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A Theory of Feelings Anger and Forgiveness"My Madness Saved Me"10 Good Questions about Life and Death12 Modern Philosophers50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a GodA Cabinet of Philosophical CuriositiesA Case for IronyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to Buddhist PhilosophyA Companion to FoucaultA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to HumeA Companion to KantA Companion to Phenomenology and ExistentialismA Companion to PragmatismA Companion to the Philosophy of ActionA Companion to the Philosophy of BiologyA Companion to the Philosophy of LiteratureA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Critique of Naturalistic Philosophies of MindA Cursing Brain?A Delicate BalanceA Farewell to AlmsA Frightening LoveA Future for PresentismA Guide to the Good LifeA History of PsychiatryA History of the MindA Life Worth LivingA Manual of Experimental PhilosophyA Map of the MindA Metaphysics of PsychopathologyA Mind So RareA Natural History of Human MoralityA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Natural History of VisionA Parliament of MindsA Philosopher Looks at The Sense of HumorA Philosophical DiseaseA Philosophy of BoredomA Philosophy of Cinematic ArtA Philosophy of CultureA Philosophy of EmptinessA Philosophy of FearA Philosophy of PainA Physicalist ManifestoA Place for ConsciousnessA Question of TrustA Research Agenda for DSM-VA Revolution of the MindA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Stroll With William JamesA Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Theory of FreedomA Thousand MachinesA Universe of ConsciousnessA Very Bad WizardA Virtue EpistemologyA World Full of GodsA World Without ValuesAbout FaceAbout the Beginning of the Hermeneutics of the SelfAction and ResponsibilityAction in ContextAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionAction, Contemplation, and HappinessAction, Emotion and WillAdam SmithAdaptive DynamicsAddictionAddictionAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction Is a ChoiceAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAftermathAfterwarAgainst AdaptationAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HappinessAgainst HealthAgency and ActionAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and EmbodimentAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAl-JununAlain BadiouAlain BadiouAlasdair MacIntyreAlien Landscapes?Altered EgosAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Ethics for TodayAn Intellectual History of CannibalismAn Interpretation of DesireAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy An Introduction to Philosophy of EducationAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of PsychologyAn Introductory Philosophy of MedicineAn Odd Kind of FameAnalytic FreudAnalytic Philosophy in AmericaAncient AngerAncient Models of MindAncient Philosophy of the SelfAngerAnimal LessonsAnimal MindsAnimals Like UsAnnihilationAnother PlanetAnswers for AristotleAnti-ExternalismAnti-Individualism and KnowledgeAntigone’s ClaimAntipsychiatryAre We Hardwired?Are Women Human?Arguing about DisabilityArguing About Human NatureAristotle and the Philosophy of FriendshipAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's ChildrenAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle, Emotions, and EducationArt & MoralityArt After Conceptual ArtArt in Three DimensionsArt, Self and KnowledgeArtificial ConsciousnessArtificial HappinessAspects of PsychologismAsylum to ActionAtonement and ForgivenessAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutobiography as PhilosophyAutonomyAutonomy and Mental DisorderAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismBabies by DesignBackslidingBadiouBadiou's DeleuzeBadiou, Balibar, Ranciere: Rethinking EmancipationBare Facts And Naked TruthsBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBattlestar Galactica and PhilosophyBeautyBecoming a SubjectBecoming HumanBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing AmoralBeing HumanBeing Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory Being No OneBeing Realistic about ReasonsBeing ReducedBeing YourselfBelief's Own EthicsBending Over BackwardsBerlin Childhood around 1900Bernard WilliamsBertrand RussellBetter than BothBetter Than WellBetween Two WorldsBeyond HealthBeyond Hegel and NietzscheBeyond KuhnBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond PostmodernismBeyond ReductionBeyond the DSM StoryBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics in the ClinicBiological Complexity and Integrative PluralismBiology Is TechnologyBiosBipolar ExpeditionsBlackwell Companion to the Philosophy of EducationBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlues - Philosophy for EveryoneBlushBob Dylan and PhilosophyBody ConsciousnessBody Image And Body SchemaBody ImagesBody LanguageBody MattersBody WorkBody-Subjects and Disordered MindsBoundBoundaries of the MindBoyleBrain Evolution and CognitionBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-WiseBrainchildrenBrains, Buddhas, and BelievingBrainstormingBrave New WorldsBreakdown of WillBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and FaithBrief Therapy Homework PlannerBritain on the CouchBrute RationalityBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyBut Is It Art?Camus and SartreCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCarving Nature at Its JointsCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsCassandra's DaughterCato's TearsCausation and CounterfactualsCauses, Laws, and Free WillChanging Conceptions of the Child from the Renaissance to Post-ModernityChanging the SubjectChaosophyCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionCharles DarwinCherishmentChildhood and the Philosophy of EducationChildrenChildren, Families, and Health Care Decision MakingChoices and ConflictChoosing Not to ChooseChristmas - Philosophy for EveryoneCinema, Philosophy, BergmanCinematic MythmakingCity and Soul in Plato's RepublicClassifying MadnessClear and Queer ThinkingClinical EthicsClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyCodependent ForevermoreCoffee - Philosophy for EveryoneCognition and the BrainCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognition Through Understanding: Self-Knowledge, Interlocution, Reasoning, ReflectionCognitive BiologyCognitive FictionsCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Systems and the Extended Mind Cognitive Theories of Mental IllnessCoherence in Thought and ActionCollected Papers, Volume 1Collected Papers, Volume 2College SexComedy IncarnateCommitmentCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentConcealment And ExposureConceptual Analysis and Philosophical NaturalismConceptual Art and PaintingConceptual Issues in Evolutionary BiologyConfessionsConfucianismConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConquest of AbundanceConscience and ConvenienceConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the SelfConsciousness EmergingConsciousness EvolvingConsciousness ExplainedConsciousness in ActionConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Color, and ContentConsole and ClassifyConstructing the WorldConstructive AnalysisContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Philosophy of BiologyContemporary Debates in Philosophy of MindContemporary Debates in Political PhilosophyContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContemporary Perspectives on Natural LawContested Knowledge: Social Theory TodayContesting PsychiatryContext and the AttitudesContinental Philosophy of ScienceControlControlling Our DestiniesConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCopernicus, Darwin and FreudCrazy for YouCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCreating ConsilienceCreating HysteriaCreating Mental IllnessCreating Scientific ConceptsCreating the American JunkieCreation, Rationality and AutonomyCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCrimes of ReasonCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychiatryCritical PsychologyCritical ResistanceCritical Thinking About PsychologyCritical VisionsCross and KhoraCruel CompassionCTRL [SPACE]Cultural Psychology of the SelfCultural Theory: An IntroductionCulture and Psychiatric DiagnosisCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCulture of DeathCultures of NeurastheniaCurious EmotionsCurrent Controversies in Experimental PhilosophyCustom and Reason in HumeCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCutting God in Half - And Putting the Pieces Together AgainCylons in AmericaDamaged IdentitiesDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous EmotionsDaniel DennettDaniel DennettDark AgesDarwin and DesignDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDarwin, God and the Meaning of LifeDarwinian PsychiatryDarwinian ReductionismDarwinizing CultureDating: Philosophy for EveryoneDeathDeathDeath and CharacterDeath and CompassionDeath and the AfterlifeDebating DesignDebating HumanismDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecomposing the WillDeconstructing PsychotherapyDeconstruction and DemocracyDeeper Than DarwinDeeper than ReasonDefending Science - within ReasonDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDegrees of BeliefDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions and Other Irrational BeliefsDelusions and the Madness of the MassesDementiaDemons, Dreamers, and MadmenDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDennett’s PhilosophyDepression Is a ChoiceDepression, Emotion and the SelfDepthDerrida, Deleuze, PsychoanalysisDescartesDescartes and the Passionate MindDescartes' CogitoDescartes's Changing MindDescartes's Concept of MindDescribing Inner Experience?Descriptions and PrescriptionsDesembodied Spirits and Deanimated Bodies Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Desire and AffectDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDiagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersDialectics of the SelfDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital SoulDimensional Models of Personality DisordersDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDisjunctivismDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDispatches from the Freud WarsDisrupted LivesDistractionDisturbed ConsciousnessDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Do We Still Need Doctors?