email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
A Theory of Feelings Addictions"Intimate" Violence against Women1001 Solution-Focused Questions101 Healing Stories101 Things I Wish I'd Known When I Started Using Hypnosis50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God8 Keys to Body Brain BalanceA Brief History of Modern PsychologyA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Conceptual History of Psychology: Exploring the Tangled Web A Cooperative SpeciesA Guide to Teaching Introductory PsychologyA History of Modern Experimental PsychologyA History of Psychology in AutobiographyA History of Social PsychologyA History of the BrainA History of the MindA Hole in the HeadA Matter of SecurityA Mind of Its OwnA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Place for ConsciousnessA Short Introduction to Promoting Resilience in ChildrenA Social History of PsychologyA Stroll With William JamesA System Architecture Approach to the BrainA Theory of FreedomA Very Bad WizardAbductedAbout FacesAccounts of InnocenceAction, Emotion and WillAdapting MindsADHD & MeADHD in AdultsAdieu to GodAdolescence and Body ImageAdult Bipolar DisordersAdvances in Culture and PsychologyAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAffect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of SelfAffective MappingAgainst HappinessAges and StagesAll Joy and No FunAll Out!All We Have to FearAlterations of ConsciousnessAmerican Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical NeurosciencesAn Argument for MindAncient Bodies, Modern LivesAnimal Tool BehaviorAnimals in TranslationAnomalous CognitionAping MankindArtificial ConsciousnessAspects of PsychologismAsperger Syndrome and Your ChildAsperger Syndrome, Adolescence, and IdentityAssessment and Treatment of Childhood Problems, Second EditionAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAttachedAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutism and the Myth of the Person AloneAutopsy of a Suicidal MindBecoming an Effective PsychotherapistBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing No OneBelievingBetween Two WorldsBeyond AppearanceBeyond BlueBeyond BullyingBeyond MadnessBeyond the BrainBeyond the DSM StoryBig DreamsBiofeedback for the BrainBipolar ChildrenBipolar DisorderBipolar KidsBlackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive DevelopmentBlind SpotsBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlubberlandBlushBodiesBody ConsciousnessBody Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity in YouthBody SenseBody WorkBorderline Personality DisorderBorderline Personality Disorder and the Conversational ModelBorn DigitalBorn to Be GoodBorn Together - Reared ApartBounceBoundaries in Human RelationshipsBounded RationalityBozo SapiensBrain and CultureBrain and the GazeBrain Arousal and Information TheoryBrain BugsBrain Change TherapyBrain Circuitry and Signaling in PsychiatryBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-Based Therapy with AdultsBrain-WiseBrainstormBrainstormingBraintrustBrainwashingBrandedBreaking Murphy's LawBright-SidedBuddha's BrainBullying and TeasingBuyologyCaptureCare of the PsycheCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCerebrum 2007Cerebrum 2010Cerebrum 2015Cerebrum Anthology 2013Changing the SubjectCharacter Strengths and VirtuesCheating LessonsChild and Adolescent Psychological DisordersChildren’s Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness Chomsky NotebookClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyClinical Psychology in Practice ClosureCognition and PerceptionCognition and the BrainCognitive BiologyCognitive DissonanceCognitive FictionsCognitive Mechanisms of Belief ChangeCognitive PragmaticsCognitive ScienceCognitive ScienceCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Therapy of Anxiety DisordersCognitive Unconscious and Human RationalityCold-Blooded KindnessComing of Age in Second LifeCommunication Issues In Autism And Asperger SyndromeCompassion and Healing in Medicine and SocietyComplementary and Alternative Therapies ResearchComprehending ColumbineConfessions of a SociopathConquering Shame and CodependencyConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the Social BrainConsciousness EmergingConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Self-Consciousness, and the Science of Being HumanContemporary Debates in Cognitive ScienceConversations on ConsciousnessConviction of the InnocentCooperation and Its EvolutionCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCredit and BlameCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychologyCritical Thinking About PsychologyCross-Cultural PsychologyCrowdsourcingCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCuriousDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous and Severe Personality DisorderDaniel DennettDaughters of MadnessDeafness In MindDeath and ConsciousnessDeath of a ParentDecomposing the WillDeep Brain StimulationDeep ChinaDefining DifferenceDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions of GenderDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDeparting from DevianceDescartes' BabyDescartes's Changing MindDescribing Inner Experience?Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Destructive EmotionsDevelopment of Geocentric Spatial Language and CognitionDevelopment of PsychopathologyDialogues on DifferenceDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Digital HemlockDirty MindsDisgust and Its DisordersDisorders of VolitionDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Doing without ConceptsDrunk Tank PinkEducating People to Be Emotionally IntelligentEffective IntentionsEffective Writing in PsychologyEffortless AttentionEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbracing MindEmbracing UncertaintyEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotionally InvolvedEmotionsEmotionsEmotions and LifeEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions RevealedEmotions, Aggression, and Morality in ChildrenEmotions, Stress, and HealthEmpathyEnjoymentErotic MoralityEscape Your Own PrisonEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthically Challenged ProfessionsEveryday Mind ReadingEvidence for PsiEvidence-Based Mental Health PracticeEvil MenEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution and LearningEvolution, Games, and GodEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolutionary Psychology as Maladapted PsychologyExacting BeautyExperiences of DepressionExperimenterExplaining the BrainExplaining the BrainExplorations in Neuroscience, Psychology and ReligionExploring TranssexualismExpression and the InnerExtending Self-Esteem ResearchExtraordinary BeliefsFact and Value in EmotionFaking ItFatigue as a Window to the BrainFavorite Activities for the Teaching of PsychologyFeeling GoodFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFinding Meaning, Facing FearsFitting In Is OverratedFlourishingFlow: The Psychology of Optimal ExperienceFolk Psychological NarrativesFooling HoudiniForever YoungFormulation in Psychology and PsychotherapyFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Psychological ThoughtFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom EvolvesFrom Axons to IdentityFrom Madness to Mental HealthFrom Neurons to Self-ConsciousnessFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Symptom to SynapseFrontiers of ConsciousnessGay, Straight, and the Reason WhyGenerosityGenes, Environment, and PsychopathologyGenetic Nature/CultureGeniusGetting Under the SkinGlued to GamesGoing SaneGot Parts?Group GeniusGrowing Up GirlGuilt, Shame, and AnxietyGut ReactionsHallucinationHandbook New Sexuality StudiesHandbook of Closeness and IntimacyHandbook of Critical PsychologyHandbook of Emotion RegulationHandbook of EmotionsHandbook of Personality DisordersHandbook of PsychopathyHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Spatial CognitionHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness at WorkHappiness Is.Happy at LastHard to GetHardwired BehaviorHatredHealing the SplitHidden ResourcesHope and DespairHot ThoughtHot ThoughtHouse and PsychologyHow Animals Affect UsHow Animals GrieveHow Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Doctors ThinkHow Enlightenment Changes Your BrainHow Families Still MatterHow History Made the MindHow Infants Know MindsHow Many Friends Does One Person Need?How Professors ThinkHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Change Someone You LoveHow We ReasonHow We RememberHughes' Outline of Modern PsychiatryHumanHuman BondingHuman Reasoning and Cognitive ScienceHypnotismHysteriaiBrainIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIdentifying the MindiDisorderImagination and the Meaningful BrainImitation and the Social MindImpulse Control DisordersImpulsivityIn an Unspoken VoiceIn Defense of SentimentalityIn DoubtIn Search of HappinessIn the Wake of 9/11Individual and Collective Memory ConsolidationInner Experience and NeuroscienceInner PresenceInside the American CoupleIntegrated Behavioral Health CareIntegrating Evolution and DevelopmentIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntellectual DisabilityIntelligenceIntelligence, Destiny, and EducationIntentions and IntentionalityInterdependent MindsInterpreting MindsInto the Minds of MadmenIntoxicating MindsIntrospection VindicatedIntuitionInventing PersonalityInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIs There Anything Good About Men?Issues for Families, Schools and CommunitiesJane Sexes It UpJoint AttentionJoint AttentionJudgment and Decision MakingJust a DogJust BabiesJuvenile-Onset SchizophreniaKarl JaspersKey Thinkers in