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A Theory of Feelings Anger and Forgiveness"My Madness Saved Me"10 Good Questions about Life and Death12 Modern Philosophers50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a GodA Cabinet of Philosophical CuriositiesA Case for IronyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to Buddhist PhilosophyA Companion to FoucaultA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to HumeA Companion to KantA Companion to Phenomenology and ExistentialismA Companion to PragmatismA Companion to the Philosophy of ActionA Companion to the Philosophy of BiologyA Companion to the Philosophy of LiteratureA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Critique of Naturalistic Philosophies of MindA Cursing Brain?A Delicate BalanceA Farewell to AlmsA Frightening LoveA Future for PresentismA Guide to the Good LifeA History of PsychiatryA History of the MindA Life Worth LivingA Manual of Experimental PhilosophyA Map of the MindA Metaphysics of PsychopathologyA Mind So RareA Natural History of Human MoralityA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Natural History of VisionA Parliament of MindsA Philosopher Looks at The Sense of HumorA Philosophical DiseaseA Philosophy of BoredomA Philosophy of Cinematic ArtA Philosophy of CultureA Philosophy of EmptinessA Philosophy of FearA Philosophy of PainA Physicalist ManifestoA Place for ConsciousnessA Question of TrustA Research Agenda for DSM-VA Revolution of the MindA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Stroll With William JamesA Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Theory of FreedomA Thousand MachinesA Universe of ConsciousnessA Very Bad WizardA Virtue EpistemologyA World Full of GodsA World Without ValuesAbout FaceAbout the Beginning of the Hermeneutics of the SelfAction and ResponsibilityAction in ContextAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionAction, Contemplation, and HappinessAction, Emotion and WillAdam SmithAdaptive DynamicsAddictionAddictionAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction Is a ChoiceAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAftermathAfterwarAgainst AdaptationAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HappinessAgainst HealthAgency and ActionAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and EmbodimentAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAl-JununAlain BadiouAlain BadiouAlasdair MacIntyreAlien Landscapes?Altered EgosAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Ethics for TodayAn Intellectual History of CannibalismAn Interpretation of DesireAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy An Introduction to Philosophy of EducationAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of PsychologyAn Introductory Philosophy of MedicineAn Odd Kind of FameAnalytic FreudAnalytic Philosophy in AmericaAncient AngerAncient Models of MindAncient Philosophy of the SelfAngerAnimal LessonsAnimal MindsAnimals Like UsAnnihilationAnother PlanetAnswers for AristotleAnti-ExternalismAnti-Individualism and KnowledgeAntigone’s ClaimAntipsychiatryAre We Hardwired?Are Women Human?Arguing about DisabilityArguing About Human NatureAristotle and the Philosophy of FriendshipAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's ChildrenAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle, Emotions, and EducationArt & MoralityArt After Conceptual ArtArt in Three DimensionsArt, Self and KnowledgeArtificial ConsciousnessArtificial HappinessAspects of PsychologismAsylum to ActionAtonement and ForgivenessAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutobiography as PhilosophyAutonomyAutonomy and Mental DisorderAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismBabies by DesignBackslidingBadiouBadiou's DeleuzeBadiou, Balibar, Ranciere: Rethinking EmancipationBare Facts And Naked TruthsBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBattlestar Galactica and PhilosophyBeautyBecoming a SubjectBecoming HumanBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing AmoralBeing HumanBeing Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory Being No OneBeing Realistic about ReasonsBeing ReducedBeing YourselfBelief's Own EthicsBending Over BackwardsBerlin Childhood around 1900Bernard WilliamsBertrand RussellBetter than BothBetter Than WellBetween Two WorldsBeyond HealthBeyond Hegel and NietzscheBeyond KuhnBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond PostmodernismBeyond ReductionBeyond the DSM StoryBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics in the ClinicBiological Complexity and Integrative PluralismBiology Is TechnologyBiosBipolar ExpeditionsBlackwell Companion to the Philosophy of EducationBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlues - Philosophy for EveryoneBlushBob Dylan and PhilosophyBody ConsciousnessBody Image And Body SchemaBody ImagesBody LanguageBody MattersBody WorkBody-Subjects and Disordered MindsBoundBoundaries of the MindBoyleBrain Evolution and CognitionBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-WiseBrainchildrenBrains, Buddhas, and BelievingBrainstormingBrave New WorldsBreakdown of WillBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and FaithBrief Therapy Homework PlannerBritain on the CouchBrute RationalityBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyBut Is It Art?Camus and SartreCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCarving Nature at Its JointsCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsCassandra's DaughterCato's TearsCausation and CounterfactualsCauses, Laws, and Free WillChanging Conceptions of the Child from the Renaissance to Post-ModernityChanging the SubjectChaosophyCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionCharles DarwinCherishmentChildhood and the Philosophy of EducationChildrenChildren, Families, and Health Care Decision MakingChoices and ConflictChoosing Not to ChooseChristmas - Philosophy for EveryoneCinema, Philosophy, BergmanCinematic MythmakingCity and Soul in Plato's RepublicClassifying MadnessClear and Queer ThinkingClinical EthicsClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyCodependent ForevermoreCoffee - Philosophy for EveryoneCognition and the BrainCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognition Through Understanding: Self-Knowledge, Interlocution, Reasoning, ReflectionCognitive BiologyCognitive FictionsCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Systems and the Extended Mind Cognitive Theories of Mental IllnessCoherence in Thought and ActionCollected Papers, Volume 1Collected Papers, Volume 2College SexComedy IncarnateCommitmentCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentConcealment And ExposureConceptual Analysis and Philosophical NaturalismConceptual Art and PaintingConceptual Issues in Evolutionary BiologyConfessionsConfucianismConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConquest of AbundanceConscience and ConvenienceConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the SelfConsciousness EmergingConsciousness EvolvingConsciousness ExplainedConsciousness in ActionConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Color, and ContentConsole and ClassifyConstructing the WorldConstructive AnalysisContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Philosophy of BiologyContemporary Debates in Philosophy of MindContemporary Debates in Political PhilosophyContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContemporary Perspectives on Natural LawContested Knowledge: Social Theory TodayContesting PsychiatryContext and the AttitudesContinental Philosophy of ScienceControlControlling Our DestiniesConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCopernicus, Darwin and FreudCrazy for YouCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCreating ConsilienceCreating HysteriaCreating Mental IllnessCreating Scientific ConceptsCreating the American JunkieCreation, Rationality and AutonomyCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCrimes of ReasonCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychiatryCritical PsychologyCritical ResistanceCritical Thinking About PsychologyCritical VisionsCross and KhoraCruel CompassionCTRL [SPACE]Cultural Psychology of the SelfCultural Theory: An IntroductionCulture and Psychiatric DiagnosisCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCulture of DeathCultures of NeurastheniaCurious EmotionsCurrent Controversies in Experimental PhilosophyCustom and Reason in HumeCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCutting God in Half - And Putting the Pieces Together AgainCylons in AmericaDamaged IdentitiesDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous EmotionsDaniel DennettDaniel DennettDark AgesDarwin and DesignDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDarwin, God and the Meaning of LifeDarwinian PsychiatryDarwinian ReductionismDarwinizing CultureDating: Philosophy for EveryoneDeathDeathDeath and CharacterDeath and CompassionDeath and the AfterlifeDebating DesignDebating HumanismDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecomposing the WillDeconstructing PsychotherapyDeconstruction and DemocracyDeeper Than DarwinDeeper than ReasonDefending Science - within ReasonDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDegrees of BeliefDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions and Other Irrational BeliefsDelusions and the Madness of the MassesDementiaDemons, Dreamers, and MadmenDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDennett’s PhilosophyDepression Is a ChoiceDepression, Emotion and the SelfDepthDerrida, Deleuze, PsychoanalysisDescartesDescartes and the Passionate MindDescartes' CogitoDescartes's Changing MindDescartes's Concept of MindDescribing Inner Experience?Descriptions and PrescriptionsDesembodied Spirits and Deanimated Bodies Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Desire and AffectDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDiagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersDialectics of the SelfDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital SoulDimensional Models of Personality DisordersDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDisjunctivismDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDispatches from the Freud WarsDisrupted LivesDistractionDisturbed ConsciousnessDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Do We Still Need Doctors?