email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
A Theory of Feelings Addictions Memory and the Self"Intimate" Violence against Women1001 Solution-Focused Questions101 Healing Stories101 Things I Wish I'd Known When I Started Using Hypnosis50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God8 Keys to Body Brain BalanceA Brief History of Modern PsychologyA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Conceptual History of Psychology: Exploring the Tangled Web A Cooperative SpeciesA Guide to Teaching Introductory PsychologyA History of Modern Experimental PsychologyA History of Psychology in AutobiographyA History of Social PsychologyA History of the BrainA History of the MindA Hole in the HeadA Matter of SecurityA Mind of Its OwnA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Place for ConsciousnessA Short Introduction to Promoting Resilience in ChildrenA Social History of PsychologyA Stroll With William JamesA System Architecture Approach to the BrainA Theory of FreedomA Very Bad WizardAbductedAbout FacesAccounts of InnocenceAction, Emotion and WillAdapting MindsADHD & MeADHD in AdultsAdieu to GodAdolescence and Body ImageAdult Bipolar DisordersAdvances in Culture and PsychologyAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAffect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of SelfAffective MappingAgainst EmpathyAgainst HappinessAges and StagesAll Joy and No FunAll Out!All We Have to FearAlterations of ConsciousnessAmerican Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical NeurosciencesAn Argument for MindAncient Bodies, Modern LivesAnimal Tool BehaviorAnimals in TranslationAnomalous CognitionAping MankindArtificial ConsciousnessAspects of PsychologismAsperger Syndrome and Your ChildAsperger Syndrome, Adolescence, and IdentityAssessment and Treatment of Childhood Problems, Second EditionAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAttachedAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutism and the Myth of the Person AloneAutopsy of a Suicidal MindBecoming an Effective PsychotherapistBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing No OneBelievingBetween Two WorldsBeyond AppearanceBeyond BlueBeyond BullyingBeyond MadnessBeyond the BrainBeyond the DSM StoryBig DreamsBiofeedback for the BrainBipolar ChildrenBipolar DisorderBipolar KidsBlackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive DevelopmentBlind SpotsBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlubberlandBlushBodiesBody ConsciousnessBody Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity in YouthBody SenseBody WorkBorderline Personality DisorderBorderline Personality Disorder and the Conversational ModelBorn DigitalBorn to Be GoodBorn Together - Reared ApartBounceBoundaries in Human RelationshipsBounded RationalityBozo SapiensBrain and CultureBrain and the GazeBrain Arousal and Information TheoryBrain BugsBrain Change TherapyBrain Circuitry and Signaling in PsychiatryBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-Based Therapy with AdultsBrain-WiseBrainstormBrainstormingBraintrustBrainwashingBrandedBreaking Murphy's LawBright-SidedBuddha's BrainBullying and TeasingBuyologyCaptureCare of the PsycheCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCerebrum 2007Cerebrum 2010Cerebrum 2015Cerebrum Anthology 2013Changing the SubjectCharacter Strengths and VirtuesCheating LessonsChild and Adolescent Psychological DisordersChildren’s Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness Chomsky NotebookClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyClinical Psychology in Practice ClosureCognition and PerceptionCognition and the BrainCognitive BiologyCognitive DissonanceCognitive FictionsCognitive Mechanisms of Belief ChangeCognitive PragmaticsCognitive ScienceCognitive ScienceCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Therapy of Anxiety DisordersCognitive Unconscious and Human RationalityCold-Blooded KindnessComing of Age in Second LifeCommunication Issues In Autism And Asperger SyndromeCompassion and Healing in Medicine and SocietyComplementary and Alternative Therapies ResearchComprehending ColumbineConfessions of a SociopathConquering Shame and CodependencyConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the Social BrainConsciousness EmergingConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Self-Consciousness, and the Science of Being HumanContemporary Debates in Cognitive ScienceConversations on ConsciousnessConviction of the InnocentCooperation and Its EvolutionCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCredit and BlameCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychologyCritical Thinking About PsychologyCross-Cultural PsychologyCrowdsourcingCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCuriousDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous and Severe Personality DisorderDaniel DennettDaughters of MadnessDeafness In MindDeath and ConsciousnessDeath of a ParentDecomposing the WillDeep Brain StimulationDeep ChinaDefining DifferenceDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions of GenderDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDeparting from DevianceDescartes' BabyDescartes's Changing MindDescribing Inner Experience?Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Destructive EmotionsDevelopment of Geocentric Spatial Language and CognitionDevelopment of PsychopathologyDialogues on DifferenceDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Digital HemlockDirty MindsDisgust and Its DisordersDisorders of VolitionDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Doing without ConceptsDrunk Tank PinkEducating People to Be Emotionally IntelligentEffective IntentionsEffective Writing in PsychologyEffortless AttentionEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbracing MindEmbracing UncertaintyEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotionally InvolvedEmotionsEmotionsEmotions and LifeEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions RevealedEmotions, Aggression, and Morality in ChildrenEmotions, Stress, and HealthEmpathyEnjoymentErotic MoralityEscape Your Own PrisonEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthically Challenged ProfessionsEveryday Mind ReadingEvidence for PsiEvidence-Based Mental Health PracticeEvil MenEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution and LearningEvolution, Games, and GodEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolutionary Psychology as Maladapted PsychologyExacting BeautyExperiences of DepressionExperimenterExplaining the BrainExplaining the BrainExplorations in Neuroscience, Psychology and ReligionExploring TranssexualismExpression and the InnerExtending Self-Esteem ResearchExtraordinary BeliefsFact and Value in EmotionFaking ItFatigue as a Window to the BrainFavorite Activities for the Teaching of PsychologyFeeling GoodFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFinding Meaning, Facing FearsFitting In Is OverratedFlourishingFlow: The Psychology of Optimal ExperienceFolk Psychological NarrativesFooling HoudiniForever YoungFormulation in Psychology and PsychotherapyFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Psychological ThoughtFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom EvolvesFrom Axons to IdentityFrom Madness to Mental HealthFrom Neurons to Self-ConsciousnessFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Symptom to SynapseFrontiers of ConsciousnessGay, Straight, and the Reason WhyGenerosityGenes, Environment, and PsychopathologyGenetic Nature/CultureGeniusGetting Under the SkinGlued to GamesGoing SaneGot Parts?Group GeniusGrowing Up GirlGuilt, Shame, and AnxietyGut ReactionsHallucinationHandbook New Sexuality StudiesHandbook of Closeness and IntimacyHandbook of Critical PsychologyHandbook of Emotion RegulationHandbook of EmotionsHandbook of Personality DisordersHandbook of PsychopathyHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Spatial CognitionHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness at WorkHappiness Is.Happy at LastHard to GetHardwired BehaviorHatredHealing the SplitHidden ResourcesHope and DespairHot ThoughtHot ThoughtHouse and PsychologyHow Animals Affect UsHow Animals GrieveHow Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Doctors ThinkHow Enlightenment Changes Your BrainHow Families Still MatterHow History Made the MindHow Infants Know MindsHow Many Friends Does One Person Need?How Professors ThinkHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Change Someone You LoveHow We ReasonHow We RememberHughes' Outline of Modern PsychiatryHumanHuman BondingHuman Reasoning and Cognitive ScienceHypnotismHysteriaiBrainIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIdentifying the MindiDisorderImagination and the Meaningful BrainImitation and the Social MindImpulse Control DisordersImpulsivityIn an Unspoken VoiceIn Defense of SentimentalityIn DoubtIn Search of HappinessIn the Wake of 9/11Individual and Collective Memory ConsolidationInner Experience and NeuroscienceInner PresenceInside the American CoupleIntegrated Behavioral Health CareIntegrating Evolution and DevelopmentIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntellectual DisabilityIntelligenceIntelligence, Destiny, and EducationIntentions and IntentionalityInterdependent MindsInterpreting MindsInto the Minds of MadmenIntoxicating MindsIntrospection VindicatedIntuitionInventing PersonalityInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIs There Anything Good About Men?Issues for Families, Schools and CommunitiesJane Sexes It UpJoint AttentionJoint AttentionJudgment and Decision MakingJust a DogJust BabiesJuvenile-Onset SchizophreniaKarl JaspersKey Thinkers in PsychologyKidding OurselvesKids of CharacterKilling MonstersLack of CharacterLanguage OriginsLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw, Mind and BrainLess Than HumanLet Kids Be KidsLet's Talk About DeathLiving NarrativeLiving with Mild Cognitive ImpairmentLonelinessLooking for SpinozaLossLOT 2Love at Goon ParkMachine ConsciousnessMacrocognitionMade for Each OtherMadnessMaking a Good Brain GreatMaking Habits, Breaking HabitsMaking Minds and MadnessMaking Up the MindMale SexualityMan and WomanMan's Search for MeaningMan, Beast, and ZombieManic MindsManlinessMapping the MindMarking the MindMarvelous Learning AnimalMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaningMeaning, Mortality, and ChoiceMedical MusesMeditating SelflesslyMeetings with a Remarkable ManMemoryMemory and DreamsMemory and EmotionMemory And UnderstandingMental BiologyMental IllnessMental Time TravelMetacognitionMetacognition and Theory of MindMethods in MindMindMindMind and BrainMind and ConsciousnessMind Games:Mind in LifeMind TimeMind to MindMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMindful AngerMindfulnessMindfulness and AcceptanceMindfulness-Based Treatment Approaches: Clinician's Guide to Evidence Base and ApplicationsMinding AnimalsMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds, Brains, and LawMindsightMindworldsMirrors in the BrainMistakes Were Made (But Not by Me)Models of MadnessMoodMoral Development and RealityMoral MindsMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Mothers and OthersMotivation and Cognitive ControlMotivational Interviewing: Preparing People For ChangeMovies and the MindMulticulturalism and the Therapeutic ProcessMultiplicityMuses, Madmen, and ProphetsMy Family AlbumMyths about SuicideNarrative IdentitiesNarrative PsychiatryNarratives in PsychiatryNaturalizing Intention in ActionNature and NarrativeNature Via NurtureNeither Bad nor MadNerveNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeurochemistry of ConsciousnessNeurodiversityNeuroethicsNeuroLogicNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroscience and PhilosophyNo Child Left DifferentNo Two AlikeNot By Genes AloneNot Much Just Chillin'Not So Abnormal PsychologyNurturing the Older Brain and MindOn AnxietyOn Being HumanOn Being MovedOn Deep History and the BrainOn DesireOn KillingOn Nature and LanguageOn PaedophiliaOn PersonalityOn the Frontier of AdulthoodOn the Origins of Cognitive ScienceOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOnflowOpen MindsOpening Skinner's BoxOrigin of MindOrigins of PsychopathologyOther MindsOut of Our HeadsOut of the WoodsOvercoming Depersonalization DisorderPanpsychism and the Religious AttitudePanpsychism in the WestParenting and the Child's WorldPassionate EnginesPathologies of the WestPatient-Based Approaches to Cognitive NeurosciencePediatric PsychopharmacologyPeople Types and Tiger StripesPerception & CognitionPerception beyond InferencePerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPersonal Development and Clinical PsychologyPerspectives on ImitationPhantoms in the BrainPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhrenologyPhysical RealizationPhysics in MindPieces of LightPlaying with FirePositive PsychologyPositive PsychologyPostcards from the Brain MuseumPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPoverty and Brain Development During ChildhoodPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical Management of Personality DisorderPractical Management of Personality DisorderPredicative MindsPredictably IrrationalPreference, Belief, and SimilarityPrenatal Testosterone in MindPrivileged AccessProcrastinationProust Was a NeuroscientistPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsychological AgencyPsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychological Dimensions of the SelfPsychologists Defying the CrowdPsychologyPsychologyPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology for ScreenwritersPsychology of Women: A Handbook of Issues and TheoriesPsychology's GhostsPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology's TerritoriesPsychopathologyPsychopathyPsychosis and EmotionPsychotherapy, American Culture, and Social PolicyPutnam CampPutting a Name to ItQuantum Memory PowerQuietRadical DistortionRadical Embodied Cognitive ScienceRadical ExternalismRadical GraceRapeRe-Visioning PsychiatryReal MaterialismReality CheckReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecovery in Mental IllnessRecreative MindsRedirectReducing Adolescent RiskRegulating EmotionsRelational BeingRelational Mental HealthRelational Suicide AssessmentReliability in Cognitive NeuroscienceRemembering HomeRemembering Our ChildhoodResearch Advances in Genetics and GenomicsResearching Children's ExperienceResilience in ChildrenRestoring ResilienceRethinking ADHDRethinking Learning DisabilitiesRethinking Middle YearsRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfRevolution in PsychologyRoadmap to ResilienceRomance and Sex in Adolescence and Emerging AdulthoodSchizophrenia RevealedSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologySecond NatureSecond NatureSecond That EmotionSecond-order Change in PsychotherapySecrets of the MindSee What I'm SayingSee What I'm SayingSeeing and VisualizingSeeing RedSelf and SocietySelf Comes to MindSelf Control in Society, Mind, and BrainSelf-Awareness Deficits in Psychiatric PatientsSelf-CompassionSelf-RegulationSelf-Representational Approaches to ConsciousnessSelfless InsightSelvesSerial KillersSex at DawnSex on the BrainSex, Time and PowerSexual Coercion in Primates and HumansSexual DisordersSexual FluiditySexual ReckoningsSexualized BrainsShame and GuiltShatteredSimulating MindsSisyphus's BoulderSNAPSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial Psychology and DiscourseSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSoul DustSparkSpiral of EntrapmentSplendors and Miseries of the BrainSports Hypnosis in PracticeStanding at Water's EdgeStich and His CriticsStillpowerStop OverreactingStructure and Agency in Everyday LifeStructures of AgencyStuffStumbling on HappinessSubjectivity and SelfhoodSubstance Abuse and EmotionSupersizing the MindSweet DreamsSynaptic SelfTales from Both Sides of the BrainTalking Oneself SoberTalking to BabiesTaming the Troublesome ChildTargeting AutismTeaching Problems and the Problems of TeachingTeleological RealismTen Years of Viewing from WithinThat's DisgustingThe 5 Elements of Effective ThinkingThe Accidental MindThe Age of EmpathyThe Altruism EquationThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Clinical PsychiatryThe Anatomy of BiasThe Anxious BrainThe Archaeology of MindThe Art and Science of MindfulnessThe Art InstinctThe Art of HypnosisThe Asymmetrical BrainThe Bifurcation of the SelfThe Big Book of ConceptsThe Big DisconnectThe Birth of IntersubjectivityThe Birth of the MindThe Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge ManagementThe Blank SlateThe Body Has a Mind of Its OwnThe Bounds of CognitionThe Boy Who Was Raised as a DogThe BrainThe Brain and the Meaning of LifeThe Brain SupremacyThe Brain That Changes ItselfThe Brain's Way of HealingThe Brain: Big Bangs, Behaviors, and BeliefsThe Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive ScienceThe Cambridge Handbook of Situated CognitionThe Character of ConsciousnessThe Chemistry Between UsThe Choice EffectThe Clinical Science of Suicide PreventionThe Cognitive Approach to Conscious MachinesThe Cognitive Behavioral Workbook for Anxiety: A Step-By-Step ProgramThe Cognitive NeurosciencesThe Cognitive-Emotional BrainThe College Fear FactorThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Compass of PleasureThe Concepts of ConsciousnessThe Conscious BrainThe Conscious SelfThe Consuming InstinctThe Creating BrainThe Creative BrainThe Crucible of ConsciousnessThe Crucible of ExperienceThe Cure WithinThe Dao of NeuroscienceThe Developing MindThe Developing MindThe Development of PsychopathologyThe Disappearance of the Social in American Social PsychologyThe Dissolution of MindThe Duty to ProtectThe Educated ParentThe Ego TunnelThe Elephant in the RoomThe Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human ExperienceThe Emotional Journey of the Alzheimer's FamilyThe Encultured BrainThe Encyclopedia of StupidityThe Enduring Self in People with Alzheimer'sThe Epidemiology of SchizophreniaThe Essential DifferenceThe Ethical BrainThe Evolution of ChildhoodThe Evolution of CooperationThe Evolution of LanguageThe Evolution of