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A Theory of Feelings Anger and Forgiveness"My Madness Saved Me"10 Good Questions about Life and Death12 Modern Philosophers50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a GodA Cabinet of Philosophical CuriositiesA Case for IronyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to Buddhist PhilosophyA Companion to FoucaultA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to HumeA Companion to KantA Companion to Phenomenology and ExistentialismA Companion to PragmatismA Companion to the Philosophy of ActionA Companion to the Philosophy of BiologyA Companion to the Philosophy of LiteratureA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Critical Overview of Biological FunctionsA Critique of Naturalistic Philosophies of MindA Cursing Brain?A Delicate BalanceA Farewell to AlmsA Frightening LoveA Future for PresentismA Guide to the Good LifeA History of PsychiatryA History of the MindA Life Worth LivingA Manual of Experimental PhilosophyA Map of the MindA Metaphysics of PsychopathologyA Mind So RareA Natural History of Human MoralityA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Natural History of VisionA Parliament of MindsA Philosopher Looks at The Sense of HumorA Philosophical DiseaseA Philosophy of BoredomA Philosophy of Cinematic ArtA Philosophy of CultureA Philosophy of EmptinessA Philosophy of FearA Philosophy of PainA Physicalist ManifestoA Place for ConsciousnessA Question of TrustA Research Agenda for DSM-VA Revolution of the MindA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Stroll With William JamesA Tapestry of ValuesA Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Theory of FreedomA Thousand MachinesA Universe of ConsciousnessA Very Bad WizardA Very Bad Wizard: Morality Behind the CurtainA Virtue EpistemologyA World Full of GodsA World Without ValuesAbout FaceAbout the Beginning of the Hermeneutics of the SelfAction and ResponsibilityAction in ContextAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionAction, Contemplation, and HappinessAction, Emotion and WillAdam SmithAdaptive DynamicsAddictionAddictionAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction Is a ChoiceAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAftermathAfterwarAgainst AdaptationAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HappinessAgainst HealthAgency and ActionAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and EmbodimentAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAl-JununAlain BadiouAlain BadiouAlasdair MacIntyreAlien Landscapes?Altered EgosAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Ethics for TodayAn Intellectual History of CannibalismAn Interpretation of DesireAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy An Introduction to Philosophy of EducationAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of PsychologyAn Introductory Philosophy of MedicineAn Odd Kind of FameAnalytic FreudAnalytic Philosophy in AmericaAncient AngerAncient Models of MindAncient Philosophy of the SelfAngerAnimal LessonsAnimal MindsAnimals Like UsAnnihilationAnother PlanetAnswers for AristotleAnti-ExternalismAnti-Individualism and KnowledgeAntigone’s ClaimAntipsychiatryAre We Hardwired?Are Women Human?Arguing about DisabilityArguing About Human NatureAristotle and the Philosophy of FriendshipAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's ChildrenAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle, Emotions, and EducationArt & MoralityArt After Conceptual ArtArt in Three DimensionsArt, Self and KnowledgeArtificial ConsciousnessArtificial HappinessAspects of PsychologismAsylum to ActionAt the Existentialist CaféAtonement and ForgivenessAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutobiography as PhilosophyAutonomyAutonomy and Mental DisorderAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismBabies by DesignBackslidingBadiouBadiou's DeleuzeBadiou, Balibar, Ranciere: Rethinking EmancipationBare Facts And Naked TruthsBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBattlestar Galactica and PhilosophyBe Like the FoxBeautyBecoming a SubjectBecoming HumanBefore ConsciousnessBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing AmoralBeing HumanBeing Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory Being No OneBeing Realistic about ReasonsBeing ReducedBeing YourselfBelief's Own EthicsBending Over BackwardsBerlin Childhood around 1900Bernard WilliamsBertrand RussellBetter than BothBetter Than WellBetween Two WorldsBeyond HealthBeyond Hegel and NietzscheBeyond KuhnBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond PostmodernismBeyond ReductionBeyond SchizophreniaBeyond the DSM StoryBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics in the ClinicBiological Complexity and Integrative PluralismBiology Is TechnologyBiosBipolar ExpeditionsBlackwell Companion to the Philosophy of EducationBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlues - Philosophy for EveryoneBlushBob Dylan and PhilosophyBody ConsciousnessBody Image And Body SchemaBody ImagesBody LanguageBody MattersBody WorkBody-Subjects and Disordered MindsBoundBoundaries of the MindBoyleBrain Evolution and CognitionBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-WiseBrainchildrenBrains, Buddhas, and BelievingBrainstormingBrave New WorldsBreakdown of WillBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and FaithBrief Therapy Homework PlannerBritain on the CouchBritish Idealism and the Concept of the SelfBrute RationalityBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyBut Is It Art?Camus and SartreCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCarving Nature at Its JointsCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsCassandra's DaughterCato's TearsCausation and CounterfactualsCauses, Laws, and Free WillChanging Conceptions of the Child from the Renaissance to Post-ModernityChanging the SubjectChaosophyCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionCharles DarwinCherishmentChildhood and the Philosophy of EducationChildrenChildren, Families, and Health Care Decision MakingChoices and ConflictChoosing Not to ChooseChristmas - Philosophy for EveryoneCinema, Philosophy, BergmanCinematic MythmakingCity and Soul in Plato's RepublicClassifying MadnessClear and Queer ThinkingClinical EthicsClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyCodependent ForevermoreCoffee - Philosophy for EveryoneCognition and the BrainCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognition Through Understanding: Self-Knowledge, Interlocution, Reasoning, ReflectionCognitive BiologyCognitive FictionsCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Systems and the Extended Mind Cognitive Theories of Mental IllnessCoherence in Thought and ActionCollected Papers, Volume 1Collected Papers, Volume 2College SexComedy IncarnateCommitmentCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentConcealment And ExposureConceptual Analysis and Philosophical NaturalismConceptual Art and PaintingConceptual Issues in Evolutionary BiologyConfessionsConfucianismConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConquest of AbundanceConscience and ConvenienceConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the SelfConsciousness EmergingConsciousness EvolvingConsciousness ExplainedConsciousness in ActionConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Color, and ContentConsole and ClassifyConstructing the WorldConstructive AnalysisContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Philosophy of BiologyContemporary Debates in Philosophy of MindContemporary