email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
A New Understanding of Mental Disorders A Theory of Feelings Addictions Memory and the Self"Intimate" Violence against Women1001 Solution-Focused Questions101 Healing Stories101 Things I Wish I'd Known When I Started Using Hypnosis50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God8 Keys to Body Brain BalanceA Brief History of Modern PsychologyA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Conceptual History of Psychology: Exploring the Tangled Web A Cooperative SpeciesA Guide to Teaching Introductory PsychologyA History of Modern Experimental PsychologyA History of Psychology in AutobiographyA History of Social PsychologyA History of the BrainA History of the MindA Hole in the HeadA Matter of SecurityA Mind of Its OwnA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Place for ConsciousnessA Short Introduction to Promoting Resilience in ChildrenA Social History of PsychologyA Stroll With William JamesA System Architecture Approach to the BrainA Theory of FreedomA Very Bad WizardAbductedAbout FacesAccounts of InnocenceAction, Emotion and WillAdapting MindsAddiction and Self-ControlADHD & MeADHD in AdultsAdieu to GodAdolescence and Body ImageAdult Bipolar DisordersAdvances in Culture and PsychologyAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAffect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of SelfAffective MappingAgainst EmpathyAgainst HappinessAges and StagesAll Joy and No FunAll Out!All We Have to FearAlterations of ConsciousnessAmerican Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical NeurosciencesAn Argument for MindAncient Bodies, Modern LivesAnd BreatheAnimal MadnessAnimal Tool BehaviorAnimals in TranslationAnomalous CognitionAping MankindArtificial ConsciousnessAspects of PsychologismAsperger Syndrome and Your ChildAsperger Syndrome, Adolescence, and IdentityAssessment and Treatment of Childhood Problems, Second EditionAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAttachedAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutism and the Myth of the Person AloneAutopsy of a Suicidal MindBecoming an Effective PsychotherapistBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing No OneBelievingBetween Two WorldsBeyond AppearanceBeyond BlueBeyond BullyingBeyond MadnessBeyond MelancholyBeyond the BrainBeyond the DSM StoryBig DreamsBiofeedback for the BrainBipolar ChildrenBipolar DisorderBipolar KidsBlackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive DevelopmentBlind SpotsBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlubberlandBlushBodiesBody ConsciousnessBody Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity in YouthBody SenseBody WorkBorderline Personality DisorderBorderline Personality Disorder and the Conversational ModelBorn DigitalBorn to Be GoodBorn Together - Reared ApartBounceBoundaries in Human RelationshipsBounded RationalityBozo SapiensBrain and CultureBrain and the GazeBrain Arousal and Information TheoryBrain BugsBrain Change TherapyBrain Circuitry and Signaling in PsychiatryBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-Based Therapy with AdultsBrain-WiseBrainstormBrainstormingBraintrustBrainwashingBrandedBreaking Murphy's LawBright-SidedBuddha's BrainBullying and TeasingBuyologyCan't You Hear Them?CaptureCare of the PsycheCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCerebrum 2007Cerebrum 2010Cerebrum 2015Cerebrum Anthology 2013Changing the SubjectCharacter Strengths and VirtuesCheating LessonsChild and Adolescent Psychological DisordersChildren’s Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness Chomsky NotebookClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyClinical Psychology in Practice ClosureCognition and PerceptionCognition and the BrainCognitive BiologyCognitive DissonanceCognitive FictionsCognitive Mechanisms of Belief ChangeCognitive PragmaticsCognitive ScienceCognitive ScienceCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Therapy of Anxiety DisordersCognitive Unconscious and Human RationalityCold-Blooded KindnessComing of Age in Second LifeCommunication Issues In Autism And Asperger SyndromeCompassion and Healing in Medicine and SocietyComplementary and Alternative Therapies ResearchComprehending ColumbineConfessions of a SociopathConquering Shame and CodependencyConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the Social BrainConsciousness EmergingConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Self-Consciousness, and the Science of Being HumanConstructing PainConsumer NeuroscienceContemporary Debates in Cognitive ScienceConversations on ConsciousnessConviction of the InnocentCooperation and Its EvolutionCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCredit and BlameCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychologyCritical Thinking About PsychologyCross-Cultural PsychologyCrowdsourcingCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCuriousDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous and Severe Personality DisorderDaniel DennettDaughters of MadnessDeafness In MindDeath and ConsciousnessDeath of a ParentDecomposing the WillDeep Brain StimulationDeep ChinaDefining DifferenceDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions of GenderDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDeparting from DevianceDescartes' BabyDescartes's Changing MindDescribing Inner Experience?Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Destructive EmotionsDevelopment of Geocentric Spatial Language and CognitionDevelopment of PsychopathologyDialogues on DifferenceDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Digital HemlockDirty MindsDisgust and Its DisordersDisorders of VolitionDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Doing without ConceptsDrunk Tank PinkEducating People to Be Emotionally IntelligentEffective IntentionsEffective Writing in PsychologyEffortless AttentionEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbracing MindEmbracing UncertaintyEMDR Therapy and Somatic PsychologyEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotionally InvolvedEmotionsEmotionsEmotions and LifeEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions RevealedEmotions, Aggression, and Morality in ChildrenEmotions, Stress, and HealthEmpathyEnjoymentErotic MoralityEscape Your Own PrisonEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthically Challenged ProfessionsEveryday Mind ReadingEvidence for PsiEvidence-Based Mental Health PracticeEvil MenEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution and LearningEvolution, Games, and GodEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolutionary Psychology as Maladapted PsychologyExacting BeautyExperiences of DepressionExperimenterExplaining the BrainExplaining the BrainExplorations in Neuroscience, Psychology and ReligionExploring TranssexualismExpression and the InnerExtending Self-Esteem ResearchExtraordinary BeliefsFact and Value in EmotionFaking ItFatigue as a Window to the BrainFavorite Activities for the Teaching of PsychologyFeeling GoodFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFinding Meaning, Facing FearsFitting In Is OverratedFive Constraints on Predicting BehaviorFlourishingFlow: The Psychology of Optimal ExperienceFolk Psychological NarrativesFooling HoudiniForever YoungFormulation in Psychology and PsychotherapyFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Psychological ThoughtFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom EvolvesFrom Axons to IdentityFrom Madness to Mental HealthFrom Neurons to Self-ConsciousnessFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Symptom to SynapseFrontiers of ConsciousnessGay, Straight, and the Reason WhyGenerosityGenes, Environment, and PsychopathologyGenetic Nature/CultureGeniusGetting Under the SkinGlued to GamesGoing SaneGot Parts?Group GeniusGrowing Up GirlGuilt, Shame, and AnxietyGut ReactionsHallucinationHandbook New Sexuality StudiesHandbook of Closeness and IntimacyHandbook of Critical PsychologyHandbook of Emotion RegulationHandbook of EmotionsHandbook of Personality DisordersHandbook of PsychopathyHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Spatial CognitionHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness at WorkHappiness Is.Happy at LastHard to GetHardwired BehaviorHatredHealing the SplitHidden ResourcesHope and DespairHot ThoughtHot ThoughtHouse and PsychologyHow Animals Affect UsHow Animals GrieveHow Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Doctors ThinkHow Enlightenment Changes Your BrainHow Families Still MatterHow History Made the MindHow Infants Know MindsHow Many Friends Does One Person Need?How People ChangeHow Professors ThinkHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Change Someone You LoveHow We ReasonHow We RememberHughes' Outline of Modern PsychiatryHumanHuman BondingHuman Reasoning and Cognitive ScienceHume’s Moral Philosophy and Contemporary PsychologyHypnotismHysteriaiBrainIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIdentifying the MindiDisorderImagination and the Meaningful BrainImitation and the Social MindImpulse Control DisordersImpulsivityIn an Unspoken VoiceIn Defense of SentimentalityIn DoubtIn Search of HappinessIn the Wake of 9/11Individual and Collective Memory ConsolidationInner Experience and NeuroscienceInner PresenceInside the American CoupleIntegrated Behavioral Health CareIntegrating Evolution and DevelopmentIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntellectual DisabilityIntelligenceIntelligence, Destiny, and EducationIntentions and IntentionalityInterdependent MindsInterpreting MindsInto the Minds of MadmenIntoxicating MindsIntrospection VindicatedIntuitionInventing PersonalityInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIs There Anything Good About Men?Issues for Families, Schools and CommunitiesJane Sexes It UpJoint AttentionJoint AttentionJudgment and Decision MakingJust a DogJust BabiesJuvenile-Onset SchizophreniaKarl JaspersKey Thinkers in PsychologyKidding OurselvesKids of CharacterKilling MonstersLack of CharacterLanguage OriginsLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw, Mind and BrainLess Than HumanLet Kids Be KidsLet's Talk About DeathLiving NarrativeLiving with Mild Cognitive ImpairmentLonelinessLooking for SpinozaLossLOT 2Love at Goon ParkMachine ConsciousnessMacrocognitionMade for Each OtherMadnessMadness and Modernism: Insanity in the light of modern art, literature, and thought Making a Good Brain GreatMaking Habits, Breaking HabitsMaking Minds and MadnessMaking Up the MindMale SexualityMan and WomanMan's Search for MeaningMan, Beast, and ZombieManic MindsManlinessMapping the MindMarking the MindMarvelous Learning AnimalMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaningMeaning, Mortality, and ChoiceMedical MusesMeditating SelflesslyMeetings with a Remarkable ManMemoryMemory and DreamsMemory and EmotionMemory And UnderstandingMental BiologyMental IllnessMental Time TravelMetacognitionMetacognition and Theory of MindMethods in MindMindMindMind and BrainMind and ConsciousnessMind Games:Mind in LifeMind TimeMind to MindMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMindful AngerMindfulnessMindfulnessMindfulness and AcceptanceMindfulness-Based Treatment Approaches: Clinician's Guide to Evidence Base and ApplicationsMinding AnimalsMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds, Brains, and LawMindsightMindworldsMirrors in the BrainMistakes Were Made (But Not by Me)Models of MadnessMoodMoral Development and RealityMoral MindsMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Mothers and OthersMotivation and Cognitive ControlMotivational Interviewing: Preparing People For ChangeMovies and the MindMulticulturalism and the Therapeutic ProcessMultiplicityMuses, Madmen, and ProphetsMy Family AlbumMyths about SuicideNarrative IdentitiesNarrative PsychiatryNarratives in PsychiatryNaturalizing Intention in ActionNature and NarrativeNature Via NurtureNeither Bad nor MadNerveNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeurochemistry of ConsciousnessNeurodiversityNeuroethicsNeuroLogicNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroscience and PhilosophyNo Child Left DifferentNo Two AlikeNot By Genes AloneNot Much Just Chillin'Not So Abnormal PsychologyNurturing the Older Brain and MindOn AnxietyOn Being an Introvert or Highly Sensitive PersonOn Being HumanOn Being MovedOn Deep History and the BrainOn DesireOn KillingOn Nature and LanguageOn PaedophiliaOn PersonalityOn the Frontier of AdulthoodOn the Origins of Cognitive ScienceOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOnflowOpen MindsOpening Skinner's BoxOrigin of MindOrigins of PsychopathologyOther MindsOut of Our HeadsOut of the WoodsOvercoming Depersonalization DisorderPanpsychism and the Religious AttitudePanpsychism in the WestParenting and the Child's WorldPassionate EnginesPathologies of the WestPatient-Based Approaches to Cognitive NeurosciencePediatric PsychopharmacologyPeople Types and Tiger StripesPerception & CognitionPerception beyond InferencePerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPersonal Development and Clinical PsychologyPerspectives on ImitationPhantoms in the BrainPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhrenologyPhysical RealizationPhysics in MindPieces of LightPlaying with FirePositive PsychologyPositive PsychologyPostcards from the Brain MuseumPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPoverty and Brain Development During ChildhoodPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical Management of Personality DisorderPractical Management of Personality DisorderPredicative MindsPredictably IrrationalPreference, Belief, and SimilarityPrenatal Testosterone in MindPrivileged AccessProcess-Based CBTProcrastinationProust Was a NeuroscientistPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsychological AgencyPsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychological Dimensions of the SelfPsychologists Defying the CrowdPsychologyPsychologyPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology for ScreenwritersPsychology of Women: A Handbook of Issues and TheoriesPsychology's GhostsPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology's TerritoriesPsychopathologyPsychopathyPsychosis and EmotionPsychotherapy, American Culture, and Social PolicyPutnam CampPutting a Name to ItQuantum Memory PowerQuietRadical DistortionRadical Embodied Cognitive ScienceRadical ExternalismRadical GraceRapeRe-Visioning PsychiatryReal MaterialismReality CheckReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecovery in Mental IllnessRecreative MindsRedirectReducing Adolescent RiskRegulating EmotionsRelational BeingRelational Mental HealthRelational Suicide AssessmentReliability in Cognitive NeuroscienceRemembering HomeRemembering Our ChildhoodResearch Advances in Genetics and GenomicsResearching Children's ExperienceResilience in ChildrenRestoring ResilienceRethinking ADHDRethinking Learning DisabilitiesRethinking Middle YearsRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfRevolution in PsychologyRoadmap to ResilienceRomance and Sex in Adolescence and Emerging AdulthoodSchadenfreudeSchizophrenia RevealedSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologySecond NatureSecond NatureSecond That EmotionSecond-order Change in PsychotherapySecrets of the MindSee What I'm SayingSee What I'm SayingSeeing and VisualizingSeeing RedSelf and SocietySelf Comes to MindSelf Control in Society, Mind, and BrainSelf-Awareness Deficits in Psychiatric PatientsSelf-CompassionSelf-Consciousness and 'Split' BrainsSelf-RegulationSelf-Representational Approaches to ConsciousnessSelfless InsightSelvesSerial KillersSex at DawnSex on the BrainSex, Time and PowerSexual Coercion in Primates and HumansSexual DisordersSexual FluiditySexual ReckoningsSexualized BrainsShame and GuiltShatteredSimulating MindsSisyphus's BoulderSleepyheadSNAPSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial Psychology and DiscourseSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSoul DustSparkSpiral of