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Maximizing Effectiveness in Dynamic Psychotherapy Self-Compassion in Psychotherapy101 Healing StoriesA Clinician's Guide to Legal Issues in PsychotherapyA Map of the MindA Primer for Beginning PsychotherapyACT With LoveActive Treatment of DepressionAffect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of SelfAlready FreeBad TherapyBecoming an Effective PsychotherapistBefore ForgivingBeing a Brain-Wise TherapistBetrayed as BoysBeyond Evidence-Based PsychotherapyBeyond MadnessBeyond PostmodernismBinge No MoreBiofeedback for the BrainBipolar DisorderBody PsychotherapyBoundaries and Boundary Violations in PsychoanalysisBrain Change TherapyBrain Science and Psychological DisordersBrain-Based Therapy with AdultsBrain-Based Therapy with Children and AdolescentsBrief Adolescent Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Therapy Homework PlannerBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyBuilding on BionCare of the PsycheCase Studies in DepressionCaught in the NetChild and Adolescent Treatment for Social Work PracticeChoosing an Online TherapistChronic DepressionClinical Dilemmas in PsychotherapyClinical Handbook of Psychological DisordersClinical Intuition in PsychotherapyClinical Pearls of WisdomCo-Creating ChangeCognitive Therapy for Challenging ProblemsCompassionConfessions of a Former ChildConfidential RelationshipsConfidentiality and Mental HealthConfidingContemplative Psychotherapy EssentialsControlConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCoping with BPDCouch FictionCounseling in GenderlandCounseling with Choice TheoryCouple SkillsCrazy for YouCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCreating HysteriaCritical Issues in PsychotherapyCrucial Choices, Crucial ChangesDeafness In MindDecoding the Ethics CodeDeconstructing PsychotherapyDeep Brain StimulationDemystifying TherapyDepression 101Depression in ContextDialogues on DifferenceDissociative ChildrenDo-It-Yourself Eye Movement Techniques for Emotional HealingDoing CBTE-TherapyEarly WarningEncountering the Sacred in PsychotherapyEnergy Psychology InteractiveErrant SelvesEssays on Philosophical CounselingEssentials of Wais-III AssessmentEthically Challenged ProfessionsEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics in Plain EnglishEthics in Psychotherapy and CounselingExpectationExploring the Self through PhotographyExpressing EmotionFacing Human SufferingFairbairn's Object Relations Theory in the Clinical SettingFamily TherapyFavorite Counseling and Therapy Homework AssignmentsFear of IntimacyFlourishingFolie a DeuxForms of Intersubjectivity in Infant Reasearch and Adult TreatmentFoundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in PsychologyFreud and the Question of PseudoscienceFrom Morality to Mental HealthFundamentals of Psychoanalytic TechniqueGenes on the CouchGod & TherapyHalf Empty, Half FullHandbook of Clinical Psychopharmacology for TherapistsHandbook of Counseling and Psychotherapy with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual ClientsHandbook of Evidence-Based Therapies for Children and AdolescentsHealing the Heart and Mind with MindfulnessHeinz KohutHelping Children Cope With Disasters and TerrorismHigh RiskHistory of PsychotherapyHow Clients Make Therapy WorkHow People ChangeHow Psychotherapists DevelopHow to Fail As a TherapistHow to Go to TherapyHypnosis for Inner Conflict ResolutionHypnosis for Smoking CessationI Never Promised You a Rose GardenIf Only I Had KnownIn Others' EyesIn SessionIn Therapy We TrustIn Treatment: Season 1Incorporating Spirituality in Counseling and PsychotherapyInside the SessionInside TherapyIs Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Issues in Philosophical CounselingIt's Not as Bad as It SeemsItís Your HourLearning from Our MistakesLearning Supportive PsychotherapyLetters to a Young TherapistLife CoachingLogotherapy and Existential AnalysisLove's ExecutionerMadness and DemocracyMaking the Big LeapMan's Search for MeaningMetaphoria: Metaphor and Guided Metaphor for Psychotherapy and HealingMind GamesMindfulness and AcceptanceMindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for DepressionMindworks: An Introduction to NLPMockingbird YearsMoments of EngagementMomma and the Meaning of LifeMotivational Interviewing: Preparing People For ChangeMulticulturalism and the Therapeutic ProcessMultifamily Groups in the Treatment