email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
Anger and Forgiveness"Are You There Alone?"10 Good Questions about Life and DeathA Casebook of Ethical Challenges in NeuropsychologyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to Muslim EthicsA Cooperative SpeciesA Critique of the Moral Defense of VegetarianismA Delicate BalanceA Fragile LifeA Life for a LifeA Life-Centered Approach to BioethicsA Matter of SecurityA Natural History of Human MoralityA Philosophical DiseaseA Practical Guide to Clinical Ethics ConsultingA Question of TrustA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Short Stay in SwitzerlandA Tapestry of ValuesA Very Bad WizardA World Without ValuesAction and ResponsibilityAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionActs of ConscienceAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction NeuroethicsAdvance Directives in Mental HealthAfter HarmAftermathAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HealthAgainst MarriageAgainst Moral ResponsibilityAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAging, Biotechnology, and the FutureAlbert Schweitzer's Reverence for LifeAlphavilleAltruismAltruismAmerican EugenicsAmerican PsychosisAn American SicknessAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Evolutionary EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy And a Time to DieAnimal LessonsAnimal RightsAnimals Like UsApplied Ethics in Mental Health CareAre Women Human?Arguments about AbortionAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAutonomyAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismAutonomy, Consent and the LawBabies by DesignBackslidingBad PharmaBad SoulsBarriers and BelongingBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBeauty JunkiesBefore ForgivingBeing AmoralBeing YourselfBending Over BackwardsBending ScienceBernard WilliamsBetter Humans?Better Than WellBeyond ChoiceBeyond GeneticsBeyond HatredBeyond Humanity?Beyond LossBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond SpeechBeyond the DSM StoryBias in Psychiatric DiagnosisBioethicsBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics at the MoviesBioethics Beyond the HeadlinesBioethics Critically ReconsideredBioethics in a Liberal SocietyBioethics in the ClinicBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical Research and BeyondBiosBioscience EthicsBipolar ChildrenBluebirdBodies out of BoundsBodies, Commodities, and BiotechnologiesBody BazaarBoundBoundaries and Boundary Violations in PsychoanalysisBraintrustBrandedBreaking the SilenceBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyCapital PunishmentCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsChallenging the Stigma of Mental IllnessCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionChild Well-BeingChildrenChildren's RightsChoosing ChildrenChoosing Not to ChooseClinical Dilemmas in PsychotherapyClinical EthicsCloningClose toYouCoercion as CureCoercive Treatment in PsychiatryCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognitive Disability and Its Challenge to Moral Philosophy Comfortably NumbCommonsense RebellionCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentComprehending CareConducting Insanity EvaluationsConfidential RelationshipsConfidentiality and Mental HealthConflict of Interest in the ProfessionsConsuming KidsContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContentious IssuesContesting PsychiatryCrazy in AmericaCreating CapabilitiesCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCritical Perspectives in Public HealthCritical PsychiatryCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCurrent Controversies in BioethicsCurrent Controversies in Values and ScienceCutting to the CoreCyborg CitizenDamaged IdentitiesDeaf Identities in the MakingDeath Is That Man Taking NamesDebating ProcreationDebating Same-Sex MarriageDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecoding the Ethics CodeDefining DifferenceDefining Right and Wrong in Brain ScienceDefining the Beginning and End of LifeDelusions of GenderDementiaDemocracy in What State?Demons of the Modern WorldDescriptions and PrescriptionsDesert and VirtueDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDestructive Trends in Mental HealthDeveloping the VirtuesDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital HemlockDigital SoulDignityDisability BioethicsDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDiscrimination against the Mentally IllDisordered Personalities and CrimeDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDoes Feminism Discriminate against Men?Does Torture Work?Double Standards in Medical Research in Developing CountriesDown GirlDrugs and JusticeDworkin and His CriticsDying in the Twenty-First CenturyEarly WarningEconomics and Youth ViolenceEmbodied RhetoricsEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotional ReasonEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmpathyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEncountering NatureEncountering the Sacred in PsychotherapyEngendering International HealthEnhancing EvolutionEnhancing Human CapacitiesEnoughEros and the GoodErotic InnocenceErotic MoralityEssays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEthical Choices in Contemporary MedicineEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Dilemmas in PediatricsEthical Issues in Behavioral ResearchEthical Issues in Dementia CareEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in the New GeneticsEthical LifeEthical Reasoning for Mental Health ProfessionalsEthical TheoryEthical WillsEthically Challenged ProfessionsEthicsEthicsEthicsEthics and AnimalsEthics and ScienceEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Discovery of the UnconsciousEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics at the CinemaEthics at the End of LifeEthics Case Book of the American Psychoanalytic AssociationEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics for EveryoneEthics for PsychologistsEthics for the New MillenniumEthics in CyberspaceEthics in Health CareEthics In Health Services ManagementEthics in Mental Health ResearchEthics in PracticeEthics in PsychiatryEthics in PsychologyEthics in Psychotherapy and CounselingEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEthics, Culture, and