Debates in Political PhilosophyContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContemporary Perspectives on Natural LawContested Knowledge: Social Theory TodayContesting PsychiatryContext and the AttitudesContinental Philosophy of ScienceControlControlling Our DestiniesConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCopernicus, Darwin and FreudCrazy for YouCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCreating ConsilienceCreating HysteriaCreating Mental IllnessCreating Scientific ConceptsCreating the American JunkieCreation, Rationality and AutonomyCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCrimes of ReasonCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychiatryCritical PsychologyCritical ResistanceCritical Thinking About PsychologyCritical VisionsCross and KhoraCruel CompassionCTRL [SPACE]Cultural Psychology of the SelfCultural Theory: An IntroductionCulture and Psychiatric DiagnosisCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCulture of DeathCultures of NeurastheniaCurious EmotionsCurrent Controversies in Experimental PhilosophyCurrent Controversies in Values and ScienceCustom and Reason in HumeCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCutting God in Half - And Putting the Pieces Together AgainCylons in AmericaDamaged IdentitiesDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous EmotionsDaniel DennettDaniel DennettDark AgesDarwin and DesignDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDarwin, God and the Meaning of LifeDarwinian PsychiatryDarwinian ReductionismDarwinizing CultureDating: Philosophy for EveryoneDeathDeathDeath and CharacterDeath and CompassionDeath and the AfterlifeDebating DesignDebating HumanismDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecomposing the WillDeconstructing PsychotherapyDeconstruction and DemocracyDeeper Than DarwinDeeper than ReasonDefending Science - within ReasonDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDegrees of BeliefDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions and Other Irrational BeliefsDelusions and the Madness of the MassesDementiaDemons, Dreamers, and MadmenDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDennett’s PhilosophyDepression Is a ChoiceDepression, Emotion and the SelfDepthDerrida, Deleuze, PsychoanalysisDescartesDescartes and the Passionate MindDescartes' CogitoDescartes's Changing MindDescartes's Concept of MindDescribing Inner Experience?Descriptions and PrescriptionsDesembodied Spirits and Deanimated Bodies Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Desire and AffectDesire, Love, and IdentityDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDeveloping the VirtuesDiagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersDialectics of the SelfDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital SoulDimensional Models of Personality DisordersDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDisjunctivismDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDispatches from the Freud WarsDisrupted LivesDistractionDisturbed ConsciousnessDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Do We Still Need Doctors?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Does the Woman Exist?Doing without ConceptsDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDonald DavidsonDonald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the MentalDoubting Darwin?Dreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR CasebookDworkin and His CriticsDying to KnowDynamics in ActionDysthymia and the Spectrum of Chronic DepressionsEccentricsEducational MetamorphosesEffective IntentionsElbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth WantingEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbodied RhetoricsEmbodied Selves and Divided MindsEmbryos under the MicroscopeEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotionEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion and PsycheEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotional ReasonEmotional ReasonEmotional TruthEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions, Value, and AgencyEmpathyEmpathy and AgencyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpathy in the Context of PhilosophyEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEnchanted LoomsEngaging BuddhismEngineering the Human GermlineEnjoymentEnvyEpicureanismEpistemic LuckEpistemologyEpistemology and EmotionsEpistemology and the Psychology of Human JudgmentEros and the GoodErotic MoralityEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssays in the Metaphysics of Mind Essays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEssays on Nonconceptual ContentEssays on Philosophical CounselingEssays on Reference, Language, and MindEssays on the Concept of Mind in Early-Modern PhilosophyEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEsssential Philosophy of PsychiatryEternal Sunshine of the Spotless MindEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in Human CloningEthical TheoryEthicsEthicsEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics in Plain EnglishEthics in PracticeEthics in Psychiatric ResearchEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEuropean Review of Philosophy. Vol. 5Everyday IrrationalityEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolutionEvolution and the Human MindEvolution's RainbowEvolutionary Origins of MoralityEvolutionary PsychologyExamined LifeExamined LivesExistential AmericaExistentialismExistentialism and Romantic LoveExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and NaturalismExperiments in EthicsExplaining ConsciousnessExplaining the BrainExplaining the Computational MindExplanatory PluralismExploding the Gene MythExploring HappinessExploring the SelfExpression and the InnerExpressions of JudgmentExtraordinary Science and PsychiatryFaces of IntentionFact and ValueFact and Value in EmotionFacts, Values, and NormsFads and Fallacies in the Social SciencesFaith and Wisdom in ScienceFatherhoodFear of KnowledgeFearless SpeechFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFeelings of BeingFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminism and Philosophy of ScienceFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist Interpretations of Rene DescartesFeminist TheoryField Notes from ElsewhereFinding Consciousness in the BrainFingerprints of GodFlesh in the Age of ReasonFolk Psychological NarrativesFolk Psychology Re-AssessedForces of HabitForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and RetributionFoucault 2.0Foucault and PhilosophyFoucault NowFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in PsychologyFour Views on Free WillFrank Ramsey (1903-1930)Free WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree Will and Action ExplanationFree Will and LuckFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree: Why Science Hasn't Disproved Free WillFreedomFreedom and DeterminismFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom and ResponsibiltyFreedom and ValueFreedom EvolvesFreedom RegainedFreedom vs. InterventionFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFreudFreud and the Question of PseudoscienceFreud As PhilosopherFreud's AnswerFreud, the Reluctant PhilosopherFriedrich NietzscheFrom Chance to ChoiceFrom Clinic to ClassroomFrom Complexity to LifeFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution for Science and the HumanitiesFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Valuing to ValueFrontiers of ConsciousnessFrontiers of JusticeFurnishing the MindGalileo in PittsburghGenderGender and Mental HealthGender in the MirrorGender TroubleGenesGenes, Women, EqualityGenetic Nature/CultureGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetic SecretsGenocide's AftermathGenomes and What to Make of ThemGerman Idealism and the JewGerman PhilosophyGetting HookedGilles DeleuzeGlobal PhilosophyGluttonyGod and Phenomenal ConsciousnessGoffman's LegacyGoing Amiss in Experimental ResearchGoodness & AdviceGrassroots SpiritualityGrave MattersGrave MattersGreedGreek Models of Mind and SelfGut ReactionsHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHabits of MindHallucinationHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of EmotionsHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness and EducationHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHappiness, Death, and the Remainder of LifeHard LuckHarmful ThoughtsHaving the World in ViewHealing PsychiatryHealing the Soul in the Age of the BrainHealth, Illness and DiseaseHealth, Science, and Ordinary LanguageHegelHeidegger and a Metaphysics of FeelingHeidegger, Metaphysics and the Univocity of BeingHermann von Helmholtz's MechanismHermeneutics As PoliticsHeterophobiaHeterosyncraciesHeuristics and BiasesHeuristics and the LawHidden ResourcesHidden SelvesHiding from HumanityHigh Art LiteHistorical OntologyHistory of Psychiatry and Medical PsychologyHistory, Historicity And ScienceHobbesHomosexualitiesHope and Dread in PsychoanalysisHot ThoughtHow Can I Be Trusted?How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains?How Do We Know Who We Are?How Emotions WorkHow Emotions WorkHow History Made the MindHow Images ThinkHow is Nature Possible?How Propaganda WorksHow Science WorksHow Scientific Practices MatterHow Scientists Explain DiseaseHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Make Opportunity EqualHow to Solve the Mind-Body Problemhow to stop timeHow to Think More About SexHow We HopeHow We ReasonHuman CloningHuman Development, Language and the Future of MankindHuman EnhancementHuman Evolution, Reproduction, and MoralityHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman NatureHuman NatureHuman Nature and the Limits of ScienceHuman-Built WorldHumanismHumanism, What's That?HumanityHumans, Animals, MachinesHumeHumeHume on Motivation and VirtueHusserlHystoriesI of the VortexI Was WrongIdeas that MatterIdentifying the MindIdentity and Agency in Cultural WorldsIgnorance and ImaginationIllnessImagination and Its PathologiesImagination and the Meaningful BrainImagining NumbersImmortal RemainsImproving Nature?In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of HealthIn Defense of SentimentalityIn Love With LifeIn Praise of Athletic BeautyIn Praise of Natural PhilosophyIn Praise of the WhipIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of HappinessIn the Name of GodIn the Name of IdentityIn the Space of ReasonsIn the SwarmIn Two MindsInclusive EthicsIncompatibilism's AllureIndividual Differences in Conscious ExperienceInfinity and PerspectiveInformation ArtsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchIngmar Bergman, Cinematic PhilosopherInhuman ThoughtsInner PresenceInsanityIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntelligent VirtueIntentionIntentionality, Deliberation and AutonomyIntentions and IntentionalityIntentions and IntentionalityInterpreting MindsInterpreting NietzscheIntroducing Greek PhilosophyIntrospection and ConsciousnessIntrospection VindicatedIntuition, Imagination, and Philosophical MethodologyIntuitionismInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIrrationalityIs Academic Feminism Dead?Is It Me or My Meds?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is Oedipus Online?Is Science Neurotic?Is Science Value Free?Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion?Is There a Duty to Die?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJacques LacanJacques RancièreJacques RanciereJean-Paul SartreJohn McDowellJohn SearleJohn Searle's Ideas About Social RealityJohn Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill and the Writing of CharacterJoint AttentionJokesJonathan EdwardsJudging and UnderstandingJustice for ChildrenJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeKantKant and MiltonKant and the Fate of AutonomyKant and the Limits of AutonomyKant and the Role of Pleasure in Moral ActionKant on Freedom, Law, and HappinessKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Anatomy of EvilKant's Anatomy of the Intelligent MindKant's Theory of VirtueKarl JaspersKarl PopperKey Concepts in PhilosophyKierkegaardKierkegaard as PhenomenologistKierkegaard's Concept of DespairKierkegaard's MuseKinds of MindsKinds, Things, and StuffKnowing, Knowledge and BeliefsKnowledge MonopoliesKnowledge, Belief, and CharacterKnowledge, Possibility, and ConsciousnessLacanLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLanguageLanguage in ContextLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Culture, and MindLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw and the BrainLaw, Liberty, and PsychiatryLaws, Mind, and Free WillLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberatory PsychiatryLife and ActionLife at the Texas State Lunatic Asylum, 1857-1997Life Is Not a Game of PerfectLife of the MindLife's FormLife, Death, & MeaningLife, Death, and Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of UtilityLife, Sex, and IdeasLight in the Dark RoomLike a Splinter in Your MindLiving and Dying WellLiving NarrativeLiving Outside Mental IllnessLiving with DarwinLiving With One’s PastLockeLocke LockeLogic and the Art of Memory Loneliness in Philosophy, Psychology, and LiteratureLooking for SpinozaLooking for The StrangerLost SoulsLOT 2LoveLoveLove's ConfusionsLove's VisionLove, Friendship, and the SelfLove, Sex & TragedyLuckyLudwig WittgensteinLustLyingMachine ConsciousnessMad for FoucaultMad TravelersMade with WordsMadness And Death In PhilosophyMadness and DemocracyMadness at HomeMadness Is CivilizationMaking Natural KnowledgeMaking Sense of EvolutionMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMaking the DSM-5Making the Social WorldMaking TruthMale Female EmailMan, Beast, and ZombieMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManiaManic Depression and CreativityMapping the Edges and the In-betweenMapping the Future of BiologyMarcus AureliusMaster PassionsMatters of the MindMe++Meaning and Moral OrderMeaning and Value in a Secular AgeMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeaning, Basic Self-Knowledge, and MindMeanings of ArtMeasuring HappinessMeasuring PsychopathologyMedia MadnessMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedicine of the PersonMedicine, Mental Health, Religion, Science and Well-BeingMelancholy And the Care of the SoulMelancholy and the Otherness of GodMementoMemory and NarrativeMental ActionsMental CausationMental Causation and OntologyMental HealthMental Health At The CrossroadsMental Health Policy in BritainMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMerleau-PontyMerleau-Ponty and the Possibilities of PhilosophyMetacognition and Theory of MindMetacreationMetaethical SubjectivismMetaethicsMetal and FleshMetaphors of MemoryMetapoliticsMethods in MindMichel FoucaultMill's UtilitarianismMindMindMind and ConsciousnessMind and CosmosMind and MechanismMind GamesMind in a Physical WorldMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind in LifeMind TimeMind's LandscapeMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMind, Brain, and Free WillMind, Reason and ImaginationMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds and PersonsMinds, Brains, and LawMinds, Ethics, and