EntrapmentSplendors and Miseries of the BrainSports Hypnosis in PracticeStanding at Water's EdgeStich and His CriticsStillpowerStop OverreactingStructure and Agency in Everyday LifeStructures of AgencyStuffStumbling on HappinessSubjectivity and SelfhoodSubstance Abuse and EmotionSuicidalSupersizing the MindSweet DreamsSynaptic SelfTales from Both Sides of the BrainTalking Oneself SoberTalking to BabiesTaming the Troublesome ChildTargeting AutismTeaching Problems and the Problems of TeachingTeleological RealismTen Years of Viewing from WithinTestosterone RexThat's DisgustingThe 5 Elements of Effective ThinkingThe Accidental MindThe Age of EmpathyThe Altruism EquationThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Clinical PsychiatryThe Anatomy of BiasThe Anxious BrainThe Archaeology of MindThe Art and Science of MindfulnessThe Art InstinctThe Art of HypnosisThe Asymmetrical BrainThe Bifurcation of the SelfThe Big Book of ConceptsThe Big DisconnectThe Birth of IntersubjectivityThe Birth of the MindThe Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge ManagementThe Blank SlateThe Body Has a Mind of Its OwnThe Bounds of CognitionThe Boy Who Was Raised as a DogThe BrainThe BrainThe Brain and the Meaning of LifeThe Brain SupremacyThe Brain That Changes ItselfThe Brain's Way of HealingThe Brain: Big Bangs, Behaviors, and BeliefsThe Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive ScienceThe Cambridge Handbook of Situated CognitionThe Character of ConsciousnessThe Chemistry Between UsThe Choice EffectThe Clinical Science of Suicide PreventionThe Cognitive Approach to Conscious MachinesThe Cognitive Behavioral Workbook for Anxiety: A Step-By-Step ProgramThe Cognitive NeurosciencesThe Cognitive-Emotional BrainThe College Fear FactorThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Compass of PleasureThe Compassionate ConnectionThe Concepts of ConsciousnessThe Conscious BrainThe Conscious SelfThe Consuming InstinctThe Creating BrainThe Creative BrainThe Crucible of ConsciousnessThe Crucible of ExperienceThe Cure WithinThe Dao of NeuroscienceThe Developing MindThe Developing MindThe Development of PsychopathologyThe Disappearance of the Social in American Social PsychologyThe Dissolution of MindThe Duty to ProtectThe Educated ParentThe Ego TunnelThe Elephant in the RoomThe Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human ExperienceThe Emotional Foundations of PersonalityThe Emotional Journey of the Alzheimer's FamilyThe Encultured BrainThe Encyclopedia of StupidityThe Enduring Self in People with Alzheimer'sThe Epidemiology of SchizophreniaThe Essential DifferenceThe Ethical BrainThe Evolution of BeautyThe Evolution of ChildhoodThe Evolution of CooperationThe Evolution of LanguageThe Evolution of MindThe Evolving BrainThe Executive BrainThe Faces of TerrorismThe Feeling BrainThe Feeling of What HappensThe First IdeaThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Foundations of Cognitive ArchaeologyThe Fundamentalist MindsetThe GapThe Gender TrapThe Geography of BlissThe Gift of ShynessThe Good LifeThe Good LifeThe Happiness HypothesisThe Happiness of PursuitThe Health Psychology HandbookThe Healthy Aging BrainThe Heart of TraumaThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of PsychologyThe Human FaceThe Human SparkThe Hypomanic EdgeThe Imagery DebateThe Immeasurable MindThe Imprinted BrainThe Incredible Shrinking MindThe Innate MindThe Innate MindThe Integrated SelfThe Intentional BrainThe Language of ThoughtThe Languages of the BrainThe Lexicon of Adlerian PsychologyThe Lie DetectorsThe Lives of the BrainThe Lonely AmericanThe Lust for BloodThe Madness of WomenThe Male BrainThe Man Who Lost His LanguageThe Man Who Shocked the WorldThe Man Who Tasted ShapesThe Man Who Wasn't ThereThe Matter of the MindThe Mature MindThe Mean Girl MotiveThe Meaning of EvilThe Meaning of OthersThe Meaning of the BodyThe Measure of MadnessThe Measure of MindThe Medicalization of Everyday LifeThe Mind and the BrainThe Mind in ContextThe Mind of the ChildThe Mind of the HorseThe Mind's EyeThe Mind, the Body and the WorldThe Mind-Gut ConnectionThe Mindful BrainThe Misleading MindThe Moral MindThe Most Dangerous AnimalThe Most Human HumanThe Mother FactorThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of Depression as DiseaseThe Myth of Mirror NeuronsThe Myth of Self HelpThe Myth of Self-EsteemThe Myth of the Spoiled ChildThe Nature of the SelfThe Necessity Of MadnessThe Neuro RevolutionThe Neuron and the MindThe Neuropsychology of the UnconsciousThe Neuroscience of Human RelationshipsThe Neuroscience of PsychotherapyThe Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social BrainThe New BrainThe New Science of DreamingThe New Science of the MindThe New UnconsciousThe Normal PersonalityThe Origins of FairnessThe Overflowing BrainThe Oxford Companion to the MindThe Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of MindThe Paradoxical PrimateThe Perfectionist's HandbookThe Peripheral MindThe Phenomenology ReaderThe Philosopher's Secret FireThe Philosophical BabyThe Political MindThe Politics of HappinessThe Positive Side of Negative EmotionsThe Postnational SelfThe Postpartum EffectThe Power of PlayThe Praeger Handbook of TranssexualityThe Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday LifeThe Primate MindThe Prism of GrammarThe Psychobiology of Trauma and Resilience