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A Theory of Feelings Anger and Forgiveness"My Madness Saved Me"10 Good Questions about Life and Death12 Modern Philosophers50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a GodA Cabinet of Philosophical CuriositiesA Case for IronyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to Buddhist PhilosophyA Companion to FoucaultA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to HumeA Companion to KantA Companion to Phenomenology and ExistentialismA Companion to PragmatismA Companion to the Philosophy of ActionA Companion to the Philosophy of BiologyA Companion to the Philosophy of LiteratureA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Critique of Naturalistic Philosophies of MindA Cursing Brain?A Delicate BalanceA Farewell to AlmsA Frightening LoveA Future for PresentismA Guide to the Good LifeA History of PsychiatryA History of the MindA Life Worth LivingA Manual of Experimental PhilosophyA Map of the MindA Metaphysics of PsychopathologyA Mind So RareA Natural History of Human MoralityA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Natural History of VisionA Parliament of MindsA Philosopher Looks at The Sense of HumorA Philosophical DiseaseA Philosophy of BoredomA Philosophy of Cinematic ArtA Philosophy of CultureA Philosophy of EmptinessA Philosophy of FearA Philosophy of PainA Physicalist ManifestoA Place for ConsciousnessA Question of TrustA Research Agenda for DSM-VA Revolution of the MindA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Stroll With William JamesA Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Theory of FreedomA Thousand MachinesA Universe of ConsciousnessA Very Bad WizardA Virtue EpistemologyA World Full of GodsA World Without ValuesAbout FaceAbout the Beginning of the Hermeneutics of the SelfAction and ResponsibilityAction in ContextAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionAction, Contemplation, and HappinessAction, Emotion and WillAdam SmithAdaptive DynamicsAddictionAddictionAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction Is a ChoiceAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAftermathAfterwarAgainst AdaptationAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HappinessAgainst HealthAgency and ActionAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and EmbodimentAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAl-JununAlain BadiouAlain BadiouAlasdair MacIntyreAlien Landscapes?Altered EgosAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Ethics for TodayAn Intellectual History of CannibalismAn Interpretation of DesireAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy An Introduction to Philosophy of EducationAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of PsychologyAn Introductory Philosophy of MedicineAn Odd Kind of FameAnalytic FreudAnalytic Philosophy in AmericaAncient AngerAncient Models of MindAncient Philosophy of the SelfAngerAnimal LessonsAnimal MindsAnimals Like UsAnnihilationAnother PlanetAnswers for AristotleAnti-ExternalismAnti-Individualism and KnowledgeAntigone’s ClaimAntipsychiatryAre We Hardwired?Are Women Human?Arguing about DisabilityArguing About Human NatureAristotle and the Philosophy of FriendshipAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's ChildrenAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle, Emotions, and EducationArt & MoralityArt After Conceptual ArtArt in Three DimensionsArt, Self and KnowledgeArtificial ConsciousnessArtificial HappinessAspects of PsychologismAsylum to ActionAtonement and ForgivenessAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutobiography as PhilosophyAutonomyAutonomy and Mental DisorderAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismBabies by DesignBackslidingBadiouBadiou's DeleuzeBadiou, Balibar, Ranciere: Rethinking EmancipationBare Facts And Naked TruthsBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBattlestar Galactica and PhilosophyBeautyBecoming a SubjectBecoming HumanBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing AmoralBeing HumanBeing Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory Being No OneBeing Realistic about ReasonsBeing ReducedBeing YourselfBelief's Own EthicsBending Over BackwardsBerlin Childhood around 1900Bernard WilliamsBertrand RussellBetter than BothBetter Than WellBetween Two WorldsBeyond HealthBeyond Hegel and NietzscheBeyond KuhnBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond PostmodernismBeyond ReductionBeyond the DSM StoryBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics in the ClinicBiological Complexity and Integrative PluralismBiology Is TechnologyBiosBipolar ExpeditionsBlackwell Companion to the Philosophy of EducationBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlues - Philosophy for EveryoneBlushBob Dylan and PhilosophyBody ConsciousnessBody Image And Body SchemaBody ImagesBody LanguageBody MattersBody WorkBody-Subjects and Disordered MindsBoundBoundaries of the MindBoyleBrain Evolution and CognitionBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-WiseBrainchildrenBrains, Buddhas, and BelievingBrainstormingBrave New WorldsBreakdown of WillBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and FaithBrief Therapy Homework PlannerBritain on the CouchBrute RationalityBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyBut Is It Art?Camus and SartreCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCarving Nature at Its JointsCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsCassandra's DaughterCato's TearsCausation and CounterfactualsCauses, Laws, and Free WillChanging Conceptions of the Child from the Renaissance to Post-ModernityChanging the SubjectChaosophyCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionCharles DarwinCherishmentChildhood and the Philosophy of EducationChildrenChildren, Families, and Health Care Decision MakingChoices and ConflictChoosing Not to ChooseChristmas - Philosophy for EveryoneCinema, Philosophy, BergmanCinematic MythmakingCity and Soul in Plato's RepublicClassifying MadnessClear and Queer ThinkingClinical EthicsClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyCodependent ForevermoreCoffee - Philosophy for EveryoneCognition and the BrainCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognition Through Understanding: Self-Knowledge, Interlocution, Reasoning, ReflectionCognitive BiologyCognitive FictionsCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Systems and the Extended Mind Cognitive Theories of Mental IllnessCoherence in Thought and ActionCollected Papers, Volume 1Collected Papers, Volume 2College SexComedy IncarnateCommitmentCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentConcealment And ExposureConceptual Analysis and Philosophical NaturalismConceptual Art and PaintingConceptual Issues in Evolutionary BiologyConfessionsConfucianismConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConquest of AbundanceConscience and ConvenienceConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the SelfConsciousness EmergingConsciousness EvolvingConsciousness ExplainedConsciousness in ActionConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Color, and ContentConsole and ClassifyConstructing the WorldConstructive AnalysisContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Philosophy of BiologyContemporary Debates in Philosophy of MindContemporary Debates in Political PhilosophyContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContemporary Perspectives on Natural LawContested Knowledge: Social Theory TodayContesting PsychiatryContext and the AttitudesContinental Philosophy of ScienceControlControlling Our DestiniesConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCopernicus, Darwin and FreudCrazy for YouCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCreating ConsilienceCreating HysteriaCreating Mental IllnessCreating Scientific ConceptsCreating the American JunkieCreation, Rationality and AutonomyCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCrimes of ReasonCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychiatryCritical PsychologyCritical ResistanceCritical Thinking About PsychologyCritical VisionsCross and KhoraCruel CompassionCTRL [SPACE]Cultural Psychology of the SelfCultural Theory: An IntroductionCulture and Psychiatric DiagnosisCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCulture of DeathCultures of NeurastheniaCurious EmotionsCurrent Controversies in Experimental PhilosophyCustom and Reason in HumeCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCutting God in Half - And Putting the Pieces Together AgainCylons in AmericaDamaged IdentitiesDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous EmotionsDaniel DennettDaniel DennettDark AgesDarwin and DesignDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDarwin, God and the Meaning of LifeDarwinian PsychiatryDarwinian ReductionismDarwinizing CultureDating: Philosophy for EveryoneDeathDeathDeath and CharacterDeath and CompassionDeath and the AfterlifeDebating DesignDebating HumanismDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecomposing the WillDeconstructing PsychotherapyDeconstruction and DemocracyDeeper Than DarwinDeeper than ReasonDefending Science - within ReasonDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDegrees of BeliefDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions and Other Irrational BeliefsDelusions and the Madness of the MassesDementiaDemons, Dreamers, and MadmenDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDennett’s PhilosophyDepression Is a ChoiceDepression, Emotion and the SelfDepthDerrida, Deleuze, PsychoanalysisDescartesDescartes and the Passionate MindDescartes' CogitoDescartes's Changing MindDescartes's Concept of MindDescribing Inner Experience?Descriptions and PrescriptionsDesembodied Spirits and Deanimated Bodies Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Desire and AffectDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDiagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersDialectics of the SelfDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital SoulDimensional Models of Personality DisordersDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDisjunctivismDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDispatches from the Freud WarsDisrupted LivesDistractionDisturbed ConsciousnessDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Do We Still Need Doctors?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Does the Woman Exist?Doing without ConceptsDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDonald DavidsonDonald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the MentalDoubting Darwin?Dreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR CasebookDworkin and His CriticsDying to KnowDynamics in ActionDysthymia and the Spectrum of Chronic DepressionsEccentricsEducational MetamorphosesEffective IntentionsElbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth WantingEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbodied RhetoricsEmbodied Selves and Divided MindsEmbryos under the MicroscopeEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotionEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion and PsycheEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotional ReasonEmotional ReasonEmotional TruthEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmpathyEmpathy and AgencyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpathy in the Context of PhilosophyEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEnchanted LoomsEngaging BuddhismEngineering the Human GermlineEnjoymentEnvyEpicureanismEpistemic LuckEpistemologyEpistemology and EmotionsEpistemology and the Psychology of Human JudgmentEros and the GoodErotic MoralityEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssays in the Metaphysics of Mind Essays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEssays on Nonconceptual ContentEssays on Philosophical CounselingEssays on Reference, Language, and MindEssays on the Concept of Mind in Early-Modern PhilosophyEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEsssential Philosophy of PsychiatryEternal Sunshine of the Spotless MindEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in Human CloningEthical TheoryEthicsEthicsEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics in Plain EnglishEthics in PracticeEthics in Psychiatric ResearchEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEuropean Review of Philosophy. Vol. 5Everyday IrrationalityEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolutionEvolution and the Human MindEvolution's RainbowEvolutionary Origins of MoralityEvolutionary PsychologyExamined LifeExamined LivesExistential AmericaExistentialismExistentialism and Romantic LoveExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and NaturalismExperiments in EthicsExplaining ConsciousnessExplaining the BrainExplaining the Computational MindExplanatory PluralismExploding the Gene MythExploring HappinessExploring the SelfExpression and the InnerExpressions of JudgmentFaces of IntentionFact and ValueFact and Value in EmotionFacts, Values, and NormsFads and Fallacies in the Social SciencesFaith and Wisdom in ScienceFatherhoodFear of KnowledgeFearless SpeechFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFeelings of BeingFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminism and Philosophy of ScienceFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist Interpretations of Rene DescartesFeminist TheoryField Notes from ElsewhereFinding Consciousness in the BrainFingerprints of GodFlesh in the Age of ReasonFolk Psychological NarrativesFolk Psychology Re-AssessedForces of HabitForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and RetributionFoucault 2.0Foucault and PhilosophyFoucault NowFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in PsychologyFour Views on Free WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree Will and Action ExplanationFree Will and LuckFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree: Why Science Hasn't Disproved Free WillFreedomFreedom and DeterminismFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom and ResponsibiltyFreedom and ValueFreedom EvolvesFreedom RegainedFreedom vs. InterventionFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFreudFreud and the Question of PseudoscienceFreud As PhilosopherFreud's AnswerFreud, the Reluctant PhilosopherFriedrich NietzscheFrom Chance to ChoiceFrom Clinic to ClassroomFrom Complexity to LifeFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution for Science and the HumanitiesFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrontiers of ConsciousnessFrontiers of JusticeFurnishing the MindGalileo in PittsburghGenderGender and Mental HealthGender in the MirrorGender TroubleGenesGenes, Women, EqualityGenetic Nature/CultureGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetic SecretsGenocide's AftermathGenomes and What to Make of ThemGerman Idealism and the JewGerman PhilosophyGetting HookedGilles DeleuzeGlobal PhilosophyGluttonyGod and Phenomenal ConsciousnessGoffman's LegacyGoing Amiss in Experimental ResearchGoodness & AdviceGrassroots SpiritualityGrave MattersGrave MattersGreedGreek Models of Mind and SelfGut ReactionsHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHabits of MindHallucinationHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of EmotionsHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness and EducationHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHappiness, Death, and the Remainder of LifeHard LuckHarmful ThoughtsHaving the World in ViewHealing PsychiatryHealing the Soul in the Age of the BrainHealth, Illness and DiseaseHealth, Science, and Ordinary LanguageHegelHeidegger and a Metaphysics of FeelingHeidegger, Metaphysics and the Univocity of BeingHermann von Helmholtz's MechanismHermeneutics As PoliticsHeterophobiaHeterosyncraciesHeuristics and BiasesHeuristics and the LawHidden ResourcesHidden SelvesHiding from HumanityHigh Art LiteHistorical OntologyHistory of Psychiatry and Medical PsychologyHistory, Historicity And ScienceHobbesHomosexualitiesHope and Dread in PsychoanalysisHot ThoughtHow Can I Be Trusted?How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains?How Do We Know Who We Are?How Emotions WorkHow Emotions WorkHow History Made the MindHow Images ThinkHow is Nature Possible?How Propaganda WorksHow Science WorksHow Scientific Practices MatterHow Scientists Explain DiseaseHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Make Opportunity EqualHow to Solve the Mind-Body Problemhow to stop timeHow to Think More About SexHow We HopeHow We ReasonHuman CloningHuman Development, Language and the Future of MankindHuman EnhancementHuman Evolution, Reproduction, and MoralityHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman NatureHuman NatureHuman Nature and the Limits of ScienceHuman-Built WorldHumanismHumanism, What's That?HumanityHumans, Animals, MachinesHumeHumeHume on Motivation and VirtueHusserlHystoriesI of the VortexI Was WrongIdeas that MatterIdentifying the MindIdentity and Agency in Cultural WorldsIgnorance and ImaginationIllnessImagination and Its PathologiesImagination and the Meaningful BrainImagining NumbersImmortal RemainsImproving Nature?In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of HealthIn Defense of SentimentalityIn Love With LifeIn Praise of Athletic BeautyIn Praise of the WhipIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of HappinessIn the Name of GodIn the Name of IdentityIn the Space of ReasonsIn Two MindsIncompatibilism's AllureIndividual Differences in Conscious ExperienceInfinity and PerspectiveInformation ArtsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchIngmar Bergman, Cinematic PhilosopherInhuman ThoughtsInner PresenceInsanityIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntelligent VirtueIntentionIntentionality, Deliberation and AutonomyIntentions and IntentionalityIntentions and IntentionalityInterpreting MindsInterpreting NietzscheIntroducing Greek PhilosophyIntrospection and ConsciousnessIntrospection VindicatedIntuition, Imagination, and Philosophical MethodologyIntuitionismInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIrrationalityIs Academic Feminism Dead?Is It Me or My Meds?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is Oedipus Online?Is Science Neurotic?Is Science Value Free?Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion?Is There a Duty to Die?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJacques LacanJacques RancièreJacques RanciereJean-Paul SartreJohn McDowellJohn SearleJohn Searle's Ideas About Social RealityJohn Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill and the Writing of CharacterJoint AttentionJokesJonathan EdwardsJudging and UnderstandingJustice for ChildrenJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeKantKant and MiltonKant and the Fate of AutonomyKant and the Limits of AutonomyKant and the Role of Pleasure in Moral ActionKant on Freedom, Law, and HappinessKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Anatomy of EvilKant's Anatomy of the Intelligent MindKant's Theory of VirtueKarl JaspersKarl PopperKey Concepts in PhilosophyKierkegaardKierkegaard as PhenomenologistKierkegaard's Concept of DespairKinds of MindsKinds, Things, and StuffKnowing, Knowledge and BeliefsKnowledge MonopoliesKnowledge, Belief, and CharacterKnowledge, Possibility, and ConsciousnessLacanLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLanguageLanguage in ContextLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Culture, and MindLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw and the BrainLaw, Liberty, and PsychiatryLaws, Mind, and Free WillLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberatory PsychiatryLife and ActionLife at the Texas State Lunatic Asylum, 1857-1997Life Is Not a Game of PerfectLife of the MindLife's FormLife, Death, & MeaningLife, Death, and Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of UtilityLife, Sex, and IdeasLight in the Dark RoomLike a Splinter in Your MindLiving and Dying WellLiving NarrativeLiving Outside Mental IllnessLiving with DarwinLiving With One’s PastLockeLocke LockeLogic and the Art of Memory Loneliness in Philosophy, Psychology, and LiteratureLooking for SpinozaLooking for The StrangerLost SoulsLOT 2LoveLoveLove's ConfusionsLove's VisionLove, Friendship, and the SelfLove, Sex & TragedyLuckyLudwig WittgensteinLustLyingMachine ConsciousnessMad for FoucaultMad TravelersMade with WordsMadness And Death In PhilosophyMadness and DemocracyMadness at HomeMadness Is CivilizationMaking Natural KnowledgeMaking Sense of EvolutionMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMaking the DSM-5Making the Social WorldMaking TruthMale Female EmailMan, Beast, and ZombieMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManiaManic Depression and CreativityMapping the Edges and the In-betweenMapping the Future of BiologyMarcus AureliusMaster PassionsMatters of the MindMe++Meaning and Moral OrderMeaning and Value in a Secular AgeMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeaning, Basic Self-Knowledge, and MindMeasuring HappinessMeasuring PsychopathologyMedia MadnessMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedicine of the PersonMedicine, Mental Health, Religion, Science and Well-BeingMelancholy And the Care of the SoulMelancholy and the Otherness of GodMementoMemory and NarrativeMental ActionsMental CausationMental Causation and OntologyMental HealthMental Health At The CrossroadsMental Health Policy in BritainMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMerleau-PontyMerleau-Ponty and the Possibilities of PhilosophyMetacognition and Theory of MindMetacreationMetaethical SubjectivismMetaethicsMetal and FleshMetaphors of MemoryMetapoliticsMethods in MindMichel FoucaultMill's UtilitarianismMindMindMind and ConsciousnessMind and CosmosMind and MechanismMind GamesMind in a Physical WorldMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind in LifeMind TimeMind's LandscapeMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMind, Brain, and Free WillMind, Reason and ImaginationMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds and PersonsMinds, Brains, and LawMinds, Ethics, and ConditionalsMindshapingMindsightMindworldsMirror, MirrorMixed FeelingsMockingbird YearsModels of the SelfModern Social ImaginariesModern Theories of JusticeModernity and SubjectivityModernity and TechnologyMoody Minds DistemperedMoral DimensionsMoral FailureMoral ImaginationMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral ParticularismMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology and Human AgencyMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Moral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMotherhoodMotive and RightnessMoving Beyond Prozac, DSM, and the New PsychiatryMultiple Analogies in Science and PhilosophyMultiple Identities & False MemoriesMusic, Madness, and the Unworking of LanguageMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Double UnveiledMy WayNarrativeNarrative and IdentityNarrative MedicineNarrative PsychiatryNarrative Theory and the Cognitive SciencesNatural Ethical FactsNatural Kinds and Conceptual ChangeNatural MindsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalism and the First-Person PerspectiveNaturalism and the Human ConditionNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalized BioethicsNaturalizing the MindNatureNature and NarrativeNear Death ExperienceNeither Bad nor MadNeither Victim nor SurvivorNeuro-Philosophy and the Healthy MindNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neurophilosophy at WorkNeurophilosophy of Free WillNeuropoliticsNeuropsychoanalysis in PracticeNeuroscience and PhilosophyNew Essays on the Explanation of ActionNew Philosophy for a New MediaNew Versions of VictimsNew Waves in Philosophy of ActionNietzscheNietzsche and Buddhist PhilosophyNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNietzsche's TherapyNietzsche, Culture and EducationNietzsche: The Man and His PhilosophyNihil UnboundNoir AnxietyNormative EthicsNormativityNorms of NatureNotebooks 1951-1959Notes Toward a Performative Theory of AssemblyNothing So AbsurdOblivionOn AnxietyOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn Being AuthenticOn BeliefOn BullshitOn DelusionOn DesireOn EmotionsOn HashishOn Human RightsOn Loving Our EnemiesOn Nature and LanguageOn PersonalityOn ReflectionOn Romantic LoveOn the EmotionsOn the Freud WatchOn the Government of the LivingOn the