of Severe Psychiatric DisordersNarrative PracticeOn the CouchOne Nation Under TherapyOur Inner WorldOur Last Great IllusionOutsider ArtOvercoming Destructive Beliefs, Feelings, and BehaviorsOverexposedPathways to SpiritualityPersonality and PsychotherapyPhilosophical CounselingPhilosophical Counselling and the UnconsciousPhilosophical Issues in Counseling and PsychotherapyPhilosophical PracticePhilosophy and PsychotherapyPhilosophy for Counselling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy PracticePhilosophy's Role in Counseling and PsychotherapyPillar of SaltPlan BPlato, Not Prozac!Polarities of ExperiencesPower GamesPractical Psychoanalysis for Therapists and PatientsPrinciples and Practice of Sex TherapyPsychologists Defying the CrowdPsychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, and the Politics of Human RelationshipsPsychosis in the FamilyPsychotherapyPsychotherapyPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPsychotherapy As PraxisPsychotherapy for Children and AdolescentsPsychotherapy for Personality DisordersPsychotherapy Is Worth ItPsychotherapy Isn't What You ThinkPsychotherapy with Adolescent Girls and Young WomenPsychotherapy with Children and AdolescentsPsychotherapy without the SelfPsychotherapy, American Culture, and Social PolicyRapid Cognitive TherapyRational Emotive Behavior TherapyRational Emotive Behavior TherapyRationality and the Pursuit of HappinessRebuilding Shattered LivesReclaiming Our ChildrenRecovery OptionsRelationalityRent Two Films and Let's Talk in the MorningSaving the Modern SoulScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologySecond-order Change in PsychotherapySelf-Compassion in PsychotherapySelf-Determination Theory in the ClinicSelf-Disclosure in Psychotherapy and RecoverySerious ShoppingSex, Therapy, and KidsSexual Orientation and Psychodynamic PsychotherapySigns of SafetySoul Murder RevisitedStaring at the SunStraight to JesusStrangers to OurselvesSubjective Experience and the Logic of the OtherTaking America Off DrugsTales of PsychotherapyTales of UnknowingTalk is Not EnoughTalking Cures and Placebo EffectsTelling SecretsThe Behavioral Medicine Treatment PlannerThe Body in PsychotherapyThe Brief Couples Therapy Homework Planner with DiskThe Case Formulation Approach to Cognitive-Behavior TherapyThe Challenge for Psychoanalysis and PsychotherapyThe Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy Treatment PlannerThe Clinical Child Documentation SourcebookThe Clinical Documentation SourcebookThe Complete Adult Psychotherapy Treatment PlannerThe Couch and the TreeThe Couples Psychotherapy Treatment PlannerThe Crucible of ExperienceThe Cure of SoulsThe Death of PsychotherapyThe Education of Mrs. BemisThe Ethical Treatment of DepressionThe Ethics of 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Guide to Psychotherapy PracticeThe Schopenhauer CureThe Sex Lives of TeenagersThe Talking CureThe Therapeutic "Aha!"The Therapist's Guide to PsychopharmacologyThe Therapist's Guide to Psychopharmacology, Revised EditionThe Therapist's Ultimate Solution BookThe Trauma of Everyday LifeThe Trouble with IllnessThe UnsayableThe Way of the JournalTheory and Practice of Brief TherapyTherapy with ChildrenTherapy's DelusionsTheraScribe 3.0 for WindowsTheraScribe 4.0Thinking about ThinkingThinking for CliniciansThinking for CliniciansThoughts Without a ThinkerThriveToward a Psychology of AwakeningTracking Mental Health OutcomesTrauma, Truth and ReconciliationTreating Attachment DisordersTreatment for Chronic DepressionTreatment Plans and Interventions for Depression and Anxiety DisordersUnderstanding Child MolestersUnspeakable Truths and Happy EndingsWhat the Buddha FeltWhat Works for Whom?What Works for Whom? Second EditionWhen the Body SpeaksWhispers from the EastWise TherapyWittgenstein and PsychotherapyWorking MindsWoulda, Coulda, ShouldaWriting About PatientsYoga Skills for Therapists:Yoga Therapy
The title of James F. T. Bugental's Psychotherapy Isn't What You Think is a play on words. While not repudiating the normal course of psychotherapy, Bugental takes issue with the constant focus on a client's past. Rather, Bugental, one of the leaders of the humanist / existentialist school of psychotherapy, teaches his intended readers-practicing therapists-that the key to a client's improvement lies in diligently probing the emotional state of the client in the counseling session.
