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A Theory of Feelings Anger and Forgiveness"My Madness Saved Me"10 Good Questions about Life and Death12 Modern Philosophers50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a GodA Cabinet of Philosophical CuriositiesA Case for IronyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to Buddhist PhilosophyA Companion to FoucaultA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to HumeA Companion to KantA Companion to Phenomenology and ExistentialismA Companion to PragmatismA Companion to the Philosophy of ActionA Companion to the Philosophy of BiologyA Companion to the Philosophy of LiteratureA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Critical Overview of Biological FunctionsA Critique of Naturalistic Philosophies of MindA Cursing Brain?A Delicate BalanceA Farewell to AlmsA Frightening LoveA Future for PresentismA Guide to the Good LifeA History of PsychiatryA History of the MindA Life Worth LivingA Manual of Experimental PhilosophyA Map of the MindA Metaphysics of PsychopathologyA Mind So RareA Natural History of Human MoralityA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Natural History of VisionA Parliament of MindsA Philosopher Looks at The Sense of HumorA Philosophical DiseaseA Philosophy of BoredomA Philosophy of Cinematic ArtA Philosophy of CultureA Philosophy of EmptinessA Philosophy of FearA Philosophy of PainA Physicalist ManifestoA Place for ConsciousnessA Question of TrustA Research Agenda for DSM-VA Revolution of the MindA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Stroll With William JamesA Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Theory of FreedomA Thousand MachinesA Universe of ConsciousnessA Very Bad WizardA Virtue EpistemologyA World Full of GodsA World Without ValuesAbout FaceAbout the Beginning of the Hermeneutics of the SelfAction and ResponsibilityAction in ContextAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionAction, Contemplation, and HappinessAction, Emotion and WillAdam SmithAdaptive DynamicsAddictionAddictionAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction Is a ChoiceAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAftermathAfterwarAgainst AdaptationAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HappinessAgainst HealthAgency and ActionAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and EmbodimentAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAl-JununAlain BadiouAlain BadiouAlasdair MacIntyreAlien Landscapes?Altered EgosAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Ethics for TodayAn Intellectual History of CannibalismAn Interpretation of DesireAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy An Introduction to Philosophy of EducationAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of PsychologyAn Introductory Philosophy of MedicineAn Odd Kind of FameAnalytic FreudAnalytic Philosophy in AmericaAncient AngerAncient Models of MindAncient Philosophy of the SelfAngerAnimal LessonsAnimal MindsAnimals Like UsAnnihilationAnother PlanetAnswers for AristotleAnti-ExternalismAnti-Individualism and KnowledgeAntigone’s ClaimAntipsychiatryAre We Hardwired?Are Women Human?Arguing about DisabilityArguing About Human NatureAristotle and the Philosophy of FriendshipAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's ChildrenAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle, Emotions, and EducationArt & MoralityArt After Conceptual ArtArt in Three DimensionsArt, Self and KnowledgeArtificial ConsciousnessArtificial HappinessAspects of PsychologismAsylum to ActionAtonement and ForgivenessAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutobiography as PhilosophyAutonomyAutonomy and Mental DisorderAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismBabies by DesignBackslidingBadiouBadiou's DeleuzeBadiou, Balibar, Ranciere: Rethinking EmancipationBare Facts And Naked TruthsBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBattlestar Galactica and PhilosophyBeautyBecoming a SubjectBecoming HumanBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing AmoralBeing HumanBeing Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory Being No OneBeing Realistic about ReasonsBeing ReducedBeing YourselfBelief's Own EthicsBending Over BackwardsBerlin Childhood around 1900Bernard WilliamsBertrand RussellBetter than BothBetter Than WellBetween Two WorldsBeyond HealthBeyond Hegel and NietzscheBeyond KuhnBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond PostmodernismBeyond ReductionBeyond the DSM StoryBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics in the ClinicBiological Complexity and Integrative PluralismBiology Is TechnologyBiosBipolar ExpeditionsBlackwell Companion to the Philosophy of EducationBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlues - Philosophy for EveryoneBlushBob Dylan and PhilosophyBody ConsciousnessBody Image And Body SchemaBody ImagesBody LanguageBody MattersBody WorkBody-Subjects and Disordered MindsBoundBoundaries of the MindBoyleBrain Evolution and CognitionBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-WiseBrainchildrenBrains, Buddhas, and BelievingBrainstormingBrave New WorldsBreakdown of WillBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and FaithBrief Therapy Homework PlannerBritain on the CouchBrute RationalityBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyBut Is It Art?Camus and SartreCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCarving Nature at Its JointsCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsCassandra's DaughterCato's TearsCausation and CounterfactualsCauses, Laws, and Free WillChanging Conceptions of the Child from the Renaissance to Post-ModernityChanging the SubjectChaosophyCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionCharles DarwinCherishmentChildhood and the Philosophy of EducationChildrenChildren, Families, and Health Care Decision MakingChoices and ConflictChoosing Not to ChooseChristmas - Philosophy for EveryoneCinema, Philosophy, BergmanCinematic MythmakingCity and Soul in Plato's RepublicClassifying MadnessClear and Queer ThinkingClinical EthicsClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyCodependent ForevermoreCoffee - Philosophy for EveryoneCognition and the BrainCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognition Through Understanding: Self-Knowledge, Interlocution, Reasoning, ReflectionCognitive BiologyCognitive FictionsCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Systems and the Extended Mind Cognitive Theories of Mental IllnessCoherence in Thought and ActionCollected Papers, Volume 1Collected Papers, Volume 2College SexComedy IncarnateCommitmentCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentConcealment And ExposureConceptual Analysis and Philosophical NaturalismConceptual Art and PaintingConceptual Issues in Evolutionary BiologyConfessionsConfucianismConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConquest of AbundanceConscience and ConvenienceConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the SelfConsciousness EmergingConsciousness EvolvingConsciousness ExplainedConsciousness in ActionConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Color, and ContentConsole and ClassifyConstructing the WorldConstructive AnalysisContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Philosophy of BiologyContemporary Debates in Philosophy of MindContemporary Debates in Political PhilosophyContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContemporary Perspectives on Natural LawContested Knowledge: Social Theory TodayContesting PsychiatryContext and the AttitudesContinental Philosophy