PsychiatryEthics, Sexual Orientation, and Choices about ChildrenEvaluating the Science and Ethics of Research on HumansEvilEvil GenesEvil in Modern ThoughtEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Ethics and Contemporary BiologyEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolved MoralityExperiments in EthicsExploding the Gene MythExploiting ChildhoodFacing Human SufferingFact and ValueFacts and ValuesFaking ItFalse-Memory Creation in Children and AdultsFat ShameFatal FreedomFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist TheoryFinal ExamFirst Do No HarmFirst, Do No HarmFlashpointFlesh WoundsForced to CareForgivenessForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and ReconciliationForgiveness and RetributionFoucault and the Government of DisabilityFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Forensic Mental Health AssessmentFree WillFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will and Reactive AttitudesFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree?Freedom and ValueFreedom vs. InterventionFriendshipFrom Darwin to HitlerFrom Disgust to HumanityFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Silence to VoiceFrom Valuing to ValueFrontiers of JusticeGender in the MirrorGenetic PoliticsGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetics of Original SinGenetics of Original SinGenocide's AftermathGetting RealGluttonyGood WorkGoodness & AdviceGreedGroups in ConflictGrowing Up GirlGut FeminismHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHandbook for Health Care Ethics CommitteesHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of Children's RightsHandbook of PsychopathyHappinessHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHard FeelingsHard LuckHardwired BehaviorHarmful ThoughtsHeal & ForgiveHealing PsychiatryHealth Care Ethics for PsychologistsHeterosyncraciesHistorical and Philosophical Perspectives on Biomedical EthicsHoly WarHookedHookedHow Can I Be Trusted?How Propaganda WorksHow to Do Things with Pornography How to Make Opportunity EqualHow Universities Can Help Create a Wiser WorldHow We HopeHow We Think About DementiaHuman BondingHuman EnhancementHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman TrialsHumanism, What's That?Humanitarian ReasonHumanityHumanizing MadnessI am Not Sick I Don't Need Help!I Was WrongIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIf That Ever Happens to MeImproving Nature?In Defense of FloggingIn Defense of SinIn Love With LifeIn Our Own ImageIn the FamilyIn the Land of the DeafIn the Name of IdentityIn the Wake of 9/11In Two MindsInclusive EthicsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchInnovation in Medical TechnologyInside Assisted LivingInside EthicsIntelligence, Race, and GeneticsIntensive CareInto the Gray ZoneIs Human Nature Obsolete?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is There a Duty to Die?Is There an Ethicist in the House?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJudging Children As ChildrenJust a DogJust BabiesJust CareJustice for ChildrenJustice for HedgehogsJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeJustifiable ConductKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Theory of VirtueKids of CharacterKilling McVeighLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLaw and the BrainLearning About School ViolenceLearning from Baby PLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLegal and Ethical Aspects of HealthcareLegal Aspects of Mental CapacityLegal ConceptionsLegal InsanityLegalizing ProstitutionLet Them Eat ProzacLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberal EugenicsLife After FaithLife at the BottomLife, Sex, and IdeasListening to the WhispersLiving ProfessionalismLosing Matt ShepardLostLuckyMad in AmericaMad PrideMadhouseMaking Another World PossibleMaking Babies, Making FamiliesMaking Genes, Making WavesMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMalignantMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaning and Moral OrderMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeans, Ends, and PersonsMeans, Ends, and PersonsMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedical Research for HireMedicalized MasculinitiesMedically Assisted DeathMeditations for the HumanistMelancholia and MoralismMental Health Professionals, Minorities and the PoorMental Illness, Medicine and LawMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMetaethical SubjectivismMill's UtilitarianismMind FieldsMind WarsMind WarsModern Theories of JusticeModernity and TechnologyMoney ShotMonsterMoral Acquaintances and Moral DecisionsMoral BrainsMoral ClarityMoral CultivationMoral Development and RealityMoral Dilemmas in Real LifeMoral DimensionsMoral EntanglementsMoral FailureMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral MindsMoral OriginsMoral Panics, Sex PanicsMoral ParticularismMoral PerceptionMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RealismMoral RelativismMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral Status and Human LifeMoral StealthMoral Theory at the MoviesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMoral, Immoral, AmoralMoralismMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMorals, Rights and Practice in the Human ServicesMorals, Rights and Practice in the Human ServicesMore Than HumanMotive and RightnessMovies and the Moral Adventure of LifeMurder in the InnMy Body PoliticMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Sister's KeeperMy Sister's KeeperMy WayNano-Bio-EthicsNarrative MedicineNarrative ProsthesisNatural Ethical FactsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalized BioethicsNeither Bad nor MadNeoconservatismNeonatal BioethicsNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNew Takes in Film-PhilosophyNew Waves in EthicsNew Waves in MetaethicsNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNo Child Left DifferentNo Impact ManNormative EthicsNormativityNothing about us, without us!Oath BetrayedOf War and LawOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn EvilOn Human RightsOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOn the TakeOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne ChildOne Nation Under TherapyOne World