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the PastOur Posthuman FutureOut of EdenOut of Its MindOut of the ShadowsOverdosed AmericaOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPassionate DeliberationPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perfecting VirtuePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonhood and Health CarePersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPerspectives On Health And Human RightsPharmacracyPharmageddonPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhysician-Assisted DyingPicturing DisabilityPilgrim at Tinker CreekPlaying God?Playing God?Political EmotionsPornlandPowerful MedicinesPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical EthicsPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical RulesPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic NeuroethicsPraise and BlamePreferences and Well-BeingPrimates and PhilosophersPro-Life, Pro-ChoiceProcreation and ParenthoodProfits Before 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Pursuit of PerfectionThe Relevance of Philosophy to LifeThe Right Road to Radical FreedomThe Right to Be ParentsThe Righteous MindThe Root of All EvilThe Rules of InsanityThe Second SexismThe Second-Person StandpointThe Silent World of Doctor and PatientThe Sleep of ReasonThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Speed of DarkThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Story of Cruel and UnusualThe Story WithinThe Stubborn System of Moral ResponsibilityThe Suicide TouristThe Terrible GiftThe Theory of OptionsThe Therapy of DesireThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Triple HelixThe Trolley Problem MysteriesThe Trouble with DiversityThe Truth About the Drug CompaniesThe Ugly LawsThe Varieties of Religious ExperienceThe Virtues of HappinessThe Virtuous Life in Greek EthicsThe Virtuous PsychiatristThe Voice of Breast Cancer in Medicine and BioethicsThe War Against BoysThe War for Children's MindsThe Whole ChildThe Woman RacketThe Worldwide Practice of TortureTherapy with ChildrenThieves of VirtueThree Generations, No ImbecilesTimes of Triumph, Times of DoubtTolerance Among The VirtuesTolerance and the Ethical LifeTolerationToxic PsychiatryTrauma, Truth and ReconciliationTreatment Kind and FairTrusting on the EdgeTry to RememberUltimate JudgementUnborn in the USA: Inside the War on AbortionUndermining ScienceUnderstanding AbortionUnderstanding CloningUnderstanding EmotionsUnderstanding EvilUnderstanding Moral ObligationUnderstanding Physician-Pharmaceutical Industry InteractionsUnderstanding TerrorismUnderstanding the GenomeUnderstanding the Stigma of Mental IllnessUnderstanding Treatment Without ConsentUnhingedUnprincipled VirtueUnsanctifying Human Life: Essays on EthicsUnspeakable Acts, Ordinary PeopleUp in FlamesUpheavals of ThoughtUsers and Abusers of PsychiatryValue-Free Science?Values and Psychiatric DiagnosisValues in ConflictVegetarianismViolence and Mental DisorderVirtue EthicsVirtue, Rules, and JusticeVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVirtues and Their VicesWar Against the WeakWar, Torture and TerrorismWarrior's DishonourWeaknessWelfare and Rational CareWhat Genes Can't DoWhat Have We DoneWhat Is a Human?What Is Good and WhyWhat Is Good and WhyWhat Is the Good Life?What Price Better Health?What Should I Do?What We Owe to Each OtherWhat Would Aristotle Do?What's Good on TVWhat's Normal?What's Wrong with Children's RightsWhat's Wrong with Homosexuality?What's Wrong With Morality?When Is Discrimination Wrong?Who Holds the Moral High Ground?Who Owns YouWho Qualifies for Rights?Whose America?Whose View of Life?Why Animals MatterWhy Animals MatterWhy I Burned My Book and Other Essays on DisabilityWhy Not Kill Them All?Why Punish? How Much?Why Some Things Should Not Be for SaleWisdom, Intuition and EthicsWithout ConscienceWomen and Borderline Personality DisorderWomen and MadnessWondergenesWould You Kill the Fat Man?Wrestling with Behavioral GeneticsWriting About PatientsYou Must Be DreamingYour Genetic DestinyYour Inner FishYouth Offending and Youth Justice Yuck!
Alain Badiou is one of the most intriguing modern French philosophers.
His main interests include rather divergent intellectual spheres: social
theory and criticism, highly speculative mathematics (set theory and topology),
psychoanalysis (mainly Lacanian), economics, philosophy (theory of subjectivity),
literature, even theology. These days he is mainly known thanks to his
books Théorie du sujet (Seuil, Paris 1982), L 'Etre et
l'évément (Seuil, Paris 1988), Manifeste pour la philosophie,
(Seuil, Paris 1989), Saint Paul et la foundation de l' universalisme
(PUF, Paris 1997). His style is idiosyncratic, seductive, original, highly
allusive and deeply associative. His text is not always easy to follow,
his style is highly demanding for his readers, but almost always it is
live, exciting and literary well shaped.