of ScienceControlControlling Our DestiniesConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCopernicus, Darwin and FreudCrazy for YouCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCreating ConsilienceCreating HysteriaCreating Mental IllnessCreating Scientific ConceptsCreating the American JunkieCreation, Rationality and AutonomyCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCrimes of ReasonCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychiatryCritical PsychologyCritical ResistanceCritical Thinking About PsychologyCritical VisionsCross and KhoraCruel CompassionCTRL [SPACE]Cultural Psychology of the SelfCultural Theory: An IntroductionCulture and Psychiatric DiagnosisCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCulture of DeathCultures of NeurastheniaCurious EmotionsCurrent Controversies in Experimental PhilosophyCustom and Reason in HumeCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCutting God in Half - And Putting the Pieces Together AgainCylons in AmericaDamaged IdentitiesDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous EmotionsDaniel DennettDaniel DennettDark AgesDarwin and DesignDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDarwin, God and the Meaning of LifeDarwinian PsychiatryDarwinian ReductionismDarwinizing CultureDating: Philosophy for EveryoneDeathDeathDeath and CharacterDeath and CompassionDeath and the AfterlifeDebating DesignDebating HumanismDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecomposing the WillDeconstructing PsychotherapyDeconstruction and DemocracyDeeper Than DarwinDeeper than ReasonDefending Science - within ReasonDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDegrees of BeliefDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions and Other Irrational BeliefsDelusions and the Madness of the MassesDementiaDemons, Dreamers, and MadmenDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDennett’s PhilosophyDepression Is a ChoiceDepression, Emotion and the SelfDepthDerrida, Deleuze, PsychoanalysisDescartesDescartes and the Passionate MindDescartes' CogitoDescartes's Changing MindDescartes's Concept of MindDescribing Inner Experience?Descriptions and PrescriptionsDesembodied Spirits and Deanimated Bodies Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Desire and AffectDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDiagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersDialectics of the SelfDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital SoulDimensional Models of Personality DisordersDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDisjunctivismDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDispatches from the Freud WarsDisrupted LivesDistractionDisturbed ConsciousnessDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Do We Still Need Doctors?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Does the Woman Exist?Doing without ConceptsDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDonald DavidsonDonald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the MentalDoubting Darwin?Dreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR CasebookDworkin and His CriticsDying to KnowDynamics in ActionDysthymia and the Spectrum of Chronic DepressionsEccentricsEducational MetamorphosesEffective IntentionsElbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth WantingEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbodied RhetoricsEmbodied Selves and Divided MindsEmbryos under the MicroscopeEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotionEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion and PsycheEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotional ReasonEmotional ReasonEmotional TruthEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions, Value, and AgencyEmpathyEmpathy and AgencyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpathy in the Context of PhilosophyEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEnchanted LoomsEngaging BuddhismEngineering the Human GermlineEnjoymentEnvyEpicureanismEpistemic LuckEpistemologyEpistemology and EmotionsEpistemology and the Psychology of Human JudgmentEros and the GoodErotic MoralityEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssays in the Metaphysics of Mind Essays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEssays on Nonconceptual ContentEssays on Philosophical CounselingEssays on Reference, Language, and MindEssays on the Concept of Mind in Early-Modern PhilosophyEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEsssential Philosophy of PsychiatryEternal Sunshine of the Spotless MindEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in Human CloningEthical TheoryEthicsEthicsEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics in Plain EnglishEthics in PracticeEthics in Psychiatric ResearchEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEuropean Review of Philosophy. Vol. 5Everyday IrrationalityEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolutionEvolution and the Human MindEvolution's RainbowEvolutionary Origins of MoralityEvolutionary PsychologyExamined LifeExamined LivesExistential AmericaExistentialismExistentialism and Romantic LoveExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and NaturalismExperiments in EthicsExplaining ConsciousnessExplaining the BrainExplaining the Computational MindExplanatory PluralismExploding the Gene MythExploring HappinessExploring the SelfExpression and the InnerExpressions of JudgmentFaces of IntentionFact and ValueFact and Value in EmotionFacts, Values, and NormsFads and Fallacies in the Social SciencesFaith and Wisdom in ScienceFatherhoodFear of KnowledgeFearless SpeechFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFeelings of BeingFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminism and Philosophy of ScienceFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist Interpretations of Rene DescartesFeminist TheoryField Notes from ElsewhereFinding Consciousness in the BrainFingerprints of GodFlesh in the Age of ReasonFolk Psychological NarrativesFolk Psychology Re-AssessedForces of HabitForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and RetributionFoucault 2.0Foucault and PhilosophyFoucault NowFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in PsychologyFour Views on Free WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree Will and Action ExplanationFree Will and LuckFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree: Why Science Hasn't Disproved Free WillFreedomFreedom and DeterminismFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom and ResponsibiltyFreedom and ValueFreedom EvolvesFreedom RegainedFreedom vs. InterventionFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFreudFreud and the Question of PseudoscienceFreud As PhilosopherFreud's AnswerFreud, the Reluctant PhilosopherFriedrich NietzscheFrom Chance to ChoiceFrom Clinic to ClassroomFrom Complexity to LifeFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution for Science and the HumanitiesFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrontiers of ConsciousnessFrontiers of JusticeFurnishing the MindGalileo in PittsburghGenderGender and Mental HealthGender in the MirrorGender TroubleGenesGenes, Women, EqualityGenetic Nature/CultureGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetic SecretsGenocide's AftermathGenomes and What to Make of ThemGerman Idealism and the JewGerman PhilosophyGetting HookedGilles DeleuzeGlobal PhilosophyGluttonyGod and Phenomenal ConsciousnessGoffman's LegacyGoing Amiss in Experimental ResearchGoodness & AdviceGrassroots SpiritualityGrave MattersGrave MattersGreedGreek Models of Mind