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A Theory of Feelings Anger and Forgiveness"My Madness Saved Me"10 Good Questions about Life and Death12 Modern Philosophers50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a GodA Cabinet of Philosophical CuriositiesA Case for IronyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to Buddhist PhilosophyA Companion to FoucaultA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to HumeA Companion to KantA Companion to Phenomenology and ExistentialismA Companion to PragmatismA Companion to the Philosophy of ActionA Companion to the Philosophy of BiologyA Companion to the Philosophy of LiteratureA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Critical Overview of Biological FunctionsA Critique of Naturalistic Philosophies of MindA Cursing Brain?A Delicate BalanceA Farewell to AlmsA Frightening LoveA Future for PresentismA Guide to the Good LifeA History of PsychiatryA History of the MindA Life Worth LivingA Manual of Experimental PhilosophyA Map of the MindA Metaphysics of PsychopathologyA Mind So RareA Natural History of Human MoralityA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Natural History of VisionA Parliament of MindsA Philosopher Looks at The Sense of HumorA Philosophical DiseaseA Philosophy of BoredomA Philosophy of Cinematic ArtA Philosophy of CultureA Philosophy of EmptinessA Philosophy of FearA Philosophy of PainA Physicalist ManifestoA Place for ConsciousnessA Question of TrustA Research Agenda for DSM-VA Revolution of the MindA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Stroll With William JamesA Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Theory of FreedomA Thousand MachinesA Universe of ConsciousnessA Very Bad WizardA Virtue EpistemologyA World Full of GodsA World Without ValuesAbout FaceAbout the Beginning of the Hermeneutics of the SelfAction and ResponsibilityAction in ContextAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionAction, Contemplation, and HappinessAction, Emotion and WillAdam SmithAdaptive DynamicsAddictionAddictionAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction Is a ChoiceAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAftermathAfterwarAgainst AdaptationAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HappinessAgainst HealthAgency and ActionAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and EmbodimentAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAl-JununAlain BadiouAlain BadiouAlasdair MacIntyreAlien Landscapes?Altered EgosAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Ethics for TodayAn Intellectual History of CannibalismAn Interpretation of DesireAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy An Introduction to Philosophy of EducationAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of PsychologyAn Introductory Philosophy of MedicineAn Odd Kind of FameAnalytic FreudAnalytic Philosophy in AmericaAncient AngerAncient Models of MindAncient Philosophy of the SelfAngerAnimal LessonsAnimal MindsAnimals Like UsAnnihilationAnother PlanetAnswers for AristotleAnti-ExternalismAnti-Individualism and KnowledgeAntigone’s ClaimAntipsychiatryAre We Hardwired?Are Women Human?Arguing about DisabilityArguing About Human NatureAristotle and the Philosophy of FriendshipAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's ChildrenAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle, Emotions, and EducationArt & MoralityArt After Conceptual ArtArt in Three DimensionsArt, Self and KnowledgeArtificial ConsciousnessArtificial HappinessAspects of PsychologismAsylum to ActionAtonement and ForgivenessAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutobiography as PhilosophyAutonomyAutonomy and Mental DisorderAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismBabies by DesignBackslidingBadiouBadiou's DeleuzeBadiou, Balibar, Ranciere: Rethinking EmancipationBare Facts And Naked TruthsBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBattlestar Galactica and PhilosophyBeautyBecoming a SubjectBecoming HumanBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing AmoralBeing HumanBeing Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory Being No OneBeing Realistic about ReasonsBeing ReducedBeing YourselfBelief's Own EthicsBending Over BackwardsBerlin Childhood around 1900Bernard WilliamsBertrand RussellBetter than BothBetter Than WellBetween Two WorldsBeyond HealthBeyond Hegel and NietzscheBeyond KuhnBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond PostmodernismBeyond ReductionBeyond the DSM StoryBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics in the ClinicBiological Complexity and Integrative PluralismBiology Is TechnologyBiosBipolar ExpeditionsBlackwell Companion to the Philosophy of EducationBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlues - Philosophy for EveryoneBlushBob Dylan and PhilosophyBody ConsciousnessBody Image And Body SchemaBody ImagesBody LanguageBody MattersBody WorkBody-Subjects and Disordered MindsBoundBoundaries of the MindBoyleBrain Evolution and CognitionBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-WiseBrainchildrenBrains, Buddhas, and BelievingBrainstormingBrave New WorldsBreakdown of WillBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and FaithBrief Therapy Homework PlannerBritain on the CouchBrute RationalityBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyBut Is It Art?Camus and SartreCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCarving Nature at Its JointsCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsCassandra's DaughterCato's TearsCausation and CounterfactualsCauses, Laws, and Free WillChanging Conceptions of the Child from the Renaissance to Post-ModernityChanging the SubjectChaosophyCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionCharles DarwinCherishmentChildhood and the Philosophy of EducationChildrenChildren, Families, and Health Care Decision MakingChoices and ConflictChoosing Not to ChooseChristmas - Philosophy for EveryoneCinema, Philosophy, BergmanCinematic MythmakingCity and Soul in Plato's RepublicClassifying MadnessClear and Queer ThinkingClinical EthicsClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyCodependent ForevermoreCoffee - Philosophy for EveryoneCognition and the BrainCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognition Through Understanding: Self-Knowledge, Interlocution, Reasoning, ReflectionCognitive BiologyCognitive FictionsCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Systems and the Extended Mind Cognitive Theories of Mental IllnessCoherence in Thought and ActionCollected Papers, Volume 1Collected Papers, Volume 2College SexComedy IncarnateCommitmentCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentConcealment And ExposureConceptual Analysis and Philosophical NaturalismConceptual Art and PaintingConceptual Issues in Evolutionary BiologyConfessionsConfucianismConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConquest of AbundanceConscience and ConvenienceConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the SelfConsciousness EmergingConsciousness EvolvingConsciousness ExplainedConsciousness in ActionConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Color, and ContentConsole and ClassifyConstructing the WorldConstructive AnalysisContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Philosophy of BiologyContemporary Debates in Philosophy of MindContemporary Debates in Political PhilosophyContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContemporary Perspectives on Natural LawContested Knowledge: Social Theory TodayContesting PsychiatryContext and the AttitudesContinental Philosophy of ScienceControlControlling Our DestiniesConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCopernicus, Darwin and FreudCrazy for YouCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCreating ConsilienceCreating HysteriaCreating Mental IllnessCreating Scientific ConceptsCreating the American JunkieCreation, Rationality and AutonomyCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCrimes of ReasonCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychiatryCritical PsychologyCritical ResistanceCritical Thinking About PsychologyCritical VisionsCross and KhoraCruel CompassionCTRL [SPACE]Cultural Psychology of the SelfCultural Theory: An IntroductionCulture and Psychiatric DiagnosisCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCulture of DeathCultures of NeurastheniaCurious EmotionsCurrent Controversies in Experimental PhilosophyCustom and Reason in HumeCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCutting God in Half - And Putting the Pieces Together AgainCylons in AmericaDamaged IdentitiesDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous EmotionsDaniel DennettDaniel DennettDark AgesDarwin and DesignDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDarwin, God and the Meaning of LifeDarwinian PsychiatryDarwinian ReductionismDarwinizing CultureDating: Philosophy for EveryoneDeathDeathDeath and CharacterDeath and CompassionDeath and the AfterlifeDebating DesignDebating HumanismDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecomposing the WillDeconstructing PsychotherapyDeconstruction and DemocracyDeeper Than DarwinDeeper than ReasonDefending Science - within ReasonDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDegrees of BeliefDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions and Other Irrational BeliefsDelusions and the Madness of the MassesDementiaDemons, Dreamers, and MadmenDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDennett’s PhilosophyDepression Is a ChoiceDepression, Emotion and the SelfDepthDerrida, Deleuze, PsychoanalysisDescartesDescartes and the Passionate MindDescartes' CogitoDescartes's Changing MindDescartes's Concept of MindDescribing Inner Experience?Descriptions and PrescriptionsDesembodied Spirits and Deanimated Bodies Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Desire and AffectDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDiagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersDialectics of the SelfDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital SoulDimensional Models of Personality DisordersDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDisjunctivismDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDispatches from the Freud WarsDisrupted LivesDistractionDisturbed ConsciousnessDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Do We Still Need Doctors?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Does the Woman Exist?Doing without ConceptsDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDonald DavidsonDonald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the MentalDoubting Darwin?Dreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR CasebookDworkin and His CriticsDying to KnowDynamics in ActionDysthymia and the Spectrum of Chronic DepressionsEccentricsEducational MetamorphosesEffective IntentionsElbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth WantingEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbodied RhetoricsEmbodied Selves and Divided MindsEmbryos under the MicroscopeEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotionEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion and PsycheEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotional ReasonEmotional ReasonEmotional TruthEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions, Value, and AgencyEmpathyEmpathy and AgencyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpathy in the Context of PhilosophyEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEnchanted LoomsEngaging BuddhismEngineering the Human GermlineEnjoymentEnvyEpicureanismEpistemic LuckEpistemologyEpistemology and EmotionsEpistemology and the Psychology of Human JudgmentEros and the GoodErotic MoralityEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssays in the Metaphysics of Mind Essays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEssays on Nonconceptual ContentEssays on Philosophical CounselingEssays on Reference, Language, and MindEssays on the Concept of Mind in Early-Modern PhilosophyEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEsssential Philosophy of PsychiatryEternal Sunshine of the Spotless MindEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in Human CloningEthical TheoryEthicsEthicsEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics in Plain EnglishEthics in PracticeEthics in Psychiatric ResearchEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEuropean Review of Philosophy. Vol. 5Everyday IrrationalityEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolutionEvolution and the Human MindEvolution's RainbowEvolutionary Origins of MoralityEvolutionary PsychologyExamined LifeExamined LivesExistential AmericaExistentialismExistentialism and Romantic LoveExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and NaturalismExperiments in EthicsExplaining ConsciousnessExplaining the BrainExplaining the Computational MindExplanatory PluralismExploding the Gene MythExploring HappinessExploring the SelfExpression and the InnerExpressions of JudgmentFaces of IntentionFact and ValueFact and Value in EmotionFacts, Values, and NormsFads and Fallacies in the Social SciencesFaith and Wisdom in ScienceFatherhoodFear of KnowledgeFearless SpeechFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFeelings of BeingFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminism and Philosophy of ScienceFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist Interpretations of Rene DescartesFeminist TheoryField Notes from ElsewhereFinding Consciousness in the BrainFingerprints of GodFlesh in the Age of ReasonFolk Psychological NarrativesFolk Psychology Re-AssessedForces of HabitForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and RetributionFoucault 2.0Foucault and PhilosophyFoucault NowFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in PsychologyFour Views on Free WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree Will and Action ExplanationFree Will and LuckFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree: Why Science Hasn't Disproved Free WillFreedomFreedom and DeterminismFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom and ResponsibiltyFreedom and ValueFreedom EvolvesFreedom RegainedFreedom vs. InterventionFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFreudFreud and the Question of PseudoscienceFreud As PhilosopherFreud's AnswerFreud, the Reluctant PhilosopherFriedrich NietzscheFrom Chance to ChoiceFrom Clinic to ClassroomFrom Complexity to LifeFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution for Science and the HumanitiesFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrontiers of ConsciousnessFrontiers of JusticeFurnishing the MindGalileo in PittsburghGenderGender and Mental HealthGender in the MirrorGender TroubleGenesGenes, Women, EqualityGenetic Nature/CultureGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetic SecretsGenocide's AftermathGenomes and What to Make of ThemGerman Idealism and the JewGerman PhilosophyGetting HookedGilles DeleuzeGlobal PhilosophyGluttonyGod and Phenomenal ConsciousnessGoffman's LegacyGoing Amiss in Experimental ResearchGoodness & AdviceGrassroots SpiritualityGrave MattersGrave MattersGreedGreek Models of Mind and SelfGut ReactionsHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHabits of MindHallucinationHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of EmotionsHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness and EducationHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHappiness, Death, and the Remainder of LifeHard LuckHarmful ThoughtsHaving the World in ViewHealing PsychiatryHealing the Soul in the Age of the BrainHealth, Illness and DiseaseHealth, Science, and Ordinary LanguageHegelHeidegger and a Metaphysics of FeelingHeidegger, Metaphysics and the Univocity of BeingHermann von Helmholtz's MechanismHermeneutics As PoliticsHeterophobiaHeterosyncraciesHeuristics and BiasesHeuristics and the LawHidden ResourcesHidden SelvesHiding from HumanityHigh Art