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A Theory of Feelings Anger and Forgiveness"My Madness Saved Me"10 Good Questions about Life and Death12 Modern Philosophers50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a GodA Cabinet of Philosophical CuriositiesA Case for IronyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to Buddhist PhilosophyA Companion to FoucaultA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to HumeA Companion to KantA Companion to Phenomenology and ExistentialismA Companion to PragmatismA Companion to the Philosophy of ActionA Companion to the Philosophy of BiologyA Companion to the Philosophy of LiteratureA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Critical Overview of Biological FunctionsA Critique of Naturalistic Philosophies of MindA Cursing Brain?A Delicate BalanceA Farewell to AlmsA Frightening LoveA Future for PresentismA Guide to the Good LifeA History of PsychiatryA History of the MindA Life Worth LivingA Manual of Experimental PhilosophyA Map of the MindA Metaphysics of PsychopathologyA Mind So RareA Natural History of Human MoralityA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Natural History of VisionA Parliament of MindsA Philosopher Looks at The Sense of HumorA Philosophical DiseaseA Philosophy of BoredomA Philosophy of Cinematic ArtA Philosophy of CultureA Philosophy of EmptinessA Philosophy of FearA Philosophy of PainA Physicalist ManifestoA Place for ConsciousnessA Question of TrustA Research Agenda for DSM-VA Revolution of the MindA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Stroll With William JamesA Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Theory of FreedomA Thousand MachinesA Universe of ConsciousnessA Very Bad WizardA Very Bad Wizard: Morality Behind the CurtainA Virtue EpistemologyA World Full of GodsA World Without ValuesAbout FaceAbout the Beginning of the Hermeneutics of the SelfAction and ResponsibilityAction in ContextAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionAction, Contemplation, and HappinessAction, Emotion and WillAdam SmithAdaptive DynamicsAddictionAddictionAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction Is a ChoiceAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAftermathAfterwarAgainst AdaptationAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HappinessAgainst HealthAgency and ActionAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and EmbodimentAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAl-JununAlain BadiouAlain BadiouAlasdair MacIntyreAlien Landscapes?Altered EgosAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Ethics for TodayAn Intellectual History of CannibalismAn Interpretation of DesireAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy An Introduction to Philosophy of EducationAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of PsychologyAn Introductory Philosophy of MedicineAn Odd Kind of FameAnalytic FreudAnalytic Philosophy in AmericaAncient AngerAncient Models of MindAncient Philosophy of the SelfAngerAnimal LessonsAnimal MindsAnimals Like UsAnnihilationAnother PlanetAnswers for AristotleAnti-ExternalismAnti-Individualism and KnowledgeAntigone’s ClaimAntipsychiatryAre We Hardwired?Are Women Human?Arguing about DisabilityArguing About Human NatureAristotle and the Philosophy of FriendshipAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's ChildrenAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle, Emotions, and EducationArt & MoralityArt After Conceptual ArtArt in Three DimensionsArt, Self and KnowledgeArtificial ConsciousnessArtificial HappinessAspects of PsychologismAsylum to ActionAtonement and ForgivenessAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutobiography as PhilosophyAutonomyAutonomy and Mental DisorderAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismBabies by DesignBackslidingBadiouBadiou's DeleuzeBadiou, Balibar, Ranciere: Rethinking EmancipationBare Facts And Naked TruthsBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBattlestar Galactica and PhilosophyBe Like the FoxBeautyBecoming a SubjectBecoming HumanBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing AmoralBeing HumanBeing Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory Being No OneBeing Realistic about ReasonsBeing ReducedBeing YourselfBelief's Own EthicsBending Over BackwardsBerlin Childhood around 1900Bernard WilliamsBertrand RussellBetter than BothBetter Than WellBetween Two WorldsBeyond HealthBeyond Hegel and NietzscheBeyond KuhnBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond PostmodernismBeyond ReductionBeyond SchizophreniaBeyond the DSM StoryBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics in the ClinicBiological Complexity and Integrative PluralismBiology Is TechnologyBiosBipolar ExpeditionsBlackwell Companion to the Philosophy of EducationBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlues - Philosophy for EveryoneBlushBob Dylan and PhilosophyBody ConsciousnessBody Image And Body SchemaBody ImagesBody LanguageBody MattersBody WorkBody-Subjects and Disordered MindsBoundBoundaries of the MindBoyleBrain Evolution and CognitionBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-WiseBrainchildrenBrains, Buddhas, and BelievingBrainstormingBrave New WorldsBreakdown of WillBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and FaithBrief Therapy Homework PlannerBritain on the CouchBritish Idealism and the Concept of the SelfBrute RationalityBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyBut Is It Art?Camus and SartreCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCarving Nature at Its JointsCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsCassandra's DaughterCato's TearsCausation and CounterfactualsCauses, Laws, and Free WillChanging Conceptions of the Child from the Renaissance to Post-ModernityChanging the SubjectChaosophyCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionCharles DarwinCherishmentChildhood and the Philosophy of EducationChildrenChildren, Families, and Health Care Decision MakingChoices and ConflictChoosing Not to ChooseChristmas - Philosophy for EveryoneCinema, Philosophy, BergmanCinematic MythmakingCity and Soul in Plato's RepublicClassifying MadnessClear and Queer ThinkingClinical EthicsClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyCodependent ForevermoreCoffee - Philosophy for EveryoneCognition and the BrainCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognition Through Understanding: Self-Knowledge, Interlocution, Reasoning, ReflectionCognitive BiologyCognitive FictionsCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Systems and the Extended Mind Cognitive Theories of Mental IllnessCoherence in Thought and ActionCollected Papers, Volume 1Collected Papers, Volume 2College SexComedy IncarnateCommitmentCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentConcealment And ExposureConceptual Analysis and Philosophical NaturalismConceptual Art and PaintingConceptual Issues in Evolutionary BiologyConfessionsConfucianismConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConquest of AbundanceConscience and ConvenienceConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the SelfConsciousness EmergingConsciousness EvolvingConsciousness ExplainedConsciousness in ActionConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Color, and ContentConsole and ClassifyConstructing the WorldConstructive AnalysisContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Philosophy of BiologyContemporary Debates in Philosophy of MindContemporary Debates in Political PhilosophyContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContemporary Perspectives on Natural LawContested Knowledge: Social Theory TodayContesting PsychiatryContext and the AttitudesContinental Philosophy of ScienceControlControlling Our DestiniesConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCopernicus, Darwin and FreudCrazy for YouCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCreating ConsilienceCreating HysteriaCreating Mental IllnessCreating Scientific ConceptsCreating the American JunkieCreation, Rationality and AutonomyCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCrimes of ReasonCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychiatryCritical PsychologyCritical ResistanceCritical Thinking About PsychologyCritical VisionsCross and KhoraCruel CompassionCTRL [SPACE]Cultural Psychology of the SelfCultural Theory: An IntroductionCulture and Psychiatric DiagnosisCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCulture of DeathCultures of NeurastheniaCurious EmotionsCurrent Controversies in Experimental PhilosophyCustom and Reason in HumeCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCutting God in Half - And Putting the Pieces Together AgainCylons in AmericaDamaged IdentitiesDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous EmotionsDaniel DennettDaniel DennettDark AgesDarwin and DesignDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDarwin, God and the Meaning of LifeDarwinian PsychiatryDarwinian ReductionismDarwinizing CultureDating: Philosophy for EveryoneDeathDeathDeath and CharacterDeath and CompassionDeath and the AfterlifeDebating DesignDebating HumanismDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecomposing the WillDeconstructing PsychotherapyDeconstruction and DemocracyDeeper Than DarwinDeeper than ReasonDefending Science - within ReasonDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDegrees of BeliefDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions and Other Irrational BeliefsDelusions and the Madness of the MassesDementiaDemons, Dreamers, and MadmenDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDennett’s PhilosophyDepression Is a ChoiceDepression, Emotion and the SelfDepthDerrida, Deleuze, PsychoanalysisDescartesDescartes and the Passionate MindDescartes' CogitoDescartes's Changing MindDescartes's Concept of MindDescribing Inner Experience?Descriptions and PrescriptionsDesembodied Spirits and Deanimated Bodies Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Desire and AffectDesire, Love, and IdentityDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDeveloping the VirtuesDiagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersDialectics of the SelfDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital SoulDimensional Models of Personality DisordersDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDisjunctivismDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDispatches from the Freud WarsDisrupted LivesDistractionDisturbed ConsciousnessDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Do We Still Need Doctors?