NowOne World NowOur Bodies, Whose Property?Our Bodies, Whose Property?Our Daily MedsOur Faithfulness to the PastOur Posthuman FutureOut of EdenOut of Its MindOut of the ShadowsOverdosed AmericaOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Studies in Normative EthicsOxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPassionate DeliberationPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perfecting VirtuePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonalities on the PlatePersonhood and Health CarePersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPerspectives On Health And Human RightsPharmaceutical FreedomPharmacracyPharmageddonPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhysician-Assisted DyingPicturing DisabilityPilgrim at Tinker CreekPlaying God?Playing God?Political EmotionsPornlandPowerful MedicinesPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical EthicsPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical RulesPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic NeuroethicsPraise and BlamePreferences and Well-BeingPrimates and PhilosophersPro-Life, Pro-ChoiceProcreation and ParenthoodProfits Before People?Progress in BioethicsProperty in the BodyProzac As a Way of LifeProzac on the CouchPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric EthicsPsychiatry and EmpirePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychotropic Drug Prescriber's Survival GuidePublic Health LawPublic Health Law and EthicsPublic PhilosophyPunishing the Mentally IllPunishmentPursuits of WisdomPutting Morality Back Into PoliticsPutting on VirtueQuality of Life and Human DifferenceRaceRadical HopeRadical VirtuesRape Is RapeRe-creating MedicineRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReckoning With HomelessnessReconceiving Medical EthicsRecovery from SchizophreniaRedefining RapeRedesigning HumansReducing the Stigma of Mental IllnessReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRefuting Peter Singer's Ethical TheoryRelative JusticeRelativism and Human RightsReligion ExplainedReprogeneticsRescuing JeffreyResponsibilityResponsibility and PsychopathyResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsResponsible GeneticsRethinking CommodificationRethinking Informed Consent in BioethicsRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeReturn to ReasonRevolution in PsychologyRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRisk and Luck in Medical EthicsRobert NozickRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Rule of Law, Misrule of MenRun, Spot, RunRunning on RitalinSatisficing and MaximizingSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and EthicsScience in the Private InterestScience, Policy, and the Value-Free IdealScience, Seeds and CyborgsScratching the Surface of BioethicsSecular Philosophy and the Religious TemperamentSeeing the LightSelf-ConstitutionSelf-Made MadnessSelf-Trust and Reproductive AutonomySentimental RulesSex Fiends, Perverts, and PedophilesSex OffendersSex, Family, and the Culture WarsSexual DevianceSexual EthicsSexual PredatorsSexualized BrainsShaping Our SelvesShock TherapyShould I Medicate My Child?ShunnedSick to Death and Not Going to Take It AnymoreSickoSide EffectsSidewalk StoriesSister CitizenSkeptical FeminismSocial Inclusion of People with Mental IllnessSocial JusticeSociological Perspectives on the New GeneticsSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSovereign VirtueSpeech MattersSpiral of EntrapmentSplit DecisionsSticks and StonesStories MatterSubjectivity and Being SomebodySuffering, Death, and IdentitySuicide ProhibitionSurgery JunkiesSurgically Shaping ChildrenTaking Morality SeriouslyTaming the Troublesome ChildTechnology and the Good Life?TestimonyText and Materials on International Human RightsThe Aims of Higher EducationThe Almost MoonThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Forensic PsychiatryThe Animal ManifestoThe Animals' AgendaThe Art of LivingThe Autonomy of MoralityThe Beloved SelfThe Best Things in LifeThe Big FixThe Bioethics ReaderThe Biology and Psychology of Moral AgencyThe Blackwell Guide to Medical EthicsThe Body SilentThe BondThe Book of LifeThe Burden of SympathyThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Textbook of BioethicsThe Case against Assisted SuicideThe Case Against PerfectionThe Case Against PunishmentThe Case for PerfectionThe Case of Terri SchiavoThe Challenge of Human RightsThe Code for Global EthicsThe Colonization Of Psychic SpaceThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Common ThreadThe Connected SelfThe Constitution of AgencyThe Creation of PsychopharmacologyThe Criminal BrainThe Decency WarsThe Difficult-to-Treat Psychiatric PatientThe Disability PendulumThe Disability Rights Movement: From Charity to ConfrontationThe Domain of ReasonsThe Double-Edged HelixThe Duty to ProtectThe Emotional Construction of MoralsThe End of Ethics in a Technological SocietyThe End of Stigma?The Essentials of New York Mental Health LawThe Ethical BrainThe Ethical Dimensions of the Biological and Health SciencesThe Ethics of BioethicsThe Ethics of Human EnhancementThe Ethics of ParenthoodThe Ethics of SightseeingThe Ethics of the FamilyThe Ethics of the Family in SenecaThe Ethics of the LieThe Ethics of TransplantsThe Ethics of WarThe Ethics ToolkitThe Evolution of Mental Health LawThe Evolution of MoralityThe FamilyThe Fat Studies ReaderThe Forgiveness ProjectThe Form of Practical KnowledgeThe Fountain of YouthThe Freedom ParadoxThe Future of Assisted Suicide and EuthanasiaThe Future of Human NatureThe Good BookThe Good LifeThe Great BetrayalThe Handbook of Disability StudiesThe Healing VirtuesThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of Human RightsThe HorizonThe Idea of JusticeThe Ideal of NatureThe Illusion of Freedom and EqualityThe Immortal Life of Henrietta LacksThe Importance of Being UnderstoodThe Insanity OffenseThe Joy of SecularismThe Language PoliceThe Last Normal ChildThe Last UtopiaThe Limits of MedicineThe LobotomistThe Love CureThe Lucifer EffectThe Manual of EpictetusThe Mark of ShameThe Meaning of NiceThe Medicalization of SocietyThe Merck DruggernautThe Mind Has MountainsThe Modern Art of DyingThe Modern SavageThe Moral ArcThe Moral BrainThe Moral Demands of MemoryThe