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Does the Woman Exist?Doing without ConceptsDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDonald DavidsonDonald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the MentalDoubting Darwin?Dreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR CasebookDworkin and His CriticsDying to KnowDynamics in ActionDysthymia and the Spectrum of Chronic DepressionsEccentricsEducational MetamorphosesEffective IntentionsElbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth WantingEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbodied RhetoricsEmbodied Selves and Divided MindsEmbryos under the MicroscopeEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotionEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion and PsycheEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotional ReasonEmotional ReasonEmotional TruthEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmpathyEmpathy and AgencyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpathy in the Context of PhilosophyEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEnchanted LoomsEngaging BuddhismEngineering the Human GermlineEnjoymentEnvyEpicureanismEpistemic LuckEpistemologyEpistemology and EmotionsEpistemology and the Psychology of Human JudgmentEros and the GoodErotic MoralityEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssays in the Metaphysics of Mind Essays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEssays on Nonconceptual ContentEssays on Philosophical CounselingEssays on Reference, Language, and MindEssays on the Concept of Mind in Early-Modern PhilosophyEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEsssential Philosophy of PsychiatryEternal Sunshine of the Spotless MindEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in Human CloningEthical TheoryEthicsEthicsEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics in Plain EnglishEthics in PracticeEthics in Psychiatric ResearchEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEuropean Review of Philosophy. Vol. 5Everyday IrrationalityEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolutionEvolution and the Human MindEvolution's RainbowEvolutionary Origins of MoralityEvolutionary PsychologyExamined LifeExamined LivesExistential AmericaExistentialismExistentialism and Romantic LoveExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and NaturalismExperiments in EthicsExplaining ConsciousnessExplaining the BrainExplaining the Computational MindExplanatory PluralismExploding the Gene MythExploring HappinessExploring the SelfExpression and the InnerExpressions of JudgmentFaces of IntentionFact and ValueFact and Value in EmotionFacts, Values, and NormsFads and Fallacies in the Social SciencesFaith and Wisdom in ScienceFatherhoodFear of KnowledgeFearless SpeechFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFeelings of BeingFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminism and Philosophy of ScienceFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist Interpretations of Rene DescartesFeminist TheoryField Notes from ElsewhereFinding Consciousness in the BrainFingerprints of GodFlesh in the Age of ReasonFolk Psychological NarrativesFolk Psychology Re-AssessedForces of HabitForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and RetributionFoucault 2.0Foucault and PhilosophyFoucault NowFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in PsychologyFour Views on Free WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree Will and Action ExplanationFree Will and LuckFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree: Why Science Hasn't Disproved Free WillFreedomFreedom and DeterminismFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom and ResponsibiltyFreedom and ValueFreedom EvolvesFreedom RegainedFreedom vs. InterventionFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFreudFreud and the Question of PseudoscienceFreud As PhilosopherFreud's AnswerFreud, the Reluctant PhilosopherFriedrich NietzscheFrom Chance to ChoiceFrom Clinic to ClassroomFrom Complexity to LifeFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution for Science and the HumanitiesFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrontiers of ConsciousnessFrontiers of JusticeFurnishing the MindGalileo in PittsburghGenderGender and Mental HealthGender in the MirrorGender TroubleGenesGenes, Women, EqualityGenetic Nature/CultureGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetic SecretsGenocide's AftermathGenomes and What to Make of ThemGerman Idealism and the JewGerman PhilosophyGetting HookedGilles DeleuzeGlobal PhilosophyGluttonyGod and Phenomenal ConsciousnessGoffman's LegacyGoing Amiss in Experimental ResearchGoodness & AdviceGrassroots SpiritualityGrave MattersGrave MattersGreedGreek Models of Mind and SelfGut ReactionsHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHabits of MindHallucinationHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of EmotionsHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness and EducationHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHappiness, Death, and the Remainder of LifeHard LuckHarmful ThoughtsHaving the World in ViewHealing PsychiatryHealing the Soul in the Age of the BrainHealth, Illness and DiseaseHealth, Science, and Ordinary LanguageHegelHeidegger and a Metaphysics of FeelingHeidegger, Metaphysics and the Univocity of BeingHermann von Helmholtz's MechanismHermeneutics As PoliticsHeterophobiaHeterosyncraciesHeuristics and BiasesHeuristics and the LawHidden ResourcesHidden SelvesHiding from HumanityHigh Art LiteHistorical OntologyHistory of Psychiatry and Medical PsychologyHistory, Historicity And ScienceHobbesHomosexualitiesHope and Dread in PsychoanalysisHot ThoughtHow Can I Be Trusted?How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains?How Do We Know Who We Are?How Emotions WorkHow Emotions WorkHow History Made the MindHow Images ThinkHow is Nature Possible?How Propaganda WorksHow Science WorksHow Scientific Practices MatterHow Scientists Explain DiseaseHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Make Opportunity EqualHow to Solve the Mind-Body Problemhow to stop timeHow to Think More About SexHow We HopeHow We ReasonHuman CloningHuman Development, Language and the Future of MankindHuman EnhancementHuman Evolution, Reproduction, and MoralityHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman NatureHuman NatureHuman Nature and the Limits of ScienceHuman-Built WorldHumanismHumanism, What's That?HumanityHumans, Animals, MachinesHumeHumeHume on Motivation and VirtueHusserlHystoriesI of the VortexI Was WrongIdeas that MatterIdentifying the MindIdentity and Agency in Cultural WorldsIgnorance and ImaginationIllnessImagination and Its PathologiesImagination and the Meaningful BrainImagining NumbersImmortal RemainsImproving Nature?In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of HealthIn Defense of SentimentalityIn Love With LifeIn Praise of Athletic BeautyIn Praise of the WhipIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of HappinessIn the Name of GodIn the Name of IdentityIn the Space of ReasonsIn Two MindsIncompatibilism's AllureIndividual Differences in Conscious ExperienceInfinity and PerspectiveInformation ArtsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchIngmar Bergman, Cinematic PhilosopherInhuman ThoughtsInner PresenceInsanityIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntelligent VirtueIntentionIntentionality, Deliberation and AutonomyIntentions and IntentionalityIntentions and IntentionalityInterpreting MindsInterpreting NietzscheIntroducing Greek PhilosophyIntrospection and ConsciousnessIntrospection VindicatedIntuition, Imagination, and Philosophical MethodologyIntuitionismInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIrrationalityIs Academic Feminism Dead?Is It Me or My Meds?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is Oedipus Online?Is Science Neurotic?Is Science Value Free?Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion?Is There a Duty to Die?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJacques LacanJacques RancièreJacques RanciereJean-Paul SartreJohn McDowellJohn SearleJohn Searle's Ideas About Social RealityJohn Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill and the Writing of CharacterJoint AttentionJokesJonathan EdwardsJudging and UnderstandingJustice for ChildrenJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeKantKant and MiltonKant and the Fate of AutonomyKant and the Limits of AutonomyKant and the Role of Pleasure in Moral ActionKant on Freedom, Law, and HappinessKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Anatomy of EvilKant's Anatomy of the Intelligent MindKant's Theory of VirtueKarl JaspersKarl PopperKey Concepts in PhilosophyKierkegaardKierkegaard as PhenomenologistKierkegaard's Concept of DespairKinds of MindsKinds, Things, and StuffKnowing, Knowledge and BeliefsKnowledge MonopoliesKnowledge, Belief, and CharacterKnowledge, Possibility, and ConsciousnessLacanLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLanguageLanguage in ContextLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Culture, and MindLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw and the BrainLaw, Liberty, and PsychiatryLaws, Mind, and Free WillLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberatory PsychiatryLife and ActionLife at the Texas State Lunatic Asylum, 1857-1997Life Is Not a Game of PerfectLife of the MindLife's FormLife, Death, & MeaningLife, Death, and Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of UtilityLife, Sex, and IdeasLight in the Dark RoomLike a Splinter in Your MindLiving and Dying WellLiving NarrativeLiving Outside Mental IllnessLiving with DarwinLiving With One’s PastLockeLocke LockeLogic and the Art of Memory Loneliness in Philosophy, Psychology, and LiteratureLooking for SpinozaLooking for The StrangerLost SoulsLOT 2LoveLoveLove's ConfusionsLove's VisionLove, Friendship, and the SelfLove, Sex & TragedyLuckyLudwig WittgensteinLustLyingMachine ConsciousnessMad for FoucaultMad TravelersMade with WordsMadness And Death In PhilosophyMadness and DemocracyMadness at HomeMadness Is CivilizationMaking Natural KnowledgeMaking Sense of EvolutionMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMaking the DSM-5Making the Social WorldMaking TruthMale Female EmailMan, Beast, and ZombieMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManiaManic Depression and CreativityMapping the Edges and the In-betweenMapping the Future of BiologyMarcus AureliusMaster PassionsMatters of the MindMe++Meaning and Moral OrderMeaning and Value in a Secular AgeMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeaning, Basic Self-Knowledge, and MindMeasuring HappinessMeasuring PsychopathologyMedia MadnessMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedicine of the PersonMedicine, Mental Health, Religion, Science and Well-BeingMelancholy And the Care of the SoulMelancholy and the Otherness of GodMementoMemory and NarrativeMental ActionsMental CausationMental Causation and OntologyMental HealthMental Health At The CrossroadsMental Health Policy in BritainMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMerleau-PontyMerleau-Ponty and the Possibilities of PhilosophyMetacognition and Theory of MindMetacreationMetaethical SubjectivismMetaethicsMetal and FleshMetaphors of MemoryMetapoliticsMethods in MindMichel FoucaultMill's UtilitarianismMindMindMind and ConsciousnessMind and CosmosMind and MechanismMind GamesMind in a Physical WorldMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind in LifeMind TimeMind's LandscapeMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMind, Brain, and Free WillMind, Reason and ImaginationMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds and PersonsMinds, Brains, and LawMinds, Ethics, and ConditionalsMindshapingMindsightMindworldsMirror, MirrorMixed FeelingsMockingbird YearsModels of the SelfModern Social ImaginariesModern Theories of JusticeModernity and SubjectivityModernity and TechnologyMoody Minds DistemperedMoral DimensionsMoral FailureMoral ImaginationMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral ParticularismMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology and Human AgencyMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Moral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMotherhoodMotive and RightnessMoving Beyond Prozac, DSM, and the New PsychiatryMultiple Analogies in Science and PhilosophyMultiple Identities & False MemoriesMusic, Madness, and the Unworking of LanguageMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Double UnveiledMy WayNarrativeNarrative and IdentityNarrative MedicineNarrative PsychiatryNarrative Theory and the Cognitive SciencesNatural Ethical FactsNatural Kinds and Conceptual ChangeNatural MindsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalism and the First-Person PerspectiveNaturalism and the Human ConditionNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalized BioethicsNaturalizing the MindNatureNature and NarrativeNear Death ExperienceNeither Bad nor MadNeither Victim nor SurvivorNeuro-Philosophy and the Healthy MindNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neurophilosophy at WorkNeurophilosophy of Free WillNeuropoliticsNeuropsychoanalysis in PracticeNeuroscience and PhilosophyNew Essays on the Explanation of ActionNew Philosophy for a New MediaNew Versions of VictimsNew Waves in Philosophy of ActionNietzscheNietzsche and Buddhist PhilosophyNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNietzsche's TherapyNietzsche, Culture and EducationNietzsche: The Man and His PhilosophyNihil UnboundNoir AnxietyNormative EthicsNormativityNorms of NatureNotebooks 1951-1959Notes Toward a Performative Theory of AssemblyNothing So AbsurdOblivionOn AnxietyOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn Being AuthenticOn BeliefOn BullshitOn DelusionOn DesireOn EmotionsOn HashishOn Human RightsOn Loving Our EnemiesOn Nature and LanguageOn PersonalityOn ReflectionOn Romantic LoveOn the EmotionsOn the Freud WatchOn the Government of the LivingOn the Human ConditionOn the InternetOn the Meaning of LifeOn the Philosophy of LawOn the Pragmatics of CommunicationOn the Punitive SocietyOn TruthOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne Hundred DaysOnflowOnly a Promise of HappinessOntology of ConsciousnessOpen MindedOpen Your EyesOrgans without BodiesOther MindsOur Last Great IllusionOur Own MindsOur Posthuman FutureOur StoriesOut of Its MindOut of Our HeadsOxford Guide to the MindOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPanic DisorderPanpsychism in the WestPartialityPassionate EnginesPassionate EnginesPathologies of BeliefPathologies of ReasonPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perceiving the WorldPerception & CognitionPerception and Basic BeliefsPerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPerceptual ExperiencePerfecting VirtuePerplexities of ConsciousnessPersistencePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal IdentityPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonal Identity and Fractured SelvesPersonhood and Health CarePersonsPersons and BodiesPersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPersons, Souls and DeathPerspectives on ImitationPerspectives on PragmatismPessimismPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenal ConsciousnessPhenomenal IntentionalityPhenomenology and ExistentialismPhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophersPhilosophers on MusicPhilosophers without GodsPhilosophical CounselingPhilosophical Counselling and the UnconsciousPhilosophical DevicesPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical History and the Problem of ConsciousnessPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in Psychiatry IIPhilosophical MethodologyPhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophical Myths of the FallPhilosophical Perspectives on DepictionPhilosophical Perspectives on Technology and PsychiatryPhilosophical PracticePhilosophical Reflections on DisabilityPhilosophizing About Sex Philosophizing the EverydayPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy and LivingPhilosophy and PsychiatryPhilosophy and PsychotherapyPhilosophy and Science FictionPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the Interpretation of Pop CulturePhilosophy and the Moving ImagePhilosophy and the NeurosciencesPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy As FictionPhilosophy BitesPhilosophy Bites BackPhilosophy for Counselling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy for LifePhilosophy in a New CenturyPhilosophy in an Age of SciencePhilosophy in Children's LiteraturePhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BodyPhilosophy of Film and Motion PicturesPhilosophy of LovePhilosophy of Love, Sex, and MarriagePhilosophy of MindPhilosophy of Mind and CognitionPhilosophy of Personal Identity and Multiple PersonalityPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy of Public HealthPhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhilosophy of the Social SciencesPhilosophy on TapPhilosophy PracticePhilosophy the Day after TomorrowPhilosophy's Role in Counseling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhilosophy, Politics, DemocracyPhotography and PhilosophyPhysical RealizationPhysicalism and Its DiscontentsPhysicalism and Mental CausationPhysicalism, or Something Near EnoughPhysician-Assisted DyingPillar of SaltPin-up GrrrlsPlatoPlatoPlato, Not Prozac!Platonic Ethics, Old and NewPluralistic CasuistryPolarities of ExperiencesPolitical EmotionsPopper, Objectivity and the Growth of KnowledgePornPorn StudiesPornography, Sex, and FeminismPortrait of the Psychiatrist as a Young ManPostcolonial DisordersPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPower and the SelfPower SplitPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical ConflictsPractical Identity and Narrative AgencyPractical PhilosophyPractical RulesPractical Tortoise RaisingPractically ProfoundPracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPragmatic BioethicsPragmatismPragmatism, Old And NewPraise and BlamePredicative MindsPreferences and Well-BeingPrescriptions for the MindPresocraticsPrimary and Secondary QualitiesPrimates and PhilosophersPrivacyPrivileged AccessProblems in MindProblems of RationalityProzac As a Way of LifeProzac BacklashProzac on the CouchPsyche and SomaPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric Cultures ComparedPsychiatric Diagnosis and ClassificationPsychiatric EthicsPsychiatric PowerPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry and Philosophy of SciencePsychiatry and ReligionPsychiatry as a Human SciencePsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry in SocietyPsychiatry in the New MilleniumPsychiatry in the Scientific ImagePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsycho-Physical Dualism TodayPsychoanalysis and Narrative MedicinePsychoanalysis and the Philosophy of SciencePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and PhilosophyPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, and the Politics of Human RelationshipsPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPsychotherapy As PraxisPublic PhilosophyPunishmentPure ImmanencePurple HazePursuing MeaningQuality of Life and Human DifferenceQueer PhilosophyQuestions for FreudQuestions for FreudQuine and Davidson on Language, Thought and RealityRaceRace in Contemporary MedicineRadiant CoolRadical AlterityRadical ExternalismRadical HopeRational and Social AgencyRational CausationRational Choice in an Uncertain WorldRationality + Consciousness = Free WillRationality and FreedomRationality and the Reflective MindRationality in ActionRawls, Dewey, and ConstructivismRe-creating MedicineRe-EmergenceRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReading AutobiographyReading Bernard WilliamsReading SartreReadings in the Philosophy of TechnologyReal MaterialismReal Natures and Familiar ObjectsReal ScienceRealism in ActionReason & EmancipationReason in ActionReason in PhilosophyReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReasoning About Rational AgentsReasoning in Biological DiscoveriesReasons from WithinReasons without RationalismReclaiming CognitionReclaiming the SoulReconceiving SchizophreniaReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecreative MindsRediscovering EmotionRediscovering EmpathyReference and ExistenceReference and the Rational MindReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRegulating SexReinventing the SoulRelativism and Human RightsRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyReliable ReasoningReligion without GodRelying on OthersRemembering HomeResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsRestraining RageRethinking ExpertiseRethinking IntrospectionRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeRethinking the DSMRethinking the Sociology of Mental HealthRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfReturn to ReasonRevolt, She SaidRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard Rorty's New PragmatismRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRise And Fall of Soul And SelfRitalin NationRobert NozickRousseauRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Derrida on DeconstructionRules, Reason, and Self-KnowledgeSaints, Scholars, and Schizophrenics: Mental 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The Feeling BodyReview - The Feeling Body
Affective Science Meets the Enactive Mind
by Giovanna Colombetti
MIT Press, 2014
Review by Kerrin A. Jacobs, PhD
Sep 30th 2014 (Volume 18, Issue 40)