PsychologyKidding OurselvesKids of CharacterKilling MonstersLack of CharacterLanguage OriginsLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw, Mind and BrainLess Than HumanLet Kids Be KidsLet's Talk About DeathLiving NarrativeLiving with Mild Cognitive ImpairmentLonelinessLooking for SpinozaLossLOT 2Love at Goon ParkMachine ConsciousnessMacrocognitionMade for Each OtherMadnessMaking a Good Brain GreatMaking Habits, Breaking HabitsMaking Minds and MadnessMaking Up the MindMale SexualityMan and WomanMan's Search for MeaningMan, Beast, and ZombieManic MindsManlinessMapping the MindMarking the MindMarvelous Learning AnimalMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaningMeaning, Mortality, and ChoiceMedical MusesMeditating SelflesslyMeetings with a Remarkable ManMemoryMemory and DreamsMemory and EmotionMemory And UnderstandingMental BiologyMental IllnessMental Time TravelMetacognitionMetacognition and Theory of MindMethods in MindMindMindMind and BrainMind and ConsciousnessMind Games:Mind in LifeMind TimeMind to MindMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMindful AngerMindfulnessMindfulness and AcceptanceMindfulness-Based Treatment Approaches: Clinician's Guide to Evidence Base and ApplicationsMinding AnimalsMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds, Brains, and LawMindsightMindworldsMirrors in the BrainMistakes Were Made (But Not by Me)Models of MadnessMoodMoral Development and RealityMoral MindsMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Mothers and OthersMotivation and Cognitive ControlMotivational Interviewing: Preparing People For ChangeMovies and the MindMulticulturalism and the Therapeutic ProcessMultiplicityMuses, Madmen, and ProphetsMy Family AlbumMyths about SuicideNarrative IdentitiesNarrative PsychiatryNarratives in PsychiatryNaturalizing Intention in ActionNature and NarrativeNature Via NurtureNeither Bad nor MadNerveNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeurochemistry of ConsciousnessNeurodiversityNeuroethicsNeuroLogicNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroscience and PhilosophyNo Child Left DifferentNo Two AlikeNot By Genes AloneNot Much Just Chillin'Not So Abnormal PsychologyNurturing the Older Brain and MindOn AnxietyOn Being HumanOn Being MovedOn Deep History and the BrainOn DesireOn KillingOn Nature and LanguageOn PaedophiliaOn PersonalityOn the Frontier of AdulthoodOn the Origins of Cognitive ScienceOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOnflowOpen MindsOpening Skinner's BoxOrigin of MindOrigins of PsychopathologyOther MindsOut of Our HeadsOut of the WoodsOvercoming Depersonalization DisorderPanpsychism and the Religious AttitudePanpsychism in the WestParenting and the Child's WorldPassionate EnginesPathologies of the WestPatient-Based Approaches to Cognitive NeurosciencePediatric PsychopharmacologyPeople Types and Tiger StripesPerception & CognitionPerception beyond InferencePerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPersonal Development and Clinical PsychologyPerspectives on ImitationPhantoms in the BrainPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhrenologyPhysical RealizationPhysics in MindPieces of LightPlaying with FirePositive PsychologyPositive PsychologyPostcards from the Brain MuseumPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPoverty and Brain Development During ChildhoodPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical Management of Personality DisorderPractical Management of Personality DisorderPredicative MindsPredictably IrrationalPreference, Belief, and SimilarityPrenatal Testosterone in MindPrivileged AccessProcrastinationProust Was a NeuroscientistPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsychological AgencyPsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychological Dimensions of the SelfPsychologists Defying the CrowdPsychologyPsychologyPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology for ScreenwritersPsychology of Women: A Handbook of Issues and TheoriesPsychology's GhostsPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology's TerritoriesPsychopathologyPsychopathyPsychosis and EmotionPsychotherapy, American Culture, and Social PolicyPutnam CampPutting a Name to ItQuantum Memory PowerQuietRadical DistortionRadical Embodied Cognitive ScienceRadical ExternalismRadical GraceRapeRe-Visioning PsychiatryReal MaterialismReality CheckReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecovery in Mental IllnessRecreative MindsRedirectReducing Adolescent RiskRegulating EmotionsRelational BeingRelational Mental HealthRelational Suicide AssessmentReliability in Cognitive NeuroscienceRemembering HomeRemembering Our ChildhoodResearch Advances in Genetics and GenomicsResearching Children's ExperienceResilience in ChildrenRestoring ResilienceRethinking ADHDRethinking Learning