email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
A Theory of Feelings Addictions Memory and the Self"Intimate" Violence against Women1001 Solution-Focused Questions101 Healing Stories101 Things I Wish I'd Known When I Started Using Hypnosis50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God8 Keys to Body Brain BalanceA Brief History of Modern PsychologyA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Conceptual History of Psychology: Exploring the Tangled Web A Cooperative SpeciesA Guide to Teaching Introductory PsychologyA History of Modern Experimental PsychologyA History of Psychology in AutobiographyA History of Social PsychologyA History of the BrainA History of the MindA Hole in the HeadA Matter of SecurityA Mind of Its OwnA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Place for ConsciousnessA Short Introduction to Promoting Resilience in ChildrenA Social History of PsychologyA Stroll With William JamesA System Architecture Approach to the BrainA Theory of FreedomA Very Bad WizardAbductedAbout FacesAccounts of InnocenceAction, Emotion and WillAdapting MindsADHD & MeADHD in AdultsAdieu to GodAdolescence and Body ImageAdult Bipolar DisordersAdvances in Culture and PsychologyAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAffect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of SelfAffective MappingAgainst EmpathyAgainst HappinessAges and StagesAll Joy and No FunAll Out!All We Have to FearAlterations of ConsciousnessAmerican Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical NeurosciencesAn Argument for MindAncient Bodies, Modern LivesAnd BreatheAnimal MadnessAnimal Tool BehaviorAnimals in TranslationAnomalous CognitionAping MankindArtificial ConsciousnessAspects of PsychologismAsperger Syndrome and Your ChildAsperger Syndrome, Adolescence, and IdentityAssessment and Treatment of Childhood Problems, Second EditionAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAttachedAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutism and the Myth of the Person AloneAutopsy of a Suicidal MindBecoming an Effective PsychotherapistBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing No OneBelievingBetween Two WorldsBeyond AppearanceBeyond BlueBeyond BullyingBeyond MadnessBeyond MelancholyBeyond the BrainBeyond the DSM StoryBig DreamsBiofeedback for the BrainBipolar ChildrenBipolar DisorderBipolar KidsBlackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive DevelopmentBlind SpotsBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlubberlandBlushBodiesBody ConsciousnessBody Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity in YouthBody SenseBody WorkBorderline Personality DisorderBorderline Personality Disorder and the Conversational ModelBorn DigitalBorn to Be GoodBorn Together - Reared ApartBounceBoundaries in Human RelationshipsBounded RationalityBozo SapiensBrain and CultureBrain and the GazeBrain Arousal and Information TheoryBrain BugsBrain Change TherapyBrain Circuitry and Signaling in PsychiatryBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-Based Therapy with AdultsBrain-WiseBrainstormBrainstormingBraintrustBrainwashingBrandedBreaking Murphy's LawBright-SidedBuddha's BrainBullying and TeasingBuyologyCan't You Hear Them?CaptureCare of the PsycheCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCerebrum 2007Cerebrum 2010Cerebrum 2015Cerebrum Anthology 2013Changing the SubjectCharacter Strengths and VirtuesCheating LessonsChild and Adolescent Psychological DisordersChildren’s Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness Chomsky NotebookClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyClinical Psychology in Practice ClosureCognition and PerceptionCognition and the BrainCognitive BiologyCognitive DissonanceCognitive FictionsCognitive Mechanisms of Belief ChangeCognitive PragmaticsCognitive ScienceCognitive ScienceCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Therapy of Anxiety DisordersCognitive Unconscious and Human RationalityCold-Blooded KindnessComing of Age in Second LifeCommunication Issues In Autism And Asperger SyndromeCompassion and Healing in Medicine and SocietyComplementary and Alternative Therapies ResearchComprehending ColumbineConfessions of a SociopathConquering Shame and CodependencyConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the Social BrainConsciousness EmergingConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Self-Consciousness, and the Science of Being HumanConstructing PainConsumer NeuroscienceContemporary Debates in Cognitive ScienceConversations on ConsciousnessConviction of the InnocentCooperation and Its EvolutionCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCredit and BlameCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychologyCritical Thinking About PsychologyCross-Cultural PsychologyCrowdsourcingCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCuriousDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous and Severe Personality DisorderDaniel DennettDaughters of MadnessDeafness In MindDeath and ConsciousnessDeath of a ParentDecomposing the WillDeep Brain StimulationDeep ChinaDefining DifferenceDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions of GenderDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDeparting from DevianceDescartes' BabyDescartes's Changing MindDescribing Inner Experience?Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Destructive EmotionsDevelopment of Geocentric Spatial Language and CognitionDevelopment of PsychopathologyDialogues on DifferenceDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Digital HemlockDirty MindsDisgust and Its DisordersDisorders of VolitionDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Doing without ConceptsDrunk Tank PinkEducating People to Be Emotionally IntelligentEffective IntentionsEffective Writing in PsychologyEffortless AttentionEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbracing MindEmbracing UncertaintyEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotionally InvolvedEmotionsEmotionsEmotions and LifeEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions RevealedEmotions, Aggression, and Morality in ChildrenEmotions, Stress, and HealthEmpathyEnjoymentErotic MoralityEscape Your Own PrisonEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthically Challenged ProfessionsEveryday Mind ReadingEvidence for PsiEvidence-Based Mental Health PracticeEvil MenEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution and LearningEvolution, Games, and GodEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolutionary Psychology as Maladapted PsychologyExacting BeautyExperiences of DepressionExperimenterExplaining the BrainExplaining the BrainExplorations in Neuroscience, Psychology and ReligionExploring TranssexualismExpression and the InnerExtending Self-Esteem ResearchExtraordinary BeliefsFact and Value in EmotionFaking ItFatigue as a Window to the BrainFavorite Activities for the Teaching of PsychologyFeeling GoodFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFinding Meaning, Facing FearsFitting In Is OverratedFive Constraints on Predicting BehaviorFlourishingFlow: The Psychology of Optimal ExperienceFolk Psychological NarrativesFooling HoudiniForever YoungFormulation in Psychology and PsychotherapyFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Psychological ThoughtFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom EvolvesFrom Axons to IdentityFrom Madness to Mental HealthFrom Neurons to Self-ConsciousnessFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Symptom to SynapseFrontiers of ConsciousnessGay, Straight, and the Reason WhyGenerosityGenes, Environment, and PsychopathologyGenetic Nature/CultureGeniusGetting Under the SkinGlued to GamesGoing SaneGot Parts?Group GeniusGrowing Up GirlGuilt, Shame, and AnxietyGut ReactionsHallucinationHandbook New Sexuality StudiesHandbook of Closeness and IntimacyHandbook of Critical PsychologyHandbook of Emotion RegulationHandbook of EmotionsHandbook of Personality DisordersHandbook of PsychopathyHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Spatial CognitionHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness at WorkHappiness Is.Happy at LastHard to GetHardwired BehaviorHatredHealing the SplitHidden ResourcesHope and DespairHot ThoughtHot ThoughtHouse and PsychologyHow Animals Affect UsHow Animals GrieveHow Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Doctors ThinkHow Enlightenment Changes Your BrainHow Families Still MatterHow History Made the MindHow Infants Know MindsHow Many Friends Does One Person Need?How People ChangeHow Professors ThinkHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Change Someone You LoveHow We ReasonHow We RememberHughes' Outline of Modern PsychiatryHumanHuman BondingHuman Reasoning and Cognitive ScienceHypnotismHysteriaiBrainIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIdentifying the MindiDisorderImagination and the Meaningful BrainImitation and the Social MindImpulse Control DisordersImpulsivityIn an Unspoken VoiceIn Defense of SentimentalityIn DoubtIn Search of HappinessIn the Wake of 9/11Individual and Collective Memory ConsolidationInner Experience and NeuroscienceInner PresenceInside the American CoupleIntegrated Behavioral Health CareIntegrating Evolution and DevelopmentIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntellectual DisabilityIntelligenceIntelligence, Destiny, and EducationIntentions and IntentionalityInterdependent MindsInterpreting MindsInto the Minds of MadmenIntoxicating MindsIntrospection VindicatedIntuitionInventing PersonalityInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIs There Anything Good About Men?Issues for Families, Schools and CommunitiesJane Sexes It UpJoint AttentionJoint AttentionJudgment and Decision MakingJust a DogJust BabiesJuvenile-Onset SchizophreniaKarl JaspersKey Thinkers in PsychologyKidding OurselvesKids of CharacterKilling MonstersLack of CharacterLanguage OriginsLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw, Mind and BrainLess Than HumanLet Kids Be KidsLet's Talk About DeathLiving NarrativeLiving with Mild Cognitive ImpairmentLonelinessLooking for SpinozaLossLOT 2Love at Goon ParkMachine ConsciousnessMacrocognitionMade for Each OtherMadnessMadness and Modernism: Insanity in the light of modern art, literature, and thought Making a Good Brain GreatMaking Habits, Breaking HabitsMaking Minds and MadnessMaking Up the MindMale SexualityMan and WomanMan's Search for MeaningMan, Beast, and ZombieManic MindsManlinessMapping the MindMarking the MindMarvelous Learning AnimalMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaningMeaning, Mortality, and ChoiceMedical MusesMeditating SelflesslyMeetings with a Remarkable ManMemoryMemory and DreamsMemory