MindThe Evolving BrainThe Executive BrainThe Faces of TerrorismThe Feeling BrainThe Feeling of What HappensThe First IdeaThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Foundations of Cognitive ArchaeologyThe Fundamentalist MindsetThe GapThe Gender TrapThe Geography of BlissThe Gift of ShynessThe Good LifeThe Good LifeThe Happiness HypothesisThe Happiness of PursuitThe Health Psychology HandbookThe Healthy Aging BrainThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of PsychologyThe Human FaceThe Human SparkThe Hypomanic EdgeThe Imagery DebateThe Immeasurable MindThe Imprinted BrainThe Incredible Shrinking MindThe Innate MindThe Innate MindThe Integrated SelfThe Intentional BrainThe Language of ThoughtThe Languages of the BrainThe Lexicon of Adlerian PsychologyThe Lie DetectorsThe Lives of the BrainThe Lonely AmericanThe Lust for BloodThe Madness of WomenThe Male BrainThe Man Who Lost His LanguageThe Man Who Shocked the WorldThe Man Who Tasted ShapesThe Man Who Wasn't ThereThe Matter of the MindThe Mature MindThe Mean Girl MotiveThe Meaning of EvilThe Meaning of OthersThe Meaning of the BodyThe Measure of MadnessThe Measure of MindThe Medicalization of Everyday LifeThe Mind and the BrainThe Mind in ContextThe Mind of the ChildThe Mind of the HorseThe Mind's EyeThe Mind, the Body and the WorldThe Mind-Gut ConnectionThe Mindful BrainThe Misleading MindThe Moral MindThe Most Dangerous AnimalThe Most Human HumanThe Mother FactorThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of Depression as DiseaseThe Myth of Mirror NeuronsThe Myth of Self HelpThe Myth of Self-EsteemThe Myth of the Spoiled ChildThe Nature of the SelfThe Necessity Of MadnessThe Neuro RevolutionThe Neuropsychology of the UnconsciousThe Neuroscience of Human RelationshipsThe Neuroscience of PsychotherapyThe Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social BrainThe New BrainThe New Science of DreamingThe New Science of the MindThe New UnconsciousThe Normal PersonalityThe Origins of FairnessThe Overflowing BrainThe Oxford Companion to the MindThe Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of MindThe Paradoxical PrimateThe Perfectionist's HandbookThe Peripheral MindThe Phenomenology ReaderThe Philosopher's Secret FireThe Philosophical BabyThe Political MindThe Politics of HappinessThe Positive Side of Negative EmotionsThe Postnational SelfThe Postpartum EffectThe Power of PlayThe Praeger Handbook of TranssexualityThe Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday LifeThe Primate MindThe Prism of GrammarThe Psychobiology of Trauma and Resilience Across the LifespanThe Psychological Construction of EmotionThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of HappinessThe Psychology of LifestyleThe Psychology of Religious FundamentalismThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of SpiritualityThe Psychology of StereotypingThe Psychology of SuperheroesThe Psychophysiology of Self-AwarenessThe Pursuit of PerfectThe Quest for Mental HealthThe Rational ImaginationThe Ravenous BrainThe Reasons of LoveThe Righteous MindThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Science of EvilThe Science of Intimate RelationshipsThe Science of Shame and its Treatment The Second SelfThe Secret History of EmotionThe Secret Lives of BoysThe Self and Its EmotionsThe Self-Sabotage CycleThe Sensitive SelfThe Shape of ThoughtThe Social AnimalThe Social Nature of Mental IllnessThe Social Neuroscience of EmpathyThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Story of Intellectual DisabilityThe Structure of ThinkingThe Survivors ClubThe Talking ApeThe Teenage BrainThe Tell-Tale BrainThe Temperamental ThreadThe Tender CutThe Tending InstinctThe Time ParadoxThe Trauma MythThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe True PathThe Truth About GriefThe Turing TestThe Uncertain SciencesThe Unhappy ChildThe Upside of IrrationalityThe War for Children's MindsThe Well-Tuned BrainThe Wild Girl, Natural Man, and the MonsterThe Winner's BrainThe Wisdom in FeelingThe Woman RacketThe World in My Mind, My Mind in the WorldThe Wow ClimaxThe Yipping TigerThemes, Issues and Debates in PsychologyTheoretical Issues in Psychology: An IntroductionTheory of AddictionTheory of MindThings and PlacesThink CatThink Confident, Be ConfidentThinking about AddictionThinking and SeeingThis Emotional Life: In Search of Ourselves...and HappinessThought and LanguageThought in a Hostile WorldTo Have and To Hurt:Toward an Evolutionary Biology of LanguageToward Replacement Parts for the BrainTrauma and Human ExistenceTrauma, Tragedy, TherapyTreating Attachment DisordersTreating Self-InjuryTreating Self-Injury: A Practical GuideTrue to Our FeelingsTrusting the Subject?Understanding and Treating Borderline Personality DisorderUnderstanding ConsciousnessUnderstanding ParanoiaUnderstanding PeopleUnderstanding TerrorismUndoing Perpetual StressUnlock the Genius WithinUnsettled MindsUnstrange MindsUnthinkingUs and ThemViolent PartnersVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVision and MindVisual AgnosiaWarrior's DishonourWe Who Are DarkWednesday Is Indigo BlueWelcome to Your BrainWhat Do Women Want?What Dying People WantWhat Have We DoneWhat Intelligence Tests MissWhat Is an Emotion: Classic and Contemporary ReadingsWhat Is Emotion?What is Intelligence?What Is Mental Illness?What Is Thought?What Makes Your Brain Happy and Why You Should Do the Opposite What the Best College Students DoWhat the Dog SawWhat We Know about Emotional IntelligenceWhat We Say MattersWhat's Wrong With Morality?When Boys Become BoysWhen Perfect Isn't Good EnoughWhen the Impossible HappensWhen Walls Become DoorwaysWho's Been Sleeping in Your HeadWho's in Charge?Why Humans Like to CryWhy Love MattersWhy Lyrics LastWhy People CooperateWhy People Die by SuicideWhy Sex Matters: A Darwinian Look at Human BehaviorWhy Smart People Can Be So StupidWhy the Mind is Not a ComputerWhy Us?Why We LieWhy We LoveWider than the SkyWilliam James at the BoundariesWilling, Wanting, WaitingWittgenstein And PsychologyWomen and Child Sexual AbuseWorking MindsYoga and PsychologyYou Are What You RememberYoung Minds in Social WorldsYour Brain on CubsYour Brain on FoodYour Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings,Your Brain on YogaYour Child in the BalanceZombies and Consciousness
The book has two stated major aims. One is to reconcile contrasting approaches and schools of thought within paleoarchaeology. The author distinguishes six such approaches. There is the general comparative approach in which one infers prehistoric thoughts from the thoughts of people who today live in a society similar to the prehistoric one, e.g. organizationally similar. There is the direct historical approach in which one infers prehistoric thoughts from the thoughts of direct descendents. There is the structural approach (Structuralism), which assumes that the human being is innately predisposed to conceive of the world in terms of binary opposites; one thus looks for evidence in the archaeological record for such opposites. The remaining approaches, materiality, associative and conditional, will be discussed as we go along.
The book also has a cross-disciplinary aspect, which will be my main concern here. The cross-disciplinary aim is to show "that most mind-related archaeological research is built upon empirically and logically substantiated principles derived from relevant disciplines" (p. vii). Unfortunately, the author often misunderstands or overstates such connections. Consider, for example, Abramiuk's discussion of what he calls "the conditional approach," which he defines as the attempt to infer cognitive capacities from archaeological remains. He defends the "conditional approach" by arguing for the extended-mind hypothesis of Clark and Chalmers, i.e. thought processes are literally extended into the external environment through, for example, the manipulation of tools (pp. 27-9). When I use paper and pencil to perform long division, my scribbling is literally part of my mental computation. (One wonders how this is to be reconciled with Abramiuk's characterization of perception as "a process in which stimulus information, originating in the environment, is channeled through the sensory organs and revealed to us in the mind" (p. 95).) The conditional approach is reasonable because the extended-mind hypothesis is true (p. 258). But even someone who insists that mental processes are wholly within the cranium could hardly deny that archaeological artifacts throw light on mental capacities. Defending the extended-mind hypothesis, in this context, would only appear necessary to someone who is not distinguishing evidence for a given mental process from the process itself. It is analogous to saying that one must first argue that the vapor trail in the cloud chamber partly constitutes the electron before feeling confident in inferring the presence of an electron from a vapor trail. More broadly, Abramiuk does not need to defend a relatively uncontroversial position by appealing to a more controversial one.
The example illustrates a pervasive feature of the book, namely supporting fairly obvious or elementary points with unnecessarily complex arguments. To take another example, Abramiuk engages in a lengthy discussion of modus ponens and modus tollens to elucidate the use of conditionals in the "conditional approach." He notes, for example, that Steven Mithen might be hasty in inferring from the absence of carvings made from animal parts to a rigidly modularized Early Human intelligence (pp. 148f). A brief discussion of modus tollens might have been useful here, but Abramiuk's lengthy analysis of it seems like overkill. He even includes a discussion of the Wason selection task, the relevance of which is not explained. The only point really needing to be made is that Mithen might be too hasty in treating the following conditional as having no exceptions: "If Early Human intelligence exhibited cognitive fluidity (specifically, information flow between natural history intelligence and technical intelligence), then there is evidence of Early Human carvings made from animal parts." In other words, not all conditionals are truth-functionally defined. One could thus caution other cognitive archaeologists against construing their own conditionals too rigidly.
Furthermore, it is not clear why the use of conditionals in this approach merits so much emphasis in the first place. Every archaeological approach crucially employs conditionals, because the inference from the known to the unknown always requires them. Even staunchly positivist attempts to reconstruct science always construed scientific generalizations in terms of conditionals. This includes psychological behaviorism, which Abramiuk compares to classic processualism and which he clearly distinguishes from the "conditional approach" (p. 10); the supposed "stimulus-response laws" of Skinner were understood as conditionals. The only important difference between the "conditional approach" and others is that the former is more greatly concerned with inferring underlying cognitive architecture and mechanisms. So Abramiuk's discussion of the logic of conditionals is not only unnecessarily detailed but out of place in the context of discussing just this one approach.
Another attempted cross-disciplinary connection concerns the supposed links between different forms of materiality and various positions on the metaphysics of mind, perhaps even the cosmos. The materiality approach emphasizes the effects of cultural products on people's beliefs, desires, and actions. It is the attempt to infer what a given prehistoric people directly perceived in their environment, and also the concepts based on these percepts. "The materiality approach is based on the idea that mind and material are inextricably locked in a dialectical relationship. In this dialectic, not only are mental concepts materialized by people, but the materializations in turn have a cognitive effect on people. The basic idea is that material objects are active in shaping life ways; they facilitate certain behaviors as well as thought processes" (p. 105).