Moral FoolThe Moral MindThe Moral Psychology HandbookThe Moral, Social, and Commercial Imperatives of Genetic Testing and ScreeningThe Most Good You Can DoThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of the Moral BrainThe Nature of NormativityThe New Disability HistoryThe New Genetic MedicineThe New Religious IntoleranceThe Offensive InternetThe Origins of FairnessThe Oxford Handbook of Animal EthicsThe Oxford Handbook of Ethics at the End of LifeThe Perfect BabyThe Philosophical ParentThe Philosophy of NeedThe Philosophy of PornographyThe Philosophy of PsychiatryThe Politics Of LustThe Portable Ethicist for Mental Health Professionals The Power of Religion in the Public SphereThe Price of PerfectionThe Price of TruthThe Problem of PunishmentThe Prosthetic ImpulseThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe PsychopathThe Purity MythThe Pursuit of PerfectionThe Relevance of Philosophy to LifeThe Right Road to Radical FreedomThe Right to Be ParentsThe Righteous MindThe Root of All EvilThe Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of EmpathyThe Rules of InsanityThe Second SexismThe Second-Person StandpointThe Silent World of Doctor and PatientThe Sleep of ReasonThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Speed of DarkThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Story of Cruel and UnusualThe Story WithinThe Stubborn System of Moral ResponsibilityThe Suicide TouristThe Terrible GiftThe Theory of OptionsThe Therapy of DesireThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Triple HelixThe Trolley Problem MysteriesThe Trouble with DiversityThe Truth About the Drug CompaniesThe Ugly LawsThe Varieties of Religious ExperienceThe Virtue of Defiance and Psychiatric EngagementThe Virtues of FreedomThe Virtues of HappinessThe Virtuous Life in Greek EthicsThe Virtuous PsychiatristThe Voice of Breast Cancer in Medicine and BioethicsThe War Against BoysThe War for Children's MindsThe Whole ChildThe Woman RacketThe Worldwide Practice of TortureTherapy with ChildrenThieves of VirtueThree Generations, No ImbecilesTimes of Triumph, Times of DoubtTolerance Among The VirtuesTolerance and the Ethical LifeTolerationToxic PsychiatryTrauma, Truth and ReconciliationTreatment Kind and FairTrusting on the EdgeTry to RememberUltimate JudgementUnborn in the USA: Inside the War on AbortionUndermining ScienceUnderstanding AbortionUnderstanding CloningUnderstanding EmotionsUnderstanding EvilUnderstanding Kant's EthicsUnderstanding Moral ObligationUnderstanding Physician-Pharmaceutical Industry InteractionsUnderstanding TerrorismUnderstanding the GenomeUnderstanding the Stigma of Mental IllnessUnderstanding Treatment Without ConsentUnhingedUnprincipled VirtueUnsanctifying Human Life: Essays on EthicsUnspeakable Acts, Ordinary PeopleUp in FlamesUpheavals of ThoughtUsers and Abusers of PsychiatryValue-Free Science?Values and Psychiatric DiagnosisValues in ConflictVegetarianismViolence and Mental DisorderVirtue EthicsVirtue, Rules, and JusticeVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVirtues and Their VicesVulnerability, Autonomy, and Applied EthicsWar Against the WeakWar, Torture and TerrorismWarrior's DishonourWeaknessWelfare and Rational CareWhat Genes Can't DoWhat Have We DoneWhat Is a Human?What Is Good and WhyWhat Is Good and WhyWhat Is the Good Life?What Price Better Health?What Should I Do?What We Owe to Each OtherWhat Would Aristotle Do?What's Good on TVWhat's Normal?What's Wrong with Children's RightsWhat's Wrong with Homosexuality?What's Wrong With Morality?When Is Discrimination Wrong?Who Holds the Moral High Ground?Who Owns YouWho Qualifies for Rights?Whose America?Whose View of Life?Why Animals MatterWhy Animals MatterWhy I Burned My Book and Other Essays on DisabilityWhy Not Kill Them All?Why Punish? How Much?Why Some Things Should Not Be for SaleWisdom, Intuition and EthicsWithout ConscienceWomen and Borderline Personality DisorderWomen and MadnessWondergenesWould You Kill the Fat Man?Wrestling with Behavioral GeneticsWriting About PatientsYou Must Be DreamingYour Genetic DestinyYour Inner FishYouth Offending and Youth Justice Yuck!
It may be constitutive of our enduring appetite for tragedies that bitter truths are best metabolized by witnessing them being feigned -- demonstrated in some sort of ceremonial form. Take the canonical example of Hamlet, where the revelatory vehicle is twice theatrical -- it is the play-within-a-play which shatters Claudius's mask. An episode which is tellingly prefaced by a 'dumb show', a hyperbolic pantomime:
Anon comes in a fellow, takes off [the King's] crown, kisses it, and pours poison in the King's ears, and exit. The Queen returns; finds the King dead, and makes passionate action. The Poisoner, with some two or three Mutes, comes in again, seeming to lament with her. The dead body is carried away. The Poisoner wooes the Queen with gifts: she seems loath and unwilling awhile, but in the end accepts his love.
This unambiguous display exposes not only the exceptional pretense of the perpetrator, but also, and perhaps more importantly, the unexceptional complicities and weaknesses that constitute the deeper moral substance of the tragedy. That 'normal' human frailties can spiral into ethical disaster is not only a lesson in history, but also one in the natural history of our species. And if this is part of what we are, perhaps constant dramatizations are needed.
David Healy's Pharmageddon is such a reminder; it provides, in clear prose, a stage and adequate lighting so that we may come face to face with those who, quite literally, poison us while claiming our admiration. The book exposes the domination of current medicine by pharmaceutical corporations, and the derailment of a scientific enterprise which allowed itself be captured by marketing imperatives. These are not novel worries, but, in unmasking the usual villains, Healy also illuminates the countless seemingly reasonable compromises which continue to render medicine vulnerable to disfigurement and hijacking. They are the more ominous presence in this play -- the self-indulgence of too many doctors, the naivety of some patient groups, the carelessness of numerous regulators, the irresponsibility of most ghost writers, the numbness of the general public.