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Does the Woman Exist?Doing without ConceptsDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDonald DavidsonDonald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the MentalDoubting Darwin?Dreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR CasebookDworkin and His CriticsDying to KnowDynamics in ActionDysthymia and the Spectrum of Chronic DepressionsEccentricsEducational MetamorphosesEffective IntentionsElbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth WantingEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbodied RhetoricsEmbodied Selves and Divided MindsEmbryos under the MicroscopeEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotionEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion and PsycheEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotional ReasonEmotional ReasonEmotional TruthEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmpathyEmpathy and AgencyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpathy in the Context of PhilosophyEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEnchanted LoomsEngaging BuddhismEngineering the Human GermlineEnjoymentEnvyEpicureanismEpistemic LuckEpistemologyEpistemology and EmotionsEpistemology and the Psychology of Human JudgmentEros and the GoodErotic MoralityEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssays in the Metaphysics of Mind Essays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEssays on Nonconceptual ContentEssays on Philosophical CounselingEssays on Reference, Language, and MindEssays on the Concept of Mind in Early-Modern PhilosophyEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEsssential Philosophy of PsychiatryEternal Sunshine of the Spotless MindEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in Human CloningEthical TheoryEthicsEthicsEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics in Plain EnglishEthics in PracticeEthics in Psychiatric ResearchEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEuropean Review of Philosophy. Vol. 5Everyday IrrationalityEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolutionEvolution and the Human MindEvolution's RainbowEvolutionary Origins of MoralityEvolutionary PsychologyExamined LifeExamined LivesExistential AmericaExistentialismExistentialism and Romantic LoveExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and NaturalismExperiments in EthicsExplaining ConsciousnessExplaining the BrainExplaining the Computational MindExplanatory PluralismExploding the Gene MythExploring HappinessExploring the SelfExpression and the InnerExpressions of JudgmentFaces of IntentionFact and ValueFact and Value in EmotionFacts, Values, and NormsFads and Fallacies in the Social SciencesFaith and Wisdom in ScienceFatherhoodFear of KnowledgeFearless SpeechFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFeelings of BeingFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminism and Philosophy of ScienceFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist Interpretations of Rene DescartesFeminist TheoryField Notes from ElsewhereFinding Consciousness in the BrainFingerprints of GodFlesh in the Age of ReasonFolk Psychological NarrativesFolk Psychology Re-AssessedForces of HabitForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and RetributionFoucault 2.0Foucault and PhilosophyFoucault NowFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in PsychologyFour Views on Free WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree Will and Action ExplanationFree Will and LuckFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree: Why Science Hasn't Disproved Free WillFreedomFreedom and DeterminismFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom and ResponsibiltyFreedom and ValueFreedom EvolvesFreedom RegainedFreedom vs. InterventionFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFreudFreud and the Question of PseudoscienceFreud As PhilosopherFreud's AnswerFreud, the Reluctant PhilosopherFriedrich NietzscheFrom Chance to ChoiceFrom Clinic to ClassroomFrom Complexity to LifeFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution for Science and the HumanitiesFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrontiers of ConsciousnessFrontiers of JusticeFurnishing the MindGalileo in PittsburghGenderGender and Mental HealthGender in the MirrorGender TroubleGenesGenes, Women, EqualityGenetic Nature/CultureGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetic SecretsGenocide's AftermathGenomes and What to Make of ThemGerman Idealism and the JewGerman PhilosophyGetting HookedGilles DeleuzeGlobal PhilosophyGluttonyGod and Phenomenal ConsciousnessGoffman's LegacyGoing Amiss in Experimental ResearchGoodness & AdviceGrassroots SpiritualityGrave MattersGrave MattersGreedGreek Models of Mind and SelfGut ReactionsHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHabits of MindHallucinationHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of EmotionsHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness and EducationHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHappiness, Death, and the Remainder of LifeHard LuckHarmful ThoughtsHaving the World in ViewHealing PsychiatryHealing the Soul in the Age of the BrainHealth, Illness and DiseaseHealth, Science, and Ordinary LanguageHegelHeidegger and a Metaphysics of FeelingHeidegger, Metaphysics and the Univocity of BeingHermann von Helmholtz's MechanismHermeneutics As PoliticsHeterophobiaHeterosyncraciesHeuristics and BiasesHeuristics and the LawHidden ResourcesHidden SelvesHiding from HumanityHigh Art LiteHistorical OntologyHistory of Psychiatry and Medical PsychologyHistory, Historicity And ScienceHobbesHomosexualitiesHope and Dread in PsychoanalysisHot ThoughtHow Can I Be Trusted?How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains?How Do We Know Who We Are?How Emotions WorkHow Emotions WorkHow History Made the MindHow Images ThinkHow is Nature Possible?How Propaganda WorksHow Science WorksHow Scientific Practices MatterHow Scientists Explain DiseaseHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Make Opportunity EqualHow to Solve the Mind-Body Problemhow to stop timeHow to Think More About SexHow We HopeHow We ReasonHuman CloningHuman Development, Language and the Future of MankindHuman EnhancementHuman Evolution, Reproduction, and MoralityHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman NatureHuman NatureHuman Nature and the Limits of ScienceHuman-Built WorldHumanismHumanism, What's That?HumanityHumans, Animals, MachinesHumeHumeHume on Motivation and VirtueHusserlHystoriesI of the VortexI Was WrongIdeas that MatterIdentifying the MindIdentity and Agency in Cultural WorldsIgnorance and ImaginationIllnessImagination and Its PathologiesImagination and the Meaningful BrainImagining NumbersImmortal RemainsImproving Nature?In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of HealthIn Defense of SentimentalityIn Love With LifeIn Praise of Athletic BeautyIn Praise of the WhipIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of HappinessIn the Name of GodIn the Name of IdentityIn the Space of ReasonsIn Two MindsIncompatibilism's AllureIndividual Differences in Conscious ExperienceInfinity and PerspectiveInformation ArtsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchIngmar Bergman, Cinematic PhilosopherInhuman ThoughtsInner PresenceInsanityIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntelligent VirtueIntentionIntentionality, Deliberation and AutonomyIntentions and IntentionalityIntentions and IntentionalityInterpreting MindsInterpreting NietzscheIntroducing Greek PhilosophyIntrospection and ConsciousnessIntrospection VindicatedIntuition, Imagination, and Philosophical MethodologyIntuitionismInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIrrationalityIs Academic Feminism Dead?Is It Me or My Meds?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is Oedipus Online?Is Science Neurotic?Is Science Value Free?Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion?Is There a Duty to Die?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJacques LacanJacques RancièreJacques RanciereJean-Paul SartreJohn McDowellJohn SearleJohn Searle's Ideas About Social RealityJohn Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill and the Writing of CharacterJoint AttentionJokesJonathan EdwardsJudging and UnderstandingJustice for ChildrenJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeKantKant and MiltonKant and the Fate of AutonomyKant and the Limits of AutonomyKant and the Role of Pleasure in Moral ActionKant on Freedom, Law, and HappinessKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Anatomy of EvilKant's Anatomy of the Intelligent MindKant's Theory of VirtueKarl JaspersKarl PopperKey Concepts in PhilosophyKierkegaardKierkegaard as PhenomenologistKierkegaard's Concept of DespairKinds of MindsKinds, Things, and StuffKnowing, Knowledge and BeliefsKnowledge MonopoliesKnowledge, Belief, and CharacterKnowledge, Possibility, and ConsciousnessLacanLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLanguageLanguage in ContextLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Culture, and MindLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw and the BrainLaw, Liberty, and PsychiatryLaws, Mind, and Free WillLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberatory PsychiatryLife and ActionLife at the Texas State Lunatic Asylum, 1857-1997Life Is Not a Game of PerfectLife of the MindLife's FormLife, Death, & MeaningLife, Death, and Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of UtilityLife, Sex, and IdeasLight in the Dark RoomLike a Splinter in Your MindLiving and Dying WellLiving NarrativeLiving Outside Mental IllnessLiving with DarwinLiving With One’s PastLockeLocke LockeLogic and the Art of Memory Loneliness in Philosophy, Psychology, and LiteratureLooking for SpinozaLooking for The StrangerLost SoulsLOT 2LoveLoveLove's ConfusionsLove's VisionLove, Friendship, and the SelfLove, Sex & TragedyLuckyLudwig WittgensteinLustLyingMachine ConsciousnessMad for FoucaultMad TravelersMade with WordsMadness And Death In PhilosophyMadness and DemocracyMadness at HomeMadness Is CivilizationMaking Natural KnowledgeMaking Sense of EvolutionMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMaking the DSM-5Making the Social WorldMaking TruthMale Female EmailMan, Beast, and ZombieMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManiaManic Depression and CreativityMapping the Edges and the In-betweenMapping the Future of BiologyMarcus AureliusMaster PassionsMatters of the MindMe++Meaning and Moral OrderMeaning and Value in a Secular AgeMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeaning, Basic Self-Knowledge, and MindMeasuring HappinessMeasuring PsychopathologyMedia MadnessMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedicine of the PersonMedicine, Mental Health, Religion, Science and Well-BeingMelancholy And the Care of the SoulMelancholy