His new book (originally published in France as L'éthique:
Essai sur la conscience du Mal, Editions Hatier 1998), recently translated
and published by Verso as Ethics. An Essay on the Understanding of Evil,
could be seen as a highly sublimated (speculative, discursive) challenge
to all that could be named as totalitarian, univocal, metaphysics of our
time. The main political context of this book implies feeling for a tension
between America and Europe. Thinking about actual Western concept of the
democracy (for Badiou) implies really serious thinking about its dark side,
about special kind of (not yet recognized) totalitarism. He calls it democratic
totalitarism. In good old tradition of famous European (French) Left,
he is talking about American imperialism and European (cultural and economic)
slavery. There is a lot of (intellectual) activism and criticism in this
book. And while doing that he is (almost) never pathetic and romantic.
This book is concerned with ethics. The question of ethics is, for Badiou
the question of a principle that governs us in our solving the problem
of how do we relate to what is going on. The ethical is actual,
it is (fundamentally) with actuality of that what is going on with us and
around us. And something more -- this question of actuality is a question
of concrete intellectual engagement. The world we are living in is never
static, so there could be no static ethics. The notion of situation is
the author's conceptual tool for better understanding the dynamics of the
world, its political and its ethical dimensions. The real question for
Badiou is of how do we, common mortals, understand our (always particular
-- never abstract) situation? And this question is the ethical one. It
is concern with the ultimate basis of our political (or we could say just
For Badiou there is no ethics in general. There could be no abstractly
postulated, highly formal, ethics. We need something other than formal
ethics. We need (in Badiou's words) the ethics of truth. The ethics is,
speaking in the other words, not a matter of formalism. All of the modern
formalistic imperatives in ethics, being Kantian or non-Kantian, could
be seen as an illusion, as a very dangerous (always potentially totalitarian)
illusion. Something (Lacan would say) imaginary, narcissistic. For Badiou,
there is lot of misunderstanding in our understanding of the ethics.
His critical discussion of Levinas could be seen as one of his main theoretical
contributions to the subject of understanding the ethical matters.
What is it all about? Where to start? The contemporary return to
ethics, I already have mentioned Levinas, uses the word
in an obviously fuzzy way, but one that is closer to Kant (the ethics of
judgment) than to Hegel (the ethics of decision). Ethics today is a matter
of a judgment. It could be seen as a vague way of regulating our commentary
on historical situations (the ethics of human rights), techno-scientific
situations (medical ethics, bio ethics), social situations (the ethics
of being together), media situations (the ethics of communications) etc.
Ethics today is a matter of commenting, of judging and commenting. All
that ethical commenting is deeply metaphysically grounded. Basically it
is articulated so that it constantly misses the point. Truth is always
somewhere else, never it is in the sphere of the judgment. Highly formalized
ethics has its axiological dimension, it openly deals with the question
of what is right and what is wrong. It could be more or less coherent...
But this is not the whole story. Badiou goes further. All of this has its
own social dimension. Every (known) formalization of social or political
is blind for the actuality of the concrete. Possible consequences of this
could be repression and violence, alienation and suffering. In his way
Badiou is telling us his story about civilization and its discontents.
Freud was talking about drives and about frustrating necessity of law.
For Badiou, in the context of his post-Marxist vocabulary, the modern name
for necessity is economics -- the economics of social dominance and alienation.
Economics seen as a matter of understanding of (socially constitutive)
inter-relatedness of mutual exchange of everything that could be exchanged
among individuals. In this sense, we could speak about love, power and
desire, sense and meaning, information, signification...
For Badiou, we live in the world of multilevel exchange. We live in
the world of multilevel inter-relatedness. This inter-relatedness is far
from being chaotic. The place of the logic of this exchange could be (topologically)
located on the place of the normative discourse. There is always some kind
of the Law. In this sense, the normative is the ethical, and the ethical
pretends to be the normative. The normative pretends to be the total. Absolute.
The One. Any real plurality is excluded from the One. The mere idea of
absoluteness is unavoidable restrictive.
We must face influence and repression of society. We must face official
institutions and their values. The norm, the domain of values, is backed
up by official institutions, and carries its own univocal authority. Every
norm is a matter of inter-relatedness. Every norm is a matter of signification.
Every norm presupposes its symbolic articulation. Its way of being commented.The
actual state of affairs in contemporary ethics is seen as (not always self-consciously)
an attempt to rationalize this situation of necessity of commenting something
that has status of the norm, of the Law. The norms are, in the other words,
far from being self-evident. There is always a need for commenting, for
rationalizing. So we live in the world of various ethical commissions.
These commissions are concerned with this commenting-job. They are like
New Testament scribes. Typical for them is to sacrifice the truth for their
own (Lacan would say paranoid) representation of reality. Oppressiveness
of their discourse is metaphysical in its essence. Metaphysical discourse
of our time is dominantly ethical, metaphysical oppressiveness is in its
root. Its face is impersonal, its nature is institutional. It is discourse
of various (institutionalized or not) commissions, institutional commissions.