ConditionalsMindshapingMindsightMindworldsMirror, MirrorMixed FeelingsMockingbird YearsModels of the SelfModern Social ImaginariesModern Theories of JusticeModernity and SubjectivityModernity and TechnologyMoody Minds DistemperedMoral BrainsMoral DimensionsMoral FailureMoral ImaginationMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral ParticularismMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology and Human AgencyMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Moral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMotherhoodMotive and RightnessMoving Beyond Prozac, DSM, and the New PsychiatryMultiple Analogies in Science and PhilosophyMultiple Identities & False MemoriesMusic, Madness, and the Unworking of LanguageMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Double UnveiledMy WayNarrativeNarrative and IdentityNarrative MedicineNarrative PsychiatryNarrative Theory and the Cognitive SciencesNatural Ethical FactsNatural Kinds and Conceptual ChangeNatural MindsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalism and the First-Person PerspectiveNaturalism and the Human ConditionNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalized BioethicsNaturalizing the MindNatureNature and NarrativeNear Death ExperienceNeither Bad nor MadNeither Victim nor SurvivorNeuro-Philosophy and the Healthy MindNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neurophilosophy at WorkNeurophilosophy of Free WillNeuropoliticsNeuropsychoanalysis in PracticeNeuroscience and PhilosophyNew Essays on the Explanation of ActionNew Philosophy for a New MediaNew Versions of VictimsNew Waves in Philosophy of ActionNietzscheNietzsche and Buddhist PhilosophyNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNietzsche's TherapyNietzsche, Culture and EducationNietzsche: The Man and His PhilosophyNihil UnboundNoir AnxietyNormative EthicsNormativityNorms of NatureNotebooks 1951-1959Notes Toward a Performative Theory of AssemblyNothing So AbsurdOblivionOn AnxietyOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn Being AuthenticOn BeliefOn BetrayalOn BullshitOn DelusionOn DesireOn EmotionsOn HashishOn Human RightsOn Loving Our EnemiesOn Nature and LanguageOn PersonalityOn ReflectionOn Romantic LoveOn the EmotionsOn the Freud WatchOn the Government of the LivingOn the Human ConditionOn the InternetOn the Meaning of LifeOn the Philosophy of LawOn the Pragmatics of CommunicationOn the Punitive SocietyOn TruthOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne Hundred DaysOnflowOnly a Promise of HappinessOntology of ConsciousnessOpen MindedOpen Your EyesOrgans without BodiesOther MindsOur Last Great IllusionOur Own MindsOur Posthuman FutureOur StoriesOut of Its MindOut of Our HeadsOxford Guide to the MindOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPanic DisorderPanpsychismPanpsychism in the WestPartialityPassionate EnginesPassionate EnginesPathologies of BeliefPathologies of ReasonPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perceiving the WorldPerception & CognitionPerception and Basic BeliefsPerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPerceptual ExperiencePerfecting VirtuePerplexities of ConsciousnessPersistencePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal IdentityPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonal Identity and Fractured SelvesPersonhood and Health CarePersonsPersons and BodiesPersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPersons, Souls and DeathPerspectives on ImitationPerspectives on PragmatismPessimismPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenal ConsciousnessPhenomenal IntentionalityPhenomenology and ExistentialismPhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophersPhilosophers on MusicPhilosophers without GodsPhilosophical CounselingPhilosophical Counselling and the UnconsciousPhilosophical DevicesPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical History and the Problem of ConsciousnessPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in Psychiatry IIPhilosophical MethodologyPhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophical Myths of the FallPhilosophical Perspectives on DepictionPhilosophical Perspectives on Technology and PsychiatryPhilosophical PracticePhilosophical Reflections on DisabilityPhilosophizing About Sex Philosophizing the EverydayPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy and LivingPhilosophy and PsychiatryPhilosophy and PsychotherapyPhilosophy and Science FictionPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the Interpretation of Pop CulturePhilosophy and the Moving ImagePhilosophy and the NeurosciencesPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy As FictionPhilosophy BitesPhilosophy Bites BackPhilosophy for Counselling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy for LifePhilosophy in a New CenturyPhilosophy in an Age of SciencePhilosophy in Children's LiteraturePhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BodyPhilosophy of Film and Motion PicturesPhilosophy of LovePhilosophy of Love, Sex, and MarriagePhilosophy of MindPhilosophy of Mind and CognitionPhilosophy of Personal Identity and Multiple PersonalityPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy of Public HealthPhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhilosophy of the Social SciencesPhilosophy on TapPhilosophy PracticePhilosophy the Day after TomorrowPhilosophy's Role in Counseling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhilosophy, Politics, DemocracyPhotography and PhilosophyPhysical RealizationPhysicalism and Its DiscontentsPhysicalism and Mental CausationPhysicalism, or Something Near EnoughPhysician-Assisted DyingPillar of SaltPin-up GrrrlsPlant MindsPlatoPlatoPlato, Not Prozac!Platonic Ethics, Old and NewPluralistic CasuistryPolarities of ExperiencesPolitical EmotionsPopper, Objectivity and the Growth of KnowledgePornPorn StudiesPornography, Sex, and FeminismPortrait of the Psychiatrist as a Young ManPostcolonial DisordersPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPower and the SelfPower SplitPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical ConflictsPractical Identity and Narrative AgencyPractical PhilosophyPractical RulesPractical Tortoise RaisingPractically ProfoundPracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPragmatic BioethicsPragmatismPragmatism, Old And NewPraise and BlamePredicative MindsPreferences and Well-BeingPrescriptions for the MindPresocraticsPrimary and Secondary QualitiesPrimates and PhilosophersPrivacyPrivileged AccessProblems in MindProblems of RationalityProzac As a Way of LifeProzac BacklashProzac on the CouchPsyche and SomaPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric Cultures ComparedPsychiatric Diagnosis and ClassificationPsychiatric EthicsPsychiatric HegemonyPsychiatric PowerPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry and Philosophy of SciencePsychiatry and ReligionPsychiatry as a Human SciencePsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry in SocietyPsychiatry in the New MilleniumPsychiatry in the Scientific ImagePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsycho-Physical Dualism TodayPsychoanalysis and Narrative MedicinePsychoanalysis and the Philosophy of SciencePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and PhilosophyPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, and the Politics of Human RelationshipsPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPsychotherapy As PraxisPublic PhilosophyPunishmentPure ImmanencePurple HazePursuing MeaningQuality of Life and Human DifferenceQueer