email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
A Theory of Feelings Addictions Memory and the Self"Intimate" Violence against Women1001 Solution-Focused Questions101 Healing Stories101 Things I Wish I'd Known When I Started Using Hypnosis50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God8 Keys to Body Brain BalanceA Brief History of Modern PsychologyA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Conceptual History of Psychology: Exploring the Tangled Web A Cooperative SpeciesA Guide to Teaching Introductory PsychologyA History of Modern Experimental PsychologyA History of Psychology in AutobiographyA History of Social PsychologyA History of the BrainA History of the MindA Hole in the HeadA Matter of SecurityA Mind of Its OwnA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Place for ConsciousnessA Short Introduction to Promoting Resilience in ChildrenA Social History of PsychologyA Stroll With William JamesA System Architecture Approach to the BrainA Theory of FreedomA Very Bad WizardAbductedAbout FacesAccounts of InnocenceAction, Emotion and WillAdapting MindsADHD & MeADHD in AdultsAdieu to GodAdolescence and Body ImageAdult Bipolar DisordersAdvances in Culture and PsychologyAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAffect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of SelfAffective MappingAgainst EmpathyAgainst HappinessAges and StagesAll Joy and No FunAll Out!All We Have to FearAlterations of ConsciousnessAmerican Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical NeurosciencesAn Argument for MindAncient Bodies, Modern LivesAnimal MadnessAnimal Tool BehaviorAnimals in TranslationAnomalous CognitionAping MankindArtificial ConsciousnessAspects of PsychologismAsperger Syndrome and Your ChildAsperger Syndrome, Adolescence, and IdentityAssessment and Treatment of Childhood Problems, Second EditionAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAttachedAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutism and the Myth of the Person AloneAutopsy of a Suicidal MindBecoming an Effective PsychotherapistBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing No OneBelievingBetween Two WorldsBeyond AppearanceBeyond BlueBeyond BullyingBeyond MadnessBeyond MelancholyBeyond the BrainBeyond the DSM StoryBig DreamsBiofeedback for the BrainBipolar ChildrenBipolar DisorderBipolar KidsBlackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive DevelopmentBlind SpotsBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlubberlandBlushBodiesBody ConsciousnessBody Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity in YouthBody SenseBody WorkBorderline Personality DisorderBorderline Personality Disorder and the Conversational ModelBorn DigitalBorn to Be GoodBorn Together - Reared ApartBounceBoundaries in Human RelationshipsBounded RationalityBozo SapiensBrain and CultureBrain and the GazeBrain Arousal and Information TheoryBrain BugsBrain Change TherapyBrain Circuitry and Signaling in PsychiatryBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-Based Therapy with AdultsBrain-WiseBrainstormBrainstormingBraintrustBrainwashingBrandedBreaking Murphy's LawBright-SidedBuddha's BrainBullying and TeasingBuyologyCan't You Hear Them?CaptureCare of the PsycheCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCerebrum 2007Cerebrum 2010Cerebrum 2015Cerebrum Anthology 2013Changing the SubjectCharacter Strengths and VirtuesCheating LessonsChild and Adolescent Psychological DisordersChildren’s Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness Chomsky NotebookClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyClinical Psychology in Practice ClosureCognition and PerceptionCognition and the BrainCognitive BiologyCognitive DissonanceCognitive FictionsCognitive Mechanisms of Belief ChangeCognitive PragmaticsCognitive ScienceCognitive ScienceCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Therapy of Anxiety DisordersCognitive Unconscious and Human RationalityCold-Blooded KindnessComing of Age in Second LifeCommunication Issues In Autism And Asperger SyndromeCompassion and Healing in Medicine and SocietyComplementary and Alternative Therapies ResearchComprehending ColumbineConfessions of a SociopathConquering Shame and CodependencyConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the Social BrainConsciousness EmergingConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Self-Consciousness, and the Science of Being HumanContemporary Debates in Cognitive ScienceConversations on ConsciousnessConviction of the InnocentCooperation and Its EvolutionCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCredit and BlameCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychologyCritical Thinking About PsychologyCross-Cultural PsychologyCrowdsourcingCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCuriousDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous and Severe Personality DisorderDaniel DennettDaughters of MadnessDeafness In MindDeath and ConsciousnessDeath of a ParentDecomposing the WillDeep Brain StimulationDeep ChinaDefining DifferenceDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions of GenderDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDeparting from DevianceDescartes' BabyDescartes's Changing MindDescribing Inner Experience?Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Destructive EmotionsDevelopment of Geocentric Spatial Language and CognitionDevelopment of PsychopathologyDialogues on DifferenceDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Digital HemlockDirty MindsDisgust and Its DisordersDisorders of VolitionDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Doing without ConceptsDrunk Tank PinkEducating People to Be Emotionally IntelligentEffective IntentionsEffective Writing in PsychologyEffortless AttentionEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbracing MindEmbracing UncertaintyEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotionally InvolvedEmotionsEmotionsEmotions and LifeEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions RevealedEmotions, Aggression, and Morality in ChildrenEmotions, Stress, and HealthEmpathyEnjoymentErotic MoralityEscape Your Own PrisonEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthically Challenged ProfessionsEveryday Mind ReadingEvidence for PsiEvidence-Based Mental Health PracticeEvil MenEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution and LearningEvolution, Games, and GodEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolutionary Psychology as Maladapted PsychologyExacting BeautyExperiences of DepressionExperimenterExplaining the BrainExplaining the BrainExplorations in Neuroscience, Psychology and ReligionExploring TranssexualismExpression and the InnerExtending Self-Esteem ResearchExtraordinary BeliefsFact and Value in EmotionFaking ItFatigue as a Window to the BrainFavorite Activities for the Teaching of PsychologyFeeling GoodFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFinding Meaning, Facing FearsFitting In Is OverratedFlourishingFlow: The Psychology of Optimal ExperienceFolk Psychological NarrativesFooling HoudiniForever YoungFormulation in Psychology and PsychotherapyFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Psychological ThoughtFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom EvolvesFrom Axons to IdentityFrom Madness to Mental HealthFrom Neurons to Self-ConsciousnessFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Symptom to SynapseFrontiers of ConsciousnessGay, Straight, and the Reason WhyGenerosityGenes, Environment, and PsychopathologyGenetic Nature/CultureGeniusGetting Under the SkinGlued to GamesGoing SaneGot Parts?Group GeniusGrowing Up GirlGuilt, Shame, and AnxietyGut ReactionsHallucinationHandbook New Sexuality StudiesHandbook of Closeness and IntimacyHandbook of Critical PsychologyHandbook of Emotion RegulationHandbook of EmotionsHandbook of Personality DisordersHandbook of PsychopathyHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Spatial CognitionHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness at WorkHappiness Is.Happy at LastHard to GetHardwired BehaviorHatredHealing the SplitHidden ResourcesHope and DespairHot ThoughtHot ThoughtHouse and PsychologyHow Animals Affect UsHow Animals GrieveHow Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Doctors ThinkHow Enlightenment Changes Your BrainHow Families Still MatterHow History Made the MindHow Infants Know MindsHow Many Friends Does One Person Need?How People ChangeHow Professors ThinkHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Change Someone You LoveHow We ReasonHow We RememberHughes' Outline of Modern PsychiatryHumanHuman BondingHuman Reasoning and Cognitive ScienceHypnotismHysteriaiBrainIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIdentifying the MindiDisorderImagination and the Meaningful BrainImitation and the Social MindImpulse Control DisordersImpulsivityIn an Unspoken VoiceIn Defense of SentimentalityIn DoubtIn Search of HappinessIn the Wake of 9/11Individual and Collective Memory ConsolidationInner Experience and NeuroscienceInner PresenceInside the American CoupleIntegrated Behavioral Health CareIntegrating Evolution and DevelopmentIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntellectual DisabilityIntelligenceIntelligence, Destiny, and EducationIntentions and IntentionalityInterdependent MindsInterpreting MindsInto the Minds of MadmenIntoxicating MindsIntrospection VindicatedIntuitionInventing PersonalityInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIs There Anything Good About Men?Issues for Families, Schools and CommunitiesJane Sexes It UpJoint AttentionJoint AttentionJudgment and Decision MakingJust a DogJust BabiesJuvenile-Onset SchizophreniaKarl JaspersKey Thinkers in PsychologyKidding OurselvesKids of CharacterKilling MonstersLack of CharacterLanguage OriginsLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw, Mind and BrainLess Than HumanLet Kids Be KidsLet's