and SelfGut ReactionsHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHabits of MindHallucinationHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of EmotionsHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness and EducationHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHappiness, Death, and the Remainder of LifeHard LuckHarmful ThoughtsHaving the World in ViewHealing PsychiatryHealing the Soul in the Age of the BrainHealth, Illness and DiseaseHealth, Science, and Ordinary LanguageHegelHeidegger and a Metaphysics of FeelingHeidegger, Metaphysics and the Univocity of BeingHermann von Helmholtz's MechanismHermeneutics As PoliticsHeterophobiaHeterosyncraciesHeuristics and BiasesHeuristics and the LawHidden ResourcesHidden SelvesHiding from HumanityHigh Art LiteHistorical OntologyHistory of Psychiatry and Medical PsychologyHistory, Historicity And ScienceHobbesHomosexualitiesHope and Dread in PsychoanalysisHot ThoughtHow Can I Be Trusted?How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains?How Do We Know Who We Are?How Emotions WorkHow Emotions WorkHow History Made the MindHow Images ThinkHow is Nature Possible?How Propaganda WorksHow Science WorksHow Scientific Practices MatterHow Scientists Explain DiseaseHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Make Opportunity EqualHow to Solve the Mind-Body Problemhow to stop timeHow to Think More About SexHow We HopeHow We ReasonHuman CloningHuman Development, Language and the Future of MankindHuman EnhancementHuman Evolution, Reproduction, and MoralityHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman NatureHuman NatureHuman Nature and the Limits of ScienceHuman-Built WorldHumanismHumanism, What's That?HumanityHumans, Animals, MachinesHumeHumeHume on Motivation and VirtueHusserlHystoriesI of the VortexI Was WrongIdeas that MatterIdentifying the MindIdentity and Agency in Cultural WorldsIgnorance and ImaginationIllnessImagination and Its PathologiesImagination and the Meaningful BrainImagining NumbersImmortal RemainsImproving Nature?In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of HealthIn Defense of SentimentalityIn Love With LifeIn Praise of Athletic BeautyIn Praise of the WhipIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of HappinessIn the Name of GodIn the Name of IdentityIn the Space of ReasonsIn Two MindsIncompatibilism's AllureIndividual Differences in Conscious ExperienceInfinity and PerspectiveInformation ArtsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchIngmar Bergman, Cinematic PhilosopherInhuman ThoughtsInner PresenceInsanityIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntelligent VirtueIntentionIntentionality, Deliberation and AutonomyIntentions and IntentionalityIntentions and IntentionalityInterpreting MindsInterpreting NietzscheIntroducing Greek PhilosophyIntrospection and ConsciousnessIntrospection VindicatedIntuition, Imagination, and Philosophical MethodologyIntuitionismInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIrrationalityIs Academic Feminism Dead?Is It Me or My Meds?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is Oedipus Online?Is Science Neurotic?Is Science Value Free?Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion?Is There a Duty to Die?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJacques LacanJacques RancièreJacques RanciereJean-Paul SartreJohn McDowellJohn SearleJohn Searle's Ideas About Social RealityJohn Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill and the Writing of CharacterJoint AttentionJokesJonathan EdwardsJudging and UnderstandingJustice for ChildrenJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeKantKant and MiltonKant and the Fate of AutonomyKant and the Limits of AutonomyKant and the Role of Pleasure in Moral ActionKant on Freedom, Law, and HappinessKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Anatomy of EvilKant's Anatomy of the Intelligent MindKant's Theory of VirtueKarl JaspersKarl PopperKey Concepts in PhilosophyKierkegaardKierkegaard as PhenomenologistKierkegaard's Concept of DespairKinds of MindsKinds, Things, and StuffKnowing, Knowledge and BeliefsKnowledge MonopoliesKnowledge, Belief, and CharacterKnowledge, Possibility, and ConsciousnessLacanLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLanguageLanguage in ContextLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Culture, and MindLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw and the BrainLaw, Liberty, and PsychiatryLaws, Mind, and Free WillLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberatory PsychiatryLife and ActionLife at the Texas State Lunatic Asylum, 1857-1997Life Is Not a Game of PerfectLife of the MindLife's FormLife, Death, & MeaningLife, Death, and Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of UtilityLife, Sex, and IdeasLight in the Dark RoomLike a Splinter in Your MindLiving and Dying WellLiving NarrativeLiving Outside Mental IllnessLiving with DarwinLiving With One’s PastLockeLocke LockeLogic and the Art of Memory Loneliness in Philosophy, Psychology, and LiteratureLooking for SpinozaLooking for The StrangerLost SoulsLOT 2LoveLoveLove's ConfusionsLove's VisionLove, Friendship, and the SelfLove, Sex & TragedyLuckyLudwig WittgensteinLustLyingMachine ConsciousnessMad for FoucaultMad TravelersMade with WordsMadness And Death In PhilosophyMadness and DemocracyMadness at HomeMadness Is CivilizationMaking Natural KnowledgeMaking Sense of EvolutionMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMaking the DSM-5Making the Social WorldMaking TruthMale Female EmailMan, Beast, and ZombieMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManiaManic Depression and CreativityMapping the Edges and the In-betweenMapping the Future of BiologyMarcus AureliusMaster PassionsMatters of the MindMe++Meaning and Moral OrderMeaning and Value in a Secular AgeMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeaning, Basic Self-Knowledge, and MindMeasuring HappinessMeasuring PsychopathologyMedia MadnessMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedicine of the PersonMedicine, Mental Health, Religion, Science and Well-BeingMelancholy And the Care of the SoulMelancholy and the Otherness of GodMementoMemory and NarrativeMental ActionsMental CausationMental Causation and OntologyMental HealthMental Health At The CrossroadsMental Health Policy in BritainMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMerleau-PontyMerleau-Ponty and the Possibilities of PhilosophyMetacognition and Theory of MindMetacreationMetaethical SubjectivismMetaethicsMetal and FleshMetaphors of MemoryMetapoliticsMethods in MindMichel FoucaultMill's UtilitarianismMindMindMind and ConsciousnessMind and CosmosMind and MechanismMind GamesMind in a Physical WorldMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind in LifeMind TimeMind's LandscapeMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMind, Brain, and Free WillMind, Reason and ImaginationMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds and PersonsMinds, Brains, and LawMinds, Ethics, and ConditionalsMindshapingMindsightMindworldsMirror, MirrorMixed FeelingsMockingbird YearsModels of the SelfModern Social ImaginariesModern Theories of JusticeModernity and SubjectivityModernity and TechnologyMoody Minds DistemperedMoral DimensionsMoral FailureMoral ImaginationMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral ParticularismMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology and Human AgencyMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Moral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMotherhoodMotive and RightnessMoving Beyond Prozac, DSM, and the New PsychiatryMultiple