DisabilitiesRethinking Middle YearsRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfRevolution in PsychologyRoadmap to ResilienceRomance and Sex in Adolescence and Emerging AdulthoodSchizophrenia RevealedSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologySecond NatureSecond NatureSecond That EmotionSecond-order Change in PsychotherapySecrets of the MindSee What I'm SayingSee What I'm SayingSeeing and VisualizingSeeing RedSelf and SocietySelf Comes to MindSelf Control in Society, Mind, and BrainSelf-Awareness Deficits in Psychiatric PatientsSelf-CompassionSelf-RegulationSelf-Representational Approaches to ConsciousnessSelfless InsightSelvesSerial KillersSex at DawnSex on the BrainSex, Time and PowerSexual Coercion in Primates and HumansSexual DisordersSexual FluiditySexual ReckoningsSexualized BrainsShame and GuiltShatteredSimulating MindsSisyphus's BoulderSNAPSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial Psychology and DiscourseSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSoul DustSparkSpiral of EntrapmentSplendors and Miseries of the BrainSports Hypnosis in PracticeStanding at Water's EdgeStich and His CriticsStillpowerStop OverreactingStructure and Agency in Everyday LifeStructures of AgencyStuffStumbling on HappinessSubjectivity and SelfhoodSubstance Abuse and EmotionSupersizing the MindSweet DreamsSynaptic SelfTales from Both Sides of the BrainTalking Oneself SoberTalking to BabiesTaming the Troublesome ChildTargeting AutismTeaching Problems and the Problems of TeachingTeleological RealismTen Years of Viewing from WithinThat's DisgustingThe 5 Elements of Effective ThinkingThe Accidental MindThe Age of EmpathyThe Altruism EquationThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Clinical PsychiatryThe Anatomy of BiasThe Anxious BrainThe Archaeology of MindThe Art and Science of MindfulnessThe Art InstinctThe Art of HypnosisThe Asymmetrical BrainThe Bifurcation of the SelfThe Big Book of ConceptsThe Big DisconnectThe Birth of IntersubjectivityThe Birth of the MindThe Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge ManagementThe Blank SlateThe Body Has a Mind of Its OwnThe Bounds of CognitionThe Boy Who Was Raised as a DogThe BrainThe Brain and the Meaning of LifeThe Brain SupremacyThe Brain That Changes ItselfThe Brain's Way of HealingThe Brain: Big Bangs, Behaviors, and BeliefsThe Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive ScienceThe Cambridge Handbook of Situated CognitionThe Character of ConsciousnessThe Chemistry Between UsThe Choice EffectThe Clinical Science of Suicide PreventionThe Cognitive Approach to Conscious MachinesThe Cognitive Behavioral Workbook for Anxiety: A Step-By-Step ProgramThe Cognitive NeurosciencesThe Cognitive-Emotional BrainThe College Fear FactorThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Compass of PleasureThe Concepts of ConsciousnessThe Conscious BrainThe Conscious SelfThe Consuming InstinctThe Creating BrainThe Creative BrainThe Crucible of ConsciousnessThe Crucible of ExperienceThe Cure WithinThe Dao of NeuroscienceThe Developing MindThe Developing MindThe Development of PsychopathologyThe Disappearance of the Social in American Social PsychologyThe Dissolution of MindThe Duty to ProtectThe Educated ParentThe Ego TunnelThe Elephant in the RoomThe Emotional Journey of the Alzheimer's FamilyThe Encultured BrainThe Encyclopedia of StupidityThe Enduring Self in People with Alzheimer'sThe Epidemiology of SchizophreniaThe Essential DifferenceThe Ethical BrainThe Evolution of ChildhoodThe Evolution of CooperationThe Evolution of LanguageThe Evolution of MindThe Evolving BrainThe Executive BrainThe Faces of TerrorismThe Feeling BrainThe Feeling of What HappensThe First IdeaThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Foundations of Cognitive ArchaeologyThe Fundamentalist MindsetThe GapThe Gender TrapThe Geography of BlissThe Gift of ShynessThe Good LifeThe Good LifeThe Happiness HypothesisThe Happiness of PursuitThe Health Psychology HandbookThe Healthy Aging BrainThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of PsychologyThe Human FaceThe Human SparkThe Hypomanic EdgeThe Imagery DebateThe Immeasurable MindThe Imprinted BrainThe Incredible Shrinking MindThe Innate MindThe Innate MindThe Integrated SelfThe Intentional BrainThe Language of ThoughtThe Languages of the BrainThe Lexicon of Adlerian PsychologyThe Lie DetectorsThe Lives of the BrainThe Lonely AmericanThe Lust for BloodThe Madness of WomenThe Male BrainThe Man Who Lost His LanguageThe Man Who Shocked the WorldThe Man Who Tasted ShapesThe Man Who Wasn't ThereThe Matter of the MindThe Mature MindThe Mean Girl MotiveThe Meaning of OthersThe Meaning of the BodyThe Measure of MadnessThe Measure of MindThe Medicalization of Everyday LifeThe Mind and the BrainThe Mind in ContextThe Mind of the ChildThe Mind of the HorseThe Mind's EyeThe Mind, the Body and the WorldThe Mindful BrainThe Misleading MindThe Moral MindThe Most Dangerous AnimalThe Most Human HumanThe Mother FactorThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of Depression as DiseaseThe Myth of Mirror NeuronsThe Myth of Self HelpThe Myth of Self-EsteemThe Myth of the Spoiled ChildThe Nature of the SelfThe Necessity Of MadnessThe Neuro RevolutionThe Neuropsychology of the UnconsciousThe Neuroscience of Human RelationshipsThe Neuroscience of PsychotherapyThe Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social BrainThe New BrainThe New Science of DreamingThe New Science of the MindThe New UnconsciousThe Normal PersonalityThe Origins of FairnessThe Overflowing BrainThe Oxford Companion to the MindThe Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of MindThe Paradoxical PrimateThe Perfectionist's HandbookThe Peripheral MindThe Phenomenology ReaderThe Philosopher's Secret FireThe Philosophical BabyThe Political MindThe Politics of HappinessThe Positive Side of Negative EmotionsThe Postnational SelfThe Postpartum EffectThe Power of PlayThe Praeger Handbook of TranssexualityThe Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday LifeThe Primate MindThe Prism of GrammarThe Psychobiology of Trauma and Resilience Across the LifespanThe Psychological Construction of EmotionThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of HappinessThe Psychology of LifestyleThe Psychology of Religious FundamentalismThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of SpiritualityThe Psychology of StereotypingThe Psychology of SuperheroesThe Psychophysiology of Self-AwarenessThe Pursuit of PerfectThe Quest for Mental HealthThe Rational ImaginationThe Ravenous BrainThe Reasons of LoveThe Righteous MindThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Science of EvilThe Science of Intimate RelationshipsThe Science of Shame and its Treatment The Second SelfThe Secret History of EmotionThe Secret Lives of BoysThe Self and Its EmotionsThe Self-Sabotage CycleThe Sensitive SelfThe Shape of ThoughtThe Social AnimalThe Social Nature of Mental IllnessThe Social Neuroscience of EmpathyThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Story of Intellectual DisabilityThe Structure of ThinkingThe Survivors ClubThe Talking ApeThe Teenage BrainThe Tell-Tale BrainThe Temperamental ThreadThe Tender CutThe Tending InstinctThe Time ParadoxThe Trauma MythThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe True PathThe Truth About GriefThe Turing TestThe Uncertain SciencesThe Unhappy ChildThe Upside of IrrationalityThe War for Children's MindsThe Well-Tuned BrainThe Wild Girl, Natural Man, and the MonsterThe Winner's BrainThe Wisdom in FeelingThe Woman RacketThe World in My Mind, My Mind in the WorldThe Wow ClimaxThe Yipping TigerThemes, Issues and Debates in PsychologyTheoretical Issues in Psychology: An IntroductionTheory of AddictionTheory of MindThings and PlacesThink CatThink Confident, Be ConfidentThinking about AddictionThinking and SeeingThis Emotional Life: In Search of Ourselves...and HappinessThought and LanguageThought in a Hostile WorldTo Have and To Hurt:Toward an Evolutionary Biology of LanguageToward Replacement Parts for the BrainTrauma and Human ExistenceTrauma, Tragedy, TherapyTreating Attachment DisordersTreating Self-InjuryTreating Self-Injury: A Practical GuideTrue to Our FeelingsTrusting the Subject?Understanding and Treating Borderline Personality DisorderUnderstanding ConsciousnessUnderstanding ParanoiaUnderstanding PeopleUnderstanding TerrorismUndoing Perpetual StressUnlock the Genius WithinUnsettled MindsUnstrange MindsUnthinkingUs and ThemViolent PartnersVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVision and MindVisual AgnosiaWarrior's DishonourWe Who Are DarkWednesday Is Indigo BlueWelcome to Your BrainWhat Do Women Want?What Dying People WantWhat Have We DoneWhat Intelligence Tests MissWhat Is an Emotion: Classic and Contemporary ReadingsWhat Is Emotion?What is Intelligence?What Is Mental Illness?What Is Thought?What Makes Your Brain Happy and Why You Should Do the Opposite What the Best College Students DoWhat the Dog SawWhat We Know about Emotional IntelligenceWhat We Say MattersWhat's Wrong With Morality?When Boys Become BoysWhen Perfect Isn't Good EnoughWhen the Impossible HappensWhen Walls Become DoorwaysWho's Been Sleeping in Your HeadWho's in Charge?Why Humans Like to CryWhy Love MattersWhy Lyrics LastWhy People CooperateWhy People Die by SuicideWhy Sex Matters: A Darwinian Look at Human BehaviorWhy Smart People Can Be So StupidWhy the Mind is Not a ComputerWhy Us?Why We LieWhy We LoveWider than the SkyWilliam James at the BoundariesWilling, Wanting, WaitingWittgenstein And PsychologyWomen and Child Sexual AbuseWorking MindsYoga and PsychologyYou Are What You RememberYoung Minds in Social WorldsYour Brain on CubsYour Brain on FoodYour Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings,Your Brain on YogaYour Child in the BalanceZombies and Consciousness
He begins on a positive note, quoting that Alfred Adler explained that anxiety has a purpose: it is a safeguarding mechanism that causes us to frighten ourselves out of doing things. We could simply decide not to do these things, but then we might have to face our complexes and admit to having them. With anxiety as a mechanism, we claim we are too afraid to try. With this premise, he notes that this book provides three basic prescriptions to help conquer the problem of anxiety as he elaborates, he intends to:
1. Educate your reason to oppose parasitic thinking and reacting and thus change your thoughts, and secondly:
2. Learn to build emotional tolerance, in other words strengthen your emotions and finally:
3. Behaviorally engage the fear and desensitize yourself to it by taking action.
This book is thus promised to deliver step-by-step guidance for addressing parasitic anxieties and fears, providing multiple ideas along with frequent exercises for addressing them. More specifically, he describes (as I will test):
A well-referenced book that draws from both classical and recent thinking on how to overcome anxieties and fears. This he does, with frequent citations and references to multiple sources for understanding how these conditions evolve. The major sources for this book are fully referenced at the end, where there is also a list of suggested reading material that he hasn't quoted from.
Any such work requires not only the above, but a list of solutions and a discussion of how they best work, given the evidence base for CBT: he describes interventions that he has used with his clients and reports that they found these to be effective. Over the forty-five years of his practice, he has clearly claimed to have developed numerous interventions of his own accord, but I note he also refers to not just these but others he has selected others from the quoted literature. This provides the reader with a menu of alternatives, to select what might best work for them, or a client.
As a workbook, this is designed to help support the client-reader to apply CBT self-improvement methods in different contexts, challenge false anxiety assumptions, build tolerance for distress, and gain mastery over their emotional self. He describes these as basic techniques that apply to different problems and multiple techniques that apply to a specific anxiety. I note a lot of redundancy across the book, so presumably the reader can arrive at solutions via multiple pathways in the repeated approach in different sections.
Not devoted to the sound of his own voice or ego, he has gone further and invited a group of top anxiety experts to contribute their preferred approach and strategies, what he calls tips. Their tips throughout the book are designed to again give different perspectives on what might be done to overcome anxieties/fears.
Another key aspect of the book is a series of written exercises for self-improvement. In training people to become observers of their own behaviours, thus developing perspective, regulating emotions, and improving their outlook by reducing needless tension. As he shows, writing in the first person is associated with higher levels of self-improvement.
As I note below, Part I introduces the world of anxieties and fears, showing users how to separate real from imagined fears and how to use basic cognitive, emotive, and behavioral strategies to overcome these conditions, by breaking a vicious cycle of anxiety using objective self-observation skills, avoid escalating anxieties, how to progress using self-management approaches, and how to get past procrastination barriers that interfere with change. Part II shows how to use guided imagery, namely natural scenes to achieve serenity, how to relax physically and regulate emotions triggered by cognition errors, the use of a classic ABCDE model to combat anxiety, and how to use key behavioral methods for overcoming fear. Part III examines how to break patterns of worry, manage anxiety over uncertainty, calm noxious physical sensations, overcome panic, combat phobias, and mount and sustain a multimodal attack against anxiety and fear. Part IV works on the ways to defuse anxiety-evoking expectations, as well as defeat harmful inhibitions, overcome anxiety related to self, gain freedom from troubling social anxiety, and overcome mixed anxiety/mood. He ends with the final chapter designed to preserve the gains made across the journey.
In the first chapter, he introduces us to what he calls the world of anxiety, in that this problem is universal, no matter where you live. He includes a special evaluation toolkit he uses, which is most helpful.