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Does the Woman Exist?Doing without ConceptsDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDonald DavidsonDonald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the MentalDoubting Darwin?Dreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR CasebookDworkin and His CriticsDying to KnowDynamics in ActionDysthymia and the Spectrum of Chronic DepressionsEccentricsEducational MetamorphosesEffective IntentionsElbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth WantingEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbodied RhetoricsEmbodied Selves and Divided MindsEmbryos under the MicroscopeEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotionEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion and PsycheEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotional ReasonEmotional ReasonEmotional TruthEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions, Value, and AgencyEmpathyEmpathy and AgencyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpathy in the Context of PhilosophyEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEnchanted LoomsEngaging BuddhismEngineering the Human GermlineEnjoymentEnvyEpicureanismEpistemic LuckEpistemologyEpistemology and EmotionsEpistemology and the Psychology of Human JudgmentEros and the GoodErotic MoralityEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssays in the Metaphysics of Mind Essays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEssays on Nonconceptual ContentEssays on Philosophical CounselingEssays on Reference, Language, and MindEssays on the Concept of Mind in Early-Modern PhilosophyEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEsssential Philosophy of PsychiatryEternal Sunshine of the Spotless MindEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in Human CloningEthical TheoryEthicsEthicsEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics in Plain EnglishEthics in PracticeEthics in Psychiatric ResearchEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEuropean Review of Philosophy. Vol. 5Everyday IrrationalityEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolutionEvolution and the Human MindEvolution's RainbowEvolutionary Origins of MoralityEvolutionary PsychologyExamined LifeExamined LivesExistential AmericaExistentialismExistentialism and Romantic LoveExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and NaturalismExperiments in EthicsExplaining ConsciousnessExplaining the BrainExplaining the Computational MindExplanatory PluralismExploding the Gene MythExploring HappinessExploring the SelfExpression and the InnerExpressions of JudgmentFaces of IntentionFact and ValueFact and Value in EmotionFacts, Values, and NormsFads and Fallacies in the Social SciencesFaith and Wisdom in ScienceFatherhoodFear of KnowledgeFearless SpeechFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFeelings of BeingFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminism and Philosophy of ScienceFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist Interpretations of Rene DescartesFeminist TheoryField Notes from ElsewhereFinding Consciousness in the BrainFingerprints of GodFlesh in the Age of ReasonFolk Psychological NarrativesFolk Psychology Re-AssessedForces of HabitForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and RetributionFoucault 2.0Foucault and PhilosophyFoucault NowFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in PsychologyFour Views on Free WillFrank Ramsey (1903-1930)Free WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree Will and Action ExplanationFree Will and LuckFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree: Why Science Hasn't Disproved Free WillFreedomFreedom and DeterminismFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom and ResponsibiltyFreedom and ValueFreedom EvolvesFreedom RegainedFreedom vs. InterventionFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFreudFreud and the Question of PseudoscienceFreud As PhilosopherFreud's AnswerFreud, the Reluctant PhilosopherFriedrich NietzscheFrom Chance to ChoiceFrom Clinic to ClassroomFrom Complexity to LifeFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution for Science and the HumanitiesFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrontiers of ConsciousnessFrontiers of JusticeFurnishing the MindGalileo in PittsburghGenderGender and Mental HealthGender in the MirrorGender TroubleGenesGenes, Women, EqualityGenetic Nature/CultureGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetic SecretsGenocide's AftermathGenomes and What to Make of ThemGerman Idealism and the JewGerman PhilosophyGetting HookedGilles DeleuzeGlobal PhilosophyGluttonyGod and Phenomenal ConsciousnessGoffman's LegacyGoing Amiss in Experimental ResearchGoodness & AdviceGrassroots SpiritualityGrave MattersGrave MattersGreedGreek Models of Mind and SelfGut ReactionsHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHabits of MindHallucinationHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of EmotionsHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness and EducationHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHappiness, Death, and the Remainder of LifeHard LuckHarmful ThoughtsHaving the World in ViewHealing PsychiatryHealing the Soul in the Age of the BrainHealth, Illness and DiseaseHealth, Science, and Ordinary LanguageHegelHeidegger and a Metaphysics of FeelingHeidegger, Metaphysics and the Univocity of BeingHermann von Helmholtz's MechanismHermeneutics As PoliticsHeterophobiaHeterosyncraciesHeuristics and BiasesHeuristics and the LawHidden ResourcesHidden SelvesHiding from HumanityHigh Art LiteHistorical OntologyHistory of Psychiatry and Medical PsychologyHistory, Historicity And ScienceHobbesHomosexualitiesHope and Dread in PsychoanalysisHot ThoughtHow Can I Be Trusted?How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains?How Do We Know Who We Are?How Emotions WorkHow Emotions WorkHow History Made the MindHow Images ThinkHow is Nature Possible?How Propaganda WorksHow Science WorksHow Scientific Practices MatterHow Scientists Explain DiseaseHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Make Opportunity EqualHow to Solve the Mind-Body Problemhow to stop timeHow to Think More About SexHow We HopeHow We ReasonHuman CloningHuman Development, Language and the Future of MankindHuman EnhancementHuman Evolution, Reproduction, and MoralityHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman NatureHuman NatureHuman Nature and the Limits of ScienceHuman-Built WorldHumanismHumanism, What's That?HumanityHumans, Animals, MachinesHumeHumeHume on Motivation and VirtueHusserlHystoriesI of the VortexI Was WrongIdeas that MatterIdentifying the MindIdentity and Agency in Cultural WorldsIgnorance and ImaginationIllnessImagination and Its PathologiesImagination and the Meaningful BrainImagining NumbersImmortal RemainsImproving Nature?In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of HealthIn Defense of SentimentalityIn Love With LifeIn Praise of Athletic BeautyIn Praise of the WhipIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of HappinessIn the Name of GodIn the Name of IdentityIn the Space of ReasonsIn Two MindsIncompatibilism's AllureIndividual Differences in Conscious ExperienceInfinity and PerspectiveInformation ArtsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchIngmar Bergman, Cinematic PhilosopherInhuman ThoughtsInner PresenceInsanityIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntelligent VirtueIntentionIntentionality, Deliberation and AutonomyIntentions and IntentionalityIntentions and IntentionalityInterpreting MindsInterpreting NietzscheIntroducing Greek PhilosophyIntrospection and ConsciousnessIntrospection VindicatedIntuition, Imagination, and Philosophical MethodologyIntuitionismInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIrrationalityIs Academic Feminism Dead?Is It Me or My Meds?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is Oedipus Online?Is Science Neurotic?Is Science Value Free?Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion?Is There a Duty to Die?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJacques LacanJacques RancièreJacques RanciereJean-Paul SartreJohn McDowellJohn SearleJohn Searle's Ideas About Social RealityJohn Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill and the Writing of CharacterJoint AttentionJokesJonathan EdwardsJudging and UnderstandingJustice for ChildrenJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeKantKant and MiltonKant and the Fate of AutonomyKant and the Limits of AutonomyKant and the Role of Pleasure in Moral ActionKant on Freedom, Law, and HappinessKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Anatomy of EvilKant's Anatomy of the Intelligent MindKant's Theory of VirtueKarl JaspersKarl PopperKey Concepts in PhilosophyKierkegaardKierkegaard as PhenomenologistKierkegaard's Concept of DespairKierkegaard's MuseKinds of MindsKinds, Things, and StuffKnowing, Knowledge and BeliefsKnowledge MonopoliesKnowledge, Belief, and CharacterKnowledge, Possibility, and ConsciousnessLacanLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLanguageLanguage in ContextLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Culture, and MindLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw and the BrainLaw, Liberty, and PsychiatryLaws, Mind, and Free WillLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberatory PsychiatryLife and ActionLife at the Texas State Lunatic Asylum, 1857-1997Life Is Not a Game of PerfectLife of the MindLife's FormLife, Death, & MeaningLife, Death, and Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of UtilityLife, Sex, and IdeasLight in the Dark RoomLike a Splinter in Your MindLiving and Dying WellLiving NarrativeLiving Outside Mental IllnessLiving with DarwinLiving With One’s PastLockeLocke LockeLogic and the Art of Memory Loneliness in Philosophy, Psychology, and LiteratureLooking for SpinozaLooking for The StrangerLost SoulsLOT 2LoveLoveLove's ConfusionsLove's VisionLove, Friendship, and the SelfLove, Sex & TragedyLuckyLudwig WittgensteinLustLyingMachine ConsciousnessMad for FoucaultMad TravelersMade with WordsMadness And Death In PhilosophyMadness and DemocracyMadness at HomeMadness Is CivilizationMaking Natural KnowledgeMaking Sense of EvolutionMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMaking the DSM-5Making the Social WorldMaking TruthMale Female EmailMan, Beast, and ZombieMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManiaManic Depression and CreativityMapping the Edges and the In-betweenMapping the Future of BiologyMarcus AureliusMaster PassionsMatters of the MindMe++Meaning and Moral OrderMeaning and Value in a Secular AgeMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeaning, Basic Self-Knowledge, and MindMeasuring HappinessMeasuring PsychopathologyMedia MadnessMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedicine of the PersonMedicine, Mental Health, Religion, Science and Well-BeingMelancholy And the Care of the SoulMelancholy and the Otherness of GodMementoMemory and NarrativeMental ActionsMental CausationMental Causation and OntologyMental HealthMental Health At The CrossroadsMental Health Policy in BritainMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMerleau-PontyMerleau-Ponty and the Possibilities of PhilosophyMetacognition and Theory of MindMetacreationMetaethical SubjectivismMetaethicsMetal and FleshMetaphors of MemoryMetapoliticsMethods in MindMichel FoucaultMill's UtilitarianismMindMindMind and ConsciousnessMind and CosmosMind and MechanismMind GamesMind in a Physical WorldMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind in LifeMind TimeMind's LandscapeMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMind, Brain, and Free WillMind, Reason and ImaginationMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds and PersonsMinds, Brains, and LawMinds, Ethics, and ConditionalsMindshapingMindsightMindworldsMirror, MirrorMixed FeelingsMockingbird YearsModels of the SelfModern Social ImaginariesModern Theories of JusticeModernity and SubjectivityModernity and TechnologyMoody Minds DistemperedMoral BrainsMoral DimensionsMoral FailureMoral ImaginationMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral ParticularismMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology and Human AgencyMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Moral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMotherhoodMotive and RightnessMoving Beyond Prozac, DSM, and the New PsychiatryMultiple Analogies in Science and PhilosophyMultiple Identities & False MemoriesMusic, Madness, and the Unworking of LanguageMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Double UnveiledMy WayNarrativeNarrative and IdentityNarrative MedicineNarrative PsychiatryNarrative Theory and the Cognitive SciencesNatural Ethical FactsNatural Kinds and Conceptual ChangeNatural MindsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalism and the First-Person PerspectiveNaturalism and the Human ConditionNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalized BioethicsNaturalizing the MindNatureNature and NarrativeNear Death ExperienceNeither Bad nor MadNeither Victim nor SurvivorNeuro-Philosophy and the Healthy MindNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neurophilosophy at WorkNeurophilosophy of Free WillNeuropoliticsNeuropsychoanalysis in PracticeNeuroscience and PhilosophyNew Essays on the Explanation of ActionNew Philosophy for a New MediaNew Versions of VictimsNew Waves in Philosophy of ActionNietzscheNietzsche and Buddhist PhilosophyNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNietzsche's TherapyNietzsche, Culture and EducationNietzsche: The Man and His PhilosophyNihil UnboundNoir AnxietyNormative EthicsNormativityNorms of NatureNotebooks 1951-1959Notes Toward a Performative Theory of AssemblyNothing So AbsurdOblivionOn AnxietyOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn Being AuthenticOn BeliefOn BetrayalOn BullshitOn DelusionOn DesireOn EmotionsOn HashishOn Human RightsOn Loving Our EnemiesOn Nature and LanguageOn PersonalityOn ReflectionOn Romantic LoveOn the EmotionsOn the Freud WatchOn the Government of the LivingOn the Human ConditionOn the InternetOn the Meaning of LifeOn the Philosophy of LawOn the Pragmatics of CommunicationOn the Punitive SocietyOn TruthOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne Hundred DaysOnflowOnly a Promise of HappinessOntology of ConsciousnessOpen MindedOpen Your EyesOrgans without BodiesOther MindsOur Last Great IllusionOur Own MindsOur Posthuman FutureOur StoriesOut of Its MindOut of Our HeadsOxford Guide to the MindOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPanic DisorderPanpsychismPanpsychism in the WestPartialityPassionate EnginesPassionate EnginesPathologies of BeliefPathologies of ReasonPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perceiving the WorldPerception & CognitionPerception and Basic BeliefsPerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPerceptual ExperiencePerfecting VirtuePerplexities of ConsciousnessPersistencePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal IdentityPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonal Identity and Fractured SelvesPersonhood and Health CarePersonsPersons and BodiesPersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPersons, Souls and DeathPerspectives on ImitationPerspectives on PragmatismPessimismPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenal ConsciousnessPhenomenal IntentionalityPhenomenology and ExistentialismPhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophersPhilosophers on MusicPhilosophers without GodsPhilosophical CounselingPhilosophical Counselling and the UnconsciousPhilosophical DevicesPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical History and the Problem of ConsciousnessPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in Psychiatry IIPhilosophical MethodologyPhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophical Myths of the FallPhilosophical Perspectives on DepictionPhilosophical Perspectives on Technology and PsychiatryPhilosophical PracticePhilosophical Reflections on DisabilityPhilosophizing About Sex Philosophizing the EverydayPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy and LivingPhilosophy and PsychiatryPhilosophy and PsychotherapyPhilosophy and Science FictionPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the Interpretation of Pop CulturePhilosophy and the Moving ImagePhilosophy and the NeurosciencesPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy As FictionPhilosophy BitesPhilosophy Bites BackPhilosophy for Counselling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy for LifePhilosophy in a New CenturyPhilosophy in an Age of SciencePhilosophy in Children's LiteraturePhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BodyPhilosophy of Film and Motion PicturesPhilosophy of LovePhilosophy of Love, Sex, and MarriagePhilosophy of MindPhilosophy of Mind and CognitionPhilosophy of Personal Identity and Multiple PersonalityPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy of Public HealthPhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhilosophy of the Social SciencesPhilosophy on TapPhilosophy PracticePhilosophy the Day after TomorrowPhilosophy's Role in Counseling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhilosophy, Politics, DemocracyPhotography and PhilosophyPhysical RealizationPhysicalism and Its DiscontentsPhysicalism and Mental CausationPhysicalism, or Something Near EnoughPhysician-Assisted DyingPillar of SaltPin-up GrrrlsPlatoPlatoPlato, Not Prozac!Platonic Ethics, Old and NewPluralistic CasuistryPolarities of ExperiencesPolitical EmotionsPopper, Objectivity and the Growth of KnowledgePornPorn StudiesPornography, Sex, and FeminismPortrait of the Psychiatrist as a Young ManPostcolonial DisordersPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPower and the SelfPower SplitPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical ConflictsPractical Identity and Narrative AgencyPractical PhilosophyPractical RulesPractical Tortoise RaisingPractically ProfoundPracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPragmatic BioethicsPragmatismPragmatism, Old And NewPraise and BlamePredicative MindsPreferences and Well-BeingPrescriptions for the MindPresocraticsPrimary and Secondary QualitiesPrimates and PhilosophersPrivacyPrivileged AccessProblems in MindProblems of RationalityProzac As a Way of LifeProzac BacklashProzac on the CouchPsyche and SomaPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric Cultures ComparedPsychiatric Diagnosis and ClassificationPsychiatric EthicsPsychiatric HegemonyPsychiatric PowerPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry and Philosophy of SciencePsychiatry and ReligionPsychiatry as a Human SciencePsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry in SocietyPsychiatry in the New MilleniumPsychiatry in the Scientific ImagePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsycho-Physical Dualism TodayPsychoanalysis and Narrative MedicinePsychoanalysis and the Philosophy of SciencePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and PhilosophyPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, and the Politics of Human RelationshipsPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPsychotherapy As PraxisPublic PhilosophyPunishmentPure ImmanencePurple HazePursuing MeaningQuality of Life and Human DifferenceQueer PhilosophyQuestions for FreudQuestions for FreudQuine and Davidson on Language, Thought and RealityRaceRace in Contemporary MedicineRadiant CoolRadical AlterityRadical ExternalismRadical HopeRational and Social AgencyRational CausationRational Choice in an Uncertain WorldRationality + Consciousness = Free WillRationality and FreedomRationality and the Reflective MindRationality in ActionRawls, Dewey, and ConstructivismRe-creating MedicineRe-EmergenceRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReading AutobiographyReading Bernard WilliamsReading SartreReadings in the Philosophy of TechnologyReal MaterialismReal Natures and Familiar ObjectsReal ScienceRealism in ActionReason & EmancipationReason in ActionReason in PhilosophyReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReasoning About Rational AgentsReasoning in Biological DiscoveriesReasons from WithinReasons without RationalismReclaiming CognitionReclaiming the SoulReconceiving SchizophreniaReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecreative MindsRediscovering EmotionRediscovering EmpathyReference and ExistenceReference and the Rational MindReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRegulating SexReinventing the SoulRelativism and Human RightsRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyReliable ReasoningReligion without GodRelying on OthersRemembering HomeResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsRestraining RageRethinking ExpertiseRethinking IntrospectionRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeRethinking the DSMRethinking the Sociology of Mental HealthRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfReturn to ReasonRevolt, She SaidRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard Rorty's New PragmatismRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRise And Fall of Soul And SelfRitalin NationRobert NozickRousseauRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Derrida on DeconstructionRules, Reason, and Self-KnowledgeSaints, Scholars, and Schizophrenics: Mental Illness in Rural IrelandSartreSartreSartreSartre in Search of an EthicsSatisficing and MaximizingSaving GodScandalous KnowledgeSchizophreniaSchizophrenia and the Fate of the SelfSchizophrenia: A Scientific Delusion?SchopenhauerSchopenhauer's TelescopeScienceScience and EthicsScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and SpiritualityScience and the Pursuit of WisdomScience Fiction and PhilosophyScience Fiction and PhilosophyScience in Civil SocietyScience in DemocracyScience RulesScience WarsScience, Consciousness and Ultimate RealityScience, Policy, and the Value-Free IdealSciences from BelowScientific EvidenceScientific IrrationalismScientific PerspectivismScientific PluralismScientific Realism and the Rationality of ScienceScratching the Surface of BioethicsSecond NatureSecond OpinionsSecond PhilosophySecrets of the MindSecular Philosophy and the Religious TemperamentSecurity, Territory, PopulationSeeing and VisualizingSeeing DoubleSeeing 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Seeing Wittgenstein AnewReview - Seeing Wittgenstein Anew
by William Day and Victor J. Krebs (Editors)
Cambridge University Press, 2010
Review by James Taggart, Ph.D.
Oct 15th 2010 (Volume 14, Issue 41)

In his Preface to Philosophical Investigations, Wittgenstein confessed his worry that, "It is not impossible that it should fall to the lot of this work, in its poverty and in the darkness of this time, to bring light into one brain or another -- but, of course, it is not likely."  Unfortunately, Wittgenstein's worry proved prescient. Certain (in)famous remarks from Investigations, for example, have led respected philosophers to mistake him as endorsing: (i) a behaviorist view of the mind (PI §580: "An 'inner process' stands in need of outer criteria"), (ii) a quietist view of philosophical method (PI §124: "Philosophy ... leaves everything as it is"), and (iii) a conventionalist view of meaning (PI §43: "[T]he meaning of a word is its use in the language").  Fortunately, as William Day and Victor J. Krebs discuss in their helpful introduction to Seeing Wittgenstein Anew, more philosophers have begun, in Stanley Cavell's words, to take Wittgenstein's seriousness seriously -- his idiosyncratic writing style, the spiritual fervor of his personality, and the distinctive approach to philosophy that these reflect -- and, thereby, to avoid misreading him based on certain remarks viewed in isolation.  The sixteen specially commissioned essays in this volume are a welcome addition to this trend.

The essays in Seeing Wittgenstein Anew are also welcome because, while discussing Wittgenstein's remarks on aspect-seeing, they elaborate three important themes that should interest not just philosophers and Wittgenstein scholars but anyone concerned with how we find meaning in -- or make sense of -- our lives.  As Juliet Floyd observes in one of the volume's strongest contributions:

Wittgenstein concerned himself with the human drive to the symbolical, including ... the drive ... to seek and find perspectives from which the specific content of what is true and false can take a back seat to our absorption in aspects we can draw from (find or see in) a scheme of interpretation or arrangement....  [S]uch finding [of aspects] ... is ... characteristic of certain kinds of significance we find and create in our lives. (323)

Not, of course, that all aspect-seeing has "specific content ... tak[ing] a back seat."  Beyond the abstract forms of aspect-seeing in logic and mathematics that Floyd highlights, aspect-seeing often involves particular facts from our everyday lives featured in some novel presentation specially arranged so that we might see in the everyday facts some new, or underappreciated, aspect of them.  Or, in Steven G. Affeldt's words, "Wittgenstein's pervasive concern with aspect-seeing" can be understood narrowly and broadly.  Understood narrowly, "It will be directed exclusively toward philosophers ... investigating ... 'the concepts of meaning, of understanding, of a proposition, of logic ... states of consciousness, and other things'." (272)  But understood broadly, "[It] will be closely allied with Romantic investigations of our recurrent human failure genuinely to experience our world and to appreciate the significance of (events in) our lives." (273)

Before taking up the three topics that I have identified in these essays, I should mention that, taken together, these essays are rich with illuminating readings and extensions of the remarks on aspect-seeing and Wittgenstein's views generally.  Those by Garry L. Hagberg, David R. Cerbone, Richard Eldridge, Edward Minar, Affeldt, and Floyd stand out for their depth and clarity.  Two other excellent contributions have Avner Baz spiritedly critiquing Stephen Mulhall's work on aspect-seeing and then Mulhall responding in kind.  Also noteworthy are the essays by Sandra Laugier, Timothy Gould, Stanley Cavell, Victor J. Krebs, and William Day.  (Potential purchasers of this volume might like to know that Cavell's contribution is closely related to, if not exactly the same as, an essay previously published in two other collections.)  Finally, the volume also includes William Day's valuable concordance of the unnumbered remarks from the first three editions of Philosophical Investigations, that is, scattered remarks in Part I and all of those in Part II.  The first words of each unnumbered remark are listed with the corresponding page and/or paragraph number for each edition, including Peter Hacker and Joachim Schulte's recent fourth edition.