Talk About DeathLiving NarrativeLiving with Mild Cognitive ImpairmentLonelinessLooking for SpinozaLossLOT 2Love at Goon ParkMachine ConsciousnessMacrocognitionMade for Each OtherMadnessMaking a Good Brain GreatMaking Habits, Breaking HabitsMaking Minds and MadnessMaking Up the MindMale SexualityMan and WomanMan's Search for MeaningMan, Beast, and ZombieManic MindsManlinessMapping the MindMarking the MindMarvelous Learning AnimalMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaningMeaning, Mortality, and ChoiceMedical MusesMeditating SelflesslyMeetings with a Remarkable ManMemoryMemory and DreamsMemory and EmotionMemory And UnderstandingMental BiologyMental IllnessMental Time TravelMetacognitionMetacognition and Theory of MindMethods in MindMindMindMind and BrainMind and ConsciousnessMind Games:Mind in LifeMind TimeMind to MindMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMindful AngerMindfulnessMindfulnessMindfulness and AcceptanceMindfulness-Based Treatment Approaches: Clinician's Guide to Evidence Base and ApplicationsMinding AnimalsMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds, Brains, and LawMindsightMindworldsMirrors in the BrainMistakes Were Made (But Not by Me)Models of MadnessMoodMoral Development and RealityMoral MindsMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Mothers and OthersMotivation and Cognitive ControlMotivational Interviewing: Preparing People For ChangeMovies and the MindMulticulturalism and the Therapeutic ProcessMultiplicityMuses, Madmen, and ProphetsMy Family AlbumMyths about SuicideNarrative IdentitiesNarrative PsychiatryNarratives in PsychiatryNaturalizing Intention in ActionNature and NarrativeNature Via NurtureNeither Bad nor MadNerveNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeurochemistry of ConsciousnessNeurodiversityNeuroethicsNeuroLogicNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroscience and PhilosophyNo Child Left DifferentNo Two AlikeNot By Genes AloneNot Much Just Chillin'Not So Abnormal PsychologyNurturing the Older Brain and MindOn AnxietyOn Being HumanOn Being MovedOn Deep History and the BrainOn DesireOn KillingOn Nature and LanguageOn PaedophiliaOn PersonalityOn the Frontier of AdulthoodOn the Origins of Cognitive ScienceOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOnflowOpen MindsOpening Skinner's BoxOrigin of MindOrigins of PsychopathologyOther MindsOut of Our HeadsOut of the WoodsOvercoming Depersonalization DisorderPanpsychism and the Religious AttitudePanpsychism in the WestParenting and the Child's WorldPassionate EnginesPathologies of the WestPatient-Based Approaches to Cognitive NeurosciencePediatric PsychopharmacologyPeople Types and Tiger StripesPerception & CognitionPerception beyond InferencePerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPersonal Development and Clinical PsychologyPerspectives on ImitationPhantoms in the BrainPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhrenologyPhysical RealizationPhysics in MindPieces of LightPlaying with FirePositive PsychologyPositive PsychologyPostcards from the Brain MuseumPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPoverty and Brain Development During ChildhoodPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical Management of Personality DisorderPractical Management of Personality DisorderPredicative MindsPredictably IrrationalPreference, Belief, and SimilarityPrenatal Testosterone in MindPrivileged AccessProcrastinationProust Was a NeuroscientistPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsychological AgencyPsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychological Dimensions of the SelfPsychologists Defying the CrowdPsychologyPsychologyPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology for ScreenwritersPsychology of Women: A Handbook of Issues and TheoriesPsychology's GhostsPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology's TerritoriesPsychopathologyPsychopathyPsychosis and EmotionPsychotherapy, American Culture, and Social PolicyPutnam CampPutting a Name to ItQuantum Memory PowerQuietRadical DistortionRadical Embodied Cognitive ScienceRadical ExternalismRadical GraceRapeRe-Visioning PsychiatryReal MaterialismReality CheckReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecovery in Mental IllnessRecreative MindsRedirectReducing Adolescent RiskRegulating EmotionsRelational BeingRelational Mental HealthRelational Suicide AssessmentReliability in Cognitive NeuroscienceRemembering HomeRemembering Our ChildhoodResearch Advances in Genetics and GenomicsResearching Children's ExperienceResilience in ChildrenRestoring ResilienceRethinking ADHDRethinking Learning DisabilitiesRethinking Middle YearsRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfRevolution in PsychologyRoadmap to ResilienceRomance and Sex in Adolescence and Emerging AdulthoodSchizophrenia RevealedSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologySecond NatureSecond NatureSecond That EmotionSecond-order Change