In her recently published book The Feeling Body, Giovanna Colombetti advances a unique enactivistic approach, which reintegrates cognitive and affective science with the philosophy of mind and phenomenology. The author particularly points to the leading role that the disciplines of experimental psychology and neuroscience have for the central aim to further develop the enactivist approach by extending it to the research field of "affect" resp. "affectivity". As such, Colombetti's research on affectivity is inspired by the hypothesis that enactivism is "a highly suitable framework for an account of affectivity that characterizes it as an essential dimension of the mind" (p. xiii). Consequently, the enactive paradigm provides the conceptual background for Colombetti's project of the reconceptualization of emotional experience.

The book is thematically subdivided into seven chapters that are in the following commented separately along the lines of their central hypotheses:

In the first chapter (Primordial Affectivity) the reader is introduced to a sophisticated approach to the affective roots of the mind. The general claim is that the dimension of affectivity entails much more phenomena than emotions, moods, and feelings. Consequently, approaches that still would follow the assumption that the realm of affectivity is bailed out solely with analyses of the specific intentionality and phenomenality solely of the emotions and moods should open up to the idea of expanding the realm of affectivity in order to address the complexity of emotion experience. Moreover, also those approaches that rather remain scratching on the surface or generally spare out the enactivist perspective on affectivity equally get critically assessed in the light of Giovanna Colombetti's central claim: that affectivity has to be regarded in the first place as highly depending on the organizational properties of life, according to which even the most "simple" living systems (e.g. a bacterium), can be determined as being affective (p. 2). The hanger for this idea is Colombetti's concept of `primordial affectivity´, which allows one to criticize not only current notions of affecticity as being too narrowly defined, but which furthermore appears as refreshing alternative to common theories, such as "core affect" (as for instance suggested by James Russel 2003 Core Affect and the Psychological Construction of Emotion) or Stern's account of "vitality affects" (Stern 1985 The Interpersonal World of the Infant) that aim to capture this "basic" dimension of affectivity. This becomes obvious when Colombetti compares her account of primordial affectivity, for instance, with the conception of core affect that is determined as a "primitive feeling" to which a certain valence or arousal is always central. As such, it remains, however, a neurophysiological state, which is always consciously detected or represented by the organism. With the specification of affectivity in terms of primordial affectivity, Colombetti, in contrast, aims to go further: she expands the concept of affectivity in such a way, that to qualify as affective and sense-making organism no longer depends on the nervous system, but rather, that consciousness is enacted through and by the organic system as a whole. Consequently, even those organisms that do not possess a nervous system qualify as affective organisms in this very primordial sense. Therein the concept of primordial affectivity fully assumes the enactive spirit, as it depends on a theory of the reciprocal relationship of an organism and its particular environment, especially, in terms of "bringing forth a world of significance" (p.21). Instead of focusing exclusively on the capability for conscious "assessment" that is often regarded as the prerequisite for characterizing an organism as somehow enabled for being engaged in sense-making procedures, Colombetti's notion of primordial affectivity allows to emphasize that this is not the decisive criterion for including organisms to the realm of affective beings. When affectivity is determined as a property of the organization of living systems, which appears prior to any sort of consciousness, the parlance of some kind of "significance" or sense-making -- also for a bacterium -- seems reasonable. Moreover, it would be misleading to conclude that the concept of primordial affectivity (like alternative conceptualizations of affectivity that are discussed in this first chapter) can be labeled as "noncognitive". Inasmuch as Colombetti stringently follows the enactive path and conceptually ties primordial affectivity to the enactive-sense-making-hypothesis, this notion in fact addresses a cognitive-affective sense-making phenomenon. And therein it certainly shows a high potential to challenge some prominent recent theories of enactivism, too. Although some enactive approaches may agree with Colombetti that affectivity needs to become acknowledged for its deepest levels (e.g., in terms of most basic self-regulation processes according to adaptivity, or in terms of stressing an organism´s autonomy), some of them would probably not define the respective processes involved on that stage as being "truly" cognitive ones (as e.g. Damasio 2010 Self Comes to Mind, chap. 2), even when some sort of sense-making without "brain" is confirmed on a conceptual level.

The reader is invited to follow Colombetti's specific reading of the fundamental processes of life regulation as enabling organisms to maintain themselves, and that these very processes can be understood as already meaning generating and therefore affective" (p.23; italics K.J). Insofar as Colombetti follows an enactive characterization of cognition, i.e. determining cognition to be already affective (xvii; p.18), her account of primordial affectivity then necessarily has to count as "sense making" in terms of cognition, too. And still the skeptic might however insist that it is one thing to claim that emotion and cognition both are integral to sense-making in organisms, and that it is quite another to claim that the emotions and cognition, as well as conative or "striving" aspects of sense-making (for which Colombetti also critically reflects on recent accounts of vitalty), are already adequately addressed with such a primordial dimension of being. A way of avoiding a fundamental misreading of her account as one claiming a rich emotional life and complex cognition even to a microbe, is to grant primordial affectivity the status of a property: The fundamental capacity of an organism is to be responsive to and be in exchange with the world, i.e. to maintain itself in continuous processes of self-regulating activity. Especially with respect to this dimension of self-regulation Colombetti's enactive approach entails also a refusal of the common assumption that an organism´s evaluations are prior to its emotions and desires. In line with Spinoza´s idea of the conative dimension of affect, resp., his famous account of conatus (Spinoza [1677] 1894 Ethics) according to which all things strive to persevere in being, we can state with Colombetti, that what counts as "good" or "bad" for an organism cannot be longer defined as something an organism acquires through somehow "disembodied" evaluation. In reversing the standard theories of evaluative orientation and by stressing the purposive nature as intrinsic to all organisms, that what really is of importance for organisms is enacted in terms of their continuity (p.5; see also chap. 4). This is anchored by the hypothesis that even the most non-complex organisms stand in a regulatory interaction with the world, which then makes it possible to transform the world into an environment, thus, into a space to which salience, value, meaning, sense, etc. is essential (cf. Thompson & Stapleton 2009, Making sense if Sense-making 24ff). While richer forms of mind then generally correspond with more elaborated modes of affective-cognitive sense-making processes, the various degrees of conscious awareness determine the possibility for specific competence for (self-)reflexive assessment, respectively. Consequently, the functional role of primordial affectivity for enabling the conscious experience of valence and the processes of striving also in richer and differentiated ways, i.e. in terms of significance and meaning in higher developed organisms becomes transparent with Colombetti's enactive theory. As such, her approach deeply embraces the core of enactivism, namely, the idea of a deep continuity of life and mind, i.e. that the "[…] organizational properties distinctive of mind are an enriched version of those fundamental to life" (Thompson 2007 Mind in Life, x).