LiteHistorical OntologyHistory of Psychiatry and Medical PsychologyHistory, Historicity And ScienceHobbesHomosexualitiesHope and Dread in PsychoanalysisHot ThoughtHow Can I Be Trusted?How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains?How Do We Know Who We Are?How Emotions WorkHow Emotions WorkHow History Made the MindHow Images ThinkHow is Nature Possible?How Propaganda WorksHow Science WorksHow Scientific Practices MatterHow Scientists Explain DiseaseHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Make Opportunity EqualHow to Solve the Mind-Body Problemhow to stop timeHow to Think More About SexHow We HopeHow We ReasonHuman CloningHuman Development, Language and the Future of MankindHuman EnhancementHuman Evolution, Reproduction, and MoralityHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman NatureHuman NatureHuman Nature and the Limits of ScienceHuman-Built WorldHumanismHumanism, What's That?HumanityHumans, Animals, MachinesHumeHumeHume on Motivation and VirtueHusserlHystoriesI of the VortexI Was WrongIdeas that MatterIdentifying the MindIdentity and Agency in Cultural WorldsIgnorance and ImaginationIllnessImagination and Its PathologiesImagination and the Meaningful BrainImagining NumbersImmortal RemainsImproving Nature?In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of HealthIn Defense of SentimentalityIn Love With LifeIn Praise of Athletic BeautyIn Praise of the WhipIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of HappinessIn the Name of GodIn the Name of IdentityIn the Space of ReasonsIn Two MindsIncompatibilism's AllureIndividual Differences in Conscious ExperienceInfinity and PerspectiveInformation ArtsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchIngmar Bergman, Cinematic PhilosopherInhuman ThoughtsInner PresenceInsanityIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntelligent VirtueIntentionIntentionality, Deliberation and AutonomyIntentions and IntentionalityIntentions and IntentionalityInterpreting MindsInterpreting NietzscheIntroducing Greek PhilosophyIntrospection and ConsciousnessIntrospection VindicatedIntuition, Imagination, and Philosophical MethodologyIntuitionismInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIrrationalityIs Academic Feminism Dead?Is It Me or My Meds?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is Oedipus Online?Is Science Neurotic?Is Science Value Free?Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion?Is There a Duty to Die?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJacques LacanJacques RancièreJacques RanciereJean-Paul SartreJohn McDowellJohn SearleJohn Searle's Ideas About Social RealityJohn Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill and the Writing of CharacterJoint AttentionJokesJonathan EdwardsJudging and UnderstandingJustice for ChildrenJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeKantKant and MiltonKant and the Fate of AutonomyKant and the Limits of AutonomyKant and the Role of Pleasure in Moral ActionKant on Freedom, Law, and HappinessKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Anatomy of EvilKant's Anatomy of the Intelligent MindKant's Theory of VirtueKarl JaspersKarl PopperKey Concepts in PhilosophyKierkegaardKierkegaard as PhenomenologistKierkegaard's Concept of DespairKinds of MindsKinds, Things, and StuffKnowing, Knowledge and BeliefsKnowledge MonopoliesKnowledge, Belief, and CharacterKnowledge, Possibility, and ConsciousnessLacanLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLanguageLanguage in ContextLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Culture, and MindLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw and the BrainLaw, Liberty, and PsychiatryLaws, Mind, and Free WillLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberatory PsychiatryLife and ActionLife at the Texas State Lunatic Asylum, 1857-1997Life Is Not a Game of PerfectLife of the MindLife's FormLife, Death, & MeaningLife, Death, and Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of UtilityLife, Sex, and IdeasLight in the Dark RoomLike a Splinter in Your MindLiving and Dying WellLiving NarrativeLiving Outside Mental IllnessLiving with DarwinLiving With One’s PastLockeLocke LockeLogic and the Art of Memory Loneliness in Philosophy, Psychology, and LiteratureLooking for SpinozaLooking for The StrangerLost SoulsLOT 2LoveLoveLove's ConfusionsLove's VisionLove, Friendship, and the SelfLove, Sex & TragedyLuckyLudwig WittgensteinLustLyingMachine ConsciousnessMad for FoucaultMad TravelersMade with WordsMadness And Death In PhilosophyMadness and DemocracyMadness at HomeMadness Is CivilizationMaking Natural KnowledgeMaking Sense of EvolutionMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMaking the DSM-5Making the Social WorldMaking TruthMale Female EmailMan, Beast, and ZombieMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManiaManic Depression and CreativityMapping the Edges and the In-betweenMapping the Future of BiologyMarcus AureliusMaster PassionsMatters of the MindMe++Meaning and Moral OrderMeaning and Value in a Secular AgeMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeaning, Basic Self-Knowledge, and MindMeasuring HappinessMeasuring PsychopathologyMedia MadnessMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedicine of the PersonMedicine, Mental Health, Religion, Science and Well-BeingMelancholy And the Care of the SoulMelancholy and the Otherness of GodMementoMemory and NarrativeMental ActionsMental CausationMental Causation and OntologyMental HealthMental Health At The CrossroadsMental Health Policy in BritainMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMerleau-PontyMerleau-Ponty and the Possibilities of PhilosophyMetacognition and Theory of MindMetacreationMetaethical SubjectivismMetaethicsMetal and FleshMetaphors of MemoryMetapoliticsMethods in MindMichel FoucaultMill's UtilitarianismMindMindMind and ConsciousnessMind and CosmosMind and MechanismMind GamesMind in a Physical WorldMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind in LifeMind TimeMind's LandscapeMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMind, Brain, and Free WillMind, Reason and ImaginationMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds and PersonsMinds, Brains, and LawMinds, Ethics, and ConditionalsMindshapingMindsightMindworldsMirror, MirrorMixed FeelingsMockingbird YearsModels of the SelfModern Social ImaginariesModern Theories of JusticeModernity and SubjectivityModernity and TechnologyMoody Minds DistemperedMoral DimensionsMoral FailureMoral ImaginationMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral ParticularismMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology and Human AgencyMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Moral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMotherhoodMotive and RightnessMoving Beyond Prozac, DSM, and the New PsychiatryMultiple Analogies in Science and PhilosophyMultiple Identities & False MemoriesMusic, Madness, and the Unworking of LanguageMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Double UnveiledMy WayNarrativeNarrative and IdentityNarrative MedicineNarrative PsychiatryNarrative Theory and the Cognitive SciencesNatural Ethical FactsNatural Kinds and Conceptual ChangeNatural MindsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalism and the First-Person PerspectiveNaturalism and the Human ConditionNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalized BioethicsNaturalizing the MindNatureNature and NarrativeNear Death ExperienceNeither Bad nor MadNeither Victim nor SurvivorNeuro-Philosophy and the Healthy MindNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neurophilosophy at WorkNeurophilosophy of Free WillNeuropoliticsNeuropsychoanalysis in PracticeNeuroscience and PhilosophyNew Essays on the Explanation of ActionNew Philosophy for a New MediaNew Versions of VictimsNew Waves in Philosophy of ActionNietzscheNietzsche and Buddhist PhilosophyNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNietzsche's TherapyNietzsche, Culture and EducationNietzsche: The Man and His PhilosophyNihil UnboundNoir AnxietyNormative EthicsNormativityNorms of NatureNotebooks 1951-1959Notes Toward a Performative Theory of AssemblyNothing So AbsurdOblivionOn AnxietyOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn Being AuthenticOn BeliefOn BetrayalOn BullshitOn DelusionOn DesireOn EmotionsOn HashishOn Human RightsOn Loving Our EnemiesOn Nature and LanguageOn PersonalityOn ReflectionOn Romantic LoveOn the EmotionsOn the Freud WatchOn the Government of the LivingOn the Human ConditionOn the InternetOn the Meaning of LifeOn the Philosophy of LawOn the Pragmatics of CommunicationOn the Punitive SocietyOn TruthOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne Hundred DaysOnflowOnly a Promise of HappinessOntology of ConsciousnessOpen MindedOpen Your EyesOrgans without BodiesOther MindsOur Last Great IllusionOur Own MindsOur Posthuman FutureOur StoriesOut of Its MindOut of Our HeadsOxford Guide to the MindOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPanic DisorderPanpsychism in the WestPartialityPassionate EnginesPassionate EnginesPathologies of BeliefPathologies of ReasonPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perceiving the WorldPerception & CognitionPerception and Basic BeliefsPerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPerceptual ExperiencePerfecting VirtuePerplexities of ConsciousnessPersistencePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal IdentityPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonal Identity and Fractured SelvesPersonhood and Health CarePersonsPersons and BodiesPersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPersons, Souls and DeathPerspectives on ImitationPerspectives on PragmatismPessimismPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenal ConsciousnessPhenomenal IntentionalityPhenomenology and ExistentialismPhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophersPhilosophers on MusicPhilosophers without GodsPhilosophical CounselingPhilosophical Counselling and the UnconsciousPhilosophical DevicesPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical History and the Problem of ConsciousnessPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in Psychiatry IIPhilosophical MethodologyPhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophical Myths of the FallPhilosophical Perspectives on DepictionPhilosophical Perspectives on Technology and PsychiatryPhilosophical PracticePhilosophical Reflections on DisabilityPhilosophizing About Sex Philosophizing the EverydayPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy and LivingPhilosophy and PsychiatryPhilosophy and PsychotherapyPhilosophy and Science FictionPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the Interpretation of Pop CulturePhilosophy and the Moving ImagePhilosophy and the NeurosciencesPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy As FictionPhilosophy BitesPhilosophy Bites BackPhilosophy for Counselling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy for LifePhilosophy in a New CenturyPhilosophy in an Age of SciencePhilosophy in Children's LiteraturePhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BodyPhilosophy of Film and Motion PicturesPhilosophy of LovePhilosophy of Love, Sex, and MarriagePhilosophy of MindPhilosophy of Mind and CognitionPhilosophy of Personal Identity and Multiple PersonalityPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy of Public HealthPhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhilosophy of the Social SciencesPhilosophy on TapPhilosophy PracticePhilosophy the Day after TomorrowPhilosophy's Role in Counseling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhilosophy, Politics, DemocracyPhotography and PhilosophyPhysical RealizationPhysicalism and Its DiscontentsPhysicalism and Mental CausationPhysicalism, or Something Near EnoughPhysician-Assisted DyingPillar of SaltPin-up GrrrlsPlatoPlatoPlato, Not Prozac!Platonic Ethics, Old and NewPluralistic CasuistryPolarities of ExperiencesPolitical EmotionsPopper, Objectivity and the Growth of KnowledgePornPorn StudiesPornography, Sex, and FeminismPortrait of the Psychiatrist as a Young ManPostcolonial DisordersPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPower and the SelfPower SplitPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical ConflictsPractical Identity and Narrative AgencyPractical PhilosophyPractical RulesPractical Tortoise RaisingPractically ProfoundPracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPragmatic BioethicsPragmatismPragmatism, Old And NewPraise and BlamePredicative MindsPreferences and Well-BeingPrescriptions for the MindPresocraticsPrimary and Secondary QualitiesPrimates and PhilosophersPrivacyPrivileged AccessProblems in MindProblems of RationalityProzac As a Way of LifeProzac BacklashProzac on the CouchPsyche and SomaPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric Cultures ComparedPsychiatric Diagnosis and ClassificationPsychiatric EthicsPsychiatric PowerPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry and Philosophy of SciencePsychiatry and ReligionPsychiatry as a Human SciencePsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry in SocietyPsychiatry in the New MilleniumPsychiatry in the Scientific ImagePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsycho-Physical Dualism TodayPsychoanalysis and Narrative MedicinePsychoanalysis and the Philosophy of SciencePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and PhilosophyPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, and the Politics of Human RelationshipsPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPsychotherapy As PraxisPublic PhilosophyPunishmentPure ImmanencePurple HazePursuing MeaningQuality of Life and Human DifferenceQueer PhilosophyQuestions for FreudQuestions for FreudQuine and Davidson on Language, Thought and RealityRaceRace in Contemporary MedicineRadiant CoolRadical AlterityRadical ExternalismRadical HopeRational and Social AgencyRational CausationRational Choice in an Uncertain WorldRationality + Consciousness = Free WillRationality and FreedomRationality and the Reflective MindRationality in ActionRawls, Dewey, and ConstructivismRe-creating MedicineRe-EmergenceRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReading AutobiographyReading Bernard WilliamsReading SartreReadings in the Philosophy of TechnologyReal MaterialismReal Natures and Familiar ObjectsReal ScienceRealism in ActionReason & EmancipationReason in ActionReason in PhilosophyReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReasoning About Rational AgentsReasoning in Biological DiscoveriesReasons from WithinReasons without RationalismReclaiming CognitionReclaiming the SoulReconceiving SchizophreniaReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecreative MindsRediscovering EmotionRediscovering EmpathyReference and ExistenceReference and the Rational MindReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRegulating SexReinventing the SoulRelativism and Human RightsRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyReliable ReasoningReligion without GodRelying on OthersRemembering HomeResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsRestraining RageRethinking ExpertiseRethinking IntrospectionRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeRethinking the DSMRethinking the Sociology of Mental HealthRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfReturn to ReasonRevolt, She SaidRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard Rorty's New PragmatismRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRise And Fall of Soul And SelfRitalin NationRobert NozickRousseauRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Derrida on DeconstructionRules, Reason, and Self-KnowledgeSaints, Scholars, and Schizophrenics: Mental 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A Frightening LoveReview - A Frightening Love
Recasting the Problem of Evil
by Andrew Gleeson
Palgrave Macmillan, 2012
Review by Brad Frazier
Jun 26th 2012 (Volume 16, Issue 26)