in PsychotherapySecrets of the MindSee What I'm SayingSee What I'm SayingSeeing and VisualizingSeeing RedSelf and SocietySelf Comes to MindSelf Control in Society, Mind, and BrainSelf-Awareness Deficits in Psychiatric PatientsSelf-CompassionSelf-RegulationSelf-Representational Approaches to ConsciousnessSelfless InsightSelvesSerial KillersSex at DawnSex on the BrainSex, Time and PowerSexual Coercion in Primates and HumansSexual DisordersSexual FluiditySexual ReckoningsSexualized BrainsShame and GuiltShatteredSimulating MindsSisyphus's BoulderSNAPSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial Psychology and DiscourseSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSoul DustSparkSpiral of EntrapmentSplendors and Miseries of the BrainSports Hypnosis in PracticeStanding at Water's EdgeStich and His CriticsStillpowerStop OverreactingStructure and Agency in Everyday LifeStructures of AgencyStuffStumbling on HappinessSubjectivity and SelfhoodSubstance Abuse and EmotionSupersizing the MindSweet DreamsSynaptic SelfTales from Both Sides of the BrainTalking Oneself SoberTalking to BabiesTaming the Troublesome ChildTargeting AutismTeaching Problems and the Problems of TeachingTeleological RealismTen Years of Viewing from WithinTestosterone RexThat's DisgustingThe 5 Elements of Effective ThinkingThe Accidental MindThe Age of EmpathyThe Altruism EquationThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Clinical PsychiatryThe Anatomy of BiasThe Anxious BrainThe Archaeology of MindThe Art and Science of MindfulnessThe Art InstinctThe Art of HypnosisThe Asymmetrical BrainThe Bifurcation of the SelfThe Big Book of ConceptsThe Big DisconnectThe Birth of IntersubjectivityThe Birth of the MindThe Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge ManagementThe Blank SlateThe Body Has a Mind of Its OwnThe Bounds of CognitionThe Boy Who Was Raised as a DogThe BrainThe BrainThe Brain and the Meaning of LifeThe Brain SupremacyThe Brain That Changes ItselfThe Brain's Way of HealingThe Brain: Big Bangs, Behaviors, and BeliefsThe Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive ScienceThe Cambridge Handbook of Situated CognitionThe Character of ConsciousnessThe Chemistry Between UsThe Choice EffectThe Clinical Science of Suicide PreventionThe Cognitive Approach to Conscious MachinesThe Cognitive Behavioral Workbook for Anxiety: A Step-By-Step ProgramThe Cognitive NeurosciencesThe Cognitive-Emotional BrainThe College Fear FactorThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Compass of PleasureThe Concepts of ConsciousnessThe Conscious BrainThe Conscious SelfThe Consuming InstinctThe Creating BrainThe Creative BrainThe Crucible of ConsciousnessThe Crucible of ExperienceThe Cure WithinThe Dao of NeuroscienceThe Developing MindThe Developing MindThe Development of PsychopathologyThe Disappearance of the Social in American Social PsychologyThe Dissolution of MindThe Duty to ProtectThe Educated ParentThe Ego TunnelThe Elephant in the RoomThe Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human ExperienceThe Emotional Journey of the Alzheimer's FamilyThe Encultured BrainThe Encyclopedia of StupidityThe Enduring Self in People with Alzheimer'sThe Epidemiology of SchizophreniaThe Essential DifferenceThe Ethical BrainThe Evolution of ChildhoodThe Evolution of CooperationThe Evolution of LanguageThe Evolution of MindThe Evolving BrainThe Executive BrainThe Faces of TerrorismThe Feeling BrainThe Feeling of What HappensThe First IdeaThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Foundations of Cognitive ArchaeologyThe Fundamentalist MindsetThe GapThe Gender TrapThe Geography of BlissThe Gift of ShynessThe Good LifeThe Good LifeThe Happiness HypothesisThe Happiness of PursuitThe Health Psychology HandbookThe Healthy Aging BrainThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of PsychologyThe Human FaceThe Human SparkThe Hypomanic EdgeThe Imagery DebateThe Immeasurable MindThe Imprinted BrainThe Incredible Shrinking MindThe Innate MindThe Innate MindThe Integrated SelfThe Intentional BrainThe Language of ThoughtThe Languages of the BrainThe Lexicon of Adlerian PsychologyThe Lie DetectorsThe Lives of the BrainThe Lonely AmericanThe Lust for BloodThe Madness of WomenThe Male BrainThe Man Who Lost His LanguageThe Man Who Shocked the WorldThe Man Who Tasted ShapesThe Man Who Wasn't ThereThe Matter of the MindThe Mature MindThe Mean Girl MotiveThe Meaning of EvilThe Meaning of OthersThe Meaning of the BodyThe Measure of MadnessThe Measure of MindThe Medicalization of Everyday LifeThe Mind and the BrainThe Mind in ContextThe Mind of the ChildThe Mind of the HorseThe Mind's EyeThe Mind, the Body and the WorldThe Mind-Gut ConnectionThe Mindful BrainThe Misleading MindThe Moral MindThe Most Dangerous AnimalThe Most Human HumanThe Mother FactorThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of Depression as DiseaseThe Myth of Mirror NeuronsThe Myth of Self HelpThe Myth of Self-EsteemThe Myth of the Spoiled