In having thus prepared the enactive grounds for her interdisciplinary view on the feeling body and emotion experience, the author continues to explore the emotions as being not the only repositories of affectivity, and elegantly navigates the reader with the second chapter (The Emotions: Existing Accounts and their problems) through the complex debate about the nature of the emotions. The chapter starts with the author's solid critique of a theory of basic emotions (BET). Colombetti continues to find also arguments against those theories that often have been reconsidered as an adequate alternative to BET. According to her assessment, neither the common theories that follow a psychological constructionist perspective, nor a theory that integrates a more sophisticated "component-process-model" (CPM) can qualify as adequate theories of the emotions, or sufficiently describe what happens during emotion experience.

The main problem of the BET is to contribute to the conviction that the existence of a fixed number of pancultural emotions (cf. Ekman & Friesen 1971Constants across Cultures in the Face and Emotion; 1987; Ekman & Heider 1988 The Universality of Contempt Expression), i.e. "basic emotions", can be asserted to exist (for a reassessment of what can be called "basic" in all emotions see also: Ekman & Cordaro 2011 What is Meant by Calling Emotions Basic). Especially, the idea that basic emotions can be clearly discriminated from those emotions that are not panculturally established, and thus have no such distinctive organismic traits, is rejected by Colombetti. Her analysis points to the problem of the arbitrariness by which some emotions have been labeled as "basic". Consequently, the "building-block-theory" (Levenson 2011 Basic Emotions Questions; Panksepp & Watt 2011 What is Basic about Basic Emotions) that contributes to a unifying perspective on basic and nonbasic emotions (see also: Prinz 2004 Gut Reactions), and the "disunity-thesis-theory" (Griffith 1997 What Emotions Really Are) that stress a verifiable line of discrimination between such allegedly basic emotions and the "nonbasic" ones are targeted by Colombetti's critique. As a result, the author suggests to drop the idea of a somehow clear-cut set of such discrete emotions all together with the idea that these may function as the "building blocks" for more complex or higher cognitive emotions. In particular, she disagrees with those theories that seem to fully deny the emotions (or rather: emotional episodes) as biological entities (or: biological events). According to Colombetti's view, emotions neither can be tamed within the frames of a strong constructionist account, which claims that emotions formulate along the lines of mere categorization processes (e.g. Barrett 2006 Valence is a Basic Building Block of Emotional Life), nor can the component process model (as it has been proposed by Scherer 2009 The Dynamic Architecture of Emotion) convincingly describe emotional experience, at least not, when one favours a theory of the emotions that fully matches the enactive hypotheses. However sophisticated the component theory may be, its model of the emotional process, as Colombetti elaborates in chapter four, seems not to allow for "the organism to generate emotional episodes without the pervasive guidiance and control of an army of appraisal checks" (p. 52); thus, it cannot follow up with the most relevant aspects of biological self-organization and the complex reciprocity of different processes in an organism which are so central to Colombetti´s enactivist theory of emotion. Consequently, she focusses on a different account of the emotions which reveals a new perspective on emotional episodes as dynamical patterns.

In chapter three (Emotional Episodes as Dynamical Patterns) Colombetti introduces the research paradigm of embodied dynamicism as integral to enactivism (cf. Thompson 2007, 10; Colombetti p. 5) and enters the realm of dynamical affective science (p.56ff). Within this specific disciplinary frame, emotional episodes can be conceptualized as "self-organizing configurations of the organism" (p. 82). This means that emotional episodes always correspond to specific "second-order constrains" or rather: "emotion forms" (p. 69), which are the highly integrative patterns according to which the processes of recruiting or entraining the respective neural, muscular or autonomic processes in specific emotion experiences take place. In analogy to emotional episodes, also moods become reconceptualized in terms of such a dynamic perspective. But in comparison to emotional episodes, the "mood forms" of the organism fundamentally differ with respect to their time-scale, i.e. these are normally understood as lasting longer than the emotions, and are not "about" objects. Colombetti also mentions the influence moods have on emotional episodes and vice versa. If one is in a certain mood, this also determines to some extent which kinds of emotional episodes one might be experientially open to in processes of self-and-world-disclosure. In addition, certain recurring emotional episodes can, of course, induce severe mood changes. One might also add that in certain psychopathologies such affective patterns can become very rigid on the most structural physiological level, and as such, lead to the constant enaction of behavior and corresponding evaluative experience that then may count as symptomatic from a psychiatric-phenomenological view on certain mental disorders (cf. Jacobs 2013 The Depressive Situation).