PhilosophyQuestions for FreudQuestions for FreudQuine and Davidson on Language, Thought and RealityRaceRace in Contemporary MedicineRadiant CoolRadical AlterityRadical ExternalismRadical HopeRational and Social AgencyRational CausationRational Choice in an Uncertain WorldRationality + Consciousness = Free WillRationality and FreedomRationality and the Reflective MindRationality in ActionRawls, Dewey, and ConstructivismRe-creating MedicineRe-EmergenceRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReading AutobiographyReading Bernard WilliamsReading SartreReadings in the Philosophy of TechnologyReal MaterialismReal Natures and Familiar ObjectsReal ScienceRealism in ActionReason & EmancipationReason in ActionReason in PhilosophyReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReasoning About Rational AgentsReasoning in Biological DiscoveriesReasons from WithinReasons without RationalismReclaiming CognitionReclaiming the SoulReconceiving SchizophreniaReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecreative MindsRediscovering EmotionRediscovering EmpathyReference and ExistenceReference and the Rational MindReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRegulating SexReinventing the SoulRelativism and Human RightsRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyReliable ReasoningReligion without GodRelying on OthersRemembering HomeResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsRestraining RageRethinking ExpertiseRethinking IntrospectionRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeRethinking the DSMRethinking the Sociology of Mental HealthRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfReturn to ReasonRevolt, She SaidRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard Rorty's New PragmatismRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRise And Fall of Soul And SelfRitalin NationRobert NozickRousseauRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Derrida on DeconstructionRules, Reason, and Self-KnowledgeSaints, Scholars, and Schizophrenics: Mental Illness in Rural IrelandSartreSartreSartreSartre in Search of an EthicsSatisficing and MaximizingSaving GodScandalous KnowledgeSchizophreniaSchizophrenia and the Fate of the SelfSchizophrenia: A Scientific Delusion?SchopenhauerSchopenhauer's TelescopeScienceScience and EthicsScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and SpiritualityScience and the Pursuit of WisdomScience Fiction and PhilosophyScience Fiction and PhilosophyScience in Civil SocietyScience in DemocracyScience RulesScience WarsScience, Consciousness and Ultimate RealityScience, Policy, and the Value-Free IdealSciences from BelowScientific EvidenceScientific IrrationalismScientific PerspectivismScientific PluralismScientific Realism and the Rationality of ScienceScratching the Surface of BioethicsSecond NatureSecond OpinionsSecond PhilosophySecrets of the MindSecular Philosophy and the Religious TemperamentSecurity, Territory, PopulationSeeing and VisualizingSeeing DoubleSeeing Fictions in FilmSeeing RedSeeing Wittgenstein AnewSeeing, Doing, And KnowingSelfSelf and OtherSelf and SubjectivitySelf, No Self?Self-ConsciousnessSelf-ConstitutionSelf-ExpressionSelf-FulfillmentSelf-Knowledge and ResentmentSelf-Knowledge and Self-DeceptionSelf-Made MadnessSelf-Reference and Self-AwarenessSelf-Representational Approaches to ConsciousnessSelvesSentimental RulesSexing the BodySexualized BrainsShades of LonelinessShame and GuiltShame and NecessityShame and PhilosophyShop Class as SoulcraftShynessSigns, Mind, And RealitySimone de BeauvoirSimple MindednessSimulating MindsSimulation and SimilaritySinging in the FireSisyphus's BoulderSituating SemanticsSix Questions of SocratesSkeptical FeminismSkepticismSketch for a Theory of the EmotionsSleeping With Extra-TerrestrialsSlothSocial EpistemologySocial PhenomenologySocializing MetaphysicsSociological Perspectives on the New 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Clifford and "The Ethics of Belief"Waking LifeWandering SignificanceWays of KnowingWeakness of Will and Practical IrrationalityWeakness of Will from Plato to the PresentWeakness of Will in Renaissance and Reformation ThoughtWelfare and Rational CareWhat Are We?What Art IsWhat Emotions Really AreWhat Good Are the Arts?What If Medicine Disappeared?What Is a Human?What Is an Emotion: Classic and Contemporary ReadingsWhat Is Good and WhyWhat Is Medicine?What is Mental Disorder?What Is Posthumanism?What Is Secular Humanism?What Is the Good Life?What is the Self?What Is This Thing Called Happiness?What Is Thought?What Makes Us Think?What Nietzsche Really SaidWhat Should I Believe?What Should I Do?What We Owe to Each OtherWhat Would Aristotle Do?What's Good on TVWhat's Wrong with Children's RightsWhat's Wrong With Science?When Self-Consciousness BreaksWhere Biology Meets PsychologyWhere the Action IsWhere the Roots Reach for WaterWhispers from the EastWho Rules in ScienceWho Was Jacques Derrida?Who's in Charge?Whose Freud?Why Everyone (Else) Is a HypocriteWhy God Won't Go AwayWhy Read Mill Today?Why the Mind is Not a ComputerWhy Things Matter to PeopleWhy Think?Why Think? Why Truth MattersWhy We DanceWider than the SkyWilliam Blake on Self and SoulWilliam James at the BoundariesWilliam James on Ethics and FaithWilling, Wanting, WaitingWisdom Won from IllnessWisdom, Intuition and EthicsWise TherapyWitchcrazeWithin ReasonWithout ConscienceWittgensteinWittgenstein and Approaches To ClarityWittgenstein And PsychologyWittgenstein and PsychotherapyWittgenstein on Freud and FrazerWittgenstein Reads FreudWittgenstein Reads WeiningerWomen, Body, IllnessWomen, Madness and MedicineWords and ImagesWorld, Affectivity, TraumaWritten in the FleshYoga - Philosophy for EveryoneYour Drug May Be Your ProblemZizekZombies and Consciousness
In their introduction to The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Psychology, editors John Symons and Paco Calvo compare the content of their book to what for some time was the official introduction to the discipline for philosophers, i.e. Ned Block's Readings in Philosophy of Psychology. Recall that Block's first volume was centered on issues of explanation in psychology, such as criticism of the various forms of behaviorism or the exposition of the central tenants of functionalism; while the second volume was devoted to issues such as mental representation, mental imagery, grammar and innateness. However, things have changed in the field of philosophy of psychology since Block's Readings was published a few of which are outlined below. For instance, though some topics remain at the forefront of the discipline (the nature of explanation, functionalism, innateness), others have receded in the background (mental imagery, grammar). Further, as the field of the philosophy of psychology has become increasingly crowded, philosophers have begun to specialize and consider a wider range of psychological phenomena (memory, emotions, reasoning, concepts, etc.) and psychological domains (ethology, social psychology, etc.). As a result, there is almost no area of psychology that has not been investigated by philosophers. Finally, the field of psychology itself has changed significantly in last 30 years or so, with the emergence of disciplines such as cognitive neurosciences or evolutionary psychology, among others. The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Psychology reflects some of these changes and presents a series of chapters -- some of which are written by leading experts in their domain -- organized within five major sections; I'll review the content of each section below.
The First Section, "Historical Background and Philosophy of Psychology", comprises very interesting papers covering a period beginning with the rationalist and the empiricist roots of psychology to more recent cognitivism. The section includes worth reading papers from distinguished historians of psychology, such as Gary Hatfield and Alan Kim. Unfortunately, the section leaves unaddressed some very important parts of history while at the same time featuring very debatable inclusions. For instance, it covers early German experimental psychology, but not later English, French or American forms of psychology -- experimental or otherwise. It doesn't address currents like psychological functionalism, Gestalt, developmental psychology from the likes of Piaget or themes such as the history of the relationships between psychology and neurosciences. Instead, included is a chapter on Freud -- the only historical figure having a chapter in that section. Curiously, the section also includes a piece entitled "The Early History of the Quale" by Brian Keeley. The paper is very interesting, but one wonders how a chapter such as this fits into a section otherwise devoted to historical periods. Why not a chapter on the history of the concept of representation or on the transformation of the concept "soul/mind" or one about memory or attention? Overall this section lacks coherence despite the fact that it features very interesting chapters.
The Second Section, "Psychological Explanation", does not suffer from the First Section's problems and addresses a crucial and very active area of philosophy of psychology. The section begins with a rather long and exhaustive chapter by William Bechtel and Cory Wright on psychological explanation -- one of the book's 'must-reads'; their chapter provides a clear account of how psychological explanation is conceived nowadays (in my opinion, this chapter should had been followed with some chapters from Section Four, perhaps Carl Craver's "Levels of Mechanisms" or Michael Wheeler's "Evolutionary Models in Psychology" which are both, in their own ways, about psychological explanation). The section continues with a paper from Ian Ravenscroft about "Folk Psychology". The author is especially interested in a question that has played an important role in the recent discussions about folk psychology, namely: "Is folk psychology a theory?" As some might remember, a positive answer to that question opened a further discussion about the reality of the entities described by such a theory, and the possibility of the theory's elimination. Ravenscroft presents readers with different answers to the question of the theoretical status of folk psychology, one of which he refers to as "folk psychology as mental simulation" and the "folk psychology as a stance". In both cases, folk psychology is not considered as a theory proper, which undermine a possible elimination. In the next chapter in this section, Tom Polger explains what computational functionalism is. As he suggests, functionalism takes different forms as it answers different questions, be they metaphysical, explanatory, theoretical, intentional, semantic and methodological. According to Polger, it is possible to accept one form of functionalism without accepting the others. The chapter presents these forms as well as the criticisms they faced -- for instance, the failure to provide an account of consciousness. In her chapter, Valerie Hardcastle describes the interface between psychology and neuroscience. After presenting what could be called the classical forms of relations between these two disciplines (i.e. the way philosophers have classically thought about these relations, for instance through reduction or autonomy), Hardcastle describes what she considers the most important form of interrelation between psychology and neuroscience, i.e. "explanatory extensions" (for a different take on this issue, see John Bickle in Section Four). Though I tend to agree with Hardcastle, I think that interest in this position lies in a detailed account of the types of explanatory extensions one can find in different domains where psychology and neurosciences make contact. I wish Hardcastle had been able to provide us with a taxonomy of the types of extensions, though perhaps this should not be expected in a 'Companion'-style book. Amanda Sharkey and Noel Sharkey author the chapter "Connexionism", in which they contribute a non-technical history of the movement which is very useful as an introduction for the uninitiated (as it is not too technical), describing the body of work from which the movement originates (the work of McCullogh and Pitt, as well as Hebb) and why its influence has receded in the recent years (the lack of biological realism, being one reason of its decline). The chapter about "Embodied and Extended Cognition" (EM-EC) is written by two fierce opponents of the radical forms of EM-EC: Fred Adams and Ken Aizawa. Though they do a more than decent job at presenting the different views that are regrouped under these labels, I would have preferred a more enthusiastic advocate of EM-EC (for example, Mark Rowlands would had done a great job). While I appreciate the fact that much of the debate between classical cognitivism and EM-EC is not actually a debate (since almost everyone agrees there is some computation going on in the brain, "how much?" and "what kind?" being the critical questions), it seems that the authors are not very keen on presenting some of the new and interesting empirical examples of EM-EC that have so compelled some researchers. The section concludes on a very interesting note, a chapter on "Conceptual Problems in Statistics, Testing and Experimentation" (written by David Danks and Frederick Eberhardt). I think that this is one of the domains that philosophers have neglected for far too long, and one that is ripe for a systematic investigation. Philosophers could really get their hands dirty and get a lot from this domain considering that they could get a better understanding of the value of certain types of explanations and methodologies used in psychology.
The Third Section, "Cognition and Representation", opens with two chapters by Dan Ryder who writes about the "Problems of Representation". The first chapter describes the nature and role of representation in cognitive science; while the second describes various theories of content (mainly, various ways of giving a naturalized accounts of content). Given the importance of the notion of representation in psychology and cognitive science, as well as the place that debates around representation have taken in recent history of philosophy, it is only natural to give the topic a large portion of the book. These chapters are extremely well done, presenting systematically and clearly different theories of representation and various theories of content, as well as related problems and distinctions. Susan Schneider follows with a chapter about "Language of Thought" (LOT), in which she presents the motivation for introducing the idea and the arguments in favor of it. However, as she notes, LOT as lost some (many? all?) of its teeth when Fodor (the father of LOT) recently defended the view that central cognition defies computational explanation. As Schneider observes: if you can't provide a computational explanation of central cognition, why bother with LOT, which is supposed, after all, to explain how conceptual thinking occurs in an internal representational medium? The next chapter is devoted to "Modularity"; Verena Gottschling, its author, uses the classical definition (Fodor's) of module in philosophy to discuss the central features of modularity (innateness, domain specificity, encapsulation). Most of her discussion is focuses on attempting to make sense of the massive modularity hypothesis (MMH). I personally think it is a misstep to present MMH as she does -- i.e. as though the modules were Fodorian modules -- for evolutionary psychologists (who are committed to MMH) reject the equation between what they call 'modules' and 'Fodorian modules'. For latter, it is an empirical question what features a particular module posited by their theory will have. Richard Samuels' chapter "Nativism" is one of my favorites in the book. Samuels starts by distinguishing two forms of nativism, local and global, the first being about concepts, bodies of representation or psychological mechanism while the second concerns the overall nature and extent of our innate psychological endowment. Samuels then presents and evaluates the arguments for each form of nativism. He finishes his chapter with a presentation of two ways of understanding innateness: as canalization or as psychological primitiveness (he favors the latter account). Mark Rowlands then follows with a chapter about "Memory" where he focuses mainly on episodic memory. He puts forward the idea that memory is a normative term, more precisely, a "success term". In a nutshell, a "memory" of something that didn't happen is not a memory; a memory has to be about something which actually took place. He then tries to explain in what sense memory could be said to be constructive and how language could help to diminish the constructive aspect of memory by "making the content of memory less dependent on the vicissitudes of individual episodic recall" (343). The next chapter, "Interactivism" written by Mark Bickhard, is frankly a bit strange. I have been working in philosophy of psychology for some time and never heard of such a thing as 'interactivism'. By the end of the chapter, I am not sure I know much more about it. The last chapter in this section is Shaun Nichols' contribution about 'Propositional Imagination". In this chapter, he proposes a cognitive account of propositional imagination according to which propositions imagined are distinguished from propositions believed by their functional roles, not by their content. His account offers great prospects for a renewed analysis of fiction-related phenomena, such as the paradox of fiction).