Analogies in Science and PhilosophyMultiple Identities & False MemoriesMusic, Madness, and the Unworking of LanguageMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Double UnveiledMy WayNarrativeNarrative and IdentityNarrative MedicineNarrative PsychiatryNarrative Theory and the Cognitive SciencesNatural Ethical FactsNatural Kinds and Conceptual ChangeNatural MindsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalism and the First-Person PerspectiveNaturalism and the Human ConditionNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalized BioethicsNaturalizing the MindNatureNature and NarrativeNear Death ExperienceNeither Bad nor MadNeither Victim nor SurvivorNeuro-Philosophy and the Healthy MindNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neurophilosophy at WorkNeurophilosophy of Free WillNeuropoliticsNeuropsychoanalysis in PracticeNeuroscience and PhilosophyNew Essays on the Explanation of ActionNew Philosophy for a New MediaNew Versions of VictimsNew Waves in Philosophy of ActionNietzscheNietzsche and Buddhist PhilosophyNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNietzsche's TherapyNietzsche, Culture and EducationNietzsche: The Man and His PhilosophyNihil UnboundNoir AnxietyNormative EthicsNormativityNorms of NatureNotebooks 1951-1959Notes Toward a Performative Theory of AssemblyNothing So AbsurdOblivionOn AnxietyOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn Being AuthenticOn BeliefOn BetrayalOn BullshitOn DelusionOn DesireOn EmotionsOn HashishOn Human RightsOn Loving Our EnemiesOn Nature and LanguageOn PersonalityOn ReflectionOn Romantic LoveOn the EmotionsOn the Freud WatchOn the Government of the LivingOn the Human ConditionOn the InternetOn the Meaning of LifeOn the Philosophy of LawOn the Pragmatics of CommunicationOn the Punitive SocietyOn TruthOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne Hundred DaysOnflowOnly a Promise of HappinessOntology of ConsciousnessOpen MindedOpen Your EyesOrgans without BodiesOther MindsOur Last Great IllusionOur Own MindsOur Posthuman FutureOur StoriesOut of Its MindOut of Our HeadsOxford Guide to the MindOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPanic DisorderPanpsychism in the WestPartialityPassionate EnginesPassionate EnginesPathologies of BeliefPathologies of ReasonPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perceiving the WorldPerception & CognitionPerception and Basic BeliefsPerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPerceptual ExperiencePerfecting VirtuePerplexities of ConsciousnessPersistencePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal IdentityPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonal Identity and Fractured SelvesPersonhood and Health CarePersonsPersons and BodiesPersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPersons, Souls and DeathPerspectives on ImitationPerspectives on PragmatismPessimismPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenal ConsciousnessPhenomenal IntentionalityPhenomenology and ExistentialismPhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophersPhilosophers on MusicPhilosophers without GodsPhilosophical CounselingPhilosophical Counselling and the UnconsciousPhilosophical DevicesPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical History and the Problem of ConsciousnessPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in Psychiatry IIPhilosophical MethodologyPhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophical Myths of the FallPhilosophical Perspectives on DepictionPhilosophical Perspectives on Technology and PsychiatryPhilosophical PracticePhilosophical Reflections on DisabilityPhilosophizing About Sex Philosophizing the EverydayPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy and LivingPhilosophy and PsychiatryPhilosophy and PsychotherapyPhilosophy and Science FictionPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the Interpretation of Pop CulturePhilosophy and the Moving ImagePhilosophy and the NeurosciencesPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy As FictionPhilosophy BitesPhilosophy Bites BackPhilosophy for Counselling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy for LifePhilosophy in a New CenturyPhilosophy in an Age of SciencePhilosophy in Children's LiteraturePhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BodyPhilosophy of Film and Motion PicturesPhilosophy of LovePhilosophy of Love, Sex, and MarriagePhilosophy of MindPhilosophy of Mind and CognitionPhilosophy of Personal Identity and Multiple PersonalityPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy of Public HealthPhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhilosophy of the Social SciencesPhilosophy on TapPhilosophy PracticePhilosophy the Day after TomorrowPhilosophy's Role in Counseling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhilosophy, Politics, DemocracyPhotography and PhilosophyPhysical RealizationPhysicalism and Its DiscontentsPhysicalism and Mental CausationPhysicalism, or Something Near EnoughPhysician-Assisted DyingPillar of SaltPin-up GrrrlsPlatoPlatoPlato, Not Prozac!Platonic Ethics, Old and NewPluralistic CasuistryPolarities of ExperiencesPolitical EmotionsPopper, Objectivity and the Growth of KnowledgePornPorn StudiesPornography, Sex, and FeminismPortrait of the Psychiatrist as a Young ManPostcolonial DisordersPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPower and the SelfPower SplitPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical ConflictsPractical Identity and Narrative AgencyPractical PhilosophyPractical RulesPractical Tortoise RaisingPractically ProfoundPracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPragmatic BioethicsPragmatismPragmatism, Old And NewPraise and BlamePredicative MindsPreferences and Well-BeingPrescriptions for the MindPresocraticsPrimary and Secondary QualitiesPrimates and PhilosophersPrivacyPrivileged AccessProblems in MindProblems of RationalityProzac As a Way of LifeProzac BacklashProzac on the CouchPsyche and SomaPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric Cultures ComparedPsychiatric Diagnosis and 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ExternalismRadical HopeRational and Social AgencyRational CausationRational Choice in an Uncertain WorldRationality + Consciousness = Free WillRationality and FreedomRationality and the Reflective MindRationality in ActionRawls, Dewey, and ConstructivismRe-creating MedicineRe-EmergenceRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReading AutobiographyReading Bernard WilliamsReading SartreReadings in the Philosophy of TechnologyReal MaterialismReal Natures and Familiar ObjectsReal ScienceRealism in ActionReason & EmancipationReason in ActionReason in PhilosophyReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReasoning About Rational AgentsReasoning in Biological DiscoveriesReasons from WithinReasons without RationalismReclaiming CognitionReclaiming the SoulReconceiving SchizophreniaReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecreative MindsRediscovering EmotionRediscovering EmpathyReference and ExistenceReference and the Rational MindReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRegulating SexReinventing the SoulRelativism and Human RightsRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyReliable ReasoningReligion without GodRelying on OthersRemembering HomeResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsRestraining RageRethinking ExpertiseRethinking IntrospectionRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeRethinking the DSMRethinking the Sociology of Mental HealthRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfReturn to ReasonRevolt, She SaidRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard Rorty's New PragmatismRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRise And Fall of Soul And SelfRitalin NationRobert NozickRousseauRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Derrida on DeconstructionRules, Reason, and Self-KnowledgeSaints, Scholars, and Schizophrenics: Mental Illness in Rural IrelandSartreSartreSartreSartre in Search of an EthicsSatisficing and MaximizingSaving GodScandalous KnowledgeSchizophreniaSchizophrenia and the Fate of the SelfSchizophrenia: A Scientific Delusion?SchopenhauerSchopenhauer's TelescopeScienceScience and EthicsScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and SpiritualityScience and the Pursuit of WisdomScience Fiction and PhilosophyScience Fiction and PhilosophyScience in Civil SocietyScience in DemocracyScience RulesScience WarsScience, Consciousness and Ultimate RealityScience, Policy, and the Value-Free IdealSciences from BelowScientific EvidenceScientific IrrationalismScientific PerspectivismScientific PluralismScientific Realism and the Rationality of ScienceScratching the Surface of BioethicsSecond NatureSecond OpinionsSecond PhilosophySecrets of the MindSecular Philosophy and the Religious TemperamentSecurity, Territory, PopulationSeeing and VisualizingSeeing DoubleSeeing Fictions in FilmSeeing 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FeelingsUmbr(a)Unconscious knowing and other essays in psycho-philosophical analysisUnderstanding EmotionsUnderstanding EvilUnderstanding LoveUnderstanding MarriageUnderstanding Moral ObligationUnderstanding PeopleUnderstanding Phenomenal Consciousness Undoing GenderUnifying HinduismUniversitiesUnlearning or 'How NOT to Be Governed?'Unnatural SelectionUnprincipled VirtueUnsanctifying Human Life: Essays on EthicsUnto OthersUpheavals of ThoughtUsers and Abusers of PsychiatryValue-Free Science?Values and Psychiatric DiagnosisVarieties of Anomalous ExperienceVarieties of MeaningVarieties of Practical ReasoningViolence Against WomenViolence and the BodyVirtue, Rules, and JusticeVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVirtues and Their VicesVirtues of ThoughtVision and BrainVision and MindVision's InvisiblesVisual CultureVital NourishmentW. 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Clifford and "The Ethics of Belief"Waking LifeWandering SignificanceWays of KnowingWeakness of Will and Practical IrrationalityWeakness of Will from Plato to the PresentWeakness of Will in Renaissance and Reformation ThoughtWelfare and Rational CareWhat Are We?What Art IsWhat Emotions Really AreWhat Good Are the Arts?What If Medicine Disappeared?What Is a Human?What Is an Emotion: Classic and Contemporary ReadingsWhat Is Good and WhyWhat Is Medicine?What is Mental Disorder?What Is Posthumanism?What Is Secular Humanism?What Is the Good Life?What is the Self?What Is This Thing Called Happiness?What Is Thought?What Makes Us Think?What Nietzsche Really SaidWhat Should I Believe?What Should I Do?What We Owe to Each OtherWhat Would Aristotle Do?What's Good on TVWhat's Wrong with Children's RightsWhat's Wrong With Science?When Self-Consciousness BreaksWhere Biology Meets PsychologyWhere the Action IsWhere the Roots Reach for WaterWhispers from the EastWho Rules in ScienceWho Was Jacques Derrida?Who's in Charge?Whose Freud?Why Everyone (Else) Is a HypocriteWhy God Won't Go AwayWhy Read Mill Today?Why the Mind is Not a ComputerWhy Things Matter to PeopleWhy Think?Why Think? Why Truth MattersWhy We DanceWider than the SkyWilliam Blake on Self and SoulWilliam James at the BoundariesWilliam James on Ethics and FaithWilling, Wanting, WaitingWisdom, Intuition and EthicsWise TherapyWitchcrazeWithin ReasonWithout ConscienceWittgensteinWittgenstein and Approaches To ClarityWittgenstein And PsychologyWittgenstein and PsychotherapyWittgenstein on Freud and FrazerWittgenstein Reads FreudWittgenstein Reads WeiningerWomen, Body, IllnessWomen, Madness and MedicineWords and ImagesWorld, Affectivity, TraumaWritten in the FleshYoga - Philosophy for EveryoneYour Drug May Be Your ProblemZizekZombies and Consciousness
To make a long story short, Shaun Gallagher has done a great job compiling this volume of excellent reads in the philosophy of the self and its adjacent scientific fields of application. The volume combines a balanced set of classical papers with texts that have been produced exclusively for this volume. It is comprised of seven sections and on the whole of 31 papers. Without counting in detail, the original papers seem to prevail. Gallagher's selection offers with minor drawbacks a vivid, but neutral perspective on research done on the self. It can be assumed that this volume will become soon a work of reference for researchers as well as students. It seems also important to note that most of the papers are written in a not-too-technical language such that the volume can be easily used as a basis for graduate courses in the philosophy of the self.
One thing that I would like to point out explicitly, is the highly self-critical spirit most of the papers express. The problem of the self in all its various forms and modes of expression, is probably one of the most entangled and obscure problems in philosophy. And any theory claiming maximal explanatory power will most certainly encounter immediate counter-examples. Thus, it is refreshing to note that most of the contributions to this volume remain aware of the fact that their findings may be only applicable to certain problems of the self. Schechtman's text (394-416) on narrative approaches to the self is a good example of this spirit.
Within the following paragraphs, I will try to give a short outline of the papers this volume is comprised of. I need to add that I am by education a philosopher and I will thus focus my attention to the more philosophical papers of the volume. Another remark: Because of the sheer extent of this volume, the following review will be descriptive in general. I aim to provide a brief overview of the volume to make it accessible to the reader.
(I) The first section Self: Beginnings and Basics grounds further discussion on some fundamental concepts: It explores the historical development of the notion of the self and introduces both presuppositions of the self from developmental psychology and neuroscience.
Against the background of a historical analysis of the notion of the self, Barresi/Martin argue that the self has lost its "elevated status" and needs to be understood not from a philosophical perspective alone, but from an integrated theory that relies on ontological, social and experiential considerations.
Rochat addresses the important question at what developmental stage newborn children acquire self-awareness. He parts with philosophers like Galen Strawson in underpinning the assumption that even newborns have some kind of minimal self -- accompanied by self-awareness.
Gallup/Anderson/Platek suggest that self-awareness as self-recognition can be found even in primates and that there is neurobiological grounding of these abilities in the structural features of the frontal cortex and the cortical midline.
Vogeley/Gallagher take a closer look at those neurobiological prerequisites and arrive at a paradoxical impasse: The self seems to be located both everywhere and nowhere in the brain.
(II) The second section Bodily Selves relates findings from embodied theories of consciousness to the theory of the self: How do bodily processes and states contribute to our ontology and experience of the self? More specifically: Are our bodily states immune to the error of misident-ification (IEM).
Considering the various puzzles of the body-self-interaction, Cassam defends the assertion that as long as the body is considered as subject -- not as mere object of experience -- there is no reason to believe that our bodily experience could fall prey to IEM.
Bermúdez takes a closer look at the assumptions made by IEM when applied to selves: judgements involving pronouns and demonstratives as well as the information base grounding these judgements are immune to the error of misidentification (iff. considered from first-person-perspective).
Tsakiris on the other hand argues against the background of cases like the "Rubber Hand Syndrom" that body ownership (and the alleged IEM) may indeed depend upon certain somatosensory signals. Interestingly -- and probably meant as a critique of IEM -- both in judgement as well as in direct first-person experience "the sense of ownership extends to the rubber hand" (7).
Legrand explores the question of bodily self-consciousness from the perspective of pheno-menology. She draws a basic distinction between the self-as-object and the self-as-subject. While I can refer to the body as a self-as-object by it being one of my intentional objects, this is not the case when I am in the mode of self-as-subject. Within that mode I have transparent awareness (210) of my body which accompanies my other experiences essentially.
Henry/Thompson argue for a realistic, substantial reading of the concept of self on the grounds of phenomenological analysis of bodily experience. In particular, they criticize the so called no-self conception that will be spelled out in more detail in the third and fourth section of the volume by various philosophers.
(III) The third section on Phenomenology and Metaphysics of the Self can be considered as the philosophical heart-land of the volume. One question dominates this section: Are there selves in any ontologically relevant sense or not? Before going deeper into the paper of this section, I would like to add a small criticism. Although there is a wide range of paper on the metaphysics of the self, the volume lacks a text arguing for the very position that has probably been pre-dominant throughout the history of philosophy: i.e. some version of substance dualism. This being said, we can now turn to the papers, which are -- grosso modo -- from an anti-realistic perspective.
With his deliberations on a minimal concept of self, Strawson is basically giving a brief precis of the ideas he carved out in more detail in his 2009 book "Selves. An Essay in Revisionary Metaphysics". First of all, it seems important to point out that Strawson pictures himself as one of the last philosophers having a thoroughly realistic concept of the self. Nevertheless, we will see in a minute that his realistic approach departs from some of the seemingly hardwired intuitions people have about the self. Strawson sets out by arguing that the concept of experience necessarily entails the concept of a subject that has this very experience. But because of the fact that experiences certainly exist -- indeed the existence of experience is obvious to us with "cartesian certainty", Strawson claims -- accordingly also subjects of experience need to be accounted among those entities that certainly exist. Strawson goes on to qualify these subjects of experience substantially: They need to be strong ontological unities that qualify as things in a literal, realistic way. Borrowing from modern science, he claims that those subjects are most likely "single-field-sized portion[s] of neural process-stuff" (268).
But Strawson would not be Strawson if he did not analyze the question of the self from a wider, metaphysical perspective. He inquires whether additional aspects of human selves, like for example agency or persistence are necessarily entailed by the concept of a subject of experience. Rejecting those characteristics, he arrives at a minimal concept of the self: Contrasting this new "thin concept" with both the classical humean picture of selves being maximally thick bundles of properties as well as the classical thin concept of bare substrata underlying all kinds of experience, he proposes subjects of experience that are objective data in the world, bear mental properties and are single, strong unities as fundamental entities of concrete reality. This is, of course, an eminently metaphysical claim that leads directly to some version of panpsychism -- which he calls "Real Materialism" (256-258).
Strawson is certainly one of the most original thinkers in the recent debate concerning the ontic status of the self. Including his work -- which is uncompromisingly realistic about selves -- experience and subjects of experience can be accounted for as one of the central philosophical pillars in The Oxford Handbook of the Self. How important his realistic perspective is, becomes immediately clear when looking at the next paper: Metzinger's exposition of the different version of antirealism concerning the self.
Metzinger's text can be read as direct replication to Strawson's realistic perspective. Basically, he argues that (a) the concept of the self is in no way warranted by sciences, that (b) arguments defending a realistic concept are grounded on false speculations of philosophical hubris and -- last but not least -- that (c) the realistic concept of the self has done more harm than good in the development of philosophy and the sciences likewise.
He contrasts different anti-realistic concepts of the self: First of all, ontic anti-realism which claims that there are no such things as self as substances or objects or things. This position seems to be Metzinger's favorite answer to the problem, and is thus a direct logical contraposition to Strawson's claims. He then assesses both epistemic anti-realism -- which he in fact characterizes as a version of kantian realism -- as well as methodological anti-realism, which claims that in science there is nothing which can be said to substantiate the notion of the self. Last but not least, he discusses the possibility of semantic anti-realism. That is the thesis that also our use of the reference "I" in language might be warranted there is nothing in ontology corresponding this reference.
After describing these anti-realistic concepts of the self -- which at least to me do not seem to be mutually exclusive -- Metzinger inquires whether his view can be conceptually substantiated or not. He does so by criticizing different refutations of his anti-realistic presuppositions. Mainly, he discusses various versions of the claim that anti-realism about the self is simply contra-intuitive. Basically, criticism consists in pointing out that (a) intuition is a good place to start ontological reasoning from and that (b) if science does not presuppose the concept of the self, it should not be part of our basic ontology. Metzinger's position can be summed up in his own words: "I believe that for anyone with a more serious interest in epistemic progress on self-consciousness in all its aspects, the first task will consist in effectively protecting more rigorous philosophical discussions and scientific research programs from degenerated debates of this kind" (294). Like the debate concerning realism of the self, one should add.
Another clearly anti-realistic reading of the self are Siderits' deliberations on the different notions of non-self in Buddhism. Siderits' text is mainly descriptive. He discerns three versions of the Buddhist view that there is no self: (1) Probably, the orthodox theory can be aptly named as Buddhist Reductionism. This view -- purported mainly in contrast to indian philosophy of Sāṃkhya and Vedānta schools -- claims that (a) there is no such thing -- in any ontologically relevant sense -- as the self, and that (b) concept of a person as a persisting mental agent is just fictional. Nevertheless, Buddhist Reductionists bypass the problem of the practical relevance of the self by defending a narrative conception. (2) Buddhist Personalism is indeed a more realistic approach to the concept of the self (see for example the Pudgalavādin school). It argues that in addition to basic, concrete reality, selves emerge and are thus to be counted among the building blocks of the world. (3) Radical Buddhism [my term] is in fact a reaction to the Reductionist's program: Originating from the Yogācāra school of Mahāyāna philosophy, proponents of this theory deny that there is anything intrinsic to our ontic characterization of reality altogether. Probably, the best known proponent of such a view has been Nagarjuna in his "Middle Way". Siderits seems to favour the reductionist's version -- he argues: "Having total blind-sight, for them the illusion of consciousness is dispelled. There being nothing for which things appear in a certain way, there is no longer the basis for a sense of 'I am'. There is just a causal series of psychophysical elements, interacting with its environment in such a way as to maximize overall welfare" (314).