Their products are judgments, and (of course, from the perspective of the
normative ethics) judgments is something absolutely fundamental. Submission
is something that is expected.
The concept of the Other is one of the basic concepts in most of the
current intellectual debates. Marginal groups, minorities -- everything
today is intended to prize some kind of otherness. Even we have, Badiou
tells us, military expeditions in the name of the ethics of human rights.
The dark side of this ethics of human rights is the economics of human
Everything today is done in the name of the Other... Actual theory is
full of it. Just think about Levinas. Or think about Lacan, Liotar, Habermas
or Derrida. Broadly speaking, theory today is the theory of the Other.
Human subjectivity is seen today as an imprint of otherness. In this sense,
position of Badiou is rather clearly articulated. For him, the current
concept of the Other is deeply problematic. The Kantian (and all post-Kantian)
ethics of judgment presupposes something like the subject of the judgment,
the subject in absolute sense. Where there is such subject, there must
be always some kind of oppressiveness or repression. And where ever there
is a such subject, the truth must be sacrificed. There is no ethics in
general apart the framework of the subject in general. Ideality of Kantian
judgment presupposes ideality of Kantian subject. The totality of judgment
needs total (absolute) subject. And his mere absoluteness implicates his
Totalization of ethical discourse stands on abstractly totalized subject
æ the subject of modernity. Formal coherence of judgment, something
that still sounds like an ultimate ideal of Kantian ethics, keeps hidden
in itself something fundamentally ideologic, narcissistic, restrictive
and totalitarian. The celebrated Other, holy cow of our time, could be
acceptable only if he is a good other... The bad Other could not even be
the Other. There is no place for him. Every possible ideology of univocal
One excludes him from its world. No-good-other is always excluded. There
are no human rights for him. There is no humanity for him.
For Badiou all of the (narcissistically highly invested) respect for
differences is a kind of simulacrum. It is nothing real, it is phantasmatic.
It is just a matter of illusion, illusion deeply rooted in current state
of humanity. "Become like me and I will respect your difference." Not without
a bitter irony, this is the way Badiou articulates one of the basic imperatives
of our time. Other could be (accepted as) the Other only if he is not (really)
the Other. Losing his real otherness would be his way of submission to
the universal Law of political and economical dominance.
Everybody today is talking about the Other. Their discourse is, as Badiou
tell us, deeply misleading. Contrary to them, Badiou is mainly talking
about the Same. His main concern is ontological status of the Same, of
the plural and particular. For Badiou there is no single subject. Always
there is multiplicity of them. The multiplicity of subjects implies multiplicity
of truths. The truth proceeds in the particular situations. In the concrete
(particular) situations, there is no platonic heaven of truth. There is
no abstract order. There is no abstract Other. The actual subject lives
in the world of the many. There could be no one referential Other. Always
there are many others, their multiplicity. The world we are living in is
no world of otherness, it is the world of the multiplicity. Here Badiou
is thinking in the terms of Kantor's theory of infinity. Actual experience
of our living multiplicity could be symbolically articulated with the help
of Kantor's highly speculative extension of the set theory. For Badiou,
even every representation of subject himself is the fictional imposition
of a unity upon infinite component of multiples. Badiou is here having
in the mind something that he calls an immanent brake, the brake
of the immanence.
What is the immanence? The immanence is other side of infinity. The
infinite is (no matter do we recognize it or not) immanent. In Badiou's
world, immanence is something analogous the Lacanian concept of Real. This
immanence (this actual infinity) could never be really totalized. There
is no way to avoid no-totality of particular, of immanent. It could never
be logically integrated in any kind of discourse. Consequences of this
are rather far reaching.
There is no judgment that can formally articulate this immanence. There
is no stabile good. There is no abstractly stabilized evil. The world we
are living in is not the world of binarity. The multiplicity is more fundamental
than any possible binary opposition. Truth is not pre-given transcendent
norm. Truth is something that happens. Possible modalities of its happenings
are infinite. Every truth is singular. Its singularity is potentially always
infinite. Every singular truth has its origin in some singular event. Always
it is pluralistic and turbulent, deeply subversive for any possible representation
of totality. Never is it static; it could never be caught in the words,
in the order of the law. Also there is always something that could never
be articulated and symbolically communicated to the other.
The main importance of this book, I believe, lays in its author's courage
to see things from rather different perspectives. It is not necessary to
agree with him in all of his ideas and to accept all of his theses. On
the contrary, priority is on questions not on answers. And the questions
that are posed here represents the best richness of this book.
© 2001 Petar Jevremovic
Jevremovic: Clinical psychologist and practicing psychotherapist, author
of two books (Psychoanalysis and Ontology, Lacan and Psychoanalysis),
translator of Aristotle and Maximus the Confessor, editor of the Serbian
editions of selected works of Heintz Kohut, Lacques Lacan and Melane Klein,
autor of warious texts that are concerned with psychoanalysis, philosophy,
literature and theology. He lives in Belgrade, Yugoslavia.