Central to Colombetti's understanding of emotional episodes as flexible and loosely assembled dynamical patterns is also that these have a cultural and individual specificity, as well as a reliable cross-cultural recurrence. With this chapter, Colombetti emphasizes as an important task of future affective science to further investigate in which situational context and in what kind of variations these "emotion forms" of the organism occur. By leaving the ideas of "basic emotion" and the "building block-view" behind, Colombetti asserts that each of such complex dynamical patterns has to be regarded as being shaped by evolutionary processes and developmental time spans, which counterbalances the need for debating whether one emotion may be more "basic" than the other. This reflects in large parts basic ideas of Jason Clark´s convincing approach on the homology between higher cognitive and basic emotions (Clark 2010 Relations of Homology). With his approach, the disunity-hypothesis on emotions can be opposed within a debate on their complexity that stresses the plasticity of basic emotions, their adaptivity, and thus, especially their functional dimension. Albeit Clark retains the construct of basic emotions, his central claim that complex emotions are homologous with basic ones has fostered a unifying perspective on the emotions. As such, Clark's theory is discussed by Colombetti especially with respect to the advantage that one does not need to stick to the building block theory of the emotions. Such an adoption of evolutionary considerations asserts that basic emotions can become molded into different ones, i.e. they might keep some basic features, but also may change their functionality due to the process of adaptation. Then the question arises whether emotions might become not only more complex in function, but whether complexity shows also in terms of emotion appearance (e.g. its bodily manifestations). The striking difference to the dynamical account is, that such an evolutionary approach to the emotions, rather than all too enthusiastically predicting that emotional episodes in humans will become manifest with such a variability, thumps on evidence for it.

Colombetti continues in chapter four (Reappraising Appraisal) to question, how we can understand the evaluative processes of self-and-world-disclosure in organisms after the standard theory of appraisal has been critically assessed. Apparently, emotional episodes cannot be nailed down to the mere arousing aspect these have for an organism. One could rather follow the assumption that experiencing an emotional episode always already means to be in a specific evaluative mode, to which a kind of arousal may be central, but which cannot be reduced to it. This view is fortified not only by the phenomenological perspective, but also backed by neuroscientific considerations, which exemplarily stress that appraisal does not necessarily has to be explained in terms of a distinct process or a separate mechanism triggering the specific emotional responses of an organism. This supports the theory of enactivism to which it is evident that the activity of appraising is nothing to be separated from, but rather always has to be regarded as overlapping with the deepest bodily (non-cognitive) dimensions of emotionality, or as Colombetti puts it: with what is traditionally regarded as the bodily components of emotion (p.112). This overlap shows not only from a mere temporal perspective on the appraising process, thus is empirically backed, but moreover is already close to the conceptual implications of `conatus´, which mirrors on a conceptual level the reintegration of organismic activity (bodily corporal dimension) with all sorts of (dynamic affective) evaluation.

A highlight for phenomenologists is chapter five (How the Body Feels in Emotion Experience), that provides the reader with a thoughtful analysis of the complex modes of embodied emotion, while especially the author´s explanation of such specific experiences, such as "being absorbed in an activity", points towards the merits of a phenomenological view for her enactivist approach. The insight "that the debate on the bodily nature of emotion experience cannot progress without a phenomenological account of bodily feelings that does justice to their complexity" (p. 132) is thoroughly reflected. It acuminates in Colombetti's critique of the hypothesis that there has to be nonbodily emotional experience, because some emotion experiences do not involve feeling of the body. That the body itself does not have to be the intentional object to account for emotion experience as being something fundamentally bodily becomes clear, when Colombetti illustrates the multifaceted ways the body is felt with more or less conspicuity. In addition to this fundamental difference between conspicuousand inconspicuous bodily feelings, the distinction of foreground and background bodily feelings becomes important for her analysis of emotion experience, too. Colombetti's systematization of bodily feelings delineates background bodily feelings, in which the body rather tacitly enters emotion experiences (as a vehicle, i.e. as that, through which an organism experiences its world), from foreground bodily feelings. The latter belong to the conspicuous bodily feelings, to which it is central that the body is the intentional object, thus stands in the focus of one´s attention. In contrast to conspicuous bodily feelings, the inconspicuous ones include feelings of the body, while the body as such is an intentional object rather at the periphery of attention. On first sight it appears a bit puzzling that foreground bodily feelings are determined as a specific subclass of the conspicuous feelings on the one hand, and simultaneously become described as "bodily feelings where the body is not (italics K.J.) an intentional object of experience" (p.132) on the other. But what this particular case shows, is, that we can at least address those emotional situations in which the body, albeit being not the intentional object of awareness, still is much reflected (somehow remains "at the front of awareness" S. 132) by an organism that enters emotional experience. This illustrates the usefulness of Colombetti's categorization of embodied emotional experience and therein develops further other fine-grained systematizations of emotional (as bodily) experience in phenomenological emotion research (e.g. Matthew Ratcliffe 2008 Feelings of Being).