Human ConditionOn the InternetOn the Meaning of LifeOn the Philosophy of LawOn the Pragmatics of CommunicationOn the Punitive SocietyOn TruthOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne Hundred DaysOnflowOnly a Promise of HappinessOntology of ConsciousnessOpen MindedOpen Your EyesOrgans without BodiesOther MindsOur Last Great IllusionOur Own MindsOur Posthuman FutureOur StoriesOut of Its MindOut of Our HeadsOxford Guide to the MindOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPanic DisorderPanpsychism in the WestPartialityPassionate EnginesPassionate EnginesPathologies of BeliefPathologies of ReasonPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perceiving the WorldPerception & CognitionPerception and Basic BeliefsPerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPerceptual ExperiencePerfecting VirtuePerplexities of ConsciousnessPersistencePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal IdentityPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonal Identity and Fractured SelvesPersonhood and Health CarePersonsPersons and BodiesPersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPersons, Souls and DeathPerspectives on ImitationPerspectives on PragmatismPessimismPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenal ConsciousnessPhenomenal IntentionalityPhenomenology and ExistentialismPhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophersPhilosophers on MusicPhilosophers without GodsPhilosophical CounselingPhilosophical Counselling and the UnconsciousPhilosophical DevicesPhilosophical Foundations of 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LiteraturePhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BodyPhilosophy of Film and Motion PicturesPhilosophy of LovePhilosophy of Love, Sex, and MarriagePhilosophy of MindPhilosophy of Mind and CognitionPhilosophy of Personal Identity and Multiple PersonalityPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy of Public HealthPhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhilosophy of the Social SciencesPhilosophy on TapPhilosophy PracticePhilosophy the Day after TomorrowPhilosophy's Role in Counseling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhilosophy, Politics, DemocracyPhotography and PhilosophyPhysical RealizationPhysicalism and Its DiscontentsPhysicalism and Mental CausationPhysicalism, or Something Near EnoughPhysician-Assisted DyingPillar of SaltPin-up GrrrlsPlatoPlatoPlato, Not Prozac!Platonic Ethics, Old and NewPluralistic CasuistryPolarities of ExperiencesPolitical EmotionsPopper, Objectivity and the Growth of KnowledgePornPorn StudiesPornography, Sex, and FeminismPortrait of the Psychiatrist as a Young ManPostcolonial DisordersPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPower and the SelfPower SplitPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical ConflictsPractical Identity and Narrative AgencyPractical PhilosophyPractical RulesPractical Tortoise RaisingPractically ProfoundPracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPragmatic BioethicsPragmatismPragmatism, Old And NewPraise and BlamePredicative MindsPreferences and Well-BeingPrescriptions for the MindPresocraticsPrimary and Secondary QualitiesPrimates and PhilosophersPrivacyPrivileged AccessProblems in MindProblems of RationalityProzac As a Way of LifeProzac BacklashProzac on the CouchPsyche and SomaPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric Cultures ComparedPsychiatric Diagnosis and 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ExternalismRadical HopeRational and Social AgencyRational CausationRational Choice in an Uncertain WorldRationality + Consciousness = Free WillRationality and FreedomRationality and the Reflective MindRationality in ActionRawls, Dewey, and ConstructivismRe-creating MedicineRe-EmergenceRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReading AutobiographyReading Bernard WilliamsReading SartreReadings in the Philosophy of TechnologyReal MaterialismReal Natures and Familiar ObjectsReal ScienceRealism in ActionReason & EmancipationReason in ActionReason in PhilosophyReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReasoning About Rational AgentsReasoning in Biological DiscoveriesReasons from WithinReasons without RationalismReclaiming CognitionReclaiming the SoulReconceiving SchizophreniaReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecreative MindsRediscovering EmotionRediscovering EmpathyReference and ExistenceReference and the Rational MindReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRegulating SexReinventing the SoulRelativism and Human RightsRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyReliable ReasoningReligion without GodRelying on OthersRemembering HomeResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsRestraining RageRethinking ExpertiseRethinking IntrospectionRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeRethinking the DSMRethinking the Sociology of Mental HealthRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfReturn to ReasonRevolt, She SaidRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard Rorty's New PragmatismRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRise And Fall of Soul And SelfRitalin NationRobert NozickRousseauRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Derrida on DeconstructionRules, Reason, and Self-KnowledgeSaints, Scholars, and Schizophrenics: Mental 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Julia Annas' book, Intelligent Virtue, provides the reader a novel account of the nature of virtue, practical reasoning, and flourishing. Throughout the book, Annas presents her account in a gradual manner with each chapter building on the next. Annas periodically presents and argues against potential objections to her view. Suitable for the interested undergraduate non-philosophy major, this book could also serve the curiosities of the most elite professors. While none of the chapters of the book stands well alone, the fluid writing style and helpful examples make the 176-page work an easy read. At the end of each chapter, the reader finds herself happily continuing on to the next.