and EmotionMemory And UnderstandingMental BiologyMental IllnessMental Time TravelMetacognitionMetacognition and Theory of MindMethods in MindMindMindMind and BrainMind and ConsciousnessMind Games:Mind in LifeMind TimeMind to MindMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMindful AngerMindfulnessMindfulnessMindfulness and AcceptanceMindfulness-Based Treatment Approaches: Clinician's Guide to Evidence Base and ApplicationsMinding AnimalsMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds, Brains, and LawMindsightMindworldsMirrors in the BrainMistakes Were Made (But Not by Me)Models of MadnessMoodMoral Development and RealityMoral MindsMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Mothers and OthersMotivation and Cognitive ControlMotivational Interviewing: Preparing People For ChangeMovies and the MindMulticulturalism and the Therapeutic ProcessMultiplicityMuses, Madmen, and ProphetsMy Family AlbumMyths about SuicideNarrative IdentitiesNarrative PsychiatryNarratives in PsychiatryNaturalizing Intention in ActionNature and NarrativeNature Via NurtureNeither Bad nor MadNerveNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeurochemistry of ConsciousnessNeurodiversityNeuroethicsNeuroLogicNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroscience and PhilosophyNo Child Left DifferentNo Two AlikeNot By Genes AloneNot Much Just Chillin'Not So Abnormal PsychologyNurturing the Older Brain and MindOn AnxietyOn Being an Introvert or Highly Sensitive PersonOn Being HumanOn Being MovedOn Deep History and the BrainOn DesireOn KillingOn Nature and LanguageOn PaedophiliaOn PersonalityOn the Frontier of AdulthoodOn the Origins of Cognitive ScienceOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOnflowOpen MindsOpening Skinner's BoxOrigin of MindOrigins of PsychopathologyOther MindsOut of Our HeadsOut of the WoodsOvercoming Depersonalization DisorderPanpsychism and the Religious AttitudePanpsychism in the WestParenting and the Child's WorldPassionate EnginesPathologies of the WestPatient-Based Approaches to Cognitive NeurosciencePediatric PsychopharmacologyPeople Types and Tiger StripesPerception & CognitionPerception beyond InferencePerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPersonal Development and Clinical PsychologyPerspectives on ImitationPhantoms in the BrainPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhrenologyPhysical RealizationPhysics in MindPieces of LightPlaying with FirePositive PsychologyPositive PsychologyPostcards from the Brain MuseumPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPoverty and Brain Development During ChildhoodPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical Management of Personality DisorderPractical Management of Personality DisorderPredicative MindsPredictably IrrationalPreference, Belief, and SimilarityPrenatal Testosterone in MindPrivileged AccessProcess-Based CBTProcrastinationProust Was a NeuroscientistPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsychological AgencyPsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychological Dimensions of the SelfPsychologists Defying the CrowdPsychologyPsychologyPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology for ScreenwritersPsychology of Women: A Handbook of Issues and TheoriesPsychology's GhostsPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology's TerritoriesPsychopathologyPsychopathyPsychosis and EmotionPsychotherapy, American Culture, and Social PolicyPutnam CampPutting a Name to ItQuantum Memory PowerQuietRadical DistortionRadical Embodied Cognitive ScienceRadical ExternalismRadical GraceRapeRe-Visioning PsychiatryReal MaterialismReality CheckReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecovery in Mental IllnessRecreative MindsRedirectReducing Adolescent RiskRegulating EmotionsRelational BeingRelational Mental HealthRelational Suicide AssessmentReliability in Cognitive NeuroscienceRemembering HomeRemembering Our ChildhoodResearch Advances in Genetics and GenomicsResearching Children's ExperienceResilience in ChildrenRestoring ResilienceRethinking ADHDRethinking Learning DisabilitiesRethinking Middle YearsRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfRevolution in PsychologyRoadmap to ResilienceRomance and Sex in Adolescence and Emerging AdulthoodSchizophrenia RevealedSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologySecond NatureSecond NatureSecond That EmotionSecond-order Change in PsychotherapySecrets of the MindSee What I'm SayingSee What I'm SayingSeeing and VisualizingSeeing RedSelf and SocietySelf Comes to MindSelf Control in Society, Mind, and BrainSelf-Awareness Deficits in Psychiatric PatientsSelf-CompassionSelf-RegulationSelf-Representational Approaches to ConsciousnessSelfless InsightSelvesSerial KillersSex at DawnSex on the BrainSex, Time and PowerSexual Coercion in Primates and HumansSexual DisordersSexual FluiditySexual ReckoningsSexualized BrainsShame and GuiltShatteredSimulating MindsSisyphus's BoulderSNAPSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial Psychology and DiscourseSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSoul DustSparkSpiral of EntrapmentSplendors and Miseries of the BrainSports Hypnosis in PracticeStanding at Water's EdgeStich and His CriticsStillpowerStop OverreactingStructure and Agency in Everyday LifeStructures of AgencyStuffStumbling on HappinessSubjectivity and SelfhoodSubstance Abuse and EmotionSupersizing the MindSweet DreamsSynaptic SelfTales from Both Sides of the BrainTalking Oneself SoberTalking to BabiesTaming the Troublesome ChildTargeting AutismTeaching Problems and the Problems of TeachingTeleological RealismTen Years of Viewing from WithinTestosterone RexThat's DisgustingThe 5 Elements of Effective ThinkingThe Accidental MindThe Age of EmpathyThe Altruism EquationThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Clinical PsychiatryThe Anatomy of BiasThe Anxious BrainThe Archaeology of MindThe Art and Science of MindfulnessThe Art InstinctThe Art of HypnosisThe Asymmetrical BrainThe Bifurcation of the SelfThe Big Book of ConceptsThe Big DisconnectThe Birth of IntersubjectivityThe Birth of the MindThe Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge ManagementThe Blank SlateThe Body Has a Mind of Its OwnThe Bounds of CognitionThe Boy Who Was Raised as a DogThe BrainThe BrainThe Brain and the Meaning of LifeThe Brain SupremacyThe Brain That Changes ItselfThe Brain's Way of HealingThe Brain: Big Bangs, Behaviors, and BeliefsThe Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive ScienceThe Cambridge Handbook of Situated CognitionThe Character of ConsciousnessThe Chemistry Between UsThe Choice EffectThe Clinical Science of Suicide PreventionThe Cognitive Approach to Conscious MachinesThe Cognitive Behavioral Workbook for Anxiety: A Step-By-Step ProgramThe Cognitive NeurosciencesThe Cognitive-Emotional BrainThe College Fear FactorThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Compass of PleasureThe Concepts of ConsciousnessThe Conscious BrainThe Conscious SelfThe Consuming InstinctThe Creating BrainThe Creative BrainThe Crucible of ConsciousnessThe Crucible of ExperienceThe Cure WithinThe Dao of NeuroscienceThe Developing MindThe Developing MindThe Development of PsychopathologyThe Disappearance of the Social in American Social PsychologyThe Dissolution of MindThe Duty to ProtectThe Educated ParentThe Ego TunnelThe Elephant in the RoomThe Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human ExperienceThe Emotional Journey of the Alzheimer's FamilyThe Encultured BrainThe Encyclopedia of StupidityThe Enduring Self in People with Alzheimer'sThe Epidemiology of SchizophreniaThe Essential DifferenceThe Ethical BrainThe Evolution of BeautyThe Evolution of ChildhoodThe Evolution of CooperationThe Evolution of LanguageThe Evolution of MindThe Evolving BrainThe Executive BrainThe Faces of TerrorismThe Feeling BrainThe Feeling of What HappensThe First IdeaThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Foundations of Cognitive ArchaeologyThe Fundamentalist MindsetThe GapThe Gender TrapThe Geography of BlissThe Gift of ShynessThe Good LifeThe Good LifeThe Happiness HypothesisThe Happiness of PursuitThe Health Psychology HandbookThe Healthy Aging BrainThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of PsychologyThe Human FaceThe Human SparkThe Hypomanic EdgeThe Imagery DebateThe Immeasurable MindThe Imprinted BrainThe Incredible Shrinking MindThe Innate MindThe Innate MindThe Integrated SelfThe Intentional BrainThe Language of ThoughtThe Languages of the BrainThe Lexicon of Adlerian PsychologyThe Lie DetectorsThe Lives of the BrainThe Lonely AmericanThe Lust for BloodThe Madness of WomenThe Male BrainThe Man Who Lost His LanguageThe Man Who Shocked the WorldThe Man Who Tasted ShapesThe Man Who Wasn't ThereThe Matter of the MindThe Mature MindThe Mean Girl MotiveThe Meaning of EvilThe Meaning of OthersThe Meaning of the BodyThe Measure of MadnessThe Measure of MindThe Medicalization of Everyday LifeThe Mind and the BrainThe Mind in ContextThe Mind of the ChildThe Mind of the HorseThe Mind's EyeThe Mind, the Body and the WorldThe Mind-Gut ConnectionThe Mindful BrainThe Misleading MindThe Moral MindThe Most Dangerous AnimalThe Most Human HumanThe Mother FactorThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of Depression as DiseaseThe Myth of Mirror NeuronsThe Myth of Self HelpThe Myth of Self-EsteemThe Myth of the Spoiled ChildThe Nature of the SelfThe Necessity Of MadnessThe Neuro RevolutionThe Neuron and the MindThe Neuropsychology of the UnconsciousThe Neuroscience of Human RelationshipsThe Neuroscience of PsychotherapyThe Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social BrainThe New BrainThe New Science of DreamingThe New Science of the MindThe New UnconsciousThe Normal PersonalityThe Origins of FairnessThe Overflowing BrainThe Oxford Companion to the MindThe Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of MindThe Paradoxical PrimateThe Perfectionist's HandbookThe Peripheral MindThe Phenomenology ReaderThe Philosopher's Secret FireThe Philosophical BabyThe Political MindThe Politics of HappinessThe Positive Side of Negative EmotionsThe Postnational SelfThe Postpartum EffectThe Power of PlayThe Praeger Handbook of TranssexualityThe Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday LifeThe Primate MindThe Prism of GrammarThe Psychobiology of Trauma and Resilience Across the LifespanThe Psychological Construction of EmotionThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of HappinessThe Psychology of LifestyleThe Psychology of Religious FundamentalismThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of SpiritualityThe Psychology of StereotypingThe Psychology of SuperheroesThe