As I hinted to earlier, Section Four "The Biological Basis of Psychology" is in some respects continuous with Section Two and Three and should probably have been fused with them. The section opens with a paper by Arthur Markman about "Representation and the Brain" which examines the notion of representation at the level of neurons- and brain system- levels. Among other things, this chapter poses the question of how to establish what a neuron or a group of neurons represent (Is a mere correlation between the presence of something and the neural firing of some cells sufficient to conclude that the neurons represent that thing?), noting that this question is especially difficult to answer when considering neurons in more central brain systems than in peripheral brain systems. This chapter could (or should) have been Section Three just after Ryder's contribution as the topic is related and makes the problems presented in Ryder's offerings more vivid. In the next chapter, "Cellular and Subcellular Neuroscience", John Bickle invites philosophers to stop looking exclusively to the soft areas (!) of psychology (like cognitive sciences) and take a peek at what happens in cellular and subcellular neuroscience. Bickle believes that one will find in these domains some pretty convincing cases of "mind to molecular pathways" reduction, or as he claims, the kind of real reductionism seen in real science. The chapter is interesting because it presents cellular and molecular neuroscience, as well as a discussion about a new form of reductionism inspired by the Sciences. Carl Craver's "Levels of Mechanisms" is a good complement to Bickle's work: Craver describes the different ways of understanding "level" that one finds in literature. He then focuses on level of mechanisms (contrasting it with levels of realization), which in his opinion play a central explanatory role in neuroscience. As in his book, Craver approaches this question by using as an example work on memory and learning in neuroscience. Michael Wheeler's chapter "Evolutionary Models in Psychology" is very interesting, but the title a bit of a misnomer. The chapter focuses almost exclusively on evolutionary psychology (Santa Barbara-style, sometimes refer to as EPÔ), and does not present other evolutionary models that could be applied to psychology -- such as human behavioral ecology, memetics or gene-culture co-evolutionary models. It does present some of the standard problems encountered by evolutionary psychology, such as the difficulty of specifying adaptive problems encountered by our ancestors (as well as using the right 'grain' to define these problems). Aarre Laasko's "Development and Learning" is a rather long chapter, a bit disorganized, and describes modes of development and learning, the factors influencing them, the levels one needs to use has to go to explain them, as well as the methodological problems linked to their study. The section ends with an excessively long chapter about dynamical systems thinking by Gregor Schöner and Hendrik Riemann. While I acknowledge that presenting dynamical systems theory (DST) in a clear and understandable fashion is challenging, I wish the authors would had made this topic easier for the reader. Sadly, I am fairly certain that this chapter will offer little for undergraduate or graduate students, as it becomes overly technical too quickly and lacks clear examples that would illustrate what kind of phenomena DST tries to explain, how it provides such explanations and why it merits consideration.
The first chapter of the Fifth Section, "Perceptual Experience", addresses "Consciousness" and is written by Tim Bayne. The author first focuses on defining consciousness and its associated phenomena and then proceeds to describe its methods of study and the challenges of explaining consciousness. In "Attention", Christopher Mole describes what could been seen as the first paradigm in the study of attention, Donald Broadbent's 'bottleneck model' of attention. Mole then goes on to explain how contemporary research has distanced itself from three of the main assumptions of that model. I found this chapter very instructive, focusing as it does on phenomenon that philosophers so often neglect. The chapter about "Introspection" by Jordi Fernandez explores how our concept of introspection could be transformed by cases such as thought insertion and thought control that characterize some cases of severe schizophrenia. The chapter is interesting, but one would have wished an account more focused on the different views offered by philosophers and psychologists on the phenomenon. The chapter "Dreaming" by John Sutton is among my favorites in the book. Though not entirely overlooked by philosophers (for instance, Owen Flanagan wrote a beautiful book on the subject a couple years ago), dreaming might not have received its fair share of attention. Sutton argues in favor of a cognitive neuroscience of dreaming that would not only be brain-based (like Allan Hobson's theory), but that would give a place to (cognitive) constructive processes. In "Emotion", Anthony Atkinson presents the classical divide in the study of emotions between the social constructivist and the biological points of view. Atkinson also reviews more recent theories such as the "emotions as embodied appraisals" (advocated by Damasio and Prinz) or the "situated emotions view" (put forward recently by Griffiths and Scarantino). In "Vision", Valtteri Arstila succinctly describes the anatomical basis of vision and then turns various classical theories of vision in psychology (i.e. Gestalt, Gibson's theory of direct perception, Marr's computational theory of low-level vision) as well as more recent theories such as enactive or embodied theories of vision. Jonathan Cohen short chapter "Color" presents different theories about the nature of color, from eliminativism to primitivism, as well as the criticisms each has received; this is clear and may indeed motivate students to immerse themselves further in this fascinating topic. In "Audition", Casey O'Callaghan invites us to consider four areas of research in sound perception: auditory scene analysis and the nature of sound; spatial hearing (how sound gives us information about location and distance); the audible qualities such as pitch, timbre and loudness); and cross-modal interactions between senses. The Section comes to a close with the excellent "Temporal Content of Perceptual Experience" by Rick Grush. Grush's chapter opens with a brief historical review of the way philosophers have tackled the question of temporal content of perceptual experience, then proceeds to introduce what Grush considers the standard view on temporal perceptual experience -- what he calls the 'mirror model'. Using standard cases of visual illusion as examples of the fact that perception is active, Grush argues that some cases of temporal perception need to be understood as involving top-down contributions. He then offers some models of how temporally extended episodes can be understood, among which are the smoothing model and the trajectory estimation model (which he favors). According to the latest model, the brain produces estimations of the evolution of perceived events over some determined interval. These estimates could be revised to reveal that what we estimate at time t1 to be an event that will continue until time t3 could be revised if the event stops at t2; the fact that we use estimate of this kind could be used to explain some temporal illusions.