According to Annas, there are at least two helpful ways to approach the concept of virtue. First, we can better understand virtue if we recognize that its acquisition and exercise is analogous to that of practical skills such as drawing, building, dancing, or playing the piano. This approach to understanding the nature of virtue is dubbed the skill analogy. Second, Annas aims to show how virtue "is part of the agent's happiness or flourishing, and that it is plausible to see virtue as actually constituting (wholly or in part) that happiness" (1). These two observations are hardly new; in fact, as Annas implies, they are explicitly made by Aristotle. Nevertheless, Annas' account is novel in that, unlike Aristotle, she carefully lays out how virtue is like a skill as opposed to similar behaviors and she also tailors her account of how virtue can be constitutive of happiness to a wider notion of happiness more compatible with common sense intuitions. In these regards, Annas' work is not only a terrific extension of ancient views, it is also a distinctive and well-developed addition to virtue ethics.
Chapter 2 sketches Annas' account of what virtue is. For Annas, a virtue is a feature of an agent. It is desirable for itself and not merely instrumentally valuable. Virtues are developed dispositions to act in reliable ways that reflect good values. These dispositions are dispositions to be a certain way. While it might be the case that virtues are demonstrated or made apparent in actions and expressions of judgments, they are not to be confused with such behaviors. One who has a virtue is developed in such a way that her judgment, decisions, motivations, and behaviors are interconnected. As Annas points out, it would be a category mistake to ask how a person on the way to becoming courageous can judge an action to be brave and then conjure up the motivation to perform the act. On her account of virtue, virtues develop out of already existing motives that, if properly educated and cultivated, give rise to proper judgment, understanding, and behavior. This chapter ends with a brief explanation of the difference between virtue as a habit and habit qua routine. Virtue and skill differ from habit qua routine in that "the practical mastery is at the service of conscious thought, not at odds with it" (14). In addition, "skilled dispositions are not static conditions; they are always developing, being sustained or weakened" (14).
In Chapter 3, Annas describes how acquiring virtue requires a need to learn and a drive to aspire. The student of virtue recognizes that some initial trust in the teacher and the learning context is required; however, the ultimate goal is to be able to exercise one's own independent understanding. In order to explain this aspect of her account, Annas continues developing the skill analogy such that it is made clear that virtue is dynamic. According to Annas, not only does it take time and practice to develop virtue and activity to maintain virtue, it is also the case that the virtuous must always strive for improvement. Annas denies that virtue is a static disposition and sees virtue's dynamism as analogous to that of skill. An artist who either mimics her teacher's methods or plateaus in her development is not a very skilled artist. Likewise, a student of virtue who can only do as her teacher does without comprehending and being able to provide reasons for her behavior is not yet virtuous. In addition, there simply cannot be such a thing as a virtuous person who cannot grow, learn, or adjust.
Annas explains that when evaluating what virtue is and whether one has acted virtuously, we must take into account whether the agent is a teacher of virtue or a learner and how advanced a learner she is. For instance, a good student of virtue would apologize for a transgression. For her, apologizing is the right thing to do. However, apologizing would not be the right thing for a truly virtuous person to do, since a truly virtuous person would not have committed a transgression. Therefore, acting rightly is available to all types of persons and character types, even if the right action is not necessarily a virtuous action. From here, Annas attempts to answer a charge of intellectual elitism and a problem of opportunity and influence. Objectors of an account of intelligent virtue, such as Julia Driver, argue that if virtue ethics demands such intellectualism as understanding of moral reasons, then virtue ethics does not make ethical behavior available to many agents. Similarly, one might object that persons living in environments, cultures, and time periods lacking in moral understanding and proper moral education are also incapable of developing virtue. Annas' response is twofold. First, since Annas identifies the need to understand and the drive to aspire as essential to having an opportunity to develop virtue, qualities she takes to be widespread among human beings, virtue is available to all. Second, as is the case with any skill, some of us might have an easier time developing virtue than others; but it does not follow from this fact that virtue is only possible for those who are naturally situated to acquire it. Some of us will be born with good motivations in healthy societies while others of us have a longer road ahead in developing virtue. Still, Annas contends, virtue is not reserved for a few elite; anyone in any circumstances can learn and exhibit virtue.
At the same time, Annas claims that it might be unreasonable to expect a person in dire circumstances to develop virtue. While it is possible that such a person will become virtuous, Annas recognizes that the development of virtue might be unlikely. For this reason, Annas advises us not to follow Aristotle in saying that only the perfectly virtuous person acts virtuously. An agent can be more or less virtuous depending on context. For example, a Roman slave owner who treats his slaves well is "virtuous by the standards of his society" (45). So, argues Annas, while it is not reasonable to expect slave owners in Ancient Roman times to comprehend the wrongness of their ways, it is open to them to transcend whatever they are told by society is right or permissible by applying the skills of virtue to situations as they develop and learn.