and the Otherness of GodMementoMemory and NarrativeMental ActionsMental CausationMental Causation and OntologyMental HealthMental Health At The CrossroadsMental Health Policy in BritainMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMerleau-PontyMerleau-Ponty and the Possibilities of PhilosophyMetacognition and Theory of MindMetacreationMetaethical SubjectivismMetaethicsMetal and FleshMetaphors of MemoryMetapoliticsMethods in MindMichel FoucaultMill's UtilitarianismMindMindMind and ConsciousnessMind and CosmosMind and MechanismMind GamesMind in a Physical WorldMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind in LifeMind TimeMind's LandscapeMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMind, Brain, and Free WillMind, Reason and ImaginationMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds and PersonsMinds, Brains, and LawMinds, Ethics, and ConditionalsMindshapingMindsightMindworldsMirror, MirrorMixed FeelingsMockingbird YearsModels of the SelfModern Social ImaginariesModern Theories of JusticeModernity and SubjectivityModernity and TechnologyMoody Minds DistemperedMoral DimensionsMoral FailureMoral ImaginationMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral ParticularismMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology and Human AgencyMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Moral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMotherhoodMotive and RightnessMoving Beyond Prozac, DSM, and the New PsychiatryMultiple Analogies in Science and PhilosophyMultiple Identities & False MemoriesMusic, Madness, and the Unworking of LanguageMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Double UnveiledMy WayNarrativeNarrative and IdentityNarrative MedicineNarrative PsychiatryNarrative Theory and the Cognitive SciencesNatural Ethical FactsNatural Kinds and Conceptual ChangeNatural MindsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalism and the First-Person PerspectiveNaturalism and the Human ConditionNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalized BioethicsNaturalizing the MindNatureNature and NarrativeNear Death ExperienceNeither Bad nor MadNeither Victim nor SurvivorNeuro-Philosophy and the Healthy MindNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neurophilosophy at WorkNeurophilosophy of Free WillNeuropoliticsNeuropsychoanalysis in PracticeNeuroscience and PhilosophyNew Essays on the Explanation of ActionNew Philosophy for a New MediaNew Versions of VictimsNew Waves in Philosophy of ActionNietzscheNietzsche and Buddhist PhilosophyNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNietzsche's TherapyNietzsche, Culture and EducationNietzsche: The Man and His PhilosophyNihil UnboundNoir AnxietyNormative EthicsNormativityNorms of NatureNotebooks 1951-1959Notes Toward a Performative Theory of AssemblyNothing So AbsurdOblivionOn AnxietyOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn Being AuthenticOn BeliefOn BullshitOn DelusionOn DesireOn EmotionsOn HashishOn Human RightsOn Loving Our EnemiesOn Nature and LanguageOn PersonalityOn ReflectionOn Romantic LoveOn the EmotionsOn the Freud WatchOn the Government of the LivingOn the Human ConditionOn the InternetOn the Meaning of LifeOn the Philosophy of LawOn the Pragmatics of CommunicationOn the Punitive SocietyOn TruthOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne Hundred DaysOnflowOnly a Promise of HappinessOntology of ConsciousnessOpen MindedOpen Your EyesOrgans without BodiesOther MindsOur Last Great IllusionOur Own MindsOur Posthuman FutureOur StoriesOut of Its MindOut of Our HeadsOxford Guide to the MindOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPanic DisorderPanpsychism in the WestPartialityPassionate EnginesPassionate EnginesPathologies of BeliefPathologies of ReasonPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perceiving the WorldPerception & CognitionPerception and Basic BeliefsPerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPerceptual ExperiencePerfecting VirtuePerplexities of ConsciousnessPersistencePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal IdentityPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonal Identity and Fractured SelvesPersonhood and Health CarePersonsPersons and BodiesPersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPersons, Souls and DeathPerspectives on ImitationPerspectives on PragmatismPessimismPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenal ConsciousnessPhenomenal IntentionalityPhenomenology and ExistentialismPhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophersPhilosophers on MusicPhilosophers without GodsPhilosophical CounselingPhilosophical Counselling and the UnconsciousPhilosophical DevicesPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical History and the Problem of ConsciousnessPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in Psychiatry IIPhilosophical MethodologyPhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophical Myths of the FallPhilosophical Perspectives on DepictionPhilosophical Perspectives on Technology and PsychiatryPhilosophical PracticePhilosophical Reflections on DisabilityPhilosophizing About Sex Philosophizing the EverydayPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy and LivingPhilosophy and PsychiatryPhilosophy and PsychotherapyPhilosophy and Science FictionPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the Interpretation of Pop CulturePhilosophy and the Moving ImagePhilosophy and the NeurosciencesPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy As FictionPhilosophy BitesPhilosophy Bites BackPhilosophy for Counselling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy for LifePhilosophy in a New CenturyPhilosophy in an Age of SciencePhilosophy in Children's LiteraturePhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BodyPhilosophy of Film and Motion PicturesPhilosophy of LovePhilosophy of Love, Sex, and MarriagePhilosophy of MindPhilosophy of Mind and CognitionPhilosophy of Personal Identity and Multiple PersonalityPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy of Public HealthPhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhilosophy of the Social SciencesPhilosophy on TapPhilosophy PracticePhilosophy the Day after TomorrowPhilosophy's Role in Counseling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhilosophy, Politics, DemocracyPhotography and PhilosophyPhysical RealizationPhysicalism and Its DiscontentsPhysicalism and Mental CausationPhysicalism, or Something Near EnoughPhysician-Assisted DyingPillar of SaltPin-up GrrrlsPlatoPlatoPlato, Not Prozac!Platonic Ethics, Old and NewPluralistic CasuistryPolarities of ExperiencesPolitical EmotionsPopper, Objectivity and the Growth of KnowledgePornPorn StudiesPornography, Sex, and FeminismPortrait of the Psychiatrist as a Young ManPostcolonial DisordersPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPower and the SelfPower SplitPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical ConflictsPractical Identity and Narrative AgencyPractical PhilosophyPractical RulesPractical Tortoise RaisingPractically ProfoundPracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPragmatic BioethicsPragmatismPragmatism, Old And NewPraise and BlamePredicative MindsPreferences and Well-BeingPrescriptions for the MindPresocraticsPrimary and Secondary QualitiesPrimates and PhilosophersPrivacyPrivileged AccessProblems in MindProblems of RationalityProzac As a Way of LifeProzac BacklashProzac on the CouchPsyche and SomaPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric Cultures ComparedPsychiatric Diagnosis and ClassificationPsychiatric EthicsPsychiatric PowerPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry and Philosophy of SciencePsychiatry and ReligionPsychiatry as a Human SciencePsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry in SocietyPsychiatry in the New MilleniumPsychiatry in the Scientific ImagePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsycho-Physical Dualism TodayPsychoanalysis and Narrative MedicinePsychoanalysis and the Philosophy of SciencePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and PhilosophyPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, and the Politics of Human RelationshipsPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPsychotherapy As PraxisPublic PhilosophyPunishmentPure ImmanencePurple HazePursuing MeaningQuality of Life and Human DifferenceQueer PhilosophyQuestions for FreudQuestions for FreudQuine and Davidson on Language, Thought and RealityRaceRace in Contemporary MedicineRadiant CoolRadical AlterityRadical ExternalismRadical HopeRational and Social AgencyRational CausationRational Choice in an Uncertain WorldRationality + Consciousness = Free WillRationality and FreedomRationality and the Reflective MindRationality in ActionRawls, Dewey, and ConstructivismRe-creating MedicineRe-EmergenceRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReading AutobiographyReading Bernard WilliamsReading SartreReadings in the Philosophy of TechnologyReal MaterialismReal Natures and Familiar ObjectsReal ScienceRealism in ActionReason & EmancipationReason in ActionReason in PhilosophyReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReasoning About Rational AgentsReasoning in Biological DiscoveriesReasons from WithinReasons without RationalismReclaiming CognitionReclaiming the SoulReconceiving SchizophreniaReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecreative MindsRediscovering EmotionRediscovering EmpathyReference and ExistenceReference and the Rational MindReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRegulating SexReinventing the SoulRelativism and Human RightsRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyReliable ReasoningReligion without GodRelying on OthersRemembering HomeResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsRestraining RageRethinking ExpertiseRethinking IntrospectionRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeRethinking the DSMRethinking the Sociology of Mental HealthRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfReturn to ReasonRevolt, She SaidRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard Rorty's New PragmatismRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRise And Fall of Soul And SelfRitalin NationRobert NozickRousseauRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Derrida on DeconstructionRules, Reason, and Self-KnowledgeSaints, Scholars, and Schizophrenics: Mental 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On Romantic LoveReview - On Romantic Love
Simple Truths about a Complex Emotion
by Berit Brogaard
Oxford University Press, 2015
Review by Robert Zaborowski
Sep 22nd 2015 (Volume 19, Issue 39)

