativism and Human RightsRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyReliable ReasoningReligion without GodRelying on OthersRemembering HomeResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsRestraining RageRethinking ExpertiseRethinking IntrospectionRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeRethinking the DSMRethinking the Sociology of Mental HealthRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfReturn to ReasonRevolt, She SaidRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard Rorty's New PragmatismRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRise And Fall of Soul And SelfRitalin NationRobert NozickRousseauRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Derrida on DeconstructionRules, Reason, and Self-KnowledgeSaints, Scholars, and Schizophrenics: Mental Illness in Rural IrelandSartreSartreSartreSartre in Search of an EthicsSatisficing and MaximizingSaving GodScandalous KnowledgeSchizophreniaSchizophrenia and the Fate of the SelfSchizophrenia: A Scientific Delusion?SchopenhauerSchopenhauer's TelescopeScienceScience and EthicsScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and SpiritualityScience and the Pursuit of WisdomScience Fiction and PhilosophyScience Fiction and PhilosophyScience in Civil SocietyScience in DemocracyScience RulesScience WarsScience, Consciousness and Ultimate RealityScience, Policy, and the Value-Free IdealSciences from BelowScientific EvidenceScientific IrrationalismScientific PerspectivismScientific PluralismScientific Realism and the Rationality of ScienceScratching the Surface of BioethicsSecond NatureSecond OpinionsSecond PhilosophySecrets of the MindSecular Philosophy and the Religious 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Philosophy and Science FictionReview - Philosophy and Science Fiction
Volume XXXIX (Midwest Studies in Philosophy)
by Peter A. French, Howard K. Wettstein, Eric Schwitzgebel (Editors)
Wiley-Blackwell, 2015
Review by Alexandre Declos
Apr 26th 2016 (Volume 20, Issue 17)

Science fiction (SF) portrays counterfactual realities, possible worlds, alternate histories. Yet, it tries to explore scenarios which, as far as we know, could possibly happen, such as space exploration, encounters with alien races, or the creation of intelligent artificial beings. In that respect, it purports to differ from other kinds of fiction such as fantasy or fairytale, which introduce "magical" elements into their plots, trespassing thereby what we know of natural or physical laws. Because of this willingness to remain within the bounds of the (scientifically) possible, SF pretends to a certain cognitive relevance. It is motivated by, and tries to generate, speculation. This, perhaps, explains why much of contemporary analytic philosophy is filled with thought experiments borrowing from SF some of its most cherished themes : time-travel, teleportation, split-brain cases, clones, intelligent robots, etc. But what is it, exactly, that SF can bring to philosophy ? What, and how, could we learnfrom it ? How are we to make sense of (or dismiss) the speculative scenarios depicted in SF narratives ? It is these pressing questions that this volume of Midwest Studies in Philosophy seeks to answer.  The book, which contains ten essays and two short stories, covers a great deal of issues, ranging from aesthetics and ethics to epistemology and metaphysics. We will provide a quick overview of each contribution.

In "Science Fiction and a Theory of Genre", S.J. Evnine argues that two understandings of artistic genres have been competing in the literature. The dominant approach sees them as "regions of conceptual space" (RCS). According to this view, a work can be defined and recognized as belonging to a genre if it contains or exemplifies certain determinate properties. The author argues that the RCS account, if tempting, fails to be satisfactory on several grounds. (a) It  cannot explain why the historical context of a work's production seems relevant for its generic identification, since only  its "internal" properties would matter. (b) The RCS approach assumes that some features necessarily need to be possessed by a work of a given kind, a claim which seems objectionable due to the sheer variety of works and constant reinvention of artistic genres. Lastly, (c) this view trivially reduces generic normativity to a given set of rules to follow; and (d) it fails to really explain why there are persistent disagreements on the inclusion (or exclusion) of certain particular works into a genre.                                                              