Siderits' assessment paints a clear and vivid picture of the different strains of no-self in Buddhism and avoids delving too deeply into the -- sometimes for western eyes -- "hulking" terminology of indian and buddhistic philosophy.
The last paper of this third section deals with one of the recent developments in the border lands of research on Buddhism and analytic philosophy of mind and self: Albahari's book on "Analytic Buddhism". Zahavi begins by setting the stage for Albahari's analysis providing a short assessment of her central arguments: "As I mentioned in the beginning, an interesting aspect of Albahari's proposal is that she considers many of the features traditionally ascribed to the self to be real, it is just that they -- in her view -- become distorted and illusory if taken to be features of the self (320)."
Taking this idea as his starting point, Zahavi describes two continental approaches to self that seem to undermine Albahari's analysis: First, he discusses a theory proposed by the father of pheno-menology -- Husserl. He argues that -- also we need to assess a realistic concept of the self -- it is in no way occupied with the features discussed by Albahari. According to Husserl the stream of consciousness is essentially self-unifying. The self then becomes a merely additional fact watching the stream of consciousness. A similar view has been held by Sartre, says Zahavi. Against this background, Zahavi claims that critics of self -- like Albahari -- should refrain from globally denying the self. They should reject certain readings of self -- for example the unifying function of the self for the stream of consciousness.
(IV) The fourth section of the volume takes the metaphysical analysis one step further. After inquiring about the nature and existence conditions of selves, the contributions are now focused upon the following question: How and when can selves be said to persist through time, if they exist at all? And: Is it possible to validate our ordinary experience that something seems to stay the same in a human person through the course of time. Once again, the section covers a wider range of different approaches: from straight realism about causal relations that bind together selves, to anti-realistic approaches grounding the self and its persistence conditions in the narratives people tell about themselves.
The only thing missing in this section seems to be -- once more -- a positive account of the classical theory of the cartesian ego that is discussed critically in -- for example -- Perry's essay. The volume seems to have a certain blind-spot when it comes to modern versions of substance dualism -- like for example, in Swinburne's or Lowe's approaches.
Campbell's introductory text into the discussion of structural features of personal identity over time and its relation to narrative approaches and self-knowledge addresses two different questions. First: What is it about personal identity that makes it so hard to solve by philosophical analysis? Second: Is it really wise to explain the use of the first-person-pronoun "I" and the alleged question of personal identity over time reductively? Thus, Campbell's work sets the stage for further discussion of these eminent metaphysical problems.
Campbell tackles the first question from two very different perspectives: The first being a classical metaphysical analysis, the second being an analysis in terms of methods employed by philosophy of language. Thus, his text and his question is accessible to a wide range of philosophical back-grounds. The metaphysical analysis: It seems obvious that questions of personal identity are tied to questions concerning the causal framework of which a certain person is part of. But it seems likewise hard to specify, what the relevant causal relations are and how much speculative weight they need to carry: "Suppose that psychological properties and physical properties do turn out to specify relatively autonomous causal structure, … : Which one should be given greater weight in specifying the identity conditions of the person?" (342). The linguistic analysis: Once again, there seems to be a very uncontroversial matter of the fact consisting in the idea that most human persons use the first-person-pronoun "I" competently within normal linguistic situation. But this uncontroversial consensus changes as soon as the ontological implications of this linguistic structure are discussed: "People who grasp the persons perfectly well do in fact dispute whether it refers to a body, a soul, or something else " (343).
Bearing these questions in mind, Campbell turns to the discussion of theories that explain the idea of the self and its persistence from an overall reductive or even eliminative point of view: He critically assesses Parfit's antirealistic approach as too loose and not fitting with the presuppositions of the self. Basically, his argument seems to run as follows: Parfits asserts that within the practical implementation of philosophy in everyday life, the self does not matter. Campbell on the contrast holds that the immediate, pragmatic relevance of the sentence "I am making a mess" is only understandable against the background of a somewhat realistic concept of the self. While the understanding of "I am making a mess" causes me to act, this is not likewise true for "Someone is making a mess". At the end of the day, Campbell takes up position for a thoroughly realistic understanding of the self.
Shoemaker's contribution explores the conceptual extent of the idea that human persons persist by being a causally sufficiently connected series of spatio-temporal stages. His basic line of thought evolves around the distinction between the synchronic and diachronic unity-conditions of human persons. Shoemaker's account of persistence bears stunning similarity to (a) Zimmerman's concept of immanent causation and (b) recent stage theoretic theories of persistence, proposed for example by Sider, Hawley and Balashov. He says: "The guiding idea behind the account I will offer is that properties are individuated by causal profiles and that there is an internal relation between the causal profiles of properties and the identity conditions of things that have them" (353). Shoemakers then discerns thin properties, which do not directly contribute to persistence -- for example "mass" -- and thick properties, which are relevant for persistence -- for example biological functions in the case of trees or mental properties in the case of human persons.
Concerning the persistence of human persons Shoemaker clearly opts for two claims: First of all, he does not argue that a certain set of thick properties is indeed identical with a persons's persistence-conditions, but rather that whenever we encounter those properties, we can safely assume that persistence obtains. Secondly, he puts forth a Lockean version of human persistence insofar as "... our thick properties are psychological ones. … [and] persistence of persons consists in psychological continuity" (358). Shoemaker then discusses several versions of animalism -- the view that what matters in persistence is indeed the fact of being member of a certain species; being a thinking animal. He dismisses those approaches and sums up his own account the following way: "My answer to the question of what we are is … that we are creatures having certain kinds of mental properties as the thick properties whose causal profiles determine their persistence conditions" (370).
Perry's line of thought shows how different approaches to the persistence and existence of selves can be within the context of recent analytic philosophy. While both Shoemaker and Strawson argue from a mainly metaphysical perspective, Perry's text poses an argument against the background of classical philosophy of language. He explores the question of grounding the typical features of IEM just because they all refer to some sort of cartesian ego. Following, Anscombe and Shoemaker, he rejects this approach as not depicting the mode reference of 'I' correctly.