The aim of the book is to "provide answers to these [i.e. asked in the Preface, e.g. "[w]hy do we fall in love with people who aren't good for us"] and many other questions" (p. xi). Its author intends to defend "a new theory of love" (11). On her view, love is an emotion, either rational or irrational, either conscious or unconscious, subject to modifications and admitting of degrees. Last not least, "love too is something we can choose: we can take measures to fall out of love" (11).

Brogaard starts with presenting a story of a devastating love. Brogaard's friend experienced for years a dangerous and poisonous liaison, crazy love, intermingled with years of heartache, depression, self-deception, resentment and anger. For Brogaard this is typical of "most cases of love" which consist in being "an in-between case" (7). Brogaard suggests that they should be considered as cases of love nonetheless and, therefore, a theory of love should be as inclusive as to comprehend them.

In Chapter 2 Brogaard speaks mainly about brain chemistry. In love it plays a role similar to the one occurring in cocaine use. For example, over time, drugs desensitize the brain to the drug and the same happens in the case of love. This is why, new love can have so powerful an effect as to be a dangerous state of mind. The important thing is that brain chemistry - especially dopamine by itself - determines not only passions but also beliefs. Yet, on the other hand, brain chemistry is determined by the way the love is experienced, for instance, "[w]hen your passion is unrequited or when you are away from your new love, your serotonin levels drop" (18). The difference between drug addiction and love is, however, that while the former depends on drug's presence, the latter can remain strong even if the beloved person is absent, for love can still "hang onto the past" (22). Moreover, a breakup is painful much in the sense of erasing the future plans and expectations typically included in love, now left with "too many empty spaces to fill with experiences less wonderful than those you had hoped for" (20). Brogaard considers next cases of loss happening when the beloved person dies, and focuses on the question of prolonged and complicated grief. She labels it as an addiction to grief and explains it either by "yearning and sadness giv[ing] [...] some type of pleasure of satisfaction" or by increased dopamine levels (28). This is possible but I would like to hear in this context less about the pathological and more about the personalistic or existentialist explanation. For some people, a long-lasting grief is more about fidelity and exclusiveness of relationship than Brogaard would have us believe.

