email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
Anger and Forgiveness"Are You There Alone?"10 Good Questions about Life and DeathA Casebook of Ethical Challenges in NeuropsychologyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to Muslim EthicsA Cooperative SpeciesA Critique of the Moral Defense of VegetarianismA Delicate BalanceA Fragile LifeA Life for a LifeA Life-Centered Approach to BioethicsA Matter of SecurityA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Natural History of Human MoralityA Philosophical DiseaseA Practical Guide to Clinical Ethics ConsultingA Question of TrustA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Short Stay in SwitzerlandA Tapestry of ValuesA Very Bad WizardA World Without ValuesAction and ResponsibilityAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionActs of ConscienceAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction NeuroethicsAdvance Directives in Mental HealthAfter HarmAftermathAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HealthAgainst MarriageAgainst Moral ResponsibilityAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAging, Biotechnology, and the FutureAlbert Schweitzer's Reverence for LifeAlphavilleAltruismAltruismAmerican EugenicsAmerican PsychosisAn American SicknessAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Evolutionary EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy Ancient Greek and Roman SlaveryAnd a Time to DieAnimal LessonsAnimal RightsAnimals Like UsApplied Ethics in Mental Health CareAre Women Human?Arguments about AbortionAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAutonomyAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismAutonomy, Consent and the LawBabies by DesignBackslidingBad PharmaBad SoulsBarriers and BelongingBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBeauty JunkiesBefore ForgivingBeing AmoralBeing YourselfBending Over BackwardsBending ScienceBernard WilliamsBetter Humans?Better Than WellBeyond BioethicsBeyond ChoiceBeyond GeneticsBeyond HatredBeyond Humanity?Beyond LossBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond SpeechBeyond the DSM StoryBias in Psychiatric DiagnosisBioethicsBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics at the MoviesBioethics Beyond the HeadlinesBioethics Critically ReconsideredBioethics in a Liberal SocietyBioethics in the ClinicBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical Research and BeyondBiosBioscience EthicsBipolar ChildrenBluebirdBodies out of BoundsBodies, Commodities, and BiotechnologiesBody BazaarBoundBoundaries and Boundary Violations in PsychoanalysisBraintrustBrandedBreaking the SilenceBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyCapital PunishmentCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsChallenging the Stigma of Mental IllnessCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionChild Well-BeingChildrenChildren's RightsChoosing ChildrenChoosing Not to ChooseClinical Dilemmas in PsychotherapyClinical EthicsCloningClose toYouCoercion as CureCoercive Treatment in PsychiatryCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognitive Disability and Its Challenge to Moral Philosophy Comfortably NumbCommonsense RebellionCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentComprehending CareConducting Insanity EvaluationsConfidential RelationshipsConfidentiality and Mental HealthConflict of Interest in the ProfessionsConsuming KidsContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContentious IssuesContesting PsychiatryCrazy in AmericaCreating CapabilitiesCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCritical Perspectives in Public HealthCritical PsychiatryCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCurrent Controversies in BioethicsCurrent Controversies in Values and ScienceCutting to the CoreCyborg CitizenDamaged IdentitiesDeaf Identities in the MakingDeath Is That Man Taking NamesDebating ProcreationDebating Same-Sex MarriageDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecoding the Ethics CodeDefining DifferenceDefining Right and Wrong in Brain ScienceDefining the Beginning and End of LifeDelusions of GenderDementiaDemocracy in What State?Demons of the Modern WorldDescriptions and PrescriptionsDesert and VirtueDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDestructive Trends in Mental HealthDeveloping the VirtuesDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital HemlockDigital SoulDignityDignityDisability BioethicsDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDiscrimination against the Mentally IllDisordered Personalities and CrimeDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDoes Feminism Discriminate against Men?Does Torture Work?Double