That Healy manages to anatomize the progressing undoing of medical care -- and of the 'art' of medicine -- as the result, in part, of a hellish aggregate of 'normal' intentions and actions is perhaps the main merit of his book. It is, in any case, one of the more subtle threads of a volume in which subtlety isn't otherwise a priority. Pharmageddon is fundamentally a diatribe. It belongs, more specifically, with a number of other recent books aimed at convincing a lay audience that the colonization of all areas of life (healthcare and medical science in this case) by corporate interests and their ideological vehicles has appalling effects.( Other examples: Marcia Angell – The Truth about Drug Companies, Jerome Kassirer – On the Take, Edward Shorter – How everyone became depressed, Jeremy Greene – Prescribing by Numbers.) Like all such diatribes, Healy's assumes a tint of theatricality (beginning with its title), but this is not to say that this plea is not legitimate or, indeed, timely. It is to say, simply, that its dramatic overtone, even if pragmatically understandable, adds little to the overall argumentative solidity of the book. On the contrary, it might erode the feeling of urgency that Healy wants to instill, especially in a skeptical reader. It is as if Healy, like Hamlet, feels that truth needs to be staged for it to produce effects.
A somewhat more worrying imbalance in Pharmageddon is that it proposes to make a point about the current state of affairs in medical care in general, while it remains significantly dependent on a discussion of psychopharmacology. This is only natural, given Healy's previous work in that field, and the fact that this area of healthcare and medical science is particularly fragile. The tension remains, however, since arguably psychiatry does not provide the best metric for the medical universe. There certainly are regions of medicine of greater scientific and professional solidity. The cost of its wide scope is that Pharmageddon lacks the steady traction Healy's writing had in, say, The Creation of Psychopharmacology (2002). This does not invalidate the claims made in the current book, but the more ambitious of them (those that refer to the state of all medicine) would require further evidence to be clearly adjudicated.
With these weaknesses noted -- they are to a certain extent inherent in the decision to write a militant volume targeting a non-expert readership -- Pharmageddon succeeds in presenting a very powerful argument for rethinking the medical world and its pharmaceutical shadow. Healy's agenda is well set and comprehensive; he is not content to expose the exuberant and lucrative administration of poorly tested toxins to ever larger segments of the population, but dwells also on the toxic social and cultural context which has made this collective moral failure possible. The cultural critic is an important and welcome voice in this book.
Pharmageddon is divided into nine sections built on specific focus rather than separate themes. The core thematic threads are introduced from the very beginning and they run throughout the book, so, to avoid redundancy, it is best to refer in the following to these fundamental ideas as they take center stage in the text. The initial emphasis (Introduction, chapters 1 and 2) is on the history and impact of importing the logic of marketing into the medical world; the focus then moves (chapters 3 - 6) on the idea that the science of medicine itself faces bankruptcy -- concepts such as evidence and knowledge are brought into question by the practice of privately producing medical research at an industrial scale; finally (chapters 7 and 8), Healy highlights the larger implications and the moral scandal of doing away with the ethos of caring.
This thematic repertoire suggests a reading of Pharmageddon as an effort at recovery -- a perspective abundantly vindicated as one goes through the book. Medicine faces not only a dubious transformation; it faces loss in the form of induced amnesia. If only the medical world remembered the better moments of its own ongoing self-reflection. Revealingly, early in the book, Healy refers to past warnings of which his own are the echo. The reader is introduced to characters such as Dr. Alfred Worcester, an eminent early geriatrician who saw it intellectually acceptable to wonder whether the primacy of diagnosis and its technicalities would erode doctors' 'traditional knowledge of human nature' (Worcester quoted by Healy, p.3). Few in the profession today will find such worries respectable, and it makes sense to ask, with Healy, why. Are we simply past such childish scruples?
Another distant voice invoked by Healy belongs to Philippe Pinel, the man who, in the wake of the French Revolution, liberated the mad from their chains and gave a decisive impulse to what would be later called 'moral treatment'. Discussing, in the first pages of his 1800 treaty (Traité médico-philosophique sur l’aliénation mentale ou la manie – dated year IX of the French Republican calendar (http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k432033/f6.image.r=art.langEN).), 'the favorable circumstances of [his] study of mania' at the hospice of Bicêtre, Pinel noted that the turmoil of the revolutionary years had been conducive to mental breakdowns (therefore to numerous admissions), and that this had been somewhat compensated by the contribution of an experienced concierge who had helped maintain an orderly life in the asylum. Pinel claimed that such observations had more weight than 'frivolous attempts to use novel cures' (‘le frivole essay qu’on peut faire de nouveaux remèdes’ (Pinel 1800, p.9)), and he emphasized that in the case of 'mania', as with other illnesses, '[i]t is an art of no little importance to administer medicines properly: but it is an art of much greater and more difficult acquisition to know when to suspend or altogether to omit them.' (Translators’ Preface to the second edition of Pinel’s treatise, p. xiii. In the original : ‘car dans la manie, comme dans beaucoup d’autres maladies, s’il y a un art de bien administrer les médicaments, il y a un art encore plus grand de savoir quelque fois s’en passer.’ (Pinel 1800, p.10)). Above all, a doctor should not harm by being overconfident in the power of his tools; reflective refrain, mustering the strength to do nothing when nothing useful can be done, is a prime medical virtue. This view of medicine informs Healy's book too (In 2008, Healy, together with Louis Charland and Gordon Hickish, translated the second, 1809, edition of Pinel’s treatise. The translators begin their Preface to that volume by suggesting that the (inexact) quote from Pinel’s 1800 treatise referred to above was the impetus for making the book available to English-speaking audiences.), and it is characteristic of the commitments from which his attack on the current state of affairs in medical care stems.