Chapter 3 is more philosophical in spirit. Love is considered as a "partially conscious state of the mind" (38). Brogaard rejects the view that love is just a drive (H. Fisher's view). Love is an emotion, a complex one. It involves other emotional elements, bodily sensations, cognitive factors, and sexual desire. More importantly, all of them coalesce into a single emotion of which, according to Brogaard, there are two categories: passionate love (romantic love and lust) and compassionate love (compassionate love, attachment love, parental love, friendship love, altruism)[[1]]. Here I must say that as such, this taxonomy looks strange to me because, first, compassionate love doesn't involve sexual desire, and, second, compassionate love cannot include compassionate love (unless there are two senses of it, one as a species or genus and the second as subspecies or species). From then on Brogaard touches upon general issues. She presents and discusses the James - Lange theory, cases of body illusion, and a two-stage view on emotion including physical arousal and a cognitive element. The theory Brogaard defends is what she calls "the perceived-response theory" which states that "love is an experience of your body and mind responding to your beloved's lovable qualities" (69)). This is, again, strange, since Brogaard speaks here about theory of emotion but gives us an example of love instead of a universal emotional pattern. Or are we to understand that this works equally for other emotions too and, e.g. fear is an experience of your body and mind responding to [a] danger's dangerous qualities and so on for other emotions? If so, the idea is not that new, nor is the claim that "[w]hether you can properly be said to have a given emotion will depend on how you appreciate the object of your emotion (for example, as dangerous, lovable, dismaying) and how many of the prototypical properties you feel and how central they are to the prototype" (72) entirely novel. Compare for instance the main assumption of Deonna & Teroni's attitudinal theory (2012) which is that emotion is an attitude towards an object, more precisely a felt bodily stance directed towards the object. Consequently emotions are as distinct as these attitudes can be.