He begins his formal discussion in Chapter 2 with an impressive review of important aspects of anxiety, and this sets his work aside from a strictly self-help pulp book. This is a textbook, not just about the disorders, but an erudite introduction in the hands of a master of education. Self-help books are of course useful, but just do a drive-by at handy hints to target anxiety. This book enables expertise and a serious approach by the reader to become acquainted from both patient and healer perspective. Hence, the length and depth of the book requires some dedication to work through it, as a workbook, and is peppered with research citations to back up his narrative.
As an exemplar of this, he notes that anxiety has two essential characteristics: aroused avoidance of a future threat and relief following avoidance, a concept that is often poorly dealt with both on its own, and in relation to the arousal. This has blighted recent anxiety self-help books that fail to deal with these two aspects, learning and avoidance, adequately. Whilst avoidance works as a good strategy for avoiding real and deadly dangers, it does not work when negative, repetitive, and alarmist cognitions are a painful part of the anxiety process.
He notes in this vein that anxieties can come in clusters, and this makes a bad situation feel worse for the sufferer. For example, you can dread the thought of failing, so you avoid situations that evoke that threat such as a good scenery outlook point. Or you feel anxious about rejection and avoid social situations that evoke that threat and thus cannot date or enjoy parties. Whenever you avoid what you dread, you reinforce avoidance so that your anxieties keep coming back, as your message tells the anxiety source that there is indeed substance to the phobic response. If you dwell on your anxieties, they will expand. Attempts to shut down your anxious thoughts will ensure they keep coming back. You try to subdue the feeling, and you just get more.
By correcting faulty thinking, you can decrease anxiety complications that come about from false assumptions. With anxiety, you live in dread of something horrible happening, and although unsure what will happen, you nevertheless assume it will be catastrophic. Faulty expectations. Magnification.
Possibility thinking (a magical jump from the possible to the probable). Powerlessness thinking. Emotional reasoning. Fear of the feeling. Loss of perspective. False associations. All of these are invoked, to demonstrate the complexity of the brain-based pathways that can reason the client into an anxious state, or disorder eventually.
He then moves to examine the underlying brain circuitry supporting these functions and providing the disorders when their work comes awry.
Chapter Three then begins the actual working, with an evaluation at the end of the chapter as to how and what you have learned to do. Chapter Four draws on the need to become an accurate observer, given the role negative self-evaluations and rumination have on the creation and sustenance of the anxious state. As I mentioned, he has integrated boxes into each chapter with the Top Tip from other experts. As with the others, the chapter ends with more self-monitoring, in the form of a progress report. As he does often again, he introduces thinking from others, such as Ellis, and in Chapter Five refers to double trouble, namely being upset about aspects of being upset, layering anxieties on each other. The approach to then breaking a vicious double-trouble cycle would include dealing with problem magnification, overgeneralization, urgency and circular thinking, as well as a top tip from none less than Judith Beck. He finally invokes Karl Popper in thinking about falsifying double-troubled thinking. If something can be tested and falsified, which is easy to do with d-t thinking, then it can be subject to refutation and resolution in clearing up the stinkin'-thinkin'.
A useful table contains five steps to help refute this kind of polluted cognition.
He gives seven of his own tips for reducing needless distress and for building confident composure. He notes you can accept troubling thoughts and not magnifying, you can separate distress thinking from appropriate thoughts, hone in on cognitive triggers, look for false attributions, classify anxious thoughts, eg exaggeration and helplessness, tone down what he calls the drama, accept the work required, and so on.
In the next chapter, he takes a leaf out of the Motivational Interviewing gurus and invokes Bandera and others in the pursuit of success via the route of self-efficacy, or the belief that you have the power to organize, regulate, and direct your actions to achieve mastery over challenges He notes that successful people meet challenges and overcome adversity since their actions express what they believe about their capabilities. Self-efficacy plays a central role in reducing anxiety and persistence in using effective counter-anxiety measures is a formula for mastery over
fear and for promoting higher levels of self-efficacy. He notes you are more likely to create and sustain a positive new direction if you can assign the change to your own efforts rather than to medications, the fates, or luck.
He further notes that self-efficacy is the major determinant of behavior, however, only when proper incentives and the necessary skills are present. He then produces a structured approach for controlling anxiety and fear, again with appropriate exercises to measure and manage the issues.