Standards in Medical Research in Developing CountriesDown GirlDrugs and JusticeDworkin and His CriticsDying in the Twenty-First CenturyEarly WarningEconomics and Youth ViolenceEmbodied RhetoricsEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotional ReasonEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmpathyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEncountering NatureEncountering the Sacred in PsychotherapyEngendering International HealthEnhancing EvolutionEnhancing Human CapacitiesEnoughEros and the GoodErotic InnocenceErotic MoralityEssays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEthical Choices in Contemporary MedicineEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Dilemmas in PediatricsEthical Issues in Behavioral ResearchEthical Issues in Dementia CareEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in the New GeneticsEthical LifeEthical Reasoning for Mental Health ProfessionalsEthical TheoryEthical WillsEthically Challenged ProfessionsEthicsEthicsEthicsEthics and AnimalsEthics and ScienceEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Discovery of the UnconsciousEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics at the CinemaEthics at the End of LifeEthics Case Book of the American Psychoanalytic AssociationEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics for EveryoneEthics for PsychologistsEthics for the New MillenniumEthics in CyberspaceEthics in Everyday PlacesEthics in Health CareEthics In Health Services ManagementEthics in Mental Health ResearchEthics in PracticeEthics in PsychiatryEthics in PsychologyEthics in Psychotherapy and CounselingEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEthics, Culture, and PsychiatryEthics, Sexual Orientation, and Choices about ChildrenEvaluating the Science and Ethics of Research on HumansEvilEvil GenesEvil in Modern ThoughtEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Ethics and Contemporary BiologyEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolved MoralityExperiments in EthicsExploding the Gene MythExploiting ChildhoodFacing Human SufferingFact and ValueFacts and ValuesFaking ItFalse-Memory Creation in Children and AdultsFat ShameFatal FreedomFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist TheoryFinal ExamFirst Do No HarmFirst, Do No HarmFlashpointFlesh WoundsForced to CareForgivenessForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and ReconciliationForgiveness and RetributionForgiveness is Really StrangeFoucault and the Government of DisabilityFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Forensic Mental Health AssessmentFree WillFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will and Reactive AttitudesFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree?Freedom and ValueFreedom vs. InterventionFriendshipFrom Darwin to HitlerFrom Disgust to HumanityFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Silence to VoiceFrom Valuing to ValueFrontiers of JusticeGender in the MirrorGenetic PoliticsGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetics of Original SinGenetics of Original SinGenocide's AftermathGetting RealGluttonyGood WorkGoodness & AdviceGreedGroups in ConflictGrowing Up GirlGut FeminismHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHandbook for Health Care Ethics CommitteesHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of Children's RightsHandbook of PsychopathyHappinessHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHard FeelingsHard LuckHardwired BehaviorHarmful ThoughtsHeal & ForgiveHealing PsychiatryHealth Care Ethics for PsychologistsHeterosyncraciesHistorical and Philosophical Perspectives on Biomedical EthicsHoly WarHookedHookedHow Can I Be Trusted?How Fascism WorksHow Propaganda WorksHow to Do Things with Pornography How to Make Opportunity EqualHow Universities Can Help Create a Wiser WorldHow We HopeHow We Think About DementiaHuman BondingHuman Dignity and Assisted DeathHuman EnhancementHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman TrialsHumanism, What's That?Humanitarian ReasonHumanityHumanizing MadnessI am Not Sick I Don't Need Help!I Was WrongIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIf That Ever Happens to MeImproving Nature?In Defense of FloggingIn Defense of SinIn Love With LifeIn Our Own ImageIn the FamilyIn the Land of the DeafIn the Name of IdentityIn the Wake of 9/11In Two MindsInclusive EthicsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchInnovation in Medical TechnologyInside Assisted LivingInside EthicsIntelligence, Race, and GeneticsIntensive CareInto the Gray ZoneIs Human Nature Obsolete?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is There a Duty to Die?Is There an Ethicist in the House?