Chapter 4 investigates conditions under which love can be assessed as rational. These are "certain physical attributes or personality traits" (73) provided that the perception of these attributes or traits is not deformed. Brogaard is keen on the contingency of rationality of romantic love. But, nevertheless, even if irrational it is however real. The same stands for other kinds of love. For example compassionate love - "that we deeply admire" (84) - can also be irrational - when for instance heroism is far from being rational - and still it is a real one. Brogaard's claims is that supererogatory acts "are often grounded in irrational feelings" (86). She discusses also the transcendent view of love, i.e. loving others because of the value of their being individuals. But the transcendent view is a moral position (whom we should love) rather than a psychological one (i.e. whom we love). Maybe we should love all individuals but this does not happen too frequently. Moreover, a transcendent view of love erases differences between two persons, one more, another less valuable. It makes all persons lovable, psychopaths and merciless monsters included. As for Brogaard's remark that "[w]e do not love others because of their distinctive personality traits or physical attributes" (88), in a word, because of "their superficial attributes" (89), it is not clear what superficial universally means. It may happen - and often happens - that what is a superficial attribute for one person is an essential one for another (or for the same but at another moment of her life). It would be therefore philosophically useful to determine how this distinction works and what are formal traits of superficiality and what is essential in love. Otherwise, there is - Brogaard rightly observes - an element of luck as regards whom one loves. A conception of love that takes into account the irreplaceability of individuals is that of Kolodny (though it has been foreshadowed earlier e.g. by Aristophanes in Plato's Symposium) and in which love is a common history of two persons. Of two possibly indistinguishable, or rather hardly distinguishable, I would say[[2]], individuals, only one is loved because he or she has experienced history together with the person who loves him or her. This, in turn, shows that irreplaceability does not by itself warrant the rationality of love, for a shared history can be composed of bad and devastating experiences for one or even both persons.