The author further maintains in chapter 6 (Ideas for an Affective "Neuro-physio-phenomenology") that it is first and foremost an empirical task to answer the question in which ways the lived experience of emotion is underpinned by bodily and brain processes, and even more important: how exactly the "subpersonal brain-centered" and mere "bodily" perspectives relate to each other. Here Colombetti strenghtens her claim for interdisciplinary research on the feeling body, as any neuroscientific exploration of the emotion experience can benefit from implementing a wide range of study methods, such as using first- and second-person methods for gaining first-person data (p.159). According to Colombetti's point of view, it unfortunate that there have not yet been made the same efforts for developing methods to investigate the lived experience of emotion as for the development of elaborated methods measuring bodily and brain activity during emotion. This gets emphasized by her outline of an affective neuro-physio-phenomenology, which is devoted to integrative perspectives that focus on the organism as a whole. Colombetti speculates on the high potential for new scientific findings by extending the current research on brain activity in order to find also adequate methods that measure bodily activity. That consciousness is nothing that sufficiently is described in terms of mere brain activity, but enacted by the living organism as a whole calls for testing the hypothesis of the continuity of life and mind within such an interdisciplinary framework. The skeptic, who does not like to raise the common "armchair"-objections (such as whether the investigation of emotional experience may not be fundamentally distorted by the very testing scenarios themselves) may ask further: What practical impact have these particular studies? The central questions may not solely be whether the continuity hypothesis can be empirically tested, and how promising certain methods are for reaching maybe even groundbreaking results that allow for a deeper scientific understanding, for instance, of changes in emotional experience in certain psychopathologies. Rather, one must ask whether and how exactly specific attitudes associated with enactivism as a philosophy of life may become fostered or even habituated in people. To uphold a brain scan or EEG results of someone who felt once anger induced in the lab, while being infront of two people that have a serious quarrel, and to further explain in detail to them, how their brain and bodily activities relate while they are fighting, might eventually not have the same practical implications as to remind them of their humanity, to probably reflect on their conatus, and to ask themselves, whether enacting in conflict is actually a good `emotion form´ to share. Another practically relevant insight of enactivism might be to see some necessity in investing also in projects that take the enactivist thinking seriously in lights of ethical and political thinking, too. Colombetti's book does not really address this point of the ethics of enactivism, and what enacting it may entail. The ethical dimension of enactivism, of course, has many facets. Its applied dimension is revealed when one engages, for instance, in projects that aim to find solutions of how to stop poisoning our environments (thus ourselves). Another might probably see crucial hypotheses of animal ethics further grounded by the enactivistic approach, and find one more reason for stopping to eat tons of meat. The ethics of enactivism also include a meta-level, inasmuch as these may contribute to the prevention of a future "staying in lab-minded" research agenda. This would allow eventually to open to certain aspects of those approaches (e.g. about certain forms of self-regulation, alternative life-styles, etc.) that currently are still perceived as either too unscientific, or even already have been labeled as esoteric/exoteric threats for a "true" scientific enactivism. Therefore, the extent to which the enactive paradigm relies on its ethical dimension in order to manage its intra- and interdisciplinarity is also an empirical question that needs to be addressed.  

Chapter seven (Feeling Others) finally deals with the issue of social cognition where Colombetti puts much emphasize on the affective-embodied dimension that fundamentally allow for and shape processes of social interaction. Colombetti's analysis of how we experience ourselves in relation to other living bodily beings exemplarily points to the distinction between someone´s capacity for basic empathy and other phenomena such as feelings of sympathy, impressions of others, or specific feelings of intimacy. The concept of basic empathy refers to someone's ability for a direct perception of the subjective and particularly emotional modes of enaction of other organisms. In Colombetti's opinion, this basic empathy is furthermore a necessary requirement for experiencing sympathy. While one might agree with the conceptual considerations of Peter Goldie (2000, The emotions, p.198) that in order to be enabled for sympathy, an individual does not necessarily has to have either a full understanding of the other's situation (e.g. his "narratives" etc.) nor has to have a complete characterization of the other´s (non-)psychological traits, according to Colombetti, at least a minimal "awareness of the other as a locus of experiencing, a lived body" (p.185), thus: basic empathy, is needed for being able to enact modes of sympathy. Her concept of basic empathy aims to account for the experiential dimension of sympathy as a feeling for the other. What on first sight might appear as entailing an all too reductionist perspective on ´empathy`, addressing it on such a basic level (yet not in terms of primordiality!) makes perfect sense, if one takes into account that Colombetti tries to fill a gap in most accounts of sympathy, namely, when one further aims to conceptualize the ability to grasp someone´s subjectivity and to simultaneously address it is as experienced in the symapthizer due to an enactivist perspective. Consequently, sympathy cannot be entirely disentangled from awareness of the other persons' experience, but much more important for Colombetti is that if one puts emphasis on sympathy as a fellow feeling, this necessarily implies more than the criterion of a simple awareness of an other as center of consciousness (as Goldie suggests it). It rather inclines one to further stress the feeling dimension of it in terms of one lived body being open to other bodily beings. Inasmuch as sympathy includes basic empathy as an experiential prerequisite, it is not longer possible to address it adequately as "a lonely subject´s desire to be kind" (p.185), but rather straightforwardly reconceptualize it as dynamic interactional pattern that enfolds, and is modulated in processes of encountering the attitudes and expressions of the other with empathy.

One might note that Colombetti's ideas on basic empathy can not only inspire the ongoing discussion of autism, but also is relevant for the reconceptualization of incapabilities of psychopaths (cf. Maibom 2014 Without Fellow Feeling; Jacobs 2014 Psychopathic Comportment). It certainly supports to those accounts that stress a fundamental lack of empathy to explain why psychopaths are not only antisocial, but explicitly enact amorally. It is of high relevance to continue the discussion on the role of mimicry in the development and enhancement of prosocial behavior, which Colombetti addresses, too. She does not only review the existing approaches that evidence this particular enhancing function of mimicry, but further links this to phenomenological considerations. The ability to mimicry others is reassessed for having the specific function of fostering feelings of closeness (p. 181ff). Moreover, it is this "converging function" that points to some "basic" aspects also present in mimicry, insofar the bonding power (p. 198f) might be essential for grounding more complex modes of bodily interaction, i.e. is a basis for more varied and reciprocal forms that promote rapport, feelings of closeness to others, and also intimacy.

In summary, The Feeling Body -- Affective Science Meets the Enactive Mind is an excellent read in enactivism that masters the challenge of illuminating affectivity within a new "neuro-physio-phenomenological" paradigm. It is rewarding for the reader that Colombetti develops her own enactive approach against the backdrop of careful reviews of other theories and thereby develops exactly this subtle critical view on some cherished research paradigm that inspires the reader to follow the new paths she prepares with her book for the future discussion on emotion experience. The book proves to be a remarkably clear written source of knowledge for all those that wish to learn more about the mind as an embodied and thoroughly living phenomenon.                                                                   

 

© Kerrin A. Jacobs 2014

 

Kerrin A. Jacobs, PhD 


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