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJudging Children As ChildrenJust a DogJust BabiesJust CareJustice for ChildrenJustice for HedgehogsJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeJustifiable ConductKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Theory of VirtueKids of CharacterKilling McVeighLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLaw and the BrainLearning About School ViolenceLearning from Baby PLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLegal and Ethical Aspects of HealthcareLegal Aspects of Mental CapacityLegal ConceptionsLegal InsanityLegalizing ProstitutionLet Them Eat ProzacLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberal EugenicsLife After FaithLife at the BottomLife, Sex, and IdeasListening to the WhispersLiving ProfessionalismLosing Matt ShepardLostLuckyMad in AmericaMad PrideMadhouseMaking Another World PossibleMaking Babies, Making FamiliesMaking Genes, Making WavesMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMalignantMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaning and Moral OrderMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeans, Ends, and PersonsMeans, Ends, and PersonsMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedical Research for HireMedicalized MasculinitiesMedically Assisted DeathMeditations for the HumanistMelancholia and MoralismMental Health Professionals, Minorities and the PoorMental Illness, Medicine and LawMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMetaethical SubjectivismMill's UtilitarianismMind FieldsMind WarsMind WarsModern Theories of JusticeModernity and TechnologyMoney ShotMonsterMoral Acquaintances and Moral DecisionsMoral BrainsMoral ClarityMoral CultivationMoral Development and RealityMoral Dilemmas in Real LifeMoral DimensionsMoral EntanglementsMoral FailureMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral MindsMoral OriginsMoral Panics, Sex PanicsMoral ParticularismMoral PerceptionMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RealismMoral RelativismMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral Status and Human LifeMoral StealthMoral Theory at the MoviesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMoral, Immoral, AmoralMoralismMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMorals, Rights and Practice in the Human ServicesMorals, Rights and Practice in the Human ServicesMore Than HumanMotive and RightnessMovies and the Moral Adventure of LifeMurder in the InnMy Body PoliticMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Sister's KeeperMy Sister's KeeperMy WayNano-Bio-EthicsNarrative MedicineNarrative ProsthesisNatural Ethical FactsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalized BioethicsNeither Bad nor MadNeoconservatismNeonatal BioethicsNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNew Takes in Film-PhilosophyNew Waves in EthicsNew Waves in MetaethicsNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNo Child Left DifferentNo Impact ManNormative EthicsNormativityNothing about us, without us!Oath BetrayedOf War and LawOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn EvilOn Human RightsOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOn the TakeOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne ChildOne Nation Under TherapyOne World NowOne World NowOur Bodies, Whose Property?Our Bodies, Whose Property?Our Daily MedsOur Faithfulness to the PastOur Posthuman FutureOut of EdenOut of Its MindOut of the ShadowsOverdosed AmericaOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Studies in Normative EthicsOxford Studies in Normative Ethics, Volume 7Oxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPassionate DeliberationPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perfecting VirtuePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonalities on the PlatePersonhood and Health CarePersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPerspectives On Health And Human RightsPharmaceutical FreedomPharmacracyPharmageddonPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhysician-Assisted DyingPicturing DisabilityPilgrim at Tinker CreekPlaying God?Playing God?Political EmotionsPornlandPowerful MedicinesPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical EthicsPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical RulesPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic NeuroethicsPraise and BlamePreferences and Well-BeingPrimates and PhilosophersPro-Life, Pro-ChoiceProcreation and ParenthoodProfits Before People?Progress in BioethicsProperty in the BodyProzac As a Way of LifeProzac on the CouchPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric EthicsPsychiatry and EmpirePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychotropic Drug Prescriber's Survival GuidePublic Health LawPublic Health Law and EthicsPublic PhilosophyPunishing the Mentally IllPunishmentPursuits of WisdomPutting Morality Back Into PoliticsPutting on VirtueQuality of Life and Human DifferenceRaceRadical HopeRadical VirtuesRape Is RapeRe-creating MedicineRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReckoning With HomelessnessReconceiving Medical EthicsRecovery from SchizophreniaRedefining RapeRedesigning HumansReducing the Stigma of Mental IllnessReflections on Ethics and ResponsibilityReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRefuting Peter Singer's Ethical TheoryRelative JusticeRelativism and Human RightsReligion ExplainedReprogeneticsRescuing JeffreyRespecting AnimalsResponsibilityResponsibility and PsychopathyResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsResponsible GeneticsRethinking CommodificationRethinking Informed Consent in BioethicsRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeReturn to ReasonRevolution in PsychologyRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRisk and Luck in Medical EthicsRobert NozickRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Rule of Law, Misrule of MenRun, Spot, RunRunning on RitalinSatisficing and MaximizingSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and EthicsScience in the Private InterestScience, Policy, and the Value-Free IdealScience, Seeds and CyborgsScratching the Surface of BioethicsSecular Philosophy and the Religious TemperamentSeeing the LightSelf-ConstitutionSelf-Made MadnessSelf-Trust and Reproductive AutonomySentimental RulesSex Fiends, Perverts, and PedophilesSex OffendersSex, Family, and the Culture WarsSexual DevianceSexual EthicsSexual PredatorsSexualized BrainsShaping Our SelvesShock TherapyShould I Medicate My Child?ShunnedSick to Death and Not Going to Take It AnymoreSickoSide EffectsSidewalk StoriesSister CitizenSkeptical FeminismSocial Dimensions of Moral ResponsibilitySocial Inclusion of People with Mental IllnessSocial JusticeSociological Perspectives on the New GeneticsSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSovereign VirtueSpeech MattersSpiral of EntrapmentSplit DecisionsSticks and StonesStories MatterSubhumanSubjectivity and Being SomebodySuffering, Death, and IdentitySuicide ProhibitionSurgery JunkiesSurgically Shaping ChildrenTaking Morality SeriouslyTaming the Troublesome ChildTechnology and the Good Life?TestimonyText and Materials on International Human RightsThe Aims of Higher EducationThe Almost MoonThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Forensic PsychiatryThe Animal ManifestoThe Animals' AgendaThe Art of LivingThe Autonomy of MoralityThe Beloved SelfThe Best Things in LifeThe Big FixThe Bioethics ReaderThe Biology and Psychology of Moral AgencyThe Blackwell Guide to Medical EthicsThe Body SilentThe BondThe Book of LifeThe Burden of SympathyThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Textbook of BioethicsThe Case against Assisted SuicideThe Case Against PerfectionThe Case Against PunishmentThe Case for PerfectionThe Case of Terri SchiavoThe Challenge of Human RightsThe Character GapThe Code for Global EthicsThe Colonization Of Psychic SpaceThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Common ThreadThe Connected SelfThe Constitution of AgencyThe Creation of PsychopharmacologyThe Criminal BrainThe Decency WarsThe Difficult-to-Treat Psychiatric PatientThe Disability PendulumThe Disability Rights Movement: From Charity to ConfrontationThe Domain of ReasonsThe Double-Edged HelixThe Duty to ProtectThe Emotional Construction of MoralsThe End of Ethics in a Technological SocietyThe End of Stigma?The Essentials of New York Mental Health LawThe Ethical BrainThe Ethical Dimensions of the Biological and Health SciencesThe Ethics of BioethicsThe Ethics of Choosing ChildrenThe Ethics of Human EnhancementThe Ethics of ParenthoodThe Ethics of SightseeingThe Ethics of the FamilyThe Ethics of the Family in SenecaThe Ethics of the LieThe Ethics of TransplantsThe Ethics of WarThe Ethics ToolkitThe Evolution of Mental Health LawThe Evolution of MoralityThe FamilyThe Fat Studies ReaderThe Forgiveness ProjectThe Form of Practical KnowledgeThe Fountain of YouthThe Freedom ParadoxThe Future of Assisted Suicide and EuthanasiaThe Future of Human NatureThe Good BookThe Good LifeThe Great BetrayalThe Handbook of Disability StudiesThe Healing VirtuesThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of Human RightsThe HorizonThe Idea of JusticeThe Ideal of NatureThe Illusion of Freedom and EqualityThe Immortal Life of Henrietta LacksThe Importance of Being UnderstoodThe Insanity OffenseThe Joy of SecularismThe Language PoliceThe