ChildThe Nature of the SelfThe Necessity Of MadnessThe Neuro RevolutionThe Neuron and the MindThe Neuropsychology of the UnconsciousThe Neuroscience of Human RelationshipsThe Neuroscience of PsychotherapyThe Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social BrainThe New BrainThe New Science of DreamingThe New Science of the MindThe New UnconsciousThe Normal PersonalityThe Origins of FairnessThe Overflowing BrainThe Oxford Companion to the MindThe Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of MindThe Paradoxical PrimateThe Perfectionist's HandbookThe Peripheral MindThe Phenomenology ReaderThe Philosopher's Secret FireThe Philosophical BabyThe Political MindThe Politics of HappinessThe Positive Side of Negative EmotionsThe Postnational SelfThe Postpartum EffectThe Power of PlayThe Praeger Handbook of TranssexualityThe Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday LifeThe Primate MindThe Prism of GrammarThe Psychobiology of Trauma and Resilience Across the LifespanThe Psychological Construction of EmotionThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of HappinessThe Psychology of LifestyleThe Psychology of Religious FundamentalismThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of SpiritualityThe Psychology of StereotypingThe Psychology of SuperheroesThe Psychophysiology of Self-AwarenessThe Pursuit of PerfectThe Quest for Mental HealthThe Rational ImaginationThe Ravenous BrainThe Reasons of LoveThe Righteous MindThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Science of EvilThe Science of Intimate RelationshipsThe Science of Shame and its Treatment The Second SelfThe Secret History of EmotionThe Secret Lives of BoysThe Self and Its EmotionsThe Self-Sabotage CycleThe Sense of SelfThe Sensitive SelfThe Shape of ThoughtThe Social AnimalThe Social Nature of Mental IllnessThe Social Neuroscience of EmpathyThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Story of Intellectual DisabilityThe Structure of ThinkingThe Survivors ClubThe Talking ApeThe Teenage BrainThe Tell-Tale BrainThe Temperamental ThreadThe Tender CutThe Tending InstinctThe Time ParadoxThe Trauma MythThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trouble with IllnessThe True PathThe Truth About GriefThe Turing TestThe Uncertain SciencesThe Undoing ProjectThe Unhappy ChildThe Upside of IrrationalityThe War for Children's MindsThe Well-Tuned BrainThe Wild Girl, Natural Man, and the MonsterThe Winner's BrainThe Wisdom in FeelingThe Woman RacketThe World in My Mind, My Mind in the WorldThe Wow ClimaxThe Yipping TigerThemes, Issues and Debates in PsychologyTheoretical Issues in Psychology: An IntroductionTheory of AddictionTheory of MindThings and PlacesThink CatThink Confident, Be ConfidentThinking about AddictionThinking and SeeingThis Emotional Life: In Search of Ourselves...and HappinessThought and LanguageThought in a Hostile WorldTo Have and To Hurt:Toward an Evolutionary Biology of LanguageToward Replacement Parts for the BrainTrauma and Human ExistenceTrauma, Tragedy, TherapyTreating Attachment DisordersTreating Self-InjuryTreating Self-Injury: A Practical GuideTrue to Our FeelingsTrusting the Subject?Understanding and Treating Borderline Personality DisorderUnderstanding ConsciousnessUnderstanding ParanoiaUnderstanding PeopleUnderstanding TerrorismUndoing Perpetual StressUnlock the Genius WithinUnsettled MindsUnstrange MindsUnthinkingUnthoughtUs and ThemViolent PartnersVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVision and MindVisual AgnosiaWarrior's DishonourWe Who Are DarkWednesday Is Indigo BlueWelcome to Your BrainWhat Do Women Want?What Dying People WantWhat Have We DoneWhat Intelligence Tests MissWhat Is an Emotion: Classic and Contemporary ReadingsWhat Is Emotion?What is Intelligence?What Is Mental Illness?What Is Thought?What Makes Your Brain Happy and Why You Should Do the Opposite What the Best College Students DoWhat the Dog SawWhat We Know about Emotional IntelligenceWhat We Say MattersWhat's Wrong With Morality?When Boys Become BoysWhen Perfect Isn't Good EnoughWhen the Impossible HappensWhen Walls Become DoorwaysWho's Been Sleeping in Your HeadWho's in Charge?Why Humans Like to CryWhy Love MattersWhy Lyrics LastWhy People CooperateWhy People Die by SuicideWhy Sex Matters: A Darwinian Look at Human BehaviorWhy Smart People Can Be So StupidWhy the Mind is Not a ComputerWhy Us?Why We LieWhy We LoveWider than the SkyWilliam James at the BoundariesWilling, Wanting, WaitingWittgenstein And PsychologyWomen and Child Sexual AbuseWorking MindsYoga and PsychologyYou Are What You RememberYoung Minds in Social WorldsYour Brain on CubsYour Brain on FoodYour Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings,Your Brain on YogaYour Child in the BalanceZombies and Consciousness
With Consciousness: the Science of Subjectivity Antti Revonsuo has written a wonderfully clear, very well-organized and insightful introduction to the philosophical and empirical study of consciousness.