In Chapter 5 Brogaard focuses on two opposite, though neither of them accurate, approaches to experiencing attachment and deep relationships. They are both opposite to what "a secure attachment style" provides, i.e. "a healthy proximity to other people" (102). They both stem from lack of adequate relation between child and caregiver, more specifically from "[c]hildhood abandonment, unpredictable parental behavior, unrealistic parent expectations, and physical, verbal, or emotional abuse" (104). All these factors increase the lack of security and when this occurs, an adult's relationships with other people tend to be either of avoidance or overattachment. While the former consists in being compulsively self-reliant and skeptical as to engaging into solid and deep relationships, the latter results in a dependency on relationship as one strives to build and preserve it at all costs. Both approaches are more about past experiences, especially those acquired in the childhood, rather than about the on-going relationship and for this reason both are schematic and paradoxically but predictably do not obtain that what is sought. According to Brogaard, the scheme is "to seek out familiar love, because our reptilian brain can't handle things that are different from what it already knows" (116). The patter is often reinforced by subsequent experiences. Sometimes a radical shift from one extreme to the other occurs. The good news is that it is also possible - especially when one is lucky enough to experience "[l]oyal friendship, healthy relationships, and improvements in interactions with parents" (133) - to change one's insecure attachment style into a more secure one. In my view this is probably the best chapter of the book insofar as it makes the reader aware of his possible style attachment, its origin and, also, possible prospect.

In the next Chapter we are confronted with the question of whether love is conscious or unconscious. Since being conscious means for Brogaard "giving [it] thought" (143), love is conscious or, rather, as Brogaard says, "consciously manifested only episodically" (143). But I wonder if this is right. Few people give thought to, say, any arithmetic equation of which the solution they know. They don't think all the time about it, yet it would be odd to say that they are unconscious or only episodically conscious of it. Furthermore manifested is not necessarily the same as explicitly acknowledged and Brogaard recognizes that "you may have insight into your unconscious thoughts and emotions" (144). Maybe it rather means that they are conscious but in the very moment particular thoughts and emotions lie in the background of their active attention. Next, Brogaard passes on to unconscious affection and then to unconscious affect to end with J. LeDoux's two emotional pathways, one processing too quickly in order to be conscious and another involving conscious awareness. By referring to cases where love proves to be unaware (e.g. Josephine and Napoleon) Brogaard is showing that love is sometimes unconscious (or that some kinds of love episodes are unconscious) rather than that it must always be so. And this is what she claims at the end of the chapter ("love is not always consciously felt", 161). An interesting move would be therefore to examine when and under which conditions love is conscious and when and under which conditions it is unconscious or, alternatively, how the two kinds differ (whereas Brogaard makes the distinction only implicitly by speaking once about loving, once about falling in love).

Chapter 7 deals with the changing nature of love. But again: is Brogaard aiming now at love as a class including several love species (romantic love included) or at some species or kinds of love only? The "can" of "one kind [of love] can turn into a different one" (165) makes the chapter psychological rather than philosophical. For Brogaard love is a gradable rather than an on-off affair (and this is confirmed, she says, by the way the word "love" is used in English; I think this argument is weak since people can use the word in a variety of ways, not to speak about those who misuse it). If love is a matter of degree then it is possible to consider in-between cases of love which can lead (or "frequently lead[s]", 178) to ambivalence. In claiming so Brogaard now identifies love with desire/s. However, the case of a woman in love with two men - not for the same reasons of course - is not a case of ambivalent love, as Brogaard pretends, but it would prove a non-exclusive nature of romantic love (if such thing as two parallel romantic loves is actually possible at all).

This is what is developed in the next Chapter where falling in love with someone else than one's partner, cheating, open relationship and polyamory are discussed. Since all these solutions are related to sex, one might wonder if we are still in the realm of love as conceived in former chapters where sex has been mentioned sporadically. Brogaard says that "[r]omantic love occasionally is directed exclusively toward just one person" (185), but what does that mean? She reports that "up to 60% of all married individuals in the United States will cheat on their spouses at some point during their marriage" (182). This means that still almost 40% will be faithful. Hence "occasionally" is relatively odd here even if these marriages can not be all taken as representative of romantic love. My impression is that apart from people who don't care about exclusivity and understand love in terms of sex (see Descartes, PA, art. 82), seeking an extramarital affair can also turn out to be an attempt at finding a more satisfactorily affective relationship. And I don't see what Brogaard's discussion of casual sex and its defense against the view that "sex is wrong whenever it does not involve love of a kind that fits the act, as well as a certain level of understanding of the relationship between sex and love" (188) has to do with love or with her "new theory of love".

Chapter 9 is about how to cope when abandoned by the person you love. Brogaard recognizes that it is often traumatic but she suggests not to interfere with the partner's decision. She recommends to fall out of love. This is possible though not in a direct manner. In this context Brogaard speaks more generally about controlling emotions (and not only love). It is strange to read about "[t]amed emotions [as] rational emotions" (200) in the context of Nietzsche's philosophy, since he, as it seems to me, didn't use a similar label[[3]]. In falling out of love one can by helped by therapy and emotional regulation. Brogaard provides description of several therapeutic techniques. Many of them pertain to treatment of negative feelings (rather than of love).