Perry himself favors the theory of self-notions as superior to classical cartesian ego. At this point, his argument parallelizes with the other contributions of this chapter. While Campbell posed the question of how selves persist, Shoemaker, as well as Perry and later Schechtman develop concepts that explain this seemingly persistence of human selves. First, Perry characterizes the concept of the self, he is working with: "Self is a role persons play. One's self is like today or one's home or one's father; a perfectly ordinary object, thought of in virtue of its relation to the thinking agent" (380). Now, the self-notion of a human person is a certain conceptual and evaluative framework that describes how the person deals with fact about herself. This framework is the proper subject of statements we make about persistence of the self or the "I". Thus, Perry departs from a thoroughly realistic concept of persistence and the self -- which has been described by Shoemaker -- to a more loose theory of himself "being the person assigned to 'John Perry' by the relevant convention" (392).
In the last paper of this section, Schechtman sketches a modern version of anti-realism about selves and persistence: the narrative approach. At the end of her paper, she discusses both the objection that has been put forth by Strawson in his Against Narrativity (2004) as well as the one developed by Zahavi relying on the concept of minimal selves. Nevertheless, here I will focus on her positive findings.
Schechtman provide a set of characteristics which she introduces as the common denominators of most narrative models of the self. She argues that first of all the narrative approach goes hand in hand with the thesis that not all relevant explanations about selves can be given within the framework of mechanistic or biological terminology. A brief remark here: It seems odd that she describes Dennett as a proponent of the narrative self, while he would certainly deny that there is anything substantial about explanations in terms of self -- they would be on his view most probably mere abbreviations. Secondly, she claims that almost all version of the narrative approach assume that normative elements are involved in the evolution of narratives. Thirdly, narrative selves are understood as matters of fact that are essentially embodied and grounded in a natural and social environment.
These common characteristics can be found in a plethora of different versions of the narrative model of the self. Schechtman sketches five of them: (1) There is MacIntyre's view -- proposed in his "After Virtue" (1984) -- which claims that the unity of the self is constituted by the unity of a narrative quest. (2) A similar approach has been proposed by Taylor, who argues that the constitution of the self against the background of a narrative needs to employ relevant relations to the concept of the good. (3) Schechtman mentions only briefly Riceour as one of the proponents of such a rather realistic conception of self-constitution by narration. (4) Dennett can be seen as the antagonist to those view, says Schechtman. He argues that the self is merely a fiction -- but at least it is a useful fiction. (5) Those views are contrasted with approaches from developmental psychology aiming to answer the following question: What is the process transforming a child which is not capable of narratives to a full-blown human subject constituting its own self by narration?
Schechtman concludes her text with a critical assessment of the problems the narrative theory of the self: "The chief difficulties narrative theories revolve around making the idea that the self is narrative concrete -- What, exactly, counts as narrative in this context? Where do self-narratives reside, how explicitly must they be articulated, and to whom? Where do the phenomenological aspects of selfhood fit in?" (415)
(V) The fifth section Action and the Moral Dimension of the Self marks the transition from metaphysics and philosophy of mind to ethical questions. In his introduction to the volume Gallagher paraphrases Reid when arguing that "personal identity forms the foundation of all rights and obligations" (16). The moral dimension of the self is explored from various different perspectives:
This slightly changed reprint of Parfit's classical argument which was published in Harris' volume on Identity and draws some further ideas from Parfit's Persons and Reasons sets the systematic philosophical background for questions concerning the relation of a diachronically persisting self and morality. Based on the analysis of his famous teletransportation thought experiments, Parfit argues that the numeric identity of the self in the course of time is not what really matters when it comes to solving the practical problems of life and moral responsibility. In the context of this particular paper Parfit refrains from providing a definitive answer to the following question: what is it that does matter? Nevertheless, he sketches some insights on his own view and its relation to our human concerns about the future -- and in particular our fear of death: He argues that in his own "redescription, my death seems to disappear" (441).
Pacherie investigates the relation of the diachronic aspects of the self and our human sense of agency. She argues that our sense of agency has to be analyzed as complex system of higher and lower level neural systems being unified by three conceptual structures: the intended goal, the predicted actions and the actually achieved state of affairs.
Mele addresses one of the classical questions of philosophical psychology. Already Aristotle analyzed the relations between actions that are under our control and those that occur unwillingly -- those questions are sometimes called acrasiatic. But while Aristotle argued for a sharp distinction between controlled rational actions and acrasiatic ones, Mele suggests a holistic approach according to which also emotions can be considered as reasons. He thus argues for a concept of self-control and agency that rests both on rational deliberations as well as on intuitive judgements.
Shoemaker aims to substantiate the claim that the different criteria for personal persistence of persons through time have no apparent influence on questions concerning moral responsibility. One of his central arguments rests on the analysis that moral judgments and actions presupposed by moral responsibility rest upon body-action-relations, questions concerning personal persistence rest upon person-person-relations. Against this background, Shoemakers puts forth a conceptual distinction between attributability and accountability of human actions.
(VI) The sixth section Pathologies of the Self explores the ideas and problems discussed so far from another, very important angle: Against psychological research done in the fields of psycho-pathologies, this section asks us to check our theories in the light of human being exemplifying various forms of distortions of the self. Here is a short example: how do the cases of multiple personality disorders affect narrative approaches to the self, like for example Schechtman's.
(VII) The seventh section The Self in Diverse Contexts shows once again the tremendous task that Gallagher has saddled himself with. Research done in the philosophy of the self and the sciences can be aptly described as a panopticon of different methods and approaches. The last section covers a wider range of different papers. Gallagher himself describes this the following way: "In the last section of this book the reader will find other fractal elements -- repeating and reinforcing themes, yet on different scales and in different contexts ..." (22).
This volume shows clearly that the philosophy of the self is among the most interesting and vital areas of research. It tries to open an interdisciplinary perspective on the different research paradigms. This being said, one of the most obvious problems of this selections is that it exemplifies the fact beautifully that it is often less that clear whether researchers from different fields are talking about the same thing when addressing the questions concerning the self. But this is clearly not Gallagher's fault. It is rather a common, inherent problem of the debate. Or in positive words: a common vocabulary for scientists and philosophers working on the self can be considered one of the most important desiderata.
© 2012 Ludwig Jaskolla
Ludwig Jaskolla is an ABD PhD student in philosophy in Munich and writing his dissertation on the analytic metaphysics of persistence.