As the book cover introduces him, Revonsuo is a Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience at the University of Skövde (Sweden), as well as Professor of Psychology at the University of Turku (Finland), and he has been directing an undergraduate degree program on conscious studies since 1997. These are telling biographical details, for Revonsuo's concern with his students is tangible throughout this work. He takes his time to introduce the subject, barely presuppose any knowledge about it -- although one chart of the brain with the name of its different parts and respective main functions could have been helpful. He employs a crystal clear language and organizes his paragraphs and introduction of very diverse philosophical and empirical theories in an explanatory order. The shortness of the paragraphs makes it easy to digest new information. This is further aided by the short summaries and enumeration of discussion questions at the end of each chapter and the glossary at the end of the book. All of this makes this an excellent introduction in the study of subjectivity for the beginning student, but equally so for the conference participants in the big interdisciplinary conferences on consciousness in Tucson, Arizona and of the ASSC to which Revonsuo alludes: Revonsuo's work introduces them to the keynote speakers and to the basic aim and method of those fields of research which they are not so familiar with.
Revonsuo starts off with determining how we should actually conceive of consciousness: i.e. as subjectivity. A conscious subject is a subject who has experiences. It is a subject for whom it is like something to be. He also makes the reader feel why consciousness is mysterious, what it makes one wonder about. Although we can scan the brain and see specific neurons firings at the occurrence of a certain conscious state -- say an emotion or a dream --, the brain scan will neither show us the content of this subject's consciousness, nor how this experience feels like for the subject. We also seem not to manage to objectively describe this subject's experience in such a way that when someone were to hear this description, he would have access to this subject's conscious state: we only arrive at imagining how this experience would be for us, from our point of view, and thus not at how this experience is actually for this subject. Further, philosophers and scientists alike have failed to explain how something as physical as neurons gives rise to something as meaningful as thoughts. And when they would finally be able to do so, they would come across another problem. Philosophers struggle with constructing a model in which something mental can have causal efficacy. Say, how my feeling of thirst could make me lift the glass of water. Given our current scientific view of the world every physical effect must have a physical cause. Following the same scientific view every effect can also only have one sufficient cause. So if the effect of me lifting the water must be sufficiently and physically caused by neuron firing and muscle contractions, then there does not seem to be any causal role left for my feeling of thirst in the coming about of this effect.
With this subject and some of the main questions which it evokes clearly in view, Revonsuo continues to introduce the different studies of consciousness.
The first part of the book outlines the background of the science of consciousness. Revonsuo runs through the different dualistic and monistic theories of consciousness (i.e. through the theories which either claim that consciousness is constituted by both physical and spiritual matter, or by only one of these), to then explain why neither Cartesian dualism, epiphenomenalism, idealism, nor eliminative, reductive and emergent materialism dissolve the just mentioned big mysteries about consciousness. [See glossary below.]
He then sketches the historical foundations of consciousness science. Revonsuo explains why phrenology does not yet count as a scientific study of consciousness, but has the merit of drawing attention to consciousness as a potential subject for scientific research. In phrenology predictions about someone's future are made on the basis of the size and shape of his skull. Phrenology cannot be called a science because it is not based on empirical research. Yet it has had its relevance for the science of consciousness because it defines consciousness as a biological phenomenon and it launches the idea that the brain can be subdivided into different parts which's respective activity gives rise to different states of consciousness. This fair and illuminating dissection of the flaws and benefits of a particular theory characterizes Revonsuo's approach throughout.
Revonsuo consequently elaborates upon the work of three of the founders of scientific psychology: Wundt, Titchner and William James. In spite of their internal disagreements about the particularities of the method of studying consciousness and about the conclusions about its nature and function, they each push introspectionism forward as a reliable method to study consciousness. Their claim is that we can draw scientific conclusions from the analysis of a subject's verbal reports of his subjective experience.
This idea was soon to lose its resonance and Revonsuo subsequently reconstructs the expulsion of consciousness as a subject in scientific psychology. He explains how behaviorists claim that consciousness cannot be the object of scientific consciousness because it is not publicly observable; how Freud draws our attention to the games that the unconscious plays with the conscious; and how functionalism conceives of the mind as an information processing machine which delivers a certain output for every input in accordance with a set of rules of which it does not have to be conscious and, thus, studies the mind but not consciousness.
This trend too will shift and Revonsuo concludes the first part of his work with a sketch of the phoenix rising of the modern science of consciousness and its conceptual foundations.
As a logical and chronological follow-up on this Revonsuo introduces the reader in the second part of his work to the current science of consciousness. He casts light upon the neuropsychological science of consciousness. In this section, especially his take on what happens with the self-consciousness of split-brain patients is revealing. Split-brain patients are patients for whom the connections between the left and right hemisphere are severed in such a way that what the subject perceives with each hemisphere can only be reported by this hemisphere and not by the other. Philosophers have wondered whether we would in such a case have to speak of two subjects instead of one. Revonsuo suggest that this is not necessary since the coherent narrative that we tell about ourselves is produced by the left hemisphere and this stays intact in split-brain patients.
In a next section Revonsuo enumerates the current philosophical and empirical theories of consciousness and fruitfully correlates each with the corresponding theory in the other field of research.