The last chapter concerns human happiness considered generally: we read about resolving emotional conflicts, avoiding negative thinking and so on. Only the last section relates to love. Optimistically, Brogaard refers to G. E. Vaillant's study according to which "the ability to be intimate with another person [is] one of the strongest predictors of health and happiness" (231). Yet, intimacy shouldn't be limited to romantic love only: friendship love, compassionate love, parental love, and attachment love are also productive of happiness. Such conclusion Brogaard takes, however, to be too strong and she points to cases of unrequited or abusive love. Therefore, a qualification is needed: rational love leads to happiness, while irrational does not. But what do rational and irrational mean? Brogaard explains irrational as harming and rational as its opposite. But is it not the same as to say that happy love leads to happiness and unhappy one to unhappiness, unless one disagrees that being harmed amounts to unhappiness?

My general impression is that the book is a mixture of common knowledge and scientific data as well as materials drawn from novels, films, personal experiences, news, sociological and psychological facts and references to philosophers as different as e.g. Nietzsche and Wittgenstein. All this is used to construct a narrative which can be hardly, I am afraid, considered as a new theory of love or even a new way to look at love as it is announced by Brogaard. If "a new view of love" amounts to see "love as conscious emotion [...] an experience of a response of the body or mind to something or someone else [which] involves a perception of changes in the body or mind, and a perception of the other" (234), one can ask what in this definition is characteristic of love, since it is true of several emotions too (put any other emotion in the place of love - it will still work). Brogaard adds that "[f]or this sort of perception to count as love as opposed to fear or anger or some other perceptual state, its phenomenology must fit one of the prototypes for love. It must possess a cluster of properties that are stereotypical for sexual desire, romantic love, or compassionate love." (234). This provides a formal distinction between love and other emotions, yet, on the one hand, their phenomenology is not presented, and, on the other, it seems as if there were no common denominator for the whole class of love and only its species were definable. And this is the main weakness of the book: it is supposed to be on romantic love (as in its title), but, as a matter of fact, it aims once at romantic love, once at a new theory of love, once it treats other than romantic kinds of love and so on.

From the very beginning of Chapter 1 I was struck by the similarities with Marcel Proust's novel (quoted only once in the book (203-204) because of the Madeleine episode). And in fact, what I read in the Ch. 2, i.e. "[t]he relationship that made her realize that she was a love addict was with a man she "didn't even like"" (23) reminds me of the very last sentence from "Swann in Love": ""To think that I have wasted years of my life, that I have longed for death, that the greatest love that I have ever known has been for a woman who did not please me, who was not in my style!"" (transl. by C. K. Scott Moncrieff)

Another thing is that Brogaard often goes into side topics, which have either a little or nothing to do with love (examples are: on emotional pain and distress (pp. 29 ff.), on the James - Lange theory, then Mueller-Lyer illusion, then other experiments relevant to illusion (e.g. out-of-body illusion) (pp. 46 ff.), on personal identity (pp. 96-99), on dreams (pp. 158-161), on sex, abuse, rape and other dimensions of sexual experiences (pp. 188-192), on the repetition technique, prolonged exposure therapy and various phobias, on eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, on deep relaxation and meditation, and finally, on placement conditioning and the Sinclair method (pp. 206-219)). At times the book is written in a personal way (e.g. one learns the names of Brogaard's cats and why they are called so, p. 139) or a idiosyncratic one (e.g. how many readers can make sense of "[i]magine that you driving down Lindell Boulevard in St. Louis", (204)?).

On the whole, the message of the book seems to be rather negative than positive. Brogaard says that your love should not "decrease your overall happiness or well-being" (74). The reverse, i.e. that love is what occurs for the sake of (increasing) one's happiness or well-being, is not difficult to find. However, later on, Brogaard limits herself to notice that "the constraints on rational love don't tell us anything about when it is irrational not to love someone we don't love" (78) and she says a little about how to recognize formal constraints in order to establish a rational love and a possible ordo amoris (see e.g. M. Scheler, sadly not referred to in the book). Brogaard says more about how to protect oneself against abuse of love than how to built a healthy and lasting relationship. As such, it is a helpful manual to be used in case of being harmed in love. This is why I would recommend the book mainly to people unhappy in love, and those who are about to undergo or who have just experienced relationship breakups more than to philosophers or psychologists looking for category treatment of emotion and love phenomena.

 

_________________________________

 

[[1]] As early as in the Preface the reader is given other labels: romantic (or relationship) love, compassionate love (including parental love and friendship love) and companionate love or attachment love (see also p. xii where Brogaard passes directly from the family of emotions to the species of romantic love in view of their being either rational or irrational).

[[2]] I add "or rather hardly distinguishable", because I wonder if two persons can be really irreplaceable in each of their entire bodily, behavioural and mental aspects.

[[3]] E.g. in BGE 117: "The will to overcome an affect is ultimately only the will of another, or of several other, affects." (transl. by H Zimmern)

 

© 2015 Robert Zaborowski

 

Robert Zaborowski, thymos2001@yahoo.fr, University of Warmia and Mazury & Polish Academy of Sciences


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