While I find Annas' rationale for these claims compelling, I do worry that a similar objection might rear its head. It is often argued that virtue ethics is a poor theory since the ideal of the virtuous agent is unattainable. Annas claims that future generations will surely judge us harshly concerning whichever mistaken values we now hold. The suggestion is that future generations will always have "hindsight" and a greater intellectual grasp on moral reasons. Coupling this suggestion with the fact that Annas claims it is unreasonable to expect persons in systematically unjust societies to become virtuous, it would appear that it is unreasonable to expect anyone to become virtuous. For, has anyone ever, or will anyone ever live in a perfectly just society? I think that Annas would be comfortable with this implication as a problem that all ethical theories face. However, her account could be improved with a more explicit discussion of the two senses of 'virtue' that I take her to be using throughout the book. There is the sense of 'virtue' that is virtue proper, or virtue qua virtue, and then there is a more relative sense of 'virtue' (a sense she clarifies as distinct from relativism in Chapter 4). For example, Annas' kind Roman slave owner might be virtuous, for a Roman slave owner. This relative sense of virtue is, to my mind, a far cry from what most virtue ethicists want in an account of virtue, since the "for a" clause can water down almost all goodness in a person. Just as it is insulting to say that a female athlete runs well for a girl, virtue ethicists might find Annas' account disappointing since, by embracing the impossibly high standard and augmenting it with a relative standard, Annas has made everyone and no one virtuous. While I foresee this as a possible disappointment of Annas' account, I do not believe that it is a damning feature of her account. On the contrary, it might just be that our ethical opportunities are disappointing.
In response to worries like the one just mentioned, Annas does offer one meaningful distinction that makes various appearances in just about every chapter: that between the circumstances of a life and the living of a life. Virtue is not about the circumstances of one's life, but rather how an agent lives. Annas rightly points out that many objections to views like hers stem from confusion regarding this distinction. While it is the case that being raised in a war-torn country constitutes significantly different circumstances than those found by a child raised in a comfortable first-world home with a loving family and ample opportunities for education, the circumstances alone do not constitute, necessitate, or prevent the development of virtue.
The final message of Chapter 3 is that certain objections to virtue ethics rest on two mistaken conceptions: a misconception of what an ethical account should offer by way of action guidance and an underestimation of what kind of guidance virtue ethics in particular offers. For Annas, expecting an ethical account to offer hard and set rules of what to do is indicative of a failure to see the difference between a learner and a moral expert. Learners must be told what to do since they do not yet understand reasons for doing the right thing. Experts know what to do in a situation since they already comprehend moral reasons for the right behavior. Annas' astute observation reminds me of a conversation I once had with a student who desired a word bank for the term identification section of an exam. She proclaimed that she is a visual learner and must see the words to recall them. I told her that an exam does not judge how one learns but whether one has learned. We all may learn in different ways, but the state of knowing (if one truly does know) ought to be the same. Rules are tools for learning. Being courageous, or honest, or kind are states of understanding how to behave once one has sufficiently learned how to be virtuous. Second, Annas points out that Hursthouse's v-rules (rules that convey sentiments like "be honest" instead of deontic rules that offer commands like "don't lie") are no less instructive than rules provided by other ethical theories. In fact, such rules often convey which actions are right or wrong but give little or no instruction of how to go about doing the right thing. The right thing, Annas argues, can be done in many different ways, some of which are morally inferior to others. By instructing us to "be honest," the virtue ethicist is not only telling us to be a certain way, but to value truth and to convey it correctly and in appropriate ways given the particular situation at hand.
Chapter 4 involves a detailed discussion of how Annas' account, while sensitive to a learning context and culture, is not a relativist account. Indeed, Annas implies throughout that objective moral values exist. However, she simultaneously acknowledges that we learn about such values through cultures and contexts that might be different from others and that it might be unreasonable to expect one to fully transcend the mores of their group. First, Annas points out that the drive to aspire prevents conservativism; learning how to think for oneself inevitably involves questioning the values and practices of one's society. Second, Annas argues that we identify ourselves as members of groups and subcultures, and when these clash, it is brought to our attention that we must reason through which standard is better. Annas also notes that while different cultures teach the virtues differently, it is sensible to say that all cultures have values reflective of the virtues. That is to say, all cultures have some notion of generosity, courage, wisdom, and the like. Finally, Annas explains that: "Being truly (or perfectly) virtuous is indeed an ideal which none of us can exemplify. But it does not follow that none of us are brave, loyal, or generous" (65). Annas closes this chapter with a brief explanation of how we can accurately make claims about one's virtue if those claims are reflective of the developmental stage that the agent is in and if those claims take into account the degree of influence the agent's society's imperfections and injustices have over individuals' judgment.
Chapter 5 continues to address how we are able to identify a person as virtuous even if that person is not perfectly virtuous. Annas' suggestion is that we note how or whether an agent enjoys acting virtuously, for the distinguishing mark between the virtuous person and the enkratic person is how the person feels about doing the right thing. Annas relies on Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi's studies of how people find experiences to be enjoyable to show that the virtuous agent truly enjoys behaving rightly whereas persons of lesser character typically do not. For Annas, the virtuous person enjoys virtuous action because of a commitment to the right values and not just coincidentally.