All these difficulties, says Evnine, can be avoided if one endorses the other approach of genres, which takes them to be "traditions". Doing so would prove a better way to account for their historicity, evolution, and normativity, these conclusions being tentatively applied to SF. Under this account, (a') the inclusion of a work into a genre critically depends on the historical context of its production, beyond its "internal" properties. (b') In that case, there is no rigid set of necessary features which delimit what a genre is. Works belong to a genre when they make reference to a certain artistic tradition, and genres are thus not classificatory items but "historical particulars". (c') The tradition approach allows generic normativity to be explained in a more dynamic fashion: authors inherit techniques, patterns, and structures previously used ; they shape their work according to their sense of loyalty to their predecessors and their desire to innovate; and they critically take into account the expectations from the readers or the audience. This account, then, allows to see a genre as being some kind of "ongoing discussion" between authors, works, industries, and audiences. (d) Under this view, the deep disagreements about the inclusion or exclusion of some works into a genre becomes much more understandable. The matter is not merely one of classification, but a demand made that a given work should be seen (or not) as a genuine part of a tradition, and thus as an acceptable inspiration for subsequent works in the genre. This last point is well exemplified with the discussion of two particular cases, whose incorporation into SF is contested. 

In "Improve Your Thought Experiments Overnight With Speculative Fiction!", R. P. Cameron takes note of the close proximity of SF narratives to thought experiments, as they are commonly found in philosophy : both are of a counterfactual nature, and both seemingly have some kind of cognitive value. Yet, Cameron wants to show that the two differ in some respects. SF narratives are generally much more detailed, complex, and fleshed out, than the standard thought experiment. For this reason, the former tend to be rhetorically or psychologically more persuasive. Another important difference is that reading fiction, unlike a philosophy paper, allows (or even calls for) a kind of cognitive and moral detachment, where the reader will not feel as engaged to challenge the truth or the rightness of what is depicted or expressed. This, says the author, provides ground to think that speculative fiction is a specific, and irreducible way, to explore (intellectually or emotionally) certain viewpoints and ideas.                                              

This claim is given support in two general ways. First, Cameron wants to show how SF, because of the creative freedom which characterizes it, can be particularly effective at portraying moral claims or viewpoints. This is due, in part, to SF's tendency to exaggerate the features of the object (or subject) it considers. Orwell's 1984, for instance, tries to form the picture of a quintessential totalitarianism, purified of any historical contingency. For this reason, Orwell seems to bring us intellectually closer to the problem of totalitarianism than realistic testimonies on (actual) totalitarian states. This is not to say, of course, that SF is the only way to depict moral views or that it necessarily succeeds in doing so : Cameron's point is simply that SF can be a moral tool or guide on its own.  The author's second claim is that SF can provide us with "constitutive metaphysical truths which can serve as data for metaphysical theorizing" (p.32). Interestingly, it is sometimes the failure of a SF narrative to convince us that something is possible, or that some claim is true within the fiction, which can be metaphysically instructive. The "imaginative resistance" to certain SF scenarios could proceed from the fact that what it depicts is metaphysically impossible, or that it violates some metaphysical truth. Some well-chosen examples are discussed by Cameron to assess this point : Alan Moore's (supposed) failure to persuade us that the Swamp Thing, in the eponymous comic, is not the same person as Holland ; or the unconvincing claim that Data, the android featured in Star Trek : The Next Generation, is unable to feel emotions, although it repeatedly behaves like a normal person.

 "Fact, Fiction, and Fantasy", by B. Blumson, tries to give support to a deceptively simple argument. Its first premise states that "all knowledge from fiction is from imagination". Drawing on Grice, Walton, and Currie, the author shows that fiction can be analyzed as a "prescription to imagine". But does all knowledge from fiction stem from imagination ? Apparent counterexamples to this claim are discussed and proved unconvincing. The second step of Blumson's argument states that "all knowledge from fiction is modal knowledge". The author gives ground to the idea that imaginability is a guide to possibility, and unimaginability, a guide to impossibility or necessity. Fiction, thus, provides knowledge about what is possible and what is not. Reading The Dispossessed makes one imagine an anarchist utopia, from which we can learn that an anarchist utopia is possible. Reading Animal Farm makes one imagine a revolution of a specific kind and makes one learn that, given that kind of revolution, it is necessary that dictatorship ensues. Here again, counterexamples are discussed.The conclusion of Blumson's argument, from there, follows simply: "All knowledge from fiction is modal knowledge". Fiction can only provide knowledge about what is possible, impossible, necessary, or probable. The author takes care, however, to remind us that modal knowledge is not without relation to what is actual : fiction could thus, indirectly, tell us about what is actually the case. The apparently reductive claim set forth by the author could thus, perhaps, be accommodated to more traditional versions of aesthetic cognitivism. 