Abramiuk recognizes two forms of materiality, one according to which humans produce objects which, in turn, influence their thoughts. The other, more extreme, form is the claim that "there is little or no division between material objects in the environment and the mind" (p. 17). (How this might relate to the extended-mind hypothesis is not discussed.) Abramiuk claims that the former kind of materiality is committed to interactionist dualism, the view that there are two substances, mental and physical, which stand in causal relations to one another. He claims that the latter, more extreme, form is committed to double aspectism, which he defines as the "view that contends that a dual substance, in which matter and mind are aspects, pervades the universe" (p. 264).
The claim that slight variants of an archaeological approach have such divergent, and extreme, metaphysical commitments would need to be defended in great detail. Abramiuk does not provide the detail, and one is left wondering why the author makes such strong claims. His remark, that Gibson, in discussing affordances, revealed a "bent" toward double aspectism, is not very illuminating (p. 111). That a single substance pervades (constitutes?) the universe is a very strong claim, demanding a detailed explanation as to how it relates to affordances and materiality, if indeed it really does.
Abramiuk comes close to, but still misses, an opportunity to link archaeology to philosophy in what is potentially a very solid way. The philosopher of language H. P. Grice distinguished various levels of intentionality in his discussion of semantics in linguistic communication. In the 1980s, influenced by Grice, Daniel Dennett suggested that levels of intentionality might serve as a useful means of categorizing the cognitive capacities of various primate species (1983). Dennett also noted that levels of intentionality pretty intuitively suggest a scale of intelligence, hence suggesting a model for mapping the course of early hominin cognitive evolution. Possibly, first-order intentionality came first, e.g. believing that rabbits taste good. This was later accompanied by second-order intentionality, e.g. wanting one's neighbor to believe that rabbits taste good, which was later accompanied by third-order intentionality, e.g. wanting one's neighbor to believe that one believes that rabbits taste good, and so on.
Abramiuk does not cite Grice or Dennett, but does cite Sperber who has defended Dennett's view. Abramiuk maintains that the hypothesis fits the archaeological record fairly well. For Abramiuk, evidence of second-order intentionality appears during the Lower Paleolithic, specifically in the Acheulian period. Only with the Upper Paleolithic does one find full-blown modern higher-order intentionality, or "metaconceptualization" as he terms it. "It is only in the Upper Paleolithic period that semantic concepts and connotative symbolism become clearly expressed. It is during this time that archaeological evidence for third-order metaconceptualization capability (the ability to communicate through external symbols) appears" (p. 241). But note that for Grice, linguistic communication requires more than three levels of intentionality (1969). If my saying to you "Looks like rain" means that it might rain, then I intend that [you recognize that [I want [you to believe that [I think that [it might rain]]]]]. In contrast to Grice, Abramiuk asserts that fourth-order intentionality is not even necessary for religion (p. 239), much less verbal communication. Given the author's eagerness to make connections with philosophy, it is surprising not to find Dennett, and especially Grice, in a discussion of higher-order intentionality and symbolic communication.
In my view, the archaeological evidence is less conclusive than Abramiuk takes it to be. Full-blown higher-order intentionality was perhaps present even as early as the Lower Paleolithic. There is evidence, for example, for seafaring from the Lower Paleolithic (Strasser et al. 2010; 2011), and evidence for the production of ochre, which may have been used to decorate the skin for symbolic purposes, from 100,000 years ago (Henshilwood et al. 2011). Abramiuk is correct to note that the abundance of such evidence dramatically increases with the transition to the Upper Paleolithic, roughly 50,000 years ago, but this may be due to increased population densities placing greater demands upon, and hence stimulating, cognition (Bolender 2007). We could be seeing the awakening of a dormant potential rather than any pertinent genetic change. This would be consistent with the occasional bright flashes of advanced cognition prior to the Upper Paleolithic.
Abramiuk's attempts to link archaeology with cognitive science are often a bit weak. Consider, for example, his discussion of what he terms the "associative method" in archaeology. This is the attempt to find evidence of thematically related groupings of concepts based on archaeological remains. Abramiuk notes, for example, the inference that pigs were associated with prestige in Neolithic China from the discovery that pig skulls were found with other apparently prestige items in certain graves while other graves contained neither. In Chapter 3, the author discusses this and similar examples of the associative method in archaeology, while also discussing psychological work on concepts, specifically addressing associative links between concepts and the roles of exemplars and prototypes. But it is hard to discern how the author has uncovered any interesting or revealing link between these two bodies of literature; there is little more here than the trivial point that both are concerned with associations among concepts.
Abramiuk appeals to the arguments of Wynn and Coolidge to the effect that humans enjoy an enhanced working-memory system (pp. 230f). He notes that improved working memory would have boosted language capacity, which Abramiuk appears to understand primarily as a phonological and communicational system. "Increased phonological storage would have been crucial for language, and it would have allowed for an increased capacity for articulatory rehearsal. More language-based information would have been stored and pieced together; this would have led to the use of longer sentences containing more information and increased syntactic complexity" (p. 233). I suspect that Abramiuk does not go nearly far enough. The cognitive boost provided by an enhanced working memory could benefit syntactic computation directly apart from increasing phonological storage, e.g. in the derivation of structural descriptions. In other words, increased working-memory capacity could boost what linguists call "derivational memory" which crucially enters into the structural descriptions generated by a transformational grammar (Piattelli-Palmarini and Uriagereka 2005).
In my view, Abramiuk's proposed linkages between archaeology, on the one hand, and philosophy and cognitive science, on the other, range from the trivial to the shaky. Nonetheless, the attempt to link archaeology more strongly to these other fields may be of some value even when it falters. Perhaps the book makes a contribution, in its cross-disciplinary aspect, simply by reason of the author's noble intention.
Bolender, J. 2007. Prehistoric cognition by description: A Russellian approach to the Upper Paleolithic. Biology and Philosophy 22:383-399.
Dennett, D. C. 1983. Intentional systems in cognitive ethology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6:343-390.
Grice, H. P. 1969. Utterer's meaning and intentions. Philosophical Review. 78:147-177.
Henshilwood, C. S., F. d'Errico, K. L. van Nieker, Y. Coquinot, Z. Jacobs, S. Lauritzen, M. Menu, and R. García-Moreno. 2011. A 100,000-year-old ochre-processing workshop at Blombos Cave, South Africa. Science 334 (6053): 219-222.
Piattelli-Palmarini, M., and J. Uriagereka. 2005. The evolution of the narrow language faculty: The skeptical view and a reasonable conjecture. Lingue e Linguaggio 4 (1): 27-79.
Strasser, T. F., E. Panagopoulou, C. Runnels, P. M. Murray, N. Thompson, P. Karkanas, F. McCoy, and K. W. Wegmann. Stone Age seafaring in the Mediterranean: Evidence from the Plakias region for Lower Paleolithic and Mesolithic habitation of Crete. 2010. Hesperia: The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. 79:145-190.
Strasser, T. F., C. Runnels, K. Wegmann, E. Panagopoulou, F. McCoy, C. DiGregorio, P. Karkanas, and N. Thompson. 2011. Dating Paleolithic sites in southwestern Crete. Journal of Quaternary Science 26:553-560.
© 2013 John Bolender
John Bolenderis the author of The Self-Organizing Social Mind (MIT Press), Digital Social Mind (Imprint Academic), and Unfelt, Unheard, Unseen: Thinking beyond the Observable (forthcoming).
Response from Marc Abramiuk received May 21, 2013
Published June 4, 2013
In response to the comments dated 7 May 2013, the reviewer correctly begins by stating that my book has two general aims. "One is to reconcile contrasting approaches and schools of thought within paleoarchaeology" (archaeology?). The other is a cross disciplinary aim, which is to show "that most mind-related archaeological research is built upon empirically and logically substantiated principles derived from relevant disciplines" (p. vii), a quote taken from my book. With respect to the latter aim, I also have written that "[e]stablishing these 'multidisciplinary' foundations will facilitate the moving of mind-related archaeological research in a productive direction by promoting fruitful dialogue between archaeology and the other disciplines upon which much of this research is founded" (p. viii). The reviewer chooses to focus on the latter of the two general aims and selects three of the six approaches that I discuss in the book. I will attempt to address each of these points sequentially. Thus, a good portion of the content of my book will not be discussed here.
The first point the reviewer makes is that I presumably defend "the 'conditional approach' by arguing for the extended-mind hypothesis of Clark and Chalmers , i.e. thought processes are literally extended into the external environment through, for example, the manipulation of tools (pp. 27-9)." I offer no such defense, as it is irrelevant for the purposes of the book. In the pages to which the reviewer is referring (pp. 27-29), the point I make is that a consequence of envisioning the mind as computation is its facility for being extended into the environment. The reviewer goes on to suggest that there is irreconcilability between the notion of extended mind and my definition of perception as "a process in which stimulus information, originating in the environment, is channeled through the sensory organs and revealed to us in the mind" (p. 95). However, I see no issue with irreconcilability since I am not locating the mind exclusively in any particular place--brain or environment--within the definition. I can see how this issue might need to be addressed in more depth if I was indeed defending the conditional approach using the notion of extended mind, but I am not. Nor am I using the notion of extended mind as an epistemological basis for the conditional approach. The reviewer continues to say that I argue that "[t]he conditional approach is reasonable because the extended-mind hypothesis is true (p. 258)." What I actually say on pp. 257-258 when taken in context is that from an archaeological practitioner's standpoint, the incommensurability of brain and mind is often marked. I then go on to say that studying brain functioning in the past cannot by itself achieve a complete understanding of the mind in the past, and I propose a strategy for achieving this more complete understanding.
With respect to the relevance of discussing conditional statements in the book (pp. 148-49), I am not denying that conditional statements are used pervasively in other fields or in other areas of archaeological inference. I am simply analyzing how they are used when inferring cognitive capabilities from behavioral remains--what I have termed the "conditional approach." The conditional statements cognitive archaeologists use in their arguments figure prominently in such a discussion because they embody the inferences being made, and are what cognitive archaeologists commonly use to express what they know and how they know it. It is for this reason that I go into such detail discussing the strengths and weaknesses of the different argument forms that incorporate conditional statements.
The reviewer goes on to discuss the materiality approach, stating "Abramiuk recognizes two forms of materiality, one according to which humans produce objects which, in turn, influence their thoughts. The other, more extreme, form is the claim that 'there is little or no division between material objects in the environment and the mind' (p. 17) ... Abramiuk claims that the former kind of materiality is committed to interactionist dualism ... He claims that the latter, more extreme, form is committed to double aspectism…" The reviewer goes on to say that "[t]he claim that slight variants of an archaeological approach have such divergent, and extreme, metaphysical commitments would need to be defended in great detail."