Not coincidentally, the three important themes from this volume that I discuss track the three misreadings with which I began.  For Wittgenstein's actual views about mind, method, and meaning prove interesting, in large part, for the same reason that they are apt to be misunderstood.  As Wittgenstein was well-aware, philosophical issues are often, if not typically, conceived of as dichotomous: either materialism or mystery about mind; either rationalism or empiricism in method; either conventionalism or realism about meaning, and so on.  But while many philosophers almost casually ignore this -- perhaps because he fails to fit their preconceptions -- Wittgenstein wants to avoid the straitjacket of philosophy's dichotomies, its "long-established grooves of thought" (in Hagberg's memorable phrase).

Mind

Recognizing Wittgenstein's desire to avoid philosophically-motivated dichotomies, David R. Cerbone brings his remark -- "It is as if he became transparent to us through a human facial expression" -- to bear on contemporary philosophy of mind.  Here, on one hand, materialists like Daniel Dennett would allow everyday psychological categories -- anger, hope, grief, and joy, for instance -- only as shorthand for the neuro-physical categories of some nascent brain science.  On the other hand, mysterians like Thomas Nagel follow Descartes in conceiving of "mind, especially consciousness, as an elusive, mysterious wholly 'inner' phenomenon, possibly untouchable by the natural sciences." (143-144)

Now Cerbone concedes that Wittgenstein seems to oscillate between materialism and mystery.  On one hand, he wants to "turn ... away from an 'occult' or 'magical' conception of the mind, as a place or realm where meaning happens ..."  On the other hand, Wittgenstein "insists on the legitimacy of the concept or category of the soul, of talking about and treating others as ensouled without any desire to demonstrate that, say, all talk about the soul is really just talk about the body ..." (145)  But seeing this apparent oscillation as significant, Cerbone argues that:

Taken together ... these two tendencies provide a way ... past the current deadlock in the philosophy of mind since they suggest a kind of blindness on the part of both sides ... to the 'transparency' afforded by 'a human facial expression'.  That is, for materialist and mysterian alike, the play of the face, the ebb and flow of gesture and expression, none of that is ... even relevant ..." (145)

And these "subtleties of glance, gesture, and tone" (PI 228d) do seem relevant to the "problem of other minds," that is, the question of whether other human beings are, in fact, conscious with thoughts and feelings of their own.  Indeed, though both materialists and mysterians regard it as insignificant, we typically have no doubts that other human beings (as opposed to the lumps of gray matter inside their skulls or the silicon chips inside computers) have self-conscious mental lives.  But what this absence of doubt reveals is not that "the play of the face, the ebb and flow of gesture and expression" are evidentially relevant, as if the question of whether a friend has a conscious mental life genuinely arises for us and her facial expressions soothe our anxiety on this score.  Rather, the expressions at play on our friend's face foreclose the question of her mindedness.  They are criterial of -- help define -- what it means to have a mental life.  Or, in light of the expressions at play on another's face, we might say: "My attitude towards him is an attitude towards a soul.  I am not of the opinion that he has a soul." (PI 178d)

          Though talk of blindness best fits those alien to our everyday ways of thinking and (most) philosophers are not really alien in this sense -- 'willful or pretend ignorance' might be more accurate -- Cerbone's basic point that contemporary philosophers of mind are 'blind' to "the 'transparency' afforded by 'a human facial expression'" is essentially correct.  For contemporary materialists regard our everyday psychological concepts as hypotheses about what's going on inside our brains/bodies.  As Cerbone explains:

In our dealings with one another, we [are supposed to] infer the states picked out by [our everyday psychological] concepts, and the basis of our inference is the "behavior" we observe.  Such "states" are thus not anything we perceive: We do not really see another's joy or anger ...  [Thus] casting our ordinary psychological concepts in the role of a theory about the inner workings of the human body (treating joy, for example, as an "inward thing") ... denies precisely the kind of transparency Wittgenstein attributes to the face. (157)

Thus, Cerbone's fundamental question: why do philosophers feel compelled to treat "glance, gesture, and tone" as mere data, considerations that may or may not support the existence of some hypothesized internal state?  Alternatively, why do philosophers feel compelled to deny that we can see joy on a child's face?     

          While any satisfactory answer will be complex, the remarks on aspect-seeing play a part.  For what is at stake -- that another's soul (or mind) can be transparent through what I see expressed on her face -- is a case of aspect-seeing.  So, why do philosophers feel compelled to reject aspect-seeing, at least when it comes to seeing others as angry, grief-stricken, or joyful?  In reply, Cerbone offers this remark of Wittgenstein's:

The concept of "seeing" makes a tangled impression.  Well, it is tangled.—I look at the landscape, my gaze ranges over it, I see all sorts of distinct and indistinct movement; this impresses itself sharply upon me, that is quite hazy.  After all, how completely ragged what we see can appear!  And now look all that can be meant by "description of what is seen".—But this just is what is called description of what is seen.  There is not one genuine proper case of such description—the rest being vague, something which awaits clarification, or which must just be swept aside as rubbish. (PI 200a)

In other words, seeing the expression on someone's face as anger is part of the variegated tangle that constitutes seeing for us.  Furthermore, our description of what we see as anger and, more generally, as making another's thoughts transparent are ways we have of describing what we see, no less legitimate than other forms of description.  Contemporary philosophers of mind, however, typically fail to respect this pluralism and subscribe to sophisticated versions of "[trying] to define the concept of a material object in terms of 'what is really seen'." (PI 200b)  On their view, we do not -- and cannot -- really see someone's anger right out in the open on her face and in her gestures.  Rather, what we see can only be data for constructing theories and drawing inferences about the inner goings on of another's brain/body.  Beyond such data, whatever else we think we see must "await[...] clarification" (i.e. reduction) or "be swept aside as rubbish."  At least in part, then, denying that the expression on another's face gives us a window onto her soul stems from a prejudice that materialists (at least) hold dear and Wittgenstein would have us reject, namely, the idea that there is "one genuine proper case of ... description."  Describing what is seen -- describing reality -- is a matter for all of our linguistic resources, not just those of fundamental physics nor even, more broadly, just those of certain privileged scientific disciplines.  As Cerbone reminds us, Wittgenstein is not hard up for categories.  We should not be either.

Method

On the quietist (mis)reading of Wittgenstein, philosophy is impotent to generate new knowledge; it merely "leaves everything as it is."  Connecting Wittgenstein's remarks on aspect-seeing from Part II of Investigations with his distinctive method evinced in Part I, the essays by Hagberg, Krebs, Eldridge, Minar, and Floyd and to a lesser extent those by Mulhall and Affeldt not only help establish the unity of Wittgenstein's method but put to rest the idea that philosophy, on his view, has nothing to tell us.  More importantly, in doing these two things, these essays help us appreciate Wittgenstein's method of constructing perspicuous representations via (telling) description and (creative) arrangement of familiar, ordinary facts.  As we come to understand the distinctive way that Wittgenstein tries to engage -- and, yes, reason with -- his readers, the ubiquity of his kind of 'reasoning' begins to dawn on us.  For though he provides neither deductions nor empirical explanations, his method is a kind of reasoning, much like the reasoning employed by critics of the arts, literature, and music when they help others see (or hear) meaning in a work.

          Consider these remarks of his on method from Investigations Part I:

•"We must do away with all explanation, and description alone must take its place....  [Philosophical] problems are solved, not by giving new information, but by arranging what we have always known." (PI §109)

•"Philosophy simply puts everything before us, and neither explains nor deduces anything. --Since everything lies open to view there is nothing to explain." (PI §126)

•"The aspects of things that are most important for us are hidden because of their simplicity and familiarity.  (One is unable to notice something because it is always before one's eyes.)" (PI §129)

And lastly:

•"The concept of a perspicuous representation is of fundamental significance for us.  It earmarks the form of account we give, the way we look at things."

"A perspicuous representation produces just that understanding which consists in 'seeing connexions'.  Hence the importance of finding and inventing intermediate cases." (PI §122)

That philosophical problems are not to be solved with new information might seem to bolster the case for Wittgenstein's quietism.  The same goes for his remark that philosophy involves neither explanation nor deduction but only description.  However, as his talk of "arranging" and "finding and inventing intermediate cases" suggests and the entire Investigations surely attests, Wittgenstein conceives of philosophy as an activity, not something passive or even passively accepting of received 'wisdom'.  Rather, as PI §109 and §129 imply, he wants us to pay attention to "what we have always known" and to notice aspects of simple, familiar things that may be difficult to see precisely because they are "always before one's eyes."

          Ironically, when Wittgenstein talks of perspicuous representation, what he means may not be entirely clear.  But his remarks on aspect-seeing help illuminate his meaning as these passages from Seeing Wittgenstein Anew show:

Noticing aspects is precisely that understanding that consists in "seeing connections" -- the very understanding (of internal relations) that Wittgenstein ...  made the object of his method at least since [his Remarks on] Frazer. (Krebs, 128)

 

The dawning of an aspect ... [c]rucially ... involves my actively placing the object seen in a context of comparisons: seeing "a likeness" [eine Ahnlichkeit; a similarity] (PI 193a), not just seeing an object. (Eldridge, 174)

 

In the dawning of an aspect, after all, one perceives "likenesses" (PI 193a) and "internal relations" (PI 212a), which have in a sense been hidden not by obstacles in the scene itself, but by barriers in us, by our failure to "see connections" (PI §122).  Aspect-dawning is (at least) a metaphor for the kind of understanding a perspicuous representation ... produce[s]. (Minar, 184-185)

In other words, we might say that perspicuous representations are constructed precisely to induce the dawning -- or seeing -- of aspects.  Thus, a seemingly distinct, peripheral topic -- aspect-seeing -- lies at the core of Wittgenstein's method.

Take "intermediate cases" and the connections they reveal.  Whether we find or invent them, they connect with ordinary, familiar things that, in some sense, "we have always known" and bring out similarities that we had not -- or at least not fully -- appreciated, enabling us to see these ordinary, familiar things in new ways, under new aspects.  So, Wittgenstein is no quietist.  Philosophy, on his view, does produce new knowledge and understanding.  Moreover, his remarks on aspect-seeing elucidate how what "lies open to view" and "is always before one's eyes" possess the depth to support this kind of knowledge, that is, the knowledge we get when some new perspective on the familiar facts of our everyday lives dawns on us.  Of course, the availability and importance of such knowledge has not been lost on novelists, poets, and other creative users of language.  And this leads to the third and perhaps most important theme that recurs throughout the contributions to Seeing Wittgenstein Anew.

Meaning

Unlike novelists and poets who know well that, in Affeldt's words, "[T]he work of description and simply put[ting] everything before us cannot themselves be simple matters" (274), others may be unimpressed by Wittgenstein's emphasis on description.  For regarding how our words have meaning, how they 'latch on' to the world, we tend to polarize our options -- conventionalism or "realism" -- and gravitate towards the latter.  Conventionalism holds that what our words mean is a matter of convention: not just in the superficial sense that we could have settled upon a different word to express this or that category, but in the deeper sense that the classifications effected by our categories (and expressed by our words) are a matter of our choice, our construction.  "Realism," by contrast, holds that we have no choice: the classifications effected by our categories (and expressed by our words) are imposed on us by reality.  Now "realism" proves attractive, in part, because it elides any role for us.  As Cavell puts it:

[I]n thinking of the relation of what we say to what there is, we put aside our part in speech and expect, or demand, that words and world meet, dictate to each other, without my intervention, as if I have no power or responsibility in the matter of the fit between language and my world. (94)

Thus, because many, philosophers included, tend toward "realism" about meaning, Wittgenstein's emphasis on description leaves them cold.  For, on this view, description is essentially automatic such that -- if our perceptual-linguistic faculties are hooked up to the world correctly -- the conceptual-linguistic response called for by the world is clear, leaving no "power or responsibility" for us.

          As several contributors to Seeing Wittgenstein Anew rightly suggest, Wittgenstein has no truck with this passive view of description and his rejection of it relates to aspect-seeing.  As Floyd puts it, "'Seeing-in' implies that there is nothing intrinsically necessary that requires us to apply a concept to a particular situation, and that we therefore bear some responsibility for ... the interpretation of experience." (322)  In other words, because experience can be seen under an indefinite number of aspects -- can be understood in an indefinite number of ways -- we have a more-or-less active role to play in making sense of it.  Moreover, this implies that -- as Iris Murdoch, Stanley Cavell, and especially Cora Diamond have emphasized -- our life with language is everywhere unavoidably an ethical matter, undermining the idea of 'ethics' as a distinct area of study and the related idea that ethical questions only arise when specifically ethical concepts are in play.

          Though the idea that our life with language is intrinsically ethical -- that how active and engaged we are in making sense of our experience reflects on us, on our interests and values -- receives little explicit attention in Seeing Wittgenstein Anew, several contributors clearly accept this idea.  At the close of his essay, for instance, Avner Baz declares:

[W]e are continually in danger of losing our world, by, as it were, taking it as a matter of course....  [W]e continually have to restore an intimacy with the world -- an intimacy that is forever at stake, and that if taken for granted is bound to be lost.  The continual danger, in other words, is that, succumbing to habitual and convenient ways of treating, or regarding, things, we will lose our ability to see them. (248)

And these words of Baz echo those of T.S. Eliot when, writing about William Blake, he noticed that, "[O]rdinary processes of society ... [with their] impersonal ideas ... obscure what we really are and feel, what we really want, and what really excites our interest."  (Eliot's words, in turn, recall the "Romantic investigations" that Affeldt, and now Baz, find allied with Wittgenstein's interest in aspect-seeing.)  On Baz's view, then, we are responsible for preventing our experience, our world from becoming a rote, lifeless affair, and we fight against this -- that is, we fight "habitual and convenient ways of ... regarding things" (or Eliot's "impersonal ideas") -- by (continually) finding in our experience new aspects of the world to be struck by.  And surely, such a project knows no bounds but encompasses all of our life with language.  (While Baz's Romantic project no doubt faces great difficulties, it seems capable of succeeding, at least with respect to some of us some of the time.  Accordingly, it seems a bit too pessimistic to conclude that, in William Day's words, "[T]he loss of interest in the world's aspects [as an adult] is no less a part of our natural history than having that interest [as a child]." (218))

          Since Wittgenstein allows -- some might even say encourages -- an active, creative role for us in applying concepts to experience, he is no "realist" about meaning.  But neither is he a conventionalist.  For we have, Cavell observes, "what seem opposite criteria for the concept of 'attachment to our words'." (94)  On one hand, we have "the aspect case" in which, as we have seen,  aspect-dawning suggests fresh, new uses for our words and concepts.  On the other hand, however, we also have what Cavell calls "the case of the draw of essence" in which:

[S]omething like the absence of the experience ... of the word ... is required, but also something like its being called forth by (the experience of) the reality of what it conceptualizes, that this thing is a table (not an aspect of a level of water or of a collection of numbers or ...)." (95)

Thus, despite the primary focus in Seeing Wittgenstein Anew on "the aspect case," we should not forget "the case of the draw of essence" when characterizing Wittgenstein's views about meaning.  Contrary to what an exclusive focus on aspect-seeing might suggest, he does not regard our use of words and concepts as entirely unconstrained.  Merely recognizing that concepts do not apply automatically through some (magical) meeting between words and world -- and, correspondingly, that we play a role in how experience is characterized -- does not imply that anything goes.  We do not have a completely freehand in how we characterize experience because, for one thing, there are these cases that Cavell calls the "draw of essence" in which reality -- what a thing is -- makes it clear to us what concept is called for.  But conventionalism -- the polar opposite of "realism" -- requires just such a freehand.  Since, on Wittgenstein's view, we do not have a completely freehand to carve up and categorize experience as we see fit, Wittgenstein is not a conventionalist about meaning.

Two Complaints

Perhaps because I would regard any decent volume dedicated to Wittgenstein's remarks on aspect-seeing as long overdue and be grateful for its existence, I find few flaws in Seeing Wittgenstein Anew.  However, I do have two complaints.  First, given its predominant focus on visual aspects, someone thinking about aspect perception for the first time based on Seeing Wittgenstein Anew might be excused for thinking the phenomenon fairly limited in application.  But, as Avner Baz points out, "[A]spect-dawning can happen virtually anywhere and with anything ..." (247)  Unfortunately, Baz's important reminder comes only in a footnote at the end of his essay.  Granted, fleeting references reinforce Baz's reminder: Baz and Hagberg talk of hearing a stretch of music as an introduction or as a variation on a theme; Hagberg, Eldridge, Minar, and Floyd discuss 'aspects of organization' which may involve neither representational nor even visual elements.  But the overall picture of aspect perception one gets from Seeing Wittgenstein Anew is skewed towards the visual and apt, therefore, to mislead.

          The other complaint concerns how significant disagreements among contributors are handled.  For instance, various contributors discuss how aspect perception involves "internal relations" and "seeing connections."  But Baz apparently regards the phrase "internal relations" with some suspicion. (255)  Furthermore, while it seems natural (and harmless) to think of the "connections" and "internal relations" involved in aspect perception as conceptual, Baz objects ("the connections between our attitude to things and the aspects under which we can see them are not conceptual" (244), emphasis in original).  One wonders whether (and how) Baz's rejection of conceptual connections here relate to his suspicion of "internal relations."  And it is not just Baz.  Though Victor J. Krebs, one of the volume's editors, purports to have no issue with "internal relations," he insists with Baz that, "[Wittgenstein] does not mean conceptual (or logical) connections ...  [H]e does not want to make us intellectually understand anything." (125)  Rather, as Krebs understands it, Wittgenstein's method "depends on ... a mode of awareness that does not issue from the intellect but ... is rooted in the bodily." (123)  While we might worry here about the imposition of new dichotomies onto Wittgenstein's thought, my complaint now concerns the paucity of enlightening discussion about such crucial matters.  Though editing a volume like this can be a thankless task, this reviewer at least would have appreciated a greater effort to have the contributors squarely face and thoroughly engage their differences with their fellow contributors, especially on questions as important to aspect-seeing as the nature of the connections involved.

 

© 2010 James Taggart

 

James Taggart received his PhD in Philosophy from Brown University in 2009.  He lives in Maryland.


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