Across the LifespanThe Psychological Construction of EmotionThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of HappinessThe Psychology of LifestyleThe Psychology of Religious FundamentalismThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of SpiritualityThe Psychology of StereotypingThe Psychology of SuperheroesThe Psychophysiology of Self-AwarenessThe Pursuit of PerfectThe Quest for Mental HealthThe Rational ImaginationThe Ravenous BrainThe Reasons of LoveThe Righteous MindThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Handbook of ConsciousnessThe Science of EvilThe Science of Intimate RelationshipsThe Science of Shame and its Treatment The Second SelfThe Secret History of EmotionThe Secret Lives of BoysThe Self and Its EmotionsThe Self-Sabotage CycleThe Sense of SelfThe Sensitive SelfThe Shape of ThoughtThe Social AnimalThe Social Nature of Mental IllnessThe Social Neuroscience of EmpathyThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Story of Intellectual DisabilityThe Structure of ThinkingThe Survivors ClubThe Talking ApeThe Teenage BrainThe Tell-Tale BrainThe Temperamental ThreadThe Tender CutThe Tending InstinctThe Time ParadoxThe Trauma MythThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trouble with IllnessThe True PathThe Truth About GriefThe Turing TestThe Uncertain SciencesThe Undoing ProjectThe Unhappy ChildThe Upside of IrrationalityThe War for Children's MindsThe Well-Tuned BrainThe Wild Girl, Natural Man, and the MonsterThe Winner's BrainThe Wisdom in FeelingThe Woman RacketThe World in My Mind, My Mind in the WorldThe Wow ClimaxThe Yipping TigerThemes, Issues and Debates in PsychologyTheoretical Issues in Psychology: An IntroductionTheory of AddictionTheory of MindThings and PlacesThink CatThink Confident, Be ConfidentThinking about AddictionThinking and SeeingThis Emotional Life: In Search of Ourselves...and HappinessThought and LanguageThought in a Hostile WorldTo Have and To Hurt:Toward an Evolutionary Biology of LanguageToward Replacement Parts for the BrainTrauma and Human ExistenceTrauma, Tragedy, TherapyTreating Attachment DisordersTreating Self-InjuryTreating Self-Injury: A Practical GuideTrue to Our FeelingsTrusting the Subject?Understanding and Treating Borderline Personality DisorderUnderstanding ConsciousnessUnderstanding ParanoiaUnderstanding PeopleUnderstanding TerrorismUndoing Perpetual StressUnlock the Genius WithinUnsettled MindsUnstrange MindsUnthinkingUnthoughtUs and ThemViolent PartnersVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVision and MindVisual AgnosiaWarrior's DishonourWe Who Are DarkWednesday Is Indigo BlueWelcome to Your BrainWhat Do Women Want?What Dying People WantWhat Have We DoneWhat Intelligence Tests MissWhat Is an Emotion: Classic and Contemporary ReadingsWhat Is Emotion?What is Intelligence?What Is Mental Illness?What Is Thought?What Makes Your Brain Happy and Why You Should Do the Opposite What the Best College Students DoWhat the Dog SawWhat We Know about Emotional IntelligenceWhat We Say MattersWhat's Wrong With Morality?When Boys Become BoysWhen Perfect Isn't Good EnoughWhen the Impossible HappensWhen Walls Become DoorwaysWho's Been Sleeping in Your HeadWho's in Charge?Why Humans Like to CryWhy Love MattersWhy Lyrics LastWhy People CooperateWhy People Die by SuicideWhy Sex Matters: A Darwinian Look at Human BehaviorWhy Smart People Can Be So StupidWhy the Mind is Not a ComputerWhy Us?Why We LieWhy We LoveWhy We SleepWider than the SkyWilliam James at the BoundariesWilling, Wanting, WaitingWittgenstein And PsychologyWomen and Child Sexual AbuseWorking MindsYoga and PsychologyYou Are What You RememberYoung Minds in Social WorldsYour Brain on CubsYour Brain on FoodYour Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings,Your Brain on YogaYour Child in the BalanceZombies and Consciousness
Writing in 2005, in a chapter of the notorious Livre Noir de la Psychanalyse aimed at nullifying the Freudian claim that suggestion has nothing to do with analytic therapy, Mikkel Borch-Jacobsen presents the reader with the following dilemma: '[...] is there such a creature as an objective "psychological reality" [réalité psychique]? Or rather the reality one encounters in psychology and in psychotherapy is always constructed, produced, fabricated by [...] "expectations" [...]?' (pp. 386-7, my translation). In his new book, Making Minds and Madness, as in his previous writings, Borch-Jacobsen argues for the latter. Things psychological are not passive bits of nature, like rocks or livers, but entities that emerge from -- often tacit -- negotiations, choices and complicities. Social contracts rule not only the realm of politics, but all human affairs, including the design of the lenses through which we come to see our minds. The epistemologically inclined will be interested to learn that psycho(patho)logical entities, from hysteria to depression, as the subtitle has it, are not discovered, but 'made', i.e. decided upon. Such is the organizing idea of Making Minds and Madness. What the idea organizes is not new material (with the exception of one chapter, #12) though some of the chapters have not been published in English before. Readers of Le Débat or the London Review of Books will be familiar with more than a few of them, and such an educated but not expert audience remains the intended readership of the book.