In "The Epistemic Value of Speculative Fiction" J. De Smedt and H. De Cruz invoke the results of cognitive science to show that the mechanisms at work in speculative fiction are fundamentally the same as those underlying thought experiments and counterfactual reasoning. These common mechanisms are discussed at length.  But, like Cameron above, the authors try to flesh out what cognitive virtues are proper to SF. It appears that SF, contrasted with philosophical thought experiments, (1) pays more attention to contextual elements, which can be philosophically instructive ; (2) is a fine tool to break theoretical or conceptual dichotomies and (3) allows us to examine in detail the (emotional, existential) consequences of certain philosophical views. To illustrate these points, several examples of philosophical ideas explored through SF are discussed : the possibility of a libertarian utopia in Heinlein's The Moon is a Harsh Mistress (1966) ; the truth of the so-called "Sapir-Whorf hypothesis" in Vance's The Languages of Pao (1958); and the relation between finitude and happiness in Meyer's popular vampire tetralogy, Twilight. The article ends with an interview of several philosophers who also happen to write SF.

 "The Alienation of Human and Animals in Uplift Diction", by I. Roy-Faderman, follows an original course : it examines, from a philosophical point of view, the outcomes of these "uplift" SF narratives, which portray non-human animals (NHA) accessing "intelligence". Paradoxically, while the uplift literature generally intends to manifest the continuity between humans and (superior) NHA, it actually reassesses, perhaps involuntarily, the supposed differences existing between them. The author discusses in some detail several "uplift" novels, all of which perpetuate more or less explicitly a kind of dualism, where human beings are associated with the realm of the mental, the reflexive, and the adaptable; while the uplifted NHA remain bound with that of the physical, the instinctual, and the constrained. In most of these narratives, NHA indeed face the risk of falling back into violence and bestiality. As Roy-Faderman argues, most uplift stories can be shown, for this reason, to rely on dubious if not outdated theories of intelligence, where it is understood as a monolithic and hierarchy-inducing faculty. What results from this, according to the author, is a sort of failure of most uplift narratives to convey the viewpoint of the NHA, or to genuinely represent non-human forms of intelligence (a fine exception being, perhaps, Keyes' Flowers for Argernon). The question remains open, thus, how could we picture NHA being "uplifted", without endorsing certain anthropocentric or speciesist accounts of various cognitive abilities. This contribution, then, can be read both as an application of animal studies to SF and as a path to explore for future SF authors.

"In Defense of the Rights of Artificial Intelligences" [AIs], by E. Schwitzgebel and M. Garza, propose two arguments in favor of the rights of AIs. The first one states that (1) two entities deserve unequal moral consideration or treatment only if they differ in some important or relevant respects. But since (2) it seems at least possible that there will be (or could be) AIs not differing from human beings in such respects, it can be concluded (3) that there are, possibly, AIs who would deserve the same degree of moral consideration as human beings. The second argument for the rights of AIs is a kind of "slippery slope". Just as the moral status of a person is not affected by this person having an artificial limb, it seems that (1) substituting a small artificial component in an entity who possesses rights does not impact its moral status, if the said component does not alter its identity and contributes identically to its psychology. But it seems possible that (2) this replacement process was iterated, so that a human being could be transformed into an artificial being, without losing its rights. Therefore, we can conclude that (3) it seems possible to create an artificial being with the same rights as a human being.                             

                     

For the authors, many SF narratives show in a persuasive way that moral status does not (and should not) depend on physical features or material constitution. It is, rather, a matter of psychological capacities and social abilities. Several challenges against AIs' rights are, then, considered and answered. The common trend of all these objections is that AIs, because of their artificial nature, would fail to generate substantial moral obligations. Yet, as the end of the article shows in detail, we would not owe less to a potential conscious AI than to another human being. We would probably owe it more. Since we would, presumably, have a choice of over its features and design, we would have to make it so that the AI's life was as good and happy as possible. Thus, creating an intelligent and artificial being would induce a certain number of responsibilities or obligations relative to its welfare, not unlike that of a God to its creatures. As the end of the article shows, some practical lessons can be drawn from this : we should, for instance, design AIs "whose  moral status is clear, one way or the other" (p.115).  This paper, thus, convincingly shows that one of SF's most privileged themes can be understood as a reservoir for imminent (and important) ethical problems.