Andrew Gleeson's A Frightening Love: Recasting the Problem of Evil is an ambitious attempt to rethink the problem of evil from a self-proclaimed "existential" perspective that prioritizes love over morality.  Gleeson's book contains a preface and six chapters that amount to a refreshingly succinct 165 pages, including the endnotes.  Gleeson helpfully sketches out the six main themes of the book in the preface.  He also indicates that his work is as at least as much concerned with meta-philosophy as it is philosophy of religion.

The reason is that Gleeson aims to take down the oft-invoked sharp distinction between the "intellectual" problem of evil on the one hand, and the "personal" or "existential" problem of evil on the other.  In analytic philosophy of religion, the former is thought of as the proper subject matter of philosophers who bring the tools of their trade to the discussion of evil; the latter problem is left to ministers, therapists and others who are involved by vocation with helping people cope with suffering and evil.  An upshot of this distinction is that philosophers often say things in seminar rooms, conferences, and professional journals, about evil, God and human suffering that, as Gleeson puts it, "they would never countenance in their personal lives" (viii). 

Sometimes parody ensues, as when prominent philosophers place toothaches, twisted ankles and minor social embarrassments in the same category as genocides and devastating natural disasters -- as if all of these experiences raise the problem of evil in the same way, in principle, and are all responsive to the same basic solution.  At worst, this approach renders theodicists "effectively complicit in hiding the real problem of evil from philosophical study" (73).  This is a serious charge.  To his credit, Gleeson goes to great lengths to justify it -- as a criticism of the discipline of theodicy, not the personal character of its practitioners.