Chapter Seven then follows with an attempt to address the vexatious issue of procrastination both initial and secondary, as well as decision making clarity which is affected, with the usual top tip and evaluations common to all the chapters.
Part II then follows, with cognitive, emotional and behavioural ways to deal with anxiety. This begins with Chapter Eight's methods to achieve tranquility, relaxing body and mind (beginning with breathing) in Chapter Nine, including meditation and mindfulness. The next chapter, looking at the cognitive-emotion connection proposes a five step metacognitive solution, including dealing with the approach-avoidance and circular thinking common to anxiety.
Ellis is again invoked with the ABCDE approach and while he notes that the ABCDE method will not mute normal emotions, such as loss, regret, frustration, and realistic anxieties and fears, it can target pathological thinking and thus go far to reduce needless tensions that grow from faulty expectations, exaggerations, and erroneous assumptions. Again, he uses a case study vignette to demonstrate how this is applied, and also the usual toolkits he has evolved, and the Top Tip of the chapter.
The staple for all therapies is the well-established behavioural techniques repertoire, and here multiple case studies demonstrate the approach, especially successful when exposure and other behavioural approaches are required in phobias for instance. Having dealt with the fear, he now approaches the need to deal with worry and the 'web' it weaves, particularly with the differences between worry and anxiety, as well as the need to distinguish the probable from the possible. As he noted earlier, he deals with a few things from different angles in different chapters, as he does with these issues.
Continuing his comprehensive approach, he examines anxiety in the face of uncertainty, with his layered approach dominating again, as anxiety about uncertainty increases the anxiety. There are five steps to freedom from anxiety over uncertainty, and having given much of this book away, I will not do so here. Awareness and fear of failure of course are two of these, and these and the others get the structured approach I have mentioned in the other chapters.
The next chapter, focusing on physical sensations, includes the paradoxical tip of trying to worsen the symptoms after carefully noting them. My favorite, Occam's razor is also applied here to result in simpler explanations for troubling phenomena.
By now we are at Chapter 16 and dealing with Panic, applying amongst others the ABCDE approach again. Another approach is again paradoxical, including forced hyperventilation, inducing a high heart rate, spinning around and so on, good exposure.
The next chapter is about dealing with simple irrational fears, and the following one, a multimodal approach to anxiety, again, with the author attempting a comprehensive approach, exhausting all possible avenues which may be useful, which drives the value of this work further. This chapter includes the BASIC-ID approach, again a useful mnemonic for Behavior Affect Sensations - Imagery Cognitions and Interpersonal Drugs/biology including brain issues as well.
You may think perfectionism is a single entity, but he has more to offer than just that, writing about learning perfectionism, social and self-perfectionism amongst other aspects, a series of issues seldom dealt with, moving on to self-inhibition in the next chapter to add to the multi-factorial nature of anxieties. Here, the mnemonic is PURRRRS and again I leave the reader to learn what this means. It does however again rely on pausing and reflecting in a cognitive solution series. PURRRRS is used to combat self-inhibition and hence avoidance in some ways too.
Anxiety involves a lot of self-evaluation, often examining the self in ways no-one would really survive, undermining self-image and self-efficacy. The next chapter deals with self anxiety, and the contingency-worth trap. Namely, I am only something if I do or achieve something, even if this is harsh or even impossible an achievement.
Again, an old, solid psychologist from the past, George Kelly is evoked, and the exercise is indeed about scripts. We know from animal studies that animals who struggle with anxiety can go from that to leadership roles, and so it is here that he deals with a possible transition from social anxiety to social confidence. He offers no less than 50 ways to defeat social anxiety and build confidence. Powerless thinking in the next chapter, part of a mixed anxiety-mood issue, is again dealt with by the PURRRRS acronym.
Avoiding the return of the condition is the subject of the next chapter, as he brings together many of the already examined approaches with five quick steps to rally against the anxiety, lighten the allostatic load, work on building resilience through lifestyle alterations and so on.
As promised, he finishes off with a suggested reading list and full reference list.
An exhaustive approach that leaves no stone in history unturned, evoking expertise from now and back in the day, this book is THE definitive workbook for the client and therapist approaching anxiety, and I can't think of anything he has forgotten to address in a clear and structured fashion. The workbook tone dominates, with much done to achieve assessment and outcomes that are measurable, and I am sure this will resonate with all who buy this valuable book. Whatever the monetary cost, this is cheaper than therapy!
© 2015 Roy Sugarman
Roy Sugarman PhD, Director Applied Neuroscience, Team EXOS USA