Revonsuo concludes this part with a fascinating sketch of the scientific study of altered states of consciousness in which he deals with dreams, hypnosis, out-of-body experiences and near-death experiences (which natural explanations would not entirely be able to account for).
Revonsuo generally allows different theories to come to the fore and gives arguments for their pros and cons while being a critical but not too partial observer. When all theories fail to account for a certain phenomena, Revonsuo refrains from suggesting a way out. This could be an interesting addition in a second edition of this book. When it would prove impossible to come up with the perfect theory, or even to converge the best of the existing theories, new thinking could perhaps be furthered by pointing to the common flaw in the existing theories. When they appear to all share a view on reality, we could start questioning a view that we have always taken as the only possible or valid option.
Still, Revonsuo leaves us with something. His honest and rather impartial assessment of different theories of consciousness -- seen in his attempt to point to the merits of the most dubious, and the flaws in the most promising theories -- does not prevent him from ultimately taking a stance and be open about the theory of consciousness that he wishes to defend: i.e. an emergent materialism that would allow us to at some day explain the emergence of consciousness out of physical matter, just like one has succeeded in explaining the emergence of life out of non-lively matter. This openness about his own position is a necessary move and does not make this work more biased. On the contrary, it gives the reader the necessary background information to be motivated to scrutinize Revonsuo's claims and take in an own position in the ongoing debate about consciousness.
Here are some question marks that one could put next to Revonsuo's text.
Revonsuo mentions how "[u]p until roughly the 1850s, human consciousness was conceived of as a Cartesian soul: nonphysical by nature, without spatial extension or location in physical space and intrinsically unified or undividable. The soul, by its very nature, was taken to be beyond scientific observation or measurement. Therefore, there could be no such thing as a science of consciousness." (48) This statement may be too bold for two reasons. Firstly, the fact that one -- as testified in literature -- was even before this time well aware that certain drinks could make someone go crazy seems to contradict that one saw the soul as something nonphysical. Secondly, one can only wonder why Revonsuo does not mention Kant. There may be reasons to refrain from calling his Critique of Pure Reason a scientific study of consciousness and determine it as a philosophical study of consciousness, but it is certainly a systematic study of consciousness. And if one determines consciousness as Kant does, then perhaps this systematic philosophical analysis of consciousness is the only way to gain knowledge about conscious, and, thus, in a way the only scientific approach to it.
In a similar way it is surprising to discover that Revonsuo does not mention the philosopher Edmund Husserl when he depicts the emergence of consciousness studies. This is especially striking because Husserl developed a whole new way to study consciousness in a reaction against the method according to which psychologists study consciousness for the first time. Revonsuo elaborates upon this latter method. If he would mention Husserl as well, his sketch of the first psychological theories of consciousness would explain to philosophers what Husserl reacted against, and the exposition of Husserl's reaction could in its turn help one understand what goes wrong in these psychological theories.
But, to come back to Kant, if Revonsuo would have included him, he may also have paid more attention to the fact that our conscious experiences do not only have a subjective feel to them, but that they also have a specific meaning for us. When Revonsuo for example says "Perhaps we will learn that the visual experience of seeing blue is really '40 Hz neuroelectrical oscillations in cortical visual area V4', we can wonder whether we would under this kind of description only have an intuition of something and no concept of it, and how this would work. Would we see a colour without realizing that it is a colour, and would this then really be the same experience as the experience that we typically call the experience of seeing a colour?
It is quite striking that Revonsuo does not emphasize this meaning component of experience more, since it could support his defense of emergent materialism as a model to understand consciousness. For if a conscious experience would have a meaning, this meaning could be determined by our specific acquaintance with (history of experience with) the world, and this could be a reason why a conscious experience may emerge out of a neurophysiological process, but (once this has occurred) never again be reduced to it.
This line of reasoning could also defend the conceivability of neurological zombies which Revonsuo denies (p. 92). A neurological zombie is supposed to be a creature which may exhibit the same behaviour as we do when similar neurons would fire in its brain, but would unlike us not have a conscious experience at a neuron firing that causes us to have such an experience. Perhaps if a neurologist made a neuron fire in this zombie which typically induces a certain experience, this neuron firing would not cause this experience in this case, because usually this neuron fires in recognition of something in the world, whereas now, by lack of experience, there cannot be this recognition.
The main complaint about this work of Revonsuo's could be that he occasionally fails to make distinctions or argue for a certain position.