Last Normal ChildThe Last UtopiaThe Limits of MedicineThe LobotomistThe Love CureThe Lucifer EffectThe Manual of EpictetusThe Mark of ShameThe Meaning of NiceThe Medicalization of SocietyThe Merck DruggernautThe Mind Has MountainsThe Modern Art of DyingThe Modern SavageThe Moral ArcThe Moral BrainThe Moral Demands of MemoryThe Moral FoolThe Moral MindThe Moral Psychology HandbookThe Moral Punishment Instinct The Moral, Social, and Commercial Imperatives of Genetic Testing and ScreeningThe Most Good You Can DoThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of the Moral BrainThe Nature of NormativityThe New Disability HistoryThe New Genetic MedicineThe New Religious IntoleranceThe Offensive InternetThe Origins of FairnessThe Oxford Handbook of Animal EthicsThe Oxford Handbook of Ethics at the End of LifeThe Oxford Handbook of Food EthicsThe Palgrave Handbook of Practical Animal EthicsThe Perfect BabyThe Philosophical ParentThe Philosophy of NeedThe Philosophy of PornographyThe Philosophy of PsychiatryThe Politics Of LustThe Portable Ethicist for Mental Health Professionals The Power of Religion in the Public SphereThe Price of PerfectionThe Price of TruthThe Problem of PunishmentThe Prosthetic ImpulseThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe PsychopathThe Purity MythThe Pursuit of PerfectionThe Relevance of Philosophy to LifeThe Right Road to Radical FreedomThe Right to Be ParentsThe Righteous MindThe Root of All EvilThe Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal MindsThe Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of EmpathyThe Rules of InsanityThe Second SexismThe Second-Person StandpointThe Silent World of Doctor and PatientThe Sleep of ReasonThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Speed of DarkThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Story of Cruel and UnusualThe Story WithinThe Stubborn System of Moral ResponsibilityThe Suicide TouristThe Terrible GiftThe Theory of OptionsThe Therapy of DesireThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Triple HelixThe Trolley Problem MysteriesThe Trouble with DiversityThe Truth About the Drug CompaniesThe Ugly LawsThe Varieties of Religious ExperienceThe Virtue of Defiance and Psychiatric EngagementThe Virtues of FreedomThe Virtues of HappinessThe Virtuous Life in Greek EthicsThe Virtuous PsychiatristThe Voice of Breast Cancer in Medicine and BioethicsThe War Against BoysThe War for Children's MindsThe Whole ChildThe Woman RacketThe Worldwide Practice of TortureTherapy with ChildrenThieves of VirtueThree Generations, No ImbecilesTimes of Triumph, Times of DoubtTolerance Among The VirtuesTolerance and the Ethical LifeTolerationToxic PsychiatryTrauma, Truth and ReconciliationTreatment Kind and FairTrusting on the EdgeTry to RememberUltimate JudgementUnborn in the USA: Inside the War on AbortionUndermining ScienceUnderstanding AbortionUnderstanding CloningUnderstanding EmotionsUnderstanding EvilUnderstanding Kant's EthicsUnderstanding Moral ObligationUnderstanding Physician-Pharmaceutical Industry InteractionsUnderstanding TerrorismUnderstanding the GenomeUnderstanding the Stigma of Mental IllnessUnderstanding Treatment Without ConsentUnhingedUnprincipled VirtueUnsanctifying Human Life: Essays on EthicsUnspeakable Acts, Ordinary PeopleUp in FlamesUpheavals of ThoughtUsers and Abusers of PsychiatryValue-Free Science?Values and Psychiatric DiagnosisValues in ConflictVegetarianismViolence and Mental DisorderVirtue EthicsVirtue, Rules, and JusticeVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVirtues and Their VicesVoracious Science and Vulnerable AnimalsVulnerability, Autonomy, and Applied EthicsWar Against the WeakWar, Torture and TerrorismWarrior's DishonourWeaknessWelfare and Rational CareWhat are you staring at?What Genes Can't DoWhat Have We DoneWhat Is a Human?What Is Good and WhyWhat Is Good and WhyWhat Is the Good Life?What Price Better Health?What Should I Do?What We Owe to Each OtherWhat Would Aristotle Do?What's Good on TVWhat's Normal?What's Wrong with Children's RightsWhat's Wrong with Homosexuality?What's Wrong With Morality?When Is Discrimination Wrong?Who Holds the Moral High Ground?Who Owns YouWho Qualifies for Rights?Whose America?Whose View of Life?Why Animals MatterWhy Animals MatterWhy Does Inequality Matter?Why I Burned My Book and Other Essays on DisabilityWhy Not Kill Them All?Why Punish? How Much?Why Some Things Should Not Be for SaleWisdom, Intuition and EthicsWithout ConscienceWomen and Borderline Personality DisorderWomen and MadnessWondergenesWould You Kill the Fat Man?Wrestling with Behavioral GeneticsWriting About PatientsYou Must Be DreamingYour Genetic DestinyYour Inner FishYouth Offending and Youth Justice Yuck!