In terms of structure, a methodological Introduction opens into four asymmetrical sections. The Introduction is representative of the book, in sharing both its qualities and its weaknesses. Borch-Jacobsen proposes to overcome 'the old theoretical complicity between the historian and the psychiatrist ' (p. 4) and to write a history of the field that is less 'iatrocentric' (dependent on the doctors' point of view). This recommendation is supported by the author's conception of the nature of mental illness. To his merit, Borch-Jacobsen, though relentlessly constructivist, steers clear of antipsychiatric clichés. He distinguishes between diseases that have a clear biological cause and which, as a consequence, are 'ahistorical' (i.e. Alzheimer), and claims that most psychiatric disorders do not fall under such a model. Rather, they are historical phenomena influenced by how both doctors and patients think and speak of them. The task of the historian then is to describe the life cycles of these performative 'idioms'.
This view of mental illness merits close attention. In saying that mental illness is constructed, Borch-Jacobsen does not deny that it is real. The 'inference' from saying that an illness is socially constructed to claiming that it is therefore fictional remains safely in the possession of antipsychiatrists. Moreover, according to Borch-Jacobsen, the 'language' of suffering that a disease provides is not simply a vehicle for expressing already existing, well-defined ills. The presence of such an 'idiom' in a culture has a contribution to fabricating the ills in the first place. The past epidemic of sophisticated sexual complexes might have been in fact an epidemic of psychoanalysis. The present epidemic of depression might be a partly commercial epidemic of antidepressants. This is an important idea, and in emphasizing the active role of those suffering, Borch-Jacobsen manages to illuminate it from a fresh angle.
As for the weaknesses, leaving aside the fact that many might justifiably disagree with Borch-Jacobsen's labeling most psychiatric disorders 'historical' (he contradicts himself at times, e.g. when he talks about the remarkably consistent descriptions of melancholy over time), there is one serious issue with his view of mental illness, and this doubt extends over the whole book. Speaking any language presupposes rationality, so the 'idiom' of mental illnesses will presuppose it too. Symptoms will collapse into the category of speech acts, and madness, as a consequence, will have at best an ambiguous relation with rationality. This amounts to a near refutation and is certainly an irony: it makes less sense to accuse psychoanalysts of interpretative adventurism when one insists that 'However aberrant or incomprehensible they might appear at first glance, the patient's symptoms are always distress signals, calls for help' (p. 7). Perhaps Borch-Jacobsen is too eager to argue that 'madness is always a folie à deux' (p. 8), i.e. that is collaborative work, and he forgets that one still deals with a 'folie', with unreason.
The first three sections of the book consist, mostly, of a multifaceted attack on psychoanalysis. Out of the nine chapters included in these sections, five have psychoanalysis as their main target, while the others indirectly contribute to caging Borch-Jacobsen's bête noire. This is not at all surprising from an author who is an important participant in the 'Freud wars', indeed one of the vehement public critics of 'psychodynamic' theories. Even if unnecessarily loud at points, Mikkel Borch-Jacobsen's acid reconstruction of the origins of psychoanalysis is meticulous and convincingly knowledgeable. It forms, by far, I think, the best part of the book.
The offensive begins with a chapter dedicated to the prehistory of psychoanalysis. The idea that neuroses have a traumatic origin and that shock is followed by amnesia has its roots in Charcot's work. Borch-Jacobsen shows that there was very little initial support for this claim, and that Charcot and his team at the Salpêtrière went on to create, by 'coaching' patients, 'a true psychiatric myth, fated to a grand future: the patient is entirely ignorant of the trauma that caused his symptoms.' (p. 30).
Freud thought that once he had eliminated (Charcotian) hypnosis from his therapeutic arsenal, he had thereby escaped the dangers of molding his patients' behavior, by suggestion, according to his own expectations. Chapters 2, and 5 to 9 give reasons to think Freud was not only wrong, but hypocritical. Chapter 2 documents the trajectory of seduction theory in the 1890s. The theory had it that hysteria was caused by sexual abuse, the memories of which Freud was able to recover in many of his patients at the time. Borch-Jacobsen offers conclusive evidence that this hypothesis was not motivated by clinical material, but preceded it (p. 48), and it was exported to patients by mechanisms of suggestion other than hypnosis (e.g. authoritative questioning). Symmetrically, under this umbrella of 'imaginary positivism' (p. 167), the theory did not die out because it lacked clinical data (the supply of memories of seduction seemed inexhaustible), but because the shaky nature of the patients' stories became obvious. It is here that Borch-Jacobsen parts ways with other critics of Freud, arguing that the 'scenes' of seduction were not simply Freud's inventions, but, at least in some cases, the way 'his patients actively responded to his suggestions, "reproducing" all the scenes that he expected of them.' (p. 51)
This story of seduction and suggestion becomes clearer in chapters 5 and 6. Discussing the work of Bernheim and Delbœuf, Borch-Jacobsen shows that, while extensively working with hypnosis, they arrived at the correct categorization of it as a species of suggestion among others. Their lucidity on the matter exceeded that of Freud, who based his postulation of the unconscious on the above mentioned move: no hypnosis, no suggestion. There are unconscious ideas, very roughly, because, since the patient has not been hypnotized, they could not have been suggested to her. An obviously fallacious argument, and a recipe for 'hypnosis without hypnosis' (p. 133) and for 'interprefaction' (p. 165) -- the production by contagious interpretation of the facts that were supposed to be observed.
This criticism is recurrent and takes center stage in the third part of the book (chapters 7 to 9), together with more serious accusations of endemic forgery. Borch-Jacobsen's use of the historical record is impressive. Chapter 7, for example, illustrates the founding bluffs of psychoanalysis, an enterprise similar to the summary of Freud's dismal therapeutic record in the second section of the Livre Noir (Borch-Jacobsen has also written a book-length account of the case of 'Anna O.'). We learn not only that the case histories which played 'an exorbitant epistemological role in psychoanalysis' (p. 144) were doctored, but that often enough they ignored the vocal opposition of the patients to the interpretations proposed by Freud. Whether such breaches of contract fit the suggestion model is a good question. Borch-Jacobsen emphasizes constantly the cooperative construction of psychopathologies, but the fact that patients 'are inevitable interested in the theories of which they are the object' (p. 165) does not translate into a invariable willingness to confirm the expectations of their doctors. Very likely, this signals both a degree a vagueness and a limit of the model of suggestion / interprefaction.
The interprefaction metaphor which informs chapter 8 captures the illegitimate transition between speculative interpretation and observation in yet stronger terms. On the one hand, we have the already discussed story of suggestion, the manufacturing of 'idioms of distress' by the duet doctor-patient, but there is also a stronger emphasis on the epistemological apparatus of psychoanalysis, on the selling of airy speculation as hard fact to the general intellectual market. There are epidemics which infect not only the ill, but whole cultures. Such epidemics are aggravated, as chapter 9 shows, by packing psychoanalysis, an empty theory, into an illusion of progress given by the fact that it easily branched into variants. There is no progress in this case because there is no metric of progress; it is not as if previous versions, including Freud's founding one, have been falsified and replaced by more resilient theories. This does not mean, however, that Borch-Jacobsen believes that there could be an objective psychological reality against which to unmask Freud's misconduct or the impossibility of progress in a 'zero theory' (Livre Noir) like psychoanalysis. He parts ways again, in this case, with 'realist' critics, by extending his constructivism to psychology and human sciences in general. Freud was a liar, but what he concealed was his production of artifacts, not an independent psycho(patho)logical) reality. There isn't any.
This generalized anti-realist stance about human sciences serves well to introduce the remaining chapters of the book and to formulate a number of conclusions. Given that we deal with a collection of previously published materials, it is perhaps not surprising that the book is not consistent in the ways it departs from its core (the criticism of psychoanalysis). But, overall, it is in these sections of the book that Borch-Jacobsen tries to show how the model extracted from his detective work on the origins of psychoanalysis can be applied to other areas of the study and treatment of the mind. The horizon of this effort is the idea that his model holds generally.
Chapters 3 and 4 add to the case of constructivism. The former deconstructs the disturbing history of the impact of one book, Flora Rheta Schreiber's 1973 bestseller Sybil, on the recent temporary inflation of multiple personality disorder (MPD), particularly in the US. Marketed as a solid case history, the book has turned out to be a dubious assembly of fact, fiction and wishful thinking. That such a forgery could lead to an escalation of diagnosis with all its accompanying effects is not only a reminder of the most dubious 'successes' of psychoanalysis, but evidence that the manufacturing of exotic varieties of madness did not stop with Freud. However, it is less clear what one can deduce from the MPD craze. Borch-Jacobsen wants to see in it a confirmation of his collaborative constructivism: 'Humans, even when afflicted with psychiatric disorders, are fully qualified actors [...]. They cooperate with doctors, theories, and institutions to keep the syndrome they suffer from alive.'(p. 71). While this might be the case with MPD, some psychiatric illnesses are, to return to the Introduction, 'ahistorical'. In what sense a psychotic person undergoing an acute delusional episode is a 'fully qualified actor' one can only wonder.