Psychophysiology of Self-AwarenessThe Pursuit of PerfectThe Quest for Mental HealthThe Rational ImaginationThe Ravenous BrainThe Reasons of LoveThe Righteous MindThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Science of EvilThe Science of Intimate RelationshipsThe Science of Shame and its Treatment The Second SelfThe Secret History of EmotionThe Secret Lives of BoysThe Self and Its EmotionsThe Self-Sabotage CycleThe Sense of SelfThe Sensitive SelfThe Shape of ThoughtThe Social AnimalThe Social Nature of Mental IllnessThe Social Neuroscience of EmpathyThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Story of Intellectual DisabilityThe Structure of ThinkingThe Survivors ClubThe Talking ApeThe Teenage BrainThe Tell-Tale BrainThe Temperamental ThreadThe Tender CutThe Tending InstinctThe Time ParadoxThe Trauma MythThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trouble with IllnessThe True PathThe Truth About GriefThe Turing TestThe Uncertain SciencesThe Undoing ProjectThe Unhappy ChildThe Upside of IrrationalityThe War for Children's MindsThe Well-Tuned BrainThe Wild Girl, Natural Man, and the MonsterThe Winner's BrainThe Wisdom in FeelingThe Woman RacketThe World in My Mind, My Mind in the WorldThe Wow ClimaxThe Yipping TigerThemes, Issues and Debates in PsychologyTheoretical Issues in Psychology: An IntroductionTheory of AddictionTheory of MindThings and PlacesThink CatThink Confident, Be ConfidentThinking about AddictionThinking and SeeingThis Emotional Life: In Search of Ourselves...and HappinessThought and LanguageThought in a Hostile WorldTo Have and To Hurt:Toward an Evolutionary Biology of LanguageToward Replacement Parts for the BrainTrauma and Human ExistenceTrauma, Tragedy, TherapyTreating Attachment DisordersTreating Self-InjuryTreating Self-Injury: A Practical GuideTrue to Our FeelingsTrusting the Subject?Understanding and Treating Borderline Personality DisorderUnderstanding ConsciousnessUnderstanding ParanoiaUnderstanding PeopleUnderstanding TerrorismUndoing Perpetual StressUnlock the Genius WithinUnsettled MindsUnstrange MindsUnthinkingUnthoughtUs and ThemViolent PartnersVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVision and MindVisual AgnosiaWarrior's DishonourWe Who Are DarkWednesday Is Indigo BlueWelcome to Your BrainWhat Do Women Want?What Dying People WantWhat Have We DoneWhat Intelligence Tests MissWhat Is an Emotion: Classic and Contemporary ReadingsWhat Is Emotion?What is Intelligence?What Is Mental Illness?What Is Thought?What Makes Your Brain Happy and Why You Should Do the Opposite What the Best College Students DoWhat the Dog SawWhat We Know about Emotional IntelligenceWhat We Say MattersWhat's Wrong With Morality?When Boys Become BoysWhen Perfect Isn't Good EnoughWhen the Impossible HappensWhen Walls Become DoorwaysWho's Been Sleeping in Your HeadWho's in Charge?Why Humans Like to CryWhy Love MattersWhy Lyrics LastWhy People CooperateWhy People Die by SuicideWhy Sex Matters: A Darwinian Look at Human BehaviorWhy Smart People Can Be So StupidWhy the Mind is Not a ComputerWhy Us?Why We LieWhy We LoveWhy We SleepWider than the SkyWilliam James at the BoundariesWilling, Wanting, WaitingWittgenstein And PsychologyWomen and Child Sexual AbuseWorking MindsYoga and PsychologyYou Are What You RememberYoung Minds in Social WorldsYour Brain on CubsYour Brain on FoodYour Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings,Your Brain on YogaYour Child in the BalanceZombies and Consciousness
Early in his lectures on 'genetic epistemology' delivered in 1968 at the University of Columbia, Jean Piaget described the basic tenet of this version of epistemology modeled after natural scientific research as follows:
The fundamental hypothesis of genetic epistemology is that there is a parallelism between the progress made in the logical and rational organization of knowledge and the corresponding formative psychological processes. Well now, if that is our hypothesis, what will be our field of study? Of course, the most fruitful, most obvious field of study would be reconstituting human history -- the history of human thinking in prehistoric man. (…) Since this filed of biogenesis is not available to us, we shall do as biologists do and turn to ontogenesis. (1971, p. 13)
What Michael Tomasello attempts in his new book is precisely what Piaget deemed improbable -- a reconstruction of the prehistory of thought. As there is a natural history of the beaks of Darwin's finches, there is a natural history of the human mind, and putting it, or a version thereof, on paper should illuminate, by tracking parentage, the nature of thinking. This departure from the Piagetian cannon is in fact the current culmination of a very Piagetian project indeed. A Natural History of Human Thinking branches out from the considerable collection of research and theory professor Tomasello and his colleagues at the Max Planck Institute in Leipzig have produced over the last decade or so. This corpus has so far been focused on what Piaget did recommend: ontogenesis, i.e. the characteristics of early childhood. Their investigations have aimed, specifically, at capturing the emergence at ever smaller ages of the rudiments of communication and cooperation. It is probably thought that this research has by now condensed into a thick enough foundation to allow for speculative projections into the distant past.