Along the same lines as this provocative indictment of the meta-philosophy of analytic philosophy of religion, Gleeson also argues that theodicy is "a moral failure" (viii).  He attempts to show instead that, rightly construed, the problem of evil is "existential."  That is, it is "a struggle inside our hearts between the apparently rival claims of God's love on one side, and morality, claiming our allegiance in the name of the victims of evil, on the other" (viii).  In his conclusion, Gleeson refers to this as a battle between "two incommensurable perspectives" (151).  To give us a palpable sense of the sort of victims he has in mind, in chapter one Gleeson cites Ivan Karamazov's indictment of God -- in Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov -- on account of the horrible suffering of a young girl, and returns to this bracing example often.  Karamazov's challenge is straightforward, according to Gleeson.  It is an "unblinking denial that any good, however great, is worth certain sorts of (actual) human suffering, especially the suffering of children" (2).  If the challenge succeeds -- Gleeson thinks it does -- there is no moral (greater good) vindication of God in the face of horrific evil.  However, the atheological arguments that, as Gleeson notes, would "count fatally against God" barring an appeal to love "no longer need do so once love is appealed to" (95).

The other main themes of the book are no less controversial (among analytic philosophers at least).  Gleeson argues that it is quite possible for one person to be bound by conscience to belief in God in the face of evil, while another is morally required not to believe.  Often he expresses this as a difference between competing ultimate loyalties: to God (and love) or to the "burning children" and other victims of horrendous evil.  Gleeson reaches the conclusion that "believers" and "unbelievers" alike (his terms) can be justified in their stances in response to evil because he embraces a broader view of justification, which takes into account the personal histories and other particularities of persons.  Consequently, he rejects the "universalizability of judgments" for the problem of evil (viii).

Gleeson also argues that God is not a moral agent or "an efficient causal force," but is "love itself" (viii).  He clarifies and supports this view in the latter part of the book.  Although there are obvious Platonic connotations here -- Gleeson also refers to God as "goodness itself" -- one should note that this is not the quasi-Platonic view of God (and to a lesser extent, morality) recently defended by Robert Adams in his Finite and Infinite Goods.  Gleeson does not attempt, so far as I can tell, to ground morality in the nature of a perfect being (or "the good").  He refers to the omni-god as "in fact a creature … but not God with a capital G" (150).  He argues, moreover, that (the real) God is "beyond mere morality, an institution peculiar to the human predicament" (109).  However, he also claims that God's goodness encompasses "both the non-moral good that befalls us and the moral good we do as agents" (109).  That is, God is somehow present or manifested in these goods when we experience them.  Frankly, I came away unclear and confused about what Gleeson thinks precisely is the relationship between God and morality.  Is morality merely a set of "principles and judgments about human conduct and ideals of living" (131)?  Or is it itself a kind of revelation of God, perhaps ultimately grounded in God (as "the good")?  Unlike Adams, Gleeson does not clarify the relationship between what moral philosophers sometimes call "the good" and "the right," even though he clearly identifies God with the former.  He says that God's reality is an "existential reality" that is distinct from "moral reality."  But existential reality also provides "a sort of deep background" to moral reality and, as such, is closely related to it (131).  That is the most we get on this crucial topic.

As an existential reality, God's reality, according to Gleeson, cannot be understood "independently of our religious lives and experiences" (viii).  This is the last main theme of the book.  Here we see another sense in which Gleeson's approach is "existential," as opposed to "objectifying" or merely theoretical.

This is not a book for neophytes in philosophy or for the general public.  It is technical, but mostly not needlessly so.  Also, many important sections of the book cannot be understood apart from familiarity with fairly recent discussions of theodicy in analytic philosophy of religion.  Possibly it could be used as a resource in an upper-level undergraduate course that deals with theodicy, or, more likely, as a text in a graduate course on this topic.