A major distinction which the reader may be left unaware of springs from Revonsuo's praiseworthy success in letting empirical findings function as a curtailment for philosophical theories about consciousness. It could make one forget that there is a distinction between the epistemological and metaphysical question about consciousness: the conditions which should be fulfilled for us to know that we or someone is conscious could differ from the conditions that should be fulfilled for us or someone to be conscious. That this distinction may be forgotten becomes tangible in a statement like this: "If consciousness is nothing over and above (a high degree of) integrated information, then it becomes possible in principle to separate phenomenal conscious experience from higher level cognitive functions such as language, self-awareness and verbal reports. If it were possible to measure the degree of information integration in infants or animals, we would be able to infer whether they are phenomenally conscious or not." (212)
Other than this, it is the briefness of Revonsuo's paragraphs that makes him not always make a distinction or provide an argument for a statement. Some examples are the following:
At one point Revonsuo declares "Amnesic patients who cannot form new memories are doomed to live in a permanent present moment. They have lost the awareness of self as a temporally continuous being who has travelled a long road from the past to the here and now, to this very moment of present conscious experience, and who will be heading towards the future." (137) Perhaps Revonsuo could have made more distinctions here. It seems like while amnesia patients may fail to remember what they did in the past, as well as fail to execute certain of their intentions, a lot of them may still have an idea that they have a past (and for example be frustrated about not remembering it) and work with some kind of idea of a future (an amnesia patient may express the wish to start driving again or to die soon; she may also wish a granddaughter well on her travels -- even if she forgets soon after this that her granddaughter is traveling at all). If a distinction is made between these amnesia patients and the patients who also lose this minimal sense of having a past and a future, it becomes even more interesting to find out the details of what the experience, behaviour and sayings of these latter patients are like. Apart from memories and executed intentions, what else is lacking in their lives?
Another striking lack of distinction on Revonsuo's part is to be found in an either/or choice which he confronts the reader with. He asks "How could the qualia I see now here on Earth, when I look at the star be really located on a faraway star that no longer even exists?" (191), so as to demonstrate that qualia (i.e. the phenomenal content of experiences) are not in the objects which we perceive, but in our brain. It may however not be entirely fair to suppose that qualia must be either in external objects or in the brain. Why could they not be in the different realm of the mind? Revonsuo takes it for granted that the contents of conscious experiences must have a designated place in the physical world, but does not deliver any arguments to support this assumption. Without these further arguments Revonsuo's statement that representationalism "by treating phenomenality as identical to representational content…ends up throwing the contents of phenomenal consciousness out from the mind of the subject, into the external physical world"(191) can be contested. The representational content may be part of the mind (we do not necessarily know whether we truly see something, we could also just be hallucinating something), but this does not mean that it is part of the brain (say the firing of a neuron). It is also worth noting that Revonsuo's statements are paradoxical. He blames the representationalists for throwing the contents of phenomenal consciousness out from the mind of the subject, into the external physical world, but does exactly the same by presupposing that if the contents of phenomenal consciousness are not in the external world, they must be in the brain. For my brain is part of the external world. It is physical and external to my consciousness: my brain and its functioning are not typically given in my experience of the world. This is problematic because it is unclear why or how what is in consciousness should also be given outside of consciousness.
Related to this it could have been revealing if Revonsuo had introduced the quite actual debate in philosophy of mind about the distinction between a hallucination and a real perception. For if this distinction is real, then this seems to be one reason not to reduce consciousness to the inside of the brain (or even of the mind).
A third statement of Revonsuo's that could use some unpacking is the following: "the experiences I go through are mine; there is an I who goes through the experiences; thus, the experiences necessarily refer to a person, a self, me -- the experiences are self-referential; and the self they refer to is an embodied self." (193) This may ultimately be true, but for this to be established it would be necessary to justify, as philosophers have in fact attempted, that when experiences appear to have an I as a subject, this I is also to be conceived of as a particular person, and, subsequently, that this person is an embodied self. For one could object that the I to which experiences refer is just some kind of grammatical necessity and/or that it does not necessarily refer to a person who stays the same through time. Or one could doubt that persons have to be embodied and not see why they could not in principle be purely spiritual.
It is unfortunate that Revonsuo also concludes his otherwise quite poised work with an unsubstantiated statement when he says that "we humans alone on this planet possess the capacity for a Theory of Mind, the capacity to imagine or simulate how other conscious subjects feel about their subjective lives…". This claim is in fact not as well established as Revonsuo takes it to be. Biologists have attributed a theory of mind to birds which only re-hide their food in a different and deliberately confusing way when they know that another bird has been watching them hide their food for the first time. These birds can be said to have a theory of mind since they make an assumption about where the other bird will go and look for the food.
Although these remarks are not few and more could be made, it is worth emphasizing that they do not take anything away from the many points of view and arguments which Revonsuo does introduce, as well as that these questions are only a response to Revonsuo's invite -- extended by the set-up of the book, his clear language and his honesty about his own position -- to critically further his thinking.
© 2010 Fauve Lybaert
Fauve Lybaert is a PhD-student in philosophy (2008-2012) at the University of Leuven. She works on personal identity and self-consciousness and writes a dissertation with as title 'Personal Identity and the Formal Self. She is funded by the Flanders Research Foundation.