While the present book, as in the case of previous volumes and articles, is an extensively researched and informative, if jargonized, academic effort (therefore probably tedious for lay readers), the soundness of its basic argument is questionable. There is an abundance of solid developmental and animal research referred to in this volume, and some of the speculative moves seem reasonable, but it remains unclear whether Tomasello has actually written anything close to a history of thinking. This is not primarily because his narrative raises questions of plausibility and evidence, but because what such questions would amount to in this context remains moot. This seems to be an inherited weakness. It is not primarily -- or at least not solely -- the intrinsically hypothetical nature of phylogenetic reconstruction which weakens the current book, but its use of an unconvincing theory already deployed by Tomasello and colleagues in the less equivocal case of ontogenesis. In this volume, that theory is introduced as 'the shared intentionality hypothesis'.
The core of the book -- chapters 3 and 4 -- consists of an application of the said shared intentionality theory which results in a story about how some human psychological traits and abilities (essentially those supporting human sociality) might have emerged via Darwinian processes -- adaptation driven by competitive advantages and selection forces. As for the remaining chapters, the first presents the shared intentionality hypothesis, the second sketches a proximate ancestry for human thinking based on research on ape mentality, while the last chapter summarizes the account and compares it with suggestions about 'what makes human thinking unique' made by other authors. In the following I will focus on the central argument of the book.
Leaving aside, for this review, obvious antecedents in the history of the social sciences, talk of shared, joint, collective, or we-intentionality has its origins in a number of recent attempts in philosophy to propose a theory of cooperative action. More to the point, the philosophers were interested in demystifying the apparent 'merging' of minds involved in such impressive coordination as that exhibited by a symphonic orchestra, but also in more prosaic events such as jumpstarting a car by dividing labor between pushing the vehicle and working its clutch. In philosophy, this was perceived as a problem only in the context of a more general challenge, that of linking intention, supposedly an instance of the 'inner', and action, which is overt. The problem of collective action seemed harder, since it involved a certain 'meshing' (as one of the philosophers in question, Michael Bratman, has put it -- see e.g. 1999) of intentions in separate individuals. If I act alone, my intentions control, or are reflected by, my actions; but when we act together there seems to be a need for my intentions to inform your actions and vice versa. How could that be, since presumably I can only intend what I myself could attempt? The sovereignty of intention seems to naturally overlap with that of self-control.
One answer is to introduce a distinct type of intention -- call it 'shared intention' -- which plays, across the individuals involved in collective acting, the role that good old intention plays when a person is acting alone. The problem thus becomes one of giving an account of this kind of intention. And if there are such peculiar intentions, the investigation can extend to cover other items of our mental endowment, for example the sharing of epistemic states, like beliefs. The general concept which covers all these putative states is shared intentionality (as opposed to shared intention, which is but an instance of shared intentionality).
This may be a badly formulated problem to begin with, but let us assume that is not the case. In the developmental psychology of Tomasello and colleagues, this somewhat marginal philosophical conundrum made an impression because, in one of its guises, it seemed to suggest a solution to a traditional difficulty in ontogenesis. From early on, human children are quite different from the progeny of even closely-related animals, like chimps. They are, for example, much more inclined to cooperate (manifesting the rudiments of 'prosocial' behavior), and seem driven to understand what goes on in others' minds way before they could master anything like the mature repertoire of concepts applicable to a thinking being. What makes human babies and infants unique in this way? It should be evident why a theory of mind-merging as the underlying force in acting in concert, even if initially designed for socially competent adults, seemed relevant to the psychologists. Importing the concept of shared intention to psychological research has not, however, proceeded without difficulties, and this continues to be the case in the current volume.
In philosophy, the idea of adjusting the concept of intention so as to make it applicable to synchronized groups has resulted in at least two basic formulations. One, due mainly to Michael Bratman, suggests that such shared intentions are in fact aggregates -- structures of regular mental states in individuals. What cements them together allowing for cooperation is their content, i.e. what they are about. We act together smoothly because each of us believes and wants the right things. There can be no question of sharing if there aren't more of us present and acting appropriately.
The second way to think about the matter, of which John Searle has been the main supporter, is to postulate shared intention -- and similarly for other shared mental states (beliefs, desires, hopes, fears, etc.) -- as a distinct kind of intending, literally. Shared intention, in other words, is not defined by what is intended (its content), but by the manner in which one intends (the way in which the content is entertained in one's mind). Even an isolated (but perhaps deluded) individual can, in this view, entertain shared intentions.
If the former account is relatively benign in the sense that it doesn't introduce unheard of psychological entities, the latter comes at a considerable cost. It postulates novel mental gears, assuming that our cooperative and communicative achievements cannot be explained without them. This is, in Kim Sterelny's words, 'the supposition that social competence depends on psychological competence' (2003, p.51). Searle's successive takes at the matter have not so far clarified or justified the inherent oddity of having my intention range over what you might do. And despite the fact that Tomasello has been critical of the opacity of Searle's proposal (Rakoczy & Tomasello, 2007), Searle's treatment of the problem has remained a source of inspiration for Tomasello's own theorizing. A Natural History of Human Thinking is to a significant degree hostage to this legacy, even when it nominally uses a conceptual apparatus similar to Bratman's.
The central argument of the book is that humans underwent two ecologically driven adaptive transformations which eventually resulted in their present abilities and dispositions to cooperate. Tomasello describes these phases as, first, the step from individual intentionality to joint intentionality ('cooperative turn'), and, second, the step from joint- to collective intentionality. The first demarcation contrasts a hypothetical protohuman much like current apes -- having some understanding of others, but manifesting little interest in their inner life outside competitive interactions -- with possible closer ancestors more inclined to cooperate. The subsequent distinction between joint and collective intentionality is Searlean in origin, and it is meant to capture the increasing conventionalization of human social life. It should point to the difference between more or less spontaneous coordination in small groups, and stable, impersonal institutions built around norms. Tomasello suggests an evolutionary psychological rather than, say, historical reading of this latter distinction. It is an unsurprising construal, given the context of this book, but one which perhaps unnecessarily pushes the author to speculate about normativity as yet another mental gear acquired via adaptation -- a fashionable (if curiously elusive) subject in current psychology.
The first adaptation Tomasello speculates about marks the dawn of specifically human thinking. According to the interpretation Tomasello offers for a number of experimental studies in apes, the basic elements of thinking had already been present in the common ancestor of humans and apes. This admittedly 'somewhat generous account of great ape thinking' (p.27) is focused on three psychological abilities. First, as modern humans -- and as our common ancestor -- apes are able to represent features of their world. Second, they can draw inferences from what they represent. Third, they are capable ofmonitoring what they themselves do, but also, in some sense, what they think (know, remember).
It is dubitable whether one should construe ape abilities as Tomasello does. The discussion of 'inference', for example, is not helped by the vacuous attribution to apes of the capacity to operate with structures approximating logical operations which are dependent on symbolization. Whatever the obviously intelligent decisions taken by apes approximate, the notion of 'a kind of proto-modus ponens' (pp.16 - 19) is empty, and no continuity is thereby proven. This is an instance of a larger problem. It is curious that Tomasello essentially equates thinking with the three classes of psychological abilities or functions mentioned above -- and then looks for (dis)continuity along those lines. This is never properly justified in the book, and it does not seem justifiable. For the sake of argument, however, I propose to leave that as it is. Now, since apes, in Tomasello's view, already possess something structurally quite like human thinking, but almost nothing comparable to human language and culture, then what explains this tremendous difference?
The answer is partly conventional, and refers to a drastic change of environmental conditions. Apes' intelligence seems an excellent tool in a context where success depends on the ability of the individual to outcompete others. It is 'Machiavellian'. Tomasello is by no means alone in proposing that early humans diverged from the ape lineage because they found themselves at some point in an ecology quite unlike the typical ape environment. Tomasello stresses that this must have been an ecology which made cooperation necessary for survival. This rewarded seeing the members of one's group as potential partners rather than primarily as competitors, and this processes resulted in a 'radically new form of thinking' (p.33). It is the characterization of this new form of thinking as thinking-for-cooperation which sets Tomasello's proposal aside.
In the scenario suggested in this Natural History, all three processes which are stipulated to constitute thinking underwent changes as early humans diverged from apes. These changes are described, as in previous works by the Max Planck group, on the lines of the criteria suggested by Michael Bratman for 'joint cooperative action' -- this is the basis for what Tomasello calls 'joint intentionality'. However, while Bratman was asking what defines genuine cooperation, Tomasello reifies the defining criteria and reads them as specific adaptations. Thus, the ability to cooperate meant that early humans needed torepresent what others knew and wanted, and to let those others know what they themselves knew and wanted, thus forming 'joint goals' and engaging in 'joint attention'. Managing dynamic roles in cooperative interactions also meant that early humans had to infer what others thought, including what others thought about their own thoughts, thus maintaining 'common ground'. Monitoring this fluid psychological landscape would have had obvious advantages - e.g. for one's reputation as a trusted partner ('my survival depends on how you judge me.' p.47). These emerging abilities also triggered, according to the author, a revolution in communication, pointing and pantomime being increasingly regimented and restructured so as to work quasi-linguistically. And even if the new way of thinking was initially restricted to dyadic (two people, second-personal) interactions, it laid the foundations for an expanding social universe:
The cognitive model of this second-personal, dual-level social engagement laid the foundation for almost everything that was uniquely human. It provided the joint intentionality infrastructure for uniquely human forms of cooperative communication involving intentions and inferences about perspectives […] and, ultimately, it provided the foundation for the cultural conventions, norms, and institutions that brought the human species into the modern human world (p.48)
In this view, then, thinking becomes recognizably human when it orients itself primarily towards deciphering other minds. Cooperation is the outer expression of inner synchrony ('joint intentionality'), and the latter is initially happening without the support of language or culture -- indeed, it is supposed to explain how language and culture eventually became possible.
The attempt to offer a naturalistic picture of the emergence of the modern human mind is a merit of Tomasello's account. However, the heavily psychologized theory of early cooperation it is based on -- effectively forcing Bratman's functional description of familiar interactions of competent contemporary adults into the role of evolutionary psychological speculation about (at best) protolinguistic hominids -- remains a weakness. One can hardly begin to ask questions of plausibility regarding the emergence of 'joint intentionality' if this very concept is ill-suited for describing adaptive transformations driven by natural selection. As things stand, this seems to be the case. Any intelligible notion of sharing thoughts already requires such a sophisticated understanding of mental life that to posit it as the root of human thinking -- and not as its culmination -- begs the question. It is not by accident that Tomasello starts with a 'generous' account of pre- and protohuman thought -- much needs to be in place to even get his model going: complex concepts before language, recursive inferences before symbolization, common ground before culture.
The second evolutionary step described by Tomasello is meant to capture the transition from small scale cooperation involving few individuals, to human societies with language and institutions. Inter-group competition (humans, it turns out, can be quite Machiavellian, too) and larger populations are identified as the key factors driving this evolution. Here, the book offers a more amalgamated picture and it generally seems to be on firmer ground. Some of the topics Tomasello has already discussed at length -- e.g. cumulative cultural evolution (human communities actively tend to their collective memory, new generations don't have to reinvent the wheel) -- or have been the subject of intense debate in the field -- e.g. the idea of 'natural pedagogy' (humans, including human infants, have specific skills of teaching/learning triggered by natural signals such as pointing or eye contact). The discussion of such topics is, predictably, substantive and well-argued. There are, however, less convincing bits of theorizing in this part of the book, too.
One of them, as mentioned before, is the idea that (cultural) norms can be fitted in an evolutionary scenario which has objectivity and a 'view from nowhere' emerge via successive generalizations of smaller scale experiences. This misses the nature of norms and normative language. This is not because norms do not have a history, but because that is essentially cultural history. The fact that we live normative lives is not a psychological achievement. A similar point can be made about Tomasello's discussion of reason giving. The fact that offering reasons might help with convincing -- and even manipulating -- others, or that it is a part of collective decision making says little about the quality of a reason as a reason -- that is, whether it is a good reason, whether it complies with norms of rationality. It is ironic that Tomasello refers in this context to Sellars's point that I should do my best to think 'what anyone ought to think' (p.111 -- emphasis added). Finally, the insistence on the Searlean analysis of institutional reality in terms of collective intentionality, and on using the represent-infer-monitor triad does little to support and clarify the valid points made in this latter part of the book.
Tomasello argues, toward the end of this volume, that theories which don't require sophisticated understanding of other minds to explain early social abilities (early in the history of our species, and in the history of each of us) are implausible. But 'leaner' models could in fact fare better if we are to arrive at a non-arbitrary theory, and a non-trivial understanding of mind, even if they seem to explain less. If one starts with something like modus ponens and something close to understanding what one's neighbor might be up to, then it will seem less striking that there is modus ponens proper, and that one's neighbor can be understood. And one will likely miss the possibility that such achievements may very well be only partly within the scope of a natural history of our species (the story of how our bio-psychological traits have been sculpted in distant times), as they are also the substance of our history.
Bratman, M. (1999). Faces of Intention. Cambridge University Press
Piaget, J. (1971). Genetic Epistemology. Norton
Racoczy, H. & Tomasello, M. (2007). 'The Ontogeny of Social Ontology'. In Tsohatzidis, S. (ed.) Intentional Acts and Institutional Facts. Springer
Sterelny. K. (2003). Thought in a Hostile World. Blackwell
© 2015 George Tudorie
George Tudorie is a PhD student in philosophy, Central European University, Budapest; and teaching assistant, College of Communication and PR, Bucharest.