In Chapter 6, Annas presents her view of the unity of the virtues, the claim that "the fully successful exercise of one virtue depends upon other aspects of the person's character" (83). Any given virtue such as character must be developed and practiced in every aspect of our lives. One can be courageous in battle or in telling the truth where hardships are sure to follow. In the latter example, courage and honesty are "clustered," and it is the fact that we can find virtues necessarily clustering together in this way that Annas maintains that there is a unity of virtue. The unity is found in the fact that during moral development, we are not simply developing characteristics, but rather we develop our character, which can be expressed in different ways under different circumstances and these expressions are identified in kind as the various virtues. Our moral education might be compartmentalized in that we focus on what makes an act generous while learning generosity. However, it would be absurd for us to consider a person to be virtuous who reliably behaves generously but is systematically unkind and quick to anger. This agent's flaws should give us pause as to how much understanding he really has of generosity, and we should wonder whether that person simply mimics well the generous agent. Practical intelligence, the key to virtue for Annas, is not compartmentalized to kinds of situations or acts. Practical intelligence views a situation as a whole and takes all aspects into consideration when issuing virtuous responses.
Chapter 7 aims to distinguish virtue from other dispositions such as punctuality or wittiness. Virtue is admirable for itself and not merely for the consequences it yields. If a characteristic is valued only instrumentally, says Annas, it cannot be a virtue. In addition, Annas expands on a point alluded to in the previous chapter: virtue entails a commitment to goodness. The final sections of this chapter include a brief survey of the ways in which a virtuous agent might be committed to goodness, such as monism about goods, pluralism, and naturalism. Annas claims that her account is compatible with each option mentioned.
Chapters 8 and 9 argue that virtue is constitutive of happiness and flourishing while chapter 10 is a conclusion recapitulating basic lines of argument throughout the book culminating in a suggestion of how the empirical study of practical skills and philosophically informed research in psychology are likely to support Annas' overall account. In Chapter 8, Annas first explains how her account is eudaimonistic. For Annas, an account is eudaimonistic when happiness is a central feature of the account (and not necessarily a foundational feature). Annas' account recognizes that, whenever we act for reasons, we are not merely acting in a linear way such that we have a goal and we act so that we attain that goal. Instead, our reasons for acting often take into account the ways in which we can structure our actions towards a vague notion of an overall life-goal. Ethics, for Annas, is a matter of recognizing that we are already living certain kind of life, deciding whether it is the kind of life best fit for us, and finding effective ways to live that kind of life well. This is not to say that there is only one kind of life conducive to individual flourishing. On the contrary, each person's particular strengths and interests should inform which life is best for the individual. Of course, there are unacceptable ways of living; it is not possible for a serial killer to live virtuously and flourish since this way of life has no commitment to any objectively good value. Still, while the overall aim of a person's life is left somewhat indeterminate, and though we may have a vague notion of what that final goal is, we get clearer on it as we continue to live for the sake of our final end.
In case the reader is not convinced by Annas' description, she then considers views of happiness that are alternative to eudaimonistic accounts. Annas successfully points out serious objections to hedonism, desire-satisfaction, and life satisfaction accounts of human happiness. While her objections are many, there are a few that span all types and are particularly convincing. Annas argues that happiness must be active. On all three alternative accounts of happiness, a happy state is static. If one were to live a life of pleasure, desire-satisfaction, or even life-satisfaction, it would be possible to lose sight of the purpose to living once certain aims were met. The active nature of happiness demands that happiness be something we enjoy and constantly work towards maintaining. In addition to the critique of an accounts activity, Annas also criticizes the alternatives' commitment to subjectivity. Pleasure can be artificially induced, trivial desires are easy to fulfill, and one could think that one is happy when the actual state of affairs is incompatible with one's standards for happiness. Eudaimonism avoids these problems, and Annas contends that it is the best description of what happiness is and how we might live happily.
In Chapter 9, Annas addresses the question of whether virtue is constitutive or necessary for happiness. At first blush, the reader might be disappointed in this chapter, for in her introduction, Annas promises to "show how a virtue ethical theory with this conception of virtue enables us to see how virtue is constitutive (wholly or in part) of the agent's flourishing" (3). However, early on in Chapter 9 Annas states, "I am not in this work arguing that virtue is necessary (or sufficient) for a happy life. More modestly here, I am showing how, given the present accounts of virtue and of happiness, these issues arise naturally as issues of philosophical argument from the ways we think about our lives" (147). I imagine that the original aim of the book was meant to be more assertive about this claim and Annas tempered her ambitions as the difficulties of proving this conclusion became apparent. The connection between virtue and happiness has been a chestnut of philosophy for millennia. So it is not surprising that the matter remains controversial at the end of this book. And, to her credit, Annas does deliver more than just how these issues arise naturally. So, as Aristotle would say, her solution fits cleanly on the mean. Annas points out that the life of virtue is an active life, and we saw in the previous chapter that happiness too must be active. The fact that Annas' account of virtue and flourishing both show their objects as dynamic, it makes sense that virtue and happiness could compliment one another. This is not a knockdown argument for the connection between virtue and happiness. However, it is an interesting way to motivate the belief that there is such a connection, which is more than most accounts of virtue and happiness have managed to do in the past. In this regard, Annas' project is a success, and Intelligent Virtue is, indeed, a good smart read.
© 2012 Audrey L. Anton
Audrey L. Anton earned her Ph.D. at the Ohio State University and is now an Assistant Professor of Philosophy at Western Kentucky University. Her research interests include Ancient Philosophy, Moral Psychology, and Ethics.