Firstly, I cannot be credited for having come up with that distinction. For that, the reviewer should refer to DeMarrais et al. (2004:2) (as cited in the book) who discuss this distinction in detail. My focus was on elaborating on the metaphysical distinctions only in so far as they helped describe and provide background to the variants of the materiality approach. Later in Chapter 4, I exemplify the materiality approach and discuss its foundations, not by examining philosophical positions--although I make reference to them--but rather by deferring to the empirical studies on affordances conducted by psychologists.
I agree with the point made that discussing Grice (1969) and Dennett (1983) would have created a useful link to the philosophical literature, providing a fuller account on the topic of the evolution of intentionality. I do believe, however, that my research is not incompatible with the views of Grice or Dennett. I am not arguing that third-order intentionality is the only cognitive capability required for language and all religions; nor am I saying that the archaeological data provide the final say on issuing dates for the development of intentionality. What I do state is that the evidence for third- and fourth-order intentionality is most clearly expressed at the onset of the Upper Paleolithic, and I make it very clear that the archaeological evidence provides us with a kind of "lower bound" for inferring the rise of such cognitive capabilities (p. 241). Regarding the archaeological evidence for fourth-order intentionality which appears early in the Upper Paleolithic, I state "[t]his does not mean that fourth-order [intentionality] was not present earlier" (p. 241). Indeed, higher-order intentionality may have arrived before the onset of the Upper Paleolithic, but I am saying that it is more prudent to err on the side of safety and to go with the lower bound when inferring mind frames using the approaches I outlined earlier in the book.
As I discuss in the book (pp. 260-261), it is possible that this lower bound may need to be pushed back in time as new evidence mounts. The reviewer's reference to the work of Henshilwood et al. (2011) which revealed evidence of ochre in an archaeological context 100,000 years ago suggests that the ochre might have been used symbolically to decorate the skin; however, another explanation that the authors offer is that the ochre might have been used as a protectant (Henshilwood et al. 2011:222). There may be a considerable amount of symbolic activity going on in the Middle Paleolithic, specifically with regards to ochre use (e.g. Hovers et al. 2003), but the context of the ochre and, therefore, the proposed symbolic use of ochre is not at all definitive--not to mention that the non-symbolic uses for ochre as explanations seem just as plausible (see Rifkin 2011). Just as provocative as the finds of ochre--for suggesting the "first glimmers" of symbolism--are the discoveries of burial goods in juxtaposition with human remains at Qafzeh Cave (Vandermeersch 1970) and Es Skhul Cave (McCown 1937:104) dating to between 80,000 and 90,000 years ago (see p. 244). Regardless of these finds, however, clear evidence of connotative symbolism finds its expression in the archaeological record later. This is why the 30,000 YA age limit is used; it provides a secure girth for the purpose of inferring mind frames using the approaches outlined in the book--an objective that is stated on several occasions (e.g. pp. xi, 154-155, 253).
With regard to the comments on my discussion of the associative approach as well as the previously discussed conditional approach, the detail I provide is meant to show how the approaches are used by the archaeologist and to analyze the foundations--empirical and logical, respectively--being appealed to in archaeological practice. As stated in the introduction, the audience for which I am aiming this book is firstly an archaeological one, and secondarily a cognitive scientific one (p. vii). The reason I made this qualification is that the issues discussed are largely epistemological matters archaeologists face when they inquire about minds in the past, and thus may be of interest to archaeologists and also cognitive scientists clued into the discussion.
The reason for writing the book was to establish foundations surrounding the assumptions that archaeologists make in mind-related research, as I felt this was much needed in cognitive archaeology. Generally speaking, foundational research does not make novel claims and generate exciting theories. It often takes something that is assumed and analyzes the credibility of the assumptions. In mathematics, foundational research can accomplish this through logically proving that the assumptions are correct under certain conditions. In cognitive archaeology, we must be content with using research from multiple disciplines to support cognitive archaeological assumptions, whether the support is derived from archaeology, cognitive science, or otherwise. To do this a dialogue between professionals in archaeology and in the cognitive sciences must be opened. With respect to this point, it seems I have been successful in achieving what was a fundamental purpose of the book.
Clark, A., and D. Chalmers. 1998. The extended mind. Analysis 58:7-19.
DeMarrais, E., C. Gosden, and C. Renfrew. 2004. Introduction. In Rethinking Materiality: The Engagement of the Mind with the Material World, ed. E. DeMarrais, C. Gosden, and C. Renfrew. 1-7. Cambridge: McDonald Institute Monographs.
Dennett, D. C. 1983. Intentional systems in cognitive ethology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6:343-390.
Grice, H. P. 1969. Utterer's meaning and intentions. Philosophical Review. 78:147-177.
Henshilwood, C. S., F. d'Errico, K. L. van Nieker, Y. Coquinot, Z. Jacobs, S. Lauritzen, M. Menu, and R. García-Moreno. 2011. A 100,000-year-old ochre-processing workshop at Blombos Cave, South Africa. Science 334 (6053): 219-222.
Hovers, E., S. Ilani, O. Bar-Yosef, and B. Vandermeersch. 2003. An early case of color symbolism--Ochre use by modern humans in Qafzeh cave. Current Anthropology 44(4):491-522.
McCown, T. 1937. Mugharet es-Skhul: Description and excavations. In The Stone Age of Mount Carmel, ed. D. A. E. Garrod and D. Bate, 91-107. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Rifkin, R.F. 2011. Assessing the efficacy of red ochre as a prehistoric hide tanning ingredient. Journal of A
© 2013 Marc Abramiuk