The Sixth Section of the Companion -- "Personhood" -- comprises a motley collection of topics: action, moral judgment, personal identity, confabulation and … "Buddhist Persons and Eudemonia"; "miscellaneous" might have been a better title for that section. This final section opens with Alfred Mele's "Action and Mind" about which I am slightly unsatisfied. Mele takes a long time to present his position about action, and then spends the remainder of the paper discussing Benjamin Libet's empirical studies about initiation of action and their interpretations. I feel this chapter is a missed opportunity to discuss some aspects of action (like initiation, control, attribution, etc.) which has been the object of a great deal of interesting empirical studies and philosophical reflections, none of which are alluded to by Mele here. That chapter is followed by Jennifer Nado, Dan Kelly and Stephen Stich follow with "Moral Judgment", an excellent chapter where Nado and her colleagues first address the question of how to define morality, i.e. how to distinguish moral rules or moral judgments from other kinds of rules or judgments. As the chapter demonstrates, this isn't easy as it sounds. The second question they address is the role of reason and emotion in morality, where they suggest the jury is still out concerning the role of each in moral judgments and action. Marya Schechtman is in charge of the chapter "Personal Identity" which I really liked. She begins the chapter by presenting the standard 'psychological continuity theory'. She then presents some of the classic objections that have been addressed to it and the alternative theories developed to answer these objections. Schectman then turns to the biological approach (essentially Eric Olson's view as developed in his The Human Animal: Personal Identity Without Psychology; 1997), which distinguishes metaphysical questions from practical questions about who we are. William Hirstein follows with a paper on confabulation. He tasks himself with providing a satisfying definition of confabulation, one that would capture the various uses of the concept in the literature, then makes connections between confabulation and other philosophical concepts (such as self-deception or human rationality) or with traditional epistemological concerns. The section closes with Owen Flanagan's paper on "Buddhist Persons and Eudaimonia". In that section, Flanagan explains Buddhism's concept of 'personhood' and demonstrates how metaphysical conception plays a role in the moral conception of life. Of topics discussed by Flanagan, two struck me as being particularly interesting: firstly, the very developed taxonomy of consciousness states of Buddhism that inspires a desire to rethink (and to relativize) the way we go about taxonomizing the mind; secondly, the way comparative neuroscientific studies of happiness should probably take into account the differences in the conceptions of happiness in different cultures. The choice to include a chapter about Buddhism is a bit strange given that the book does not have a section about Antic philosophy of mind or on cultural psychology or other topics that would seem to be more important or equally relevant to present in a companion. Not that I think that Buddhist philosophy of mind is not important or interesting in and of itself, but it is hardly at the center of lively debates in philosophy of psychology.
As one might suspect by now, I have some misgivings about this collection. First, missing from the Companion are sections on the following important topics: concepts, reasoning, language, ethology, social cognition, situated cognition, deficits and pathology, neuroimagery, neuropsychology, artificial intelligence. Many of these topics are the subject of research and interest in today's philosophers of psychology they would have deserved a chapter of their own. Second, I find that some of the chapters not 'introductory' enough. I took the Routledge Companion for a test drive last semester while I was teaching a philosophy of psychology class. Each time I gave a class on a topic, I would go to the Companion and read that section. At times, I was offered a good and clear picture of the question I was interested in (for example, Hatfield, Samuels, Cohen, Nado et al., are examples of such chapters), yet other times, the chapter would make things more confusing or would be more concerned with presenting and criticizing a particular position instead of "objectively" introducing the topic (for example, the chapter about modularity). Finally, I compared the Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Psychology to other similar collections that I have used in previous semesters -- for instance Philosophy of Psychology and Cognitive Science (P. Thagard, D. M. Gabbay and J. Woods; North Holland), A Companion to Cognitive Science (W. Bechtel and G. Graham; Blackwell), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science (Psylos and Curd, Routledge), The Companion to the Philosophy of Action (O'Connor and Sandi; Blackwell). Of the latter group, my favorites are the last three, they cover their respective domains with a collection of relatively short papers, each one giving you a quick and readable introduction to key topics -- which is what I came to expect from this kind of Companion. A Companion to the Cognitive Science offers the shortest chapters, but it covers roughly the same terrain as the Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Psychology, only in a more systematic way and with a substantial and relevant introduction to the history of the field of cognitive science. Thagard and colleagues' Philosophy of Psychology is a different format: though also aiming to introducing the reader to major questions in philosophy of psychology and cognitive science, the papers are much longer than in Symons and Calvo. Despite the fact that the chapters are longer, the latter often time offers a clearer account of the domain under examination than in some of the chapters in Symons and Calvo's Routledge Companion. Since it covers many topics (situated cognition, simulation, artificial intelligence, to name a few) that are not addressed in Routledge Companion, Thagard and colleagues' should be used as a complement to the first.
A final note about organization and format in the Routledge Companion: more than once I was looking for a reference provided in a chapter but could not find it in the bibliography. Additionally, some chapters have a "further readings"' section, while other do not, and some have only a "further readings" section without a bibliography. If the function of a Companion is to orient the uninformed reader in the literature, then it would have been far better to be more systematic.
In conclusion, I have mixed feelings about the Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Psychology. On one hand, I am not exactly satisfied with the "architectonic" of the book: some important topics are not covered; some included are non-essential. On the other hand, most papers do exactly the job they are expected to for such a Companion, and there is no shortage of clearly presented and well-articulated introductions to different topics in the book. I'd recommend the book to be used as one tool among others to get an idea of what is going on in a field that has grown so much since Ned Block's Philosophy of Psychology volumes. (Some of my personal book suggestions to complement the Companion appear in the previous paragraph, others include papers on specific topics found in Philosophy Compass or entries of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).
© 2012 Luc Faucher
Luc Faucher, Ph.D. is an professor in the Department of Philosophy at the Université du Québec à Montréal.