Bugental's central thesis is this: "The difference between a psychotherapy that is chiefly concerned with information and a psychotherapy that centers on the actual experience of the client in the living moment has great significance for life-changing psychotherapy." Psychotherapy isn't centrally about what you think; it's about what you are experiencing now. It is easy to hide from problems or pain by trying to articulate one's biography or to reconstruct childhood memories. Even descriptions of one's current life are, in the end, fabrications (if not mere fabrications). What is crucial is the present moment, the now.
For Bugental, "Psychotherapy is, at its root, the artistic product of two human personalities engaged in a life-changing enterprise." Thus it is vitally important, in his view, to conduct "the work" (i.e., psychotherapy) in "the living moment." As evidenced by the encomiums appearing in the Fall 1996 edition of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology, Bugental has been an effective partner in the artistic productions of more than a few lives-therapists and lay folk alike. These works of art are crafted in the Heraclitean flux of constant change and are always unfinished.
In fact, there is an Eastern flavor to Bugental's underlying metaphysics of subjectivity. In a passage that could have come from Ken Wilber, Bugental writes, in his 1981 work, The Search for Authenticity: An Existential-Analytic Approach to Psychotherapy: "Our truest nature is our contentless being. It has no habits or patterns, no neurosis or, for that matter, health. It is pure awareness, pure subjectivity." The concept of true-self-as-pure-awareness is another reason for Bugantal's arguing that psychotherapy isn't what you think it is; effective therapy must be less Freudian, less Western, more (although he doesn't say the words) Buddhist or even Hindu. Essentially, the self is "neither this nor that," and one ought not to be attached to artificial identities-even the work of art under construction in the counseling session.
This engaging book comes from the pen of a master teacher and therapist. Psychotherapy Isn't What You Think is chock full of sample counseling sessions meant to illustrate the strategies Bugental is advancing, and each dialogue commends itself by capturing the subtlety of the interplay between therapist and client. Were therapy as Bugental envisions it, some conclusions can be drawn [p. 260]:
1. The people with whom we [therapists] are engaged are living all the time they're with us. They bring that-with-which-they-are-not-content to us. They live it out in our offices.
2. We are not physicians, repairpersons, or substitutes available to direct others' lives.
3. We are coaches for those who are not satisfied with their experiences of being alive.
4. The only change agency that produces lasting results is the change in a person's perception of his self and world.
5. Change will only occur when we help clients to see more fully how they are living their lives right now, right in the room.
6. The only reality about one's self is that which is actual in the moment. All else is static, is without power, is only information.
7. Recognition, insight, interpretation, and similar, familiar therapeutic products are often mistaken for the goal. They are useful to the extent that they evoke or express an immediate experiencing.
My own circumstances made reading this book a particularly provocative experience. As a client of a psychotherapist, I became aware of the traps of psychotherapy-as-usual. After reading Bugental, I more easily caught myself trying to be the "good client," the "witty and insightful and entertaining" client, the "profound" client. I realize that it is easier to concoct a narrative than to recognize and deal with what I was experiencing in the course of therapy. My therapist is not a "Bugentalian," and I find that the interplay of traditional "investigative work" and "fact finding," coupled with a heightened awareness of my experience of the present moment made for a more substantial session.
And that realization serves, I think, as a counterbalance to Bugental's seven "reflections" noted above. I am not fully persuaded that the "the true self" is the tabula rasa that Bugental, Wilber, existentialists, and a preponderance of New Agers think. Each of us in our essence is more specific, more unique than that generalized Being, and the Western, Judeo-Christian insight into the soul shows that we are not merely social constructions that can be "deconstructed" into no-thing-ness.
But Bugental's urging of a sensitivity to the present experience of clients is a necessary reminder that our lives are lived now.
© Eric Weislogel, 2001 Eric Weislogel, Ph.D., taught philosophy at Penn State and the Indiana University of PA. He currently works as manager of business process consulting for a manufacturing consulting firm. He has written for industry trade publications and philosophical journals, and has published music reviews and feature articles. His particular interests, besides philosophy and theology, include philosophical counseling, integral studies, psychotherapy, vocation and work, and organizational excellence. He loves music and sports. He and his family reside in Pittsburgh, PA.