«'This Endless Space between the Words' : The Limits of Love in Spike Jonze's Her», by T. Jollimore, is a great read. The 2013 movie tells the story of Theodore (Joaquin Phoenix) falling in love with a highly sophisticated and bodiless operating system, Samantha (who is voiced by Scarlett Johansson). According to a naive reading, this story could seem a praise for a new (and perhaps soon to appear) kind of romance. But is it actually, argues Jollimore, the contrary : there are fatal objections to the idea that Theodore and Sam engage in a genuine romantic relationship. The first problem is that of consciousness. Nothing in the movie, argues Jollimore, explains how Sam works or how she is programmed.  It could very well be that Sam is a kind of "zombie", exhibiting the (sophisticated) verbal behavior of a normal human being, but without any inner life at all. There is no certainty, then, that Theodore is not alone in this relationship, talking and interacting with a mere program that cannot understand him or love him back (although it seems like it does).  The second problem is that of personal identity. Clearly, to love somebody is to cherish a person that one finds unique and irreplaceable. But is Sam a person ?  If we have reason to think that personal identity has to do with physical or bodily continuity, as Jollimore argues it has, we have reasons to answer this question by a plain "No". Sam, indeed, is in no place at all. It could be, then, that since she "has no body", "she is nobody" (p.128). Her, for Jollimore shows how hard it is to conceive of a bodiless or disincarnate person. A final difficulty stems from the fundamental difference existing between Theodore and Sam. Love, generally, is thought of as an exclusive bond, as a form of intimacy which cannot be replicated at will. Yet Sam admits to Theodore, later in the movie, that she has been talking (and is still talking) to thousands of people at the same time as him, and that she fell in love with 641 of them. In one second of Theodore's time, Sam is able, due to her amazing capacities, to complete countless tasks and undergo countless experiences. This revelation leads, inevitably, to the two protagonists' separation: Sam is just too alien, her consciousness (if it exists) too different, for the romantic relationship to last.  What seemed to be a futuristic tale of romance thus turns out to be, for Jollimore, a subtle criticism of our ever-increasing replacement of human interactions with machines, or of our fantasies about perfect and flawless romantic relationships. What Her exemplifies best, then, is not the proximity between man and AI, but actually, the distance between them.

     In "Metaphysical Daring as a Posthuman Survival Strategy", P. Mandik explores the metaphysical problem of survival. How much can human beings undergo and still remain the same, or survive, as persons ? SF has been a privileged ground for speculation on this question, as it has frequently depicted ideas of "mind-uploading" or "destructive teleportation" (where one is decomposed at a point in space, and molecularly recreated identically at another point in space). But are such things possible ? Mandik briefly surveys the current metaphysical debates on these questions, remaining skeptical as to whether they can be answered. There seem to be equally compelling reasons, indeed, to think that mind-uploading would result in the survival, or alternatively the destruction, of a person.       But the author's point, actually, lies elsewhere. We can imagine different entities having a claim to be continuants with one given person, Jones. Such would be, for instance, "Schmones", the entity resulting from Jones' undergoing a destructive teleportation; or "digital Schmones" a computer simulation of Jones' mind  after he decided to copy or scan his brain. It would seem metaphysically daring to consider that Jones is the same person as Schmones, and even more so to think that Digital Schmones is the same person as Jones. The question, for the author, is thus the following : should we be metaphysically daring or not, and to what extent ? Interestingly, Mandik argues that a daring attitude offers advantages over the more cautious views about survival. If one believes that one will survive mind-uploading, one will probably have backups or copies made of one's mind ; giving "birth" to entities which will share this daring belief. On the contrary, the metaphysically "timid" would likely refuse to undergo such a mind-uploading process, as she thinks that this would mean the destruction of her person. But then, the metaphysically daring individual would, in purely Darwinian terms, prove to be the fittest : this individual and its (numerous) descendants would propagate their attitude. This sheer growth in number would allow the daring view to be able to survive many contingences and accidents. This, however, is not true of the metaphysically cautious. Because of their lower "reproductive" rate, they will be less numerous and thus more vulnerable to accidents and destruction.