The first and main target of this offensive is pharmaceutical marketing. As elsewhere in our culture, it is easy in medicine to rationalize what one does according to a narrative of progress. Surely we have come far from the medical world of, say, the 19th century, when many made fortunes by selling false hope and often poison in the form of proprietary drugs advertised as miracle cures. (See for example the ad sections of late 19th – early 20th century US newspapers archived at http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/ ) Healy argues that our own technologically superior and bureaucratized medical reality stands in far more ambiguous relations to the mistakes of past times than one might have hoped. The emergence of marketing was associated with the commercial zeal of the proprietary cures manufacturers; now marketing, reaching an aggressive maturity, has come back to haunt medicine. The most dramatic effect is the transformation of the self-conception of medicine -- from an art of healing familiar with human suffering and even 'human helplessness' (p.16) to a service industry clothed in a rhetoric of science and technical expertise.
This contrast should not be read as absolute or as recommending a rejection of science in favor of some mythical, unspoiled past. It is lucidity that has been lost, not romantic innocence. The culprit is not primarily medical science, but it being hijacked for profit. The pharmaceutical marketers of today, as those in the past, have been able to capitalize on the very means society has designed to protect itself against frauds. For example, intellectual property rights -- say, patents on new drugs -- should stimulate genuine innovation, and the fact that we collectively recognize brands should help screening for fakes and inferior products. More to the point, the fact that we filter the consumption of some drugs via prescriptions issued by qualified doctors should reduce the risk of poisoning large numbers of people with 'miracles cures'. In reality, Healy argues, these arrangements have been captured and used by pharmaceutical marketers as vehicles for generating disproportionate profits and undeserved prestige.
Instead of promoting innovation, patents have often oriented pharmaceutical research towards producing derivative drugs -- versions of existing compounds with minor chemical changes. The cost is a fraction of what research for a novel compound would involve, but patents (therefore monopolies, therefore profits) can be thus extended indefinitely. The novelty resides in the way such compounds are sold, not in the science behind them. According to Healy, often enough nowadays disease concepts are introduced, popularized, or semantically redesigned essentially as marketing instruments -- in order to boost the sales of a specific drug or class of drugs, even when those compounds do not signal any change in our understanding of pathology. What gets branded and sold is essentially an illness; the branded drug fits naturally in the manufactured profile of the disease entity -- it usually promises a rosy lifestyle with that disease, not its eradication.
Take the example of Depakote, introduced by Abbott Laboratories as a 'mood stabilizer' and not as just another sedative. 'The beauty of the term mood stabilizer -- Healy notes -- is that it had no precise meaning.' (p.36) But this is precisely why it worked commercially. Who wouldn't be in need of some 'mood stabilization'? To be less fluctuating emotionally becomes a lifestyle choice, and, according to Healy, medicine is increasingly dragged in the direction of representing itself as a provider of such services. As a consequence, the category of the patient is in the process of losing its medical meaning, designating in its stead an ever expanding pool of consumers encouraged to manage health risks and enhance their biological and psychological functioning by ingesting branded chemicals. To be ill becomes synonymous with not being 'on' a certain medicine. This explains the inflation of certain, often subclinical, diagnoses (e.g. moderately-high cholesterol, osteopenia, mild depression (On this example, see also Edward Shorter’s How Everyone Became Depressed.)) beyond reasonable epidemiological proportions.
Doctors are supposed to act as gatekeepers between the ambitions of pharmaceutical marketing and public consumption of drugs, but Healy thinks this does not help, even if the introduction of prescriptions was a reaction to irresponsible marketing of medicines directly to consumers. In this case too we have arrived at what Healy calls 'a conspiracy of goodwill' (p.95) -- admirable intentions turned upside down by systemic forces inherent in the way our societies have come to work. The prescription-only status of many drugs has made doctors the target of pharmaceutical marketing, a situation, Healy claims, they are not vaccinated against by their professional upbringing. Some resist, but many, out of naivety, arrogance, or cynicism, have begun to act as sales agents. Individual cases and motives range from corruption and unambiguous conflict of interest (paid-for professional events in exotic locations, conference tours, speaking fees and stock options etc.) to falling victim to marketing dressed as science (partial or falsified data published as solid research often in authoritative venues, sometimes by medical celebrities etc.). The most aggravating situations are those in which medical academics -- people who clearly should know better -- sell out to those who mock medical science.
Healy traces the symptomatic phenomenon of the blockbuster drug -- those medicines that bring in at least $ 1 billion per year -- in part to the success of marketers in transforming the uses of patents and prescription status. While his argument is strong, especially in those cases where enormous profits are associated with minor benefits for patients and even proven adverse effects (as with the likes of Paxil), it is less clear what could be done to solve these problems. Doing away with patents and prescriptions, as Healy seems to advise at points, would be of little help in a context in which direct-to-consumer marketing and the manipulation of consumer groups are at least as damaging as recruiting doctors to act as a sales force. What measures one could take to restore medicine to its original mission of being life-saving truly is a discouraging question. Healy does not ignore its larger implications, but his agenda for change is not always convincing or consistent. To return to the example of prescriptions, even if this barrier does not function as intended, a playing field with no barriers of this kind will probably be even less leveled than it currently is. Doctors still have some bargaining power in their dealings with the marketers and hopefully some will use that for the benefit of their patients. Perhaps we should do our best to reinforce legitimate scientific and medical authority wherever we can find it, instead of institutionalizing distrust of all authority. Isn't one, in recommending that attention should be paid to Healy's case, doing precisely the former?