The Oxford Handbook of Animal Ethics, edited by Tom Beauchamp and R. G. Frey, makes a substantial and magisterial addition to the literature on animal ethics. The volume contains 35 original essays on topics that could easily be expected from the title (i.e., how the different theories in normative ethics view non-human animals, and a range of topics in applied ethics, including animal experimentation, and so on). But instead of covering just these topics in isolation from broader concerns, the essays in -- or, chapters of -- the volume aim situate animal ethics in the wider context of philosophy, including philosophy of mind, philosophy of science(s), ethical theory, history of philosophy, and beyond. Taking the volume as a whole -- they admirably succeed in this task.
Allow me to begin with the disclaimer that it would be unfeasible to cover all the chapters in the space available for the review here. Moreover, one of the editors (Beauchamp) already performs this task in a commendable fashion, when he surveys the highlights of all the chapters. For someone looking for an introduction to animal ethics, the ground covered in the editor's introduction would likely be sufficient. The rest of the book is structured in six parts of varying length, and Beauchamp's introduction covers each of these. As he notes, the chapters "explore matters that … have never previously been examined by philosophers" (3). Also, the preface to the volume already enters a caveat that the chapters (aside from the Introduction) are not "scaled down … to make them more accessible to a wide audience" (ix). Given this, the volume seems to be chiefly intended for scholars and for graduate students whose work delves deep into these matters.
As a result of the editorial choices made, the chapters are representative of first-rate scholarship. The chapters are not only well-informed and exhaustive in their scope, but they are also well-argued. The suggested readings section for each of the chapters (some of which are annotated, although most are not) is nothing short of comprehensive. Moreover, the chapters are self-contained, so that a reader interested in finding out about topic x would not need to cross-reference the other chapters in order to get a thorough overview on the topic of her choice (although she probably should, given how she would undoubtedly benefit from doing so).
Given all the above, my review here will provide just a short sketch of each of the parts of the book. The main exception to this is my discussion of the chapters in Part III (which deals with questions of personhood, as well as the moral theories built on this notion), where I pay closer attention to (some of) the chapters.
Part I: History of philosophy
Although the notion of animal rights might have the air of being a recent development, the two chapters in Part I serve to dispel this illusion. As Beauchamp notes, the volume is not titled Handbook on Animal Rights for the reason that such a title would be "presumptive [and] insufficiently comprehensive" (4). Moreover, as the subsequent discussions in Part II (and, in particular, in Beauchamp's essay, #7) indicate, the notion of 'rights' is not commonly shared amongst the proponents of animal welfare, not to mention that it carries the implication of obligations (per the arguments by Roger Scruton, et.al.).
In the first chapter of the volume, Clark canvasses the views held in the ancient world, and points out how there is scarcely a consensus among these, when it comes to animal ethics. Clark argues that this has to do with the fact that any attempt to include nearly a millennia's worth of philosophical thought under a single heading (such as "the Ancients," or "the Greeks," or "the Classics," and so on) will inevitably gloss over the real and nuanced differences between the various positions that were actually held. On a close inspection, the positions held by "the Ancients," etc., turn out to be "as convoluted, as contradictory, as that of any age or region" (55). Still, as Clark concludes, it won't simply do to brush off all the considerations advanced by the Ancients and the Classicists due to the inability to bracket off these views in neat-and-clean categories.
In the second chapter, Garrett surveys the views on animals and ethics in the Modern period. Again, any generalizations about the views held by philosophers in this period (spanning from the 16th through the 18th centuries) are shown to be as ill-advised as those about the views of the thinkers of the Ancient period. Nevertheless, Garrett deftly shows that many (if not most) of the positions that have become commonplace in the 20th century (when it comes to animal rights, etc.) can be traced back to the thinkers of the Modern period.
Part II: Types of Ethical Theory
The six chapters in Part II cover the contemporary positions on normative ethics, and how they construe the role of animals. The views represented here include the usual suspects -- (Kantian) deontology (#3 by Korsgaard, although she adds an Aristotelian component), utilitarianism (#6 by Frey), and (social) contractarianism/human rights theory (#7 by Beauchamp). Each of these chapters deals, in close detail, with the question of how animals fit in such an ethical theory, as well as with the question of how animals could (and should) fit in such a theory. In addition to these chapters, we also find coverage of virtue ethics (#4 by Hursthouse), of Humean (non-cognitivist) ethical theory (#5 by Driver), and of capabilities approach (#8 by Nussbaum).