Analytic philosophers of religion who are interested in the problem of evil should read this book.  Gleeson's discussions are detailed, well informed, up to date, and he contends with the leading perspectives in the field.  (I cannot possibly do justice here to all the arguments he brings forward.)  Also, he carefully considers objections to his position in each chapter.  He doesn't hesitate, either, to concede difficulties with his own view when they surface in his discussion.  Furthermore, Gleeson offers what is to my mind a damning and incisive critique of the standard approaches in and assumptions of analytic discussions of the problem of evil.  Notwithstanding the criticism noted above and the concerns I offer below, the book represents a very conscientious and sensitive approach to the problem of evil by a serious scholar in the field.

Readers may well wonder how love could put God in the clear concerning evil, while a moral assessment of the same facts fails to do so, as Gleeson claims.  To clarify his position, Gleeson draws an analogy between human parents and God.  Knowing that children will suffer in this world, sometimes horribly, still we have them.  Does this imply that we have no right to complain then when our children suffer?  Gleeson argues:

 

A moral case can be made that these parents have compromised their right to resist the evils, or certainly to complain about them.  But the parents do not mean that practical consent in their hearts.  In what morality may well see as an audacious attempt to have it both ways, they want to consent to having the children but not to consent to the evils that in many cases this will entail. … The loving parents I imagine are under a powerful human impulse of love to create and nurture new life, to bring it into the world even in the face of terrible threats. … From morality's point of view that may indeed compromise their right subsequently to complain about the evil. 

But from the parents' point of view the issue is not about, or not just about, morality. … They are acting from love. … Love of this sort will take even quite high risks of serious evil -- for some evils, even a certainty -- in a way morality will not. … [M]orality, by presuming to judge them, reaches beyond its jurisdiction.  They [the parents] are borne along by the passion of love, a sort of personal necessity akin to what philosophers have called 'moral necessity'.  The same may be true for God's creation of the world. … Love can establish a domain of value independent of morality, and resistant to its demands.  In religious language we call this the domain the sacred. … Just like human parents, God may create the world, a world he knows must contain terrible evil, in an act of reckless love (33-36).

The rest of the story that may exculpate God is that, although God can be said to be like a parent, we must not take this analogy too far, or "too anthropomorphically" (36).  For God is not some grander version of a parent, but is "love itself."  As such, God's creating the world should be understood as a "manifestation of love itself."  As Gleeson suggests:

But once we see that the analogy does not extend to regarding God as a special case of an agent like you or me, then while the instantiation of the good in the world can be seen as a manifestation of him -- in that sense, attributed to him, telling us (non-inferentially) about his nature -- evil cannot be.  God is not responsible for evil causally because he is not a causal moral agent of any sort.  And trivially evil is not a manifestation of him because he is love, goodness itself.  So no adverse conclusions about God can be drawn from the existence of evil (37).

Well, that's pretty convenient for God and Christians such as Gleeson, is it not?  The analogy between God and human parents works only to the extent that it helps Gleeson's case.  When it doesn't, it is being pushed too far.

There are some serious problems with Gleeson's position both from perspectives internal to Christian theism and external to it (or any theism).  I will begin with the former.

Gleeson not only claims that we should not view God as a causal agent, but also that this is the view most (Christian) believers hold, at least if we go by their actions.  So when believers (and biblical authors) say that God is like a human parent they mean "to draw our contemplative attention, rather than the practical and moralising sort, to the love that God is."  He concludes: "Thus it is that our praise of God is praise of the love that he is … rather than praise of an agent accumulating merit, or a causal force doing something analogous" (112).

This is special pleading.  I know of no believer -- and I know and have known many, and have been one myself -- who denies that God is a causal agent, or who would make such a fine-grained distinction in regard to what she praises God for.  Is it simply that most believers would think this way if they were pressed to be philosophical about their faith, but don't otherwise?  I don't think so.  Believers (and some unbelievers) daily petition God to act in the world on their behalf, to intervene causally, not simply to show up and manifest love or goodness, but to do things for them.  God's agency lies at the very heart of Christianity: God created the world, became incarnate in Jesus of Nazareth, made covenants with Abraham and Moses, knocked Saul of Tarsus off his horse and turned him into the Apostle Paul, and so on.  Imagine the mental gymnastics involved in exegeting the Bible as if God weren't an agent. (I won't even begin to speculate how Gleeson would work out the metaphysics of the Incarnation and the relationship between Christ's dual natures -- one obviously possessing agency, the other -- the divine nature -- lacking it.)  This is truly a God of the philosophers! 

To those billions of believers who believe or have believed that God is the source of morality, it must seem passing strange, too, to think that pure love could be so out of sync with what is morally right (or what "morality" has to say about an issue).  It's not that love can't trump morality.  (Susan Wolf has cogently argued in her essay, "Moral Saints," that a narrow fixation on moral rightness produces narrow, dull people.)  Rather, the problem is one of incoherence.  On the one hand, Gleeson argues that his view expresses the "logic of faith in Judeo-Christian religion" (118).   On the other, this "logic" implies that love and morality not only appear to be at odds, but ultimately are (in some cases), even though traditionally Christians have traced the origins of both back to God.  It would be news to Augustine and Aquinas, for instance, to learn that the logic of their faith implies metaphysical fragmentation of value, not merely the appearance of it in human existence, while it also implies that the source of all value is unitary and perhaps even absolutely simple, having no parts of any sort whatsoever.