Chapter 4, a discussion of Ian Hacking's concept of 'transient mental illnesses', provides an explanatory machinery for a life cycle of psychopathologies as that exemplified by MPD. Like organisms, these illnesses adapt to 'ecological niches', that is, to local social conditions. While Hacking is careful to distinguish between the transient and the 'real' mental diseases (e.g. schizophrenia), Borch-Jacobsen pushes constructivism to the limit (indeed, beyond it), and leaves behind his own more prudent phrasing, by expressing doubts about any such distinction. His attempt to patch this unconvincing generalization with a kind of Wittgensteinian refusal of depth is, to my mind, disappointing.
This risky tendency manifests itself fully in the fourth part of the book, which, as a consequence, is strikingly weaker than the rest of the text. Borch-Jacobsen develops in these chapters (10 to 13) a taste for hasty generalizations and allows his prose to become repetitive and programmatic. This section begins with a loose criticism of the victory of the 'men in white' (biologically inclined psychiatrists) over the 'men in tweed' (psychodynamically oriented psychiatrists). One is offered the usual menu: the suggestion that Western biological psychiatry can be seen by the 'symmetrical anthropologist' as a belief system about madness as any other, including in terms of its capacity to treat mental illnesses; the attack on the DSM system; the doubts about the 'way in which therapeutic efficacy is measured and demonstrated in modern medicine.' (p. 192); the accusation that the hegemony of medication has led to a 'barbaric system' (p. 193) in which 'prisons [...] have, to a large extent, replaced asylums.'(p. 194); the unmasking of the dark role of the pharmaceutical industry in the marketing of profitable illnesses; and a description of the increasingly challenged (by patient groups) deficit of democracy in psychiatric practice.
Some of these ideas are worth discussing and, without exception, they have been and continue to be the subject of extensive debates (e.g. certainly the field can do better than mistake the DSM approach for scientific medicine). Leaving aside that Borch-Jacobsen's treatment of even these legitimate topics is often biased (even in the better parts of this section, in chapter 12), some of his claims lack any reasonable justification. His attack on the double-blind, placebo-controlled testing reads like a summary of Bentall's Doctoring the Mind, a recent revival of antipsychiatric dogma. This is not a compliment. Even worse is his insistence to extend the paradigm of multiparty constructivism to all 'sciences of the psyche' (p. 128) and their applications. It is one thing to criticize Big Pharma for acting like a 'depression cartel' (p. 199), and quite another to overuse the terminology of 'recruitment' to the point of emptying it of any meaning: 'Antidepressants [...] "recruit" depressives, and do so because they work.' (p. 201). Same goes for democratization. It is best not to confuse the patients' experience of their diseases with expertise (p. 216). But the most important mistake, I think, is the leveling of vital differences. Borch-Jacobsen speaks earlier in his book about 'the end of psychology' (p. 120) and the 'impossibility of psychology' (p. 128), and the idea that psycho(patho)logy is impossible as a science of passive, objective stuff is recurrent in the text. However, going from this interesting though controversial stance to putting psychopharmacology and psychotherapy (or psychoanalysis and experimental psychology) in the same boat is a blunder. Not because psychopharmacology or experimental psychology are epistemologically flawless, but because faced with the kind of criticisms that Borch-Jacobsen himself levels against psychodynamic theories they fare better. This difference of degree is all important.
Psycho(patho)logy was left by the waves of Freudianism in a mess. Borch-Jacobsen, as in other occasions, offers a convincing and erudite demonstration thereof. His account of the MPD epidemic is a condensation of scholarly and detective work at their finest. When he is not abusing the concept of transient mental illnesses and the illustrations of the power of psychiatric concepts to recruit willing adepts, he builds a credible argument for considering some mental illnesses interactive. But in generalizing this model of mental illness as contract and complicity he has a much weaker case. As Daniel Eisenstein observed in the London Review of Books about an earlier version of the present book's chapter 9, 'As for the fashionable idea that mental suffering mimics trends in psychoanalytic theory, tell that to an eight-year-old silently in the grip of acute obsessional anxiety.' The criticism Borch-Jacobsen draws from such unwarranted generalizations inherits their flaws. Biomedical psychiatry is not without sins, but is not 'a form of rhetoric' (p. 202) and psycho(patho)logy, more often than not, is not a category of politics. Madness can be 'made' and perhaps seeing it in such contexts as a 'life-form' (p. 228) is not without merit, but one has to wonder whether that is the rule, and whether it is not better to speak, in such cases, of 'madness'.
© 2011 George Tudorie
George Tudorie is a PhD student in philosophy, Central European University, Budapest; and teaching assistant, College of Communication and PR, Bucharest.