Part III: Moral Status and Person Theory
The common thread for the four chapters in Part III is the concept 'person' and how it can be (and has been) used to confer a preferential moral status. As the conventional wisdom has it, those beings that are persons are entitled to serious moral considerations, while those who are not persons, lack such entitlement. But as the contributors argue, there is scant consensus on what a person is, and what role does 'personhood' play in the philosophical debates in ethics, in metaphysics, and in political and legal philosophy.
The opening chapter (#9) of this section, "The Idea of Moral Standing" by Morris, investigates the notion of moral standing as it is used in contemporary literature on ethics. Morris reviews the ambiguities surrounding the notion, along with the arguments for (and against) extending moral standing to animals in a conventionalist framework of justice. Moreover, Morris argues that clarifying just this question would still produce an inadequate understanding of the status of animals; Morris moves on to suggest ways to broaden the notion of status that a being can have. As for the question of what being(s) have moral standing, Morris surveys the diversity of proposed views, which generally are of the form "something has moral standing if it is x"; the stronger form of the thesis is "something has moral standing if and only if it is x". The common values for 'x' have included: a person, an actual or potential person, a member of the species Homo sapiens, a member of a natural kind whose mature members are normally persons, an agent who is willing to cooperate. As for the question of moral standing, we can take it in the juridical sense, "focus[ing] on obligations owed to a being, such that it is wronged when these obligations are disregarded" (267). In addition, Morris argues that a second notion of moral standing is called for, namely, one that is accorded to beings that are objects "of our charity or benevolence, in their own right and for their own sake" (271). This second notion of moral standing is not intended as a replacement to the juridical notion, but instead, a supplement. Morris acknowledges that ultimately, his proposal may not resolve all the questions, but it still seemingly serves to improve the focus -- as well as the clarity -- of the debates over moral standing.
Next, moving on to the chapter by Chan and Harris (#11), they explore the question "of whether a nonhuman animal [or] any nonhuman organic creature or animate machine could ever be considered a person" (305). The contemporary use of the term 'person,' as Chan and Harris point out, chiefly owes to John Locke's definition, according to which a person is "a thinking intelligent being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, in different times and places…" (306). Since each of the capacities identified by Locke admit degrees, the authors point out that this leads to thorny questions about degrees of personhood: is it possible for someone to be less of a person, or more of a person? Even if Locke's definition is treated as a threshold condition for personhood, and -- as such -- as the basis for the moral theory of personhood, more questions emerge, and they are no less vexing. Given that Locke's definition is silent on species-membership, there appears to be no obvious reason why it couldn't apply to non-human animals just as well as it does to humans (309-311). Trying to solve these question forces us to consider the questions of animal minds, their abilities to comprehend -- and even use -- language; we are faced with questions of whether or not animals are conscious -- which would require us to get clear what consciousness is in the first place. Further, questions about memory and learning arise in a rapid succession: if being able to relate to one's past is a criterion for personhood, what of animals who seem to be able to do this? Even worse, what about humans who suffer from inability to recall past events? Furthermore, when it comes to Locke's definition, the question then turns to the status of the criteria: even if they give us the sufficient conditions for personhood (as Chan and Harris take them to do), do they yield us with the necessary conditions as well?
Finally, Chan and Harris sum up their considerations by stating the obvious: "any sensible and non-species-based criteria will either include some nonhumans or exclude some humans" (322). Even if this point could be uncontroversial (which it hardly is), its implications are anything but. If the very definition of the term 'person' is surrounded in such an ambiguity, what does this mean for the moral theory of personhood, both in its political and its ethical uses? Chan and Harris round off their discussion by considering both the future ramifications, as well as the issues that have garnered scant attention from philosophers; these include: What about human/animal hybrids (especially with performing the hybridization on the embryonic level and "allowing the resulting creature to develop into a mature individual") (324)? What about "wolf-children" (that is, "children brought up in isolation from other humans by animals and who have as a result neither been socialized nor acquired language") that are rarely encountered (and when they have been, even more rarely have these cases been found to be authentic) (325-326)? What about transhumans -- the creatures that result from cognitive, genetic, or cybernetic manipulation of human beings (326-327)? And so on, and so forth.