The rejection of a medicine rebuilt on marketing priorities and newspeak does not amount simply to a de-humanization argument of the sort that rapidly degenerates into antiscientific ramble. Medicine faces disfiguration precisely because pharmaceutical marketing has become adept at manufacturing the appearance of science. Scientific authority -- the prestige of the white coat -- is an asset to be captured and reenrolled as money-making rhetorical machinery. 'From the point of marketing, -- Healy observes -- the advantage of the medical sciences is not that they might lead to better drugs but rather that they provide concepts and languages for marketers to use.' (p.58) Medical concepts selectively repackaged as selling propositions have the advantage of emanating, at least for a while, an aura of objective respectability. Have people talk about their serotonin and cholesterol levels -- as they used to talk about their childhood traumas not so long ago -- and they will be likely to buy the associated product. Profit via what Healy aptly calls 'capturing understanding' (p.60).
This erosion of medical science goes, however, beyond losing control over its proprietary language. We arrive at the second important direction of attack developed in Pharmageddon. Healy thinks that medical research itself is undergoing a disquieting transformation. This is driven both by internal forces -- ideas about what science amounts to -- and by the already mentioned influence of the market. Internally, medicine has been (re)modeling itself on a certain ideal of scientific objectivity. Evidence should be the ultimate basis of all decisions a doctor makes. Vocation, experience, intuition, empathy, wisdom may matter, and historically they have been treasured, but for the modern doctor solely evidence should be decisive. Indeed, increasingly this doctor will be forced to follow the evidence, as it gets institutionalized in treatment guidelines. Ideally, this limits the errors stemming from individual hunches, biases, inattention, or ignorance. That it also transforms doctors into medical apparatchiks focused on procedures may be an acceptable cost. Healy, predictably, disagrees.
This procedural model of medicine is flawed, Healy claims, since it rests on a flawed conception of what evidence is, and of how it is produced and managed. The core chapters of Pharmageddon present a case for skepticism about the fundamental elements of evidence-based medicine: the idea that statistical significance is decisive in adjudicating claims, and that corresponding experimental tools, essentially the randomized controlled trial, are the best one could do to determine which treatments work and which do not; the idea that data thus produced are adequately scrutinized in the peer review process, and that professional peer-reviewed publications deliver unbiased, authoritative information; the idea that all scientific data, published and unpublished, are in principle accessible, and that authors are intellectually committed to what gets published under their names; the idea that good science -- convincing evidence -- speaks for itself and cannot be curbed by external forces (say, political or commercial). Since such tenets seem basic for any scientific enterprise, it is important to understand the substance and limits of Healy's doubts.
For one thing, Healy does not dispute medicine's footing in scientific findings, but what counts as medical knowledge. What comes into question, specifically, is a certain cult of numbers. Stats and measurements sometimes 'hypnotize doctors' (p.75) due to the glimpse of 'seductive possibilities of control' (p.168); they achieved such a prestige as to trump both common sense and clinical judgment. Moreover, it is often the case that doctors do not pay attention or simply do not understand the math behind many statistical proofs that a drug works, or that it works better than other, older and cheaper, compounds. To complicate clinical decisions even further, statistical tests often aim at deciding ambiguous cases -- when it is not immediately clear whether a treatment works, or worse, when biological mechanisms are not understood and one is blindly testing for correlations. After all, no sophisticated math is needed to prove that aspirin, insulin, and penicillin are effective. One forgets that quantification is an instrument of research, not a replacement for scientific reasoning.
None of these difficulties should suggest that medical research can proceed without rigorous testing. Perhaps Healy should stress this more clearly. The difficulty is to determine the proper role of results that often hover on the border of statistical significance. Rigor in determining these numbers should not be seen as a ground for being confident about their interpretation. Healy's point that good numbers by themselves are not synonymous with good science stands.
It is not clear, however, how one should manage the skeptical element in Healy's argument. No one should expect that all treatments will be 'unambiguously effective' (p.78). And Healy abuses the suggestion that often older treatments are more effective than recent ones backed by ambiguous results. Problematic ambiguities are in medicine to stay, and marginal benefits might be all the benefits available to some patients. It makes sense to explore them, and large scale experiments resulting in statistical observations seem the only way to do it. Mentioning clinical judgment and doctors' discretion, as Healy does, changes the subject and obscures the fact that there are no easy answers for the all too human tendency to do away with doubt and to act under an 'illusory certainty' (p.77). Both the controlled trial and the doctor's wisdom can be fetishized.
What seems more helpful in Healy's observations is the point that with drug testing too we face a strange reversal. Tests, e.g. randomized controlled trials, Healy notes, 'began as means to control therapeutic enthusiasm' (p.81). They were put in place to counter the tendency to overmedicate -- to throw at a disease the chemicals at one's disposal with insufficient discernment. In testing, one started by assuming that a treatment does not work, and one raised a statistical bar so as to select truly effective compounds. While the exoskeleton of this rationale survives, Healy argues that its substance has melted away. The reversal consists in running tests in order to prove that a drug has some therapeutic effect. Now, it matters if what one tries to find is success rather than failure, especially since nowadays drug manufactures -- those who stand to gain from proving success -- are also those who pay for, and manage the testing process. No wonder then that controlled trials, which ideally should limit action (i.e. medication) à la Pinel, have become 'technologies that mandate action' (p.90).