The attitude of metaphysical daring, then, would be winning the battle of "digital darwinism", as it is less likely to go extinct than its rivals. As Mandik shows, Egan's Diaspora (1997), provides a nice illustration of this point : in this novel, the (metaphysically daring) post-human beings, who accepted mind-uploading and all sorts of transhumanist alterations, win the game over those (metaphysically timid) traditionalists who refused such modifications. Whatever the answer to the metaphysical problem of survival may be, then, one of its solutions seems already to be preparing for victory.

 "Nowhere Man : Time Travel and Spatial Location," by S. Bernstein, takes issue with the fact that, in many SF narratives, time travel takes time. If we distinguish, following D. Lewis (1976), external time and personal time, we can say that it takes some personal time, in most works of SF, to travel along the external timeline. The author wants to show this standard account faces several difficulties. Firstly, where, then, are people, objects, located during their journey through time? If we think, along with many SF scenarios, that the time traveler remains located where her time-machine is  (when she departs), then an obvious problem is the possibility of collisions with past objects (or even with the time-machine itself), which have been occupying this very portion of space at anterior moments. Another problem is that, given the earth's constant movement, a time traveler cannot simply remain still in absolute position (indexed to the universe) but must make it so that its time machine would remain (and arrive) at the correct relative location (indexed on Earth's surface). Many works in SF have not realized, for Bernstein, that without such a (painfully) complex coordinating of their position, time travelers would end up in empty space, or at any rate in some undesired location. A last kind of difficulty is that we can imagine a traveler spending a large span of personal time, say a year, to travel only a short way backwards in external time, say a day. Because of the mysterious nature of personal time (is it some extra-timeline or simply "normal" time experienced differently?), several paradoxes can be shown to ensue from this kind of scenario.                    

                                                       

Alternative accounts of time-travel are then considered. One would propose to distinguish between external and personal space, the traveler being, during her journey, located in some extra-spatial dimension. But another set of difficulties are shown to threaten this view. Finally, a "nowhere man" model of time travel is discussed:  the traveler, in that case, would simply not be located at all during her journey. She would be "destroyed" at her departure, and "recreated" at her arrival. This account, clearly, avoids the objections previously mentioned. But it raises other worries as to knowing whether the travelers would survive this process. Such an understanding of time travel, then, would reintroduce familiar worries about personal identity. As Bernstein finally makes clear, metaphysics still has much to do to make sense of what is one of SF's favorite tropes.

The final contribution, "Speculative Fiction and the Philosophy of Perception", by B.L. Keeley, shows that SF can actually be relevant for scientific research on perception. This claim is supported in several ways. SF can be shown, first, to be a sound source of speculation concerning the senses, as there is a common ground to the hypotheses imagined by the scientists and those considered by SF artists. Furthermore, SF often depicts, most often in "uplift" narratives, non-human viewpoints and sensory modalities. In that respect, it can try to provide insights into different phenomenologies, or sketch answers to the question "what it is like" to be something other than a human being. This clearly, can be of interest for scientists and philosophers. Another important point is that SF can represent and examine the underestimated social or normative dimension of perception : Well's short story The Country of the Blind (1904)and Saramago's Blindness (1995), for instance, discuss the old privilege accorded to sight among the other senses and throw a critical look on what we consider to be a disability. Lastly, Keeley argues that SF can purport to "translate" the scientific picture of the world, to say it like Sellars, into the "manifest" or commonsensical one. SF, in other words, can be seen as an intermediate between the sciences and our common understanding of ourselves. This article, then, shows in yet another way that SF is continuous both with scientific research and philosophical investigation.

The volume ends with two hybrid philosophical-SF short stories, by E.L. Kaplan and R.S. Bakker, which we will let the reader discover. Our final verdict is that this collection of essays is, on the whole, excellent. It is true that some questions could perhaps have deserved more attention (such as the relation between SF and science) and that many ideas proposed by the authors call for further discussion. Yet, the book successfully shows how SF can greatly contribute to philosophy. The sheer variety of topics discussed will make it a nice introduction for anybody willing to examine some of the fundamental theoretical problems raised by speculative fiction. Lastly, the book manages to be both interesting and fun to read, a virtue all too rare to not be mentioned.

 

© 2016 Alexandre Declos  

 

Alexandre Declos is in the Philosophy Ph.D program at the University of Ottawa and Université de Lorraine (Archives Henri Poincaré).


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