I seriously doubt that there is any single "logic" of faith in the Christian religion, which is, after all, constituted by Christians and Christian institutions, not a Platonic form of some sort.  But if there is, certainly the idea of God as the (unitary, unified) source of all value is at least as crucial to it as anything Gleeson identifies as its core.  To be clear, I am not suggesting that the "logic" of Christian faith is convoluted.  Instead, I don't think there is any single logic, unless we selectively privilege a particular expression of Christianity.

In this respect, Gleeson's book unfortunately exemplifies one of the vices of analytic philosophy of religion: the tendency to treat religions ahistorically and as if they are solely constituted by the doctrines that animate them (and even here by a certain select group of those doctrines).  This partly owes to the fact that most philosophers working in this area completely ignore work on religion in other disciplines such as anthropology, religious studies, history, and sociology, for instance.  Gleeson faults philosophers of religion who speak as if from nowhere about the problem of evil.  But he sometimes treats Christianity as if it were a Platonic form (see especially 144).  Along the same lines, at one point he states: "for the believer qua believer, God is neither a moral agent nor a causal force" (112).  The believer qua believer?  It is as if there is a Platonic form of "believer" too.  Who talks this way other than analytic philosophers of religion, while they are talking to each other?

Moreover, I bristled throughout my reading of Gleeson's book at his simplistic dichotomizing of humanity into the categories of "believer" or "unbeliever."  Gleeson seems to think these categories cut human reality at its joints, that we really do fall fairly neatly into one category or the other.  Furthermore, he unintentionally is condescending in what he has to say about the differences between these two kinds of person -- even though, to his great credit, he concedes that unbelievers can be justified in their unbelief.  For instance, consider this parsing of the difference between the two:

Specifically, unbelievers are not necessarily people who deny that love itself is real.  Empirically, believers are people who, despite the reality of evil, remain able to see love, goodness itself -- God -- clearly, their perception unclouded by evil.  In contrast, unbelievers (and there is at least a bit of an unbeliever, often more than a bit, in most of us, even those who count ourselves believers) are people whose perception of God is in some degree obscured by evil. … [T]he conceptual (as opposed to the empirical) difference between believers and unbelievers is not well captured as the difference between people who believe in the reality of love itself and people who do not.  It is the difference between people who regard love itself as the most important thing and give it their first and absolute loyalty and people who do not.  Unbelievers need not blame God for evil, and if they are lucid they will not.  They need not fail to see the reality of love itself, and if they are lucid they will not (115).

So, "believers" are likely to be much more lucid about love than "unbelievers" are.  But the poor unbelievers might still think that love itself is real, if they aren't too jaded from their experiences of evil.  In any case, unbelievers will not be as loyal to "love itself" as believers.

No one would ever plausibly arrive at these conclusions inductively.  There is absolutely no evidence for, and, on the contrary, much counter-evidence against these claims.  Again, though, if we exempt from consideration the things that "believers" do qua "unbelievers" (remember even believers have vestiges of unbelief, according to Gleeson), we might be able to assert without embarrassment such ridiculous claims.

Gleeson foists a false dilemma on us when he posits that we must either be ultimately loyal to the people who suffer evil or to "love itself."  The logic of his discourse produces this ultimatum, not our own existential realities.  In addition, there are even many believers who are leery of the Platonically loaded language of "love itself" or "goodness itself."  The way Gleeson sketches belief tends to imply that one would also have to be a metaphysical realist to be a believer.  This is absurd.

Merold Westphal, a Christian philosopher who also happens to be an anti-realist, defines logocentrism as "the belief that our concepts can be totally lucid in themselves and totally adequate to the realities they intend." (Merold Westphal, "Kierkegaard," in A Companion to Continental Philosophy, eds. Simon Critchley and William R. Shcroeder (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1998), 128.) For an approach that takes itself to be "existential," there certainly is a surprising degree of logocentrism in Gleeson's discussion.  This is also a pervasive feature of analytic philosophy in general.  It is subtly related to the impersonal approach to the problem of evil that Gleeson rightly criticizes and rejects.  His position would be more consistent and offer a more thoroughgoing critique of analytic approaches to theodicy and analytic meta-philosophy in general, if he were to be as suspicious of logocentrism as he is of "the view from nowhere."

Gleeson rightly argues, "no theodicy is worth the paper it is written on unless it makes sense in the light of the sort of experiences the burning children have undergone" (43).  In other words, a theodicy that makes no sense of horrific evil is useless at best.  However, many philosophers would say this is just the point Gleeson misses as he tries to recast the problem of evil.  Horrific evil does not make sense.  As Levinas would say, it ruptures our categories of good and evil.  Love doesn't make sense of it, either.  And I am no less loyal to love -- whatever "love itself" is -- for saying this.

 

© 2012 Brad Frazier

 

Brad Frazier is Associate Professor of Philosophy and Religion at Wells College in Aurora, New York.  He recently published Rorty and Kierkegaard on Irony and Moral Commitment: Philosophical and Theological Connections (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006).  He also has published essays in Philosophy and Social Criticism; Journal of Religious Ethics; International Philosophical Quarterly; History of Philosophy Quarterly; and The Daily Show and Philosophy


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