At this point the focus moves from doctors playing the sorcerer's apprentice under the cover of fragile scientific rationales, to the issue of being deliberately misled by elaborate simulacra that pass as science. The question of what counts as science turns out to be related to the paradoxical one of who owns science. As suggested above, Healy insists on the toxic effects of most testing of new medicines now being run by the companies that manufacture those drugs, a situation which erodes public control over the data thus produced. This is an arrangement that should have saved public resources while freeing innovation from the chains of bureaucracy. Instead, according to Healy, it has resulted in systemic corruption.
The problems start with data gathering and extend to the publication of results and the elaboration of guidelines. Healy documents situations in which patients have been excluded from trials or had their symptoms misclassified to make a drug look good; situations in which results of 'unsuccessful' tests have been hidden; situations in which only part of the data has been published or the raw data have been buried under legal barriers. And the problems extend to what gets published. A significant proportion of articles describing test findings, Healy claims, are now ghost-written, indeed there are companies specialized in ghost-writing 'research' papers. These are not research companies, but public relation firms, and the writing process has little resemblance with true science -- papers are sometimes written before tests are concluded, then delivered to those, sometimes medical celebrities, who sign them, finally rushed through the review process and published in (friendly) prestigious journals.
What remains, in such conditions, of the hard-won epistemic authority of science? In Healy's words, mere 'statistical decoration' (p.117) for what in fact is a 'new anecdotalism' (p.94). If one cannot distinguish between the academic paper and the advertising copy, between the salesperson and the professor of medicine, then perhaps suspension of judgment is the best one can do. But this is obviously to push one's case to absurd limits. The point is that we are confronted with possibly dangerous fakes, cases like that of study 329 (data were doctored by SmithKline to show that the antidepressant Paxil was safe for children), not that all distinction between science and simulacrum has been lost. We face a harder task of discernment than before because of how we designed our peculiar modernity, confounding goals and means: science with quantification, effective social action with standardization and privatization, good medicine with client-friendly service provision.
This misshapen horizon affects all areas of public life. One dramatic example that almost suggests itself, and which Healy does not miss, is education (pp. 191, 237). But the impact on the medical world is probably the most disturbing, since it has injected a poisonous fog in our ability to deal with illness and death -- our own and others'. In one of the best passages of his book, Healy reminds his reader that
[R]eal disease is not something we consume. Like death, albeit slower, it consumes us. [...] We make our accommodations with disease as best we can, and since the time of Philippe Pinel that accommodation has involved a medical realization that sometimes the greatest wisdom is do nothing other than have the medical team and patient endure together. (pp. 190-91)
This latter idea -- that there is a medical duty of enduring together, of care in a demanding sense of the word -- is at the root of the third and last core criticism put forward by Healy. The accusation is that care is a duty actively ignored in modern medicine. Doctors are encouraged to act like technical personnel maintaining biological machinery by pumping chemicals into it according to guidelines they themselves do not control. Patients should be smiled at during this process, but what they say beyond checklist symptom registration should not concern a doctor. This is, of course, a negative ideal rather than a description of clinical reality, which continues to be a mixed story. But the tendency to marginalize cost-ineffective, time-consuming, emotionally-taxing care is hard to dispute.
In a recent piece in the NY Review of Books (On Breaking One’s Neck (http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2014/feb/06/on-breaking-ones-neck/).), doctor Arnold Relman, who is in his 90s, describes the life-saving treatment he received at the Massachusetts General Hospital after falling and fracturing three vertebrae in his neck in June 2013. The doctors at MGH did wonders, but, Relman observes, this did not seem to be about the person being saved:
Attention to the masses of data generated by laboratory and imaging studies has shifted their focus away from the patient. Doctors now spend more time with their computers than at the bedside. [...] Reading the physicians' notes in the MGH and Spaulding records, I found only a few brief descriptions of how I felt or looked, but there were copious reports of the data from tests and monitoring devices.
Should it matter, since Relman's life was saved? The real issue here is not the somewhat trivial-because-permanent threat of us becoming 'new barbarians' (Healy p. 264). As Relman confesses, he as a doctor had missed what he as a patient painfully discovered: the enormous difference made by being heard. It is not only that relating to a patient can be healing or at least comforting; patients can voice clinically relevant information, and that information can be missed if the only person actually seeing and speaking to them is, if they are lucky, a nurse. The problem of dismantling the traditional relation between doctor and patient concerns then not only the ethical standing of a human being, but also, more narrowly, medical deontology.
Traditionally, medicine crisscrossed the classical distinction between scientific knowledge and craft or art. The latter element, fundamental for the doctors' ability to care for their patients, gave medicine its character and balance --science and art, universal and intimate. No worthwhile notion of medicine would survive the loss of this ambiguity; the idea that it could is poison poured into our ears, and whatever his overstatements Healy is right about that. We should not be wooed.
Pharmageddon might not be the most cerebral manner of describing what lays ahead, but, if there is a suitable meaning to the term, it consists in contemplating the possibility of 'calming' such fundamental worries as those related to being vulnerable and eventually dying -- abandoning oneself to the care and kindness of strangers -- by taking a pill. Drugs, Healy notes, 'are chemicals used for a social purpose -- to treat conditions that we define as diseases' (p. 240). The nightmarish thought is that we might end up, if 'disease mongering' (p. 113) is not tempered, by curing ourselves not of illness or death, but of what makes our existence characteristically human.
© 2014 George Tudorie
George Tudorie is a PhD student in philosophy, Central European University, Budapest; and teaching assistant, College of Communication and PR, Bucharest.