Although Chan and Harris do not offer any clear-cut final answers in their chapter, the significance of their contribution comes from highlighting the full panoply of the vexing issues that are frequently discussed, but often only in ways that skirt around these deep and perplexing questions. Granted, the next essay (#12 by Tooley) does address a significant number (though not all) of these issues. Although Tooley's conclusion is that many of the arguments concerning the personhood of non-human animals, or their moral standing in light of their alleged personhood, are unsuccessful, he aims his verdict equally towards the arguments for and the arguments against animal personhood.
Part IV: Animal Minds and Their Moral Significance
The articles in Part IV of the volume expand on the considerations in the preceding part(s) by turning towards more detailed questions about animal minds, and what implications animal cognition has (or, could have) when it comes to the moral standing of animals. Carruthers (# 13) argues that (i) all humans have moral standing; (ii) no non-human animals have such a standing; and (iii) at best, animals have an indirect moral standing -- especially when operating under a contractarian framework.
For a contrasting position, the chapter by Andrews (#16) explores anthropomorphism (the practice in which we attribute uniquely human characteristics to non-humans), and its implications to the field of animal psychology. Andrews's exploration focuses on whether the characteristics that are frequently claimed to be anthropomorphized are really unique to humans. On her view, a wholesale rejection of animal cognition studies on the ground of anthropomorphism is ill-founded, even if some of the concerns have merit. Nevertheless, this is a verdict that cannot be applied across the board; just because the extant study protocols are applicable to one species, it by no means follows that they can be applied to some other species.
Part V: Species and the Engineering of Species
This part of the volume addresses concerns arising both from ecology as well as from philosophy of science, as well as their broader implications. The chapter by Greene (#20) moves the concerns addressed in the preceding parts into a different level: even if the question of how to treat individual members of a species is settled, there are different considerations that enter in when we focus on that species as a whole. Does the individual member of a species have a specific moral value that becomes derivative when applied to the species as a whole?
The following chapter (#21) by Powell highlights some further problems when it comes to moral questions about ecology. At the top of the list of these is: given evolutionary biology, what is the ontological status of all the different species? And if we cannot fixate the borders of a species, how can we address questions about its ecological moral value? If the definition of 'species' is as fluid as it appears to be, how can we meaningfully prioritize different species (as we are frequently wont to do)?
Part VI: Practical Ethics
The sixth (and final) part of the volume addresses (nearly) the full gamut of concerns in practical (or, applied) ethics, ranging from confining animals in zoos (#27 by DeGrazia), through keeping pets (#28 by Bok), to using animals in biomedical research (#29 by LaFollette), and from the ethics of hunting (#31 by Varner), through the moral problems of factory farming (#32 by Rachels), to using animals in toxicological research (#33 by Rowan). In addition to these concerns, there is substantial discussion about governmental regulations about the use of animals in research (#34 by Kahn).
The final chapter (#35 by Zamir) involves the so-called 'literary turn' in (animal) ethics: can the questions raised about animal ethics (including the ones addressed in the preceding chapters) be fruitfully explored by turning into depictions (and reflections) of moral use of animals in the literature -- and if so, then how?
Given the spectrum of views addressed, analyzed, criticized, and defended in this volume, it is nigh impossible to sum everything up in a review -- let alone in a few sentences. Yet, I offer the following as my meager effort to do this: If you, the reader, are looking for an overview of the status quo in animal ethics, you will get your fill from just reading the Editor's introduction to this volume. In contrast, if you are doing advanced scholarly work (regardless of your level of advancement) on the myriad topics covered in this volume, this volume will be an indispensable source.
© 2012 Tuomas W. Manninen
Tuomas W. Manninen is a Lecturer in the School of Humanities, Arts and Cultural Studies at Arizona State University, West Campus. He regularly teaches philosophy courses that involve questions about the human nature. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Iowa in 2007; his dissertation focused on the metaphysics of personhood.