Psychology
Resources

 email page    print page

All Topic Reviews
A Theory of Feelings Addictions"Intimate" Violence against Women1001 Solution-Focused Questions101 Healing Stories101 Things I Wish I'd Known When I Started Using Hypnosis50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God8 Keys to Body Brain BalanceA Brief History of Modern PsychologyA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Conceptual History of Psychology: Exploring the Tangled Web A Cooperative SpeciesA Guide to Teaching Introductory PsychologyA History of Modern Experimental PsychologyA History of Psychology in AutobiographyA History of Social PsychologyA History of the BrainA History of the MindA Hole in the HeadA Matter of SecurityA Mind of Its OwnA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Place for ConsciousnessA Short Introduction to Promoting Resilience in ChildrenA Social History of PsychologyA Stroll With William JamesA System Architecture Approach to the BrainA Theory of FreedomA Very Bad WizardAbductedAbout FacesAccounts of InnocenceAction, Emotion and WillAdapting MindsADHD & MeADHD in AdultsAdieu to GodAdolescence and Body ImageAdult Bipolar DisordersAdvances in Culture and PsychologyAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAffect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of SelfAffective MappingAgainst HappinessAges and StagesAll Joy and No FunAll Out!All We Have to FearAlterations of ConsciousnessAmerican Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical NeurosciencesAn Argument for MindAncient Bodies, Modern LivesAnimal Tool BehaviorAnimals in TranslationAnomalous CognitionAping MankindArtificial ConsciousnessAspects of PsychologismAsperger Syndrome and Your ChildAsperger Syndrome, Adolescence, and IdentityAssessment and Treatment of Childhood Problems, Second EditionAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAttachedAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutism and the Myth of the Person AloneAutopsy of a Suicidal MindBecoming an Effective PsychotherapistBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing No OneBelievingBetween Two WorldsBeyond AppearanceBeyond BlueBeyond BullyingBeyond MadnessBeyond the BrainBeyond the DSM StoryBig DreamsBiofeedback for the BrainBipolar ChildrenBipolar DisorderBipolar KidsBlackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive DevelopmentBlind SpotsBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlubberlandBlushBodiesBody ConsciousnessBody Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity in YouthBody SenseBody WorkBorderline Personality DisorderBorderline Personality Disorder and the Conversational ModelBorn DigitalBorn to Be GoodBorn Together - Reared ApartBounceBoundaries in Human RelationshipsBounded RationalityBozo SapiensBrain and CultureBrain and the GazeBrain Arousal and Information TheoryBrain BugsBrain Change TherapyBrain Circuitry and Signaling in PsychiatryBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-Based Therapy with AdultsBrain-WiseBrainstormBrainstormingBraintrustBrainwashingBrandedBreaking Murphy's LawBright-SidedBuddha's BrainBullying and TeasingBuyologyCaptureCare of the PsycheCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCerebrum 2007Cerebrum 2010Cerebrum 2015Cerebrum Anthology 2013Changing the SubjectCharacter Strengths and VirtuesCheating LessonsChild and Adolescent Psychological DisordersChildren’s Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness Chomsky NotebookClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyClinical Psychology in Practice ClosureCognition and PerceptionCognition and the BrainCognitive BiologyCognitive DissonanceCognitive FictionsCognitive Mechanisms of Belief ChangeCognitive PragmaticsCognitive ScienceCognitive ScienceCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Therapy of Anxiety DisordersCognitive Unconscious and Human RationalityCold-Blooded KindnessComing of Age in Second LifeCommunication Issues In Autism And Asperger SyndromeCompassion and Healing in Medicine and SocietyComplementary and Alternative Therapies ResearchComprehending ColumbineConfessions of a SociopathConquering Shame and CodependencyConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the Social BrainConsciousness EmergingConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Self-Consciousness, and the Science of Being HumanContemporary Debates in Cognitive ScienceConversations on ConsciousnessConviction of the InnocentCooperation and Its EvolutionCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCredit and BlameCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychologyCritical Thinking About PsychologyCross-Cultural PsychologyCrowdsourcingCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCuriousDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous and Severe Personality DisorderDaniel DennettDaughters of MadnessDeafness In MindDeath and ConsciousnessDeath of a ParentDecomposing the WillDeep Brain StimulationDeep ChinaDefining DifferenceDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions of GenderDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDeparting from DevianceDescartes' BabyDescartes's Changing MindDescribing Inner Experience?Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Destructive EmotionsDevelopment of Geocentric Spatial Language and CognitionDevelopment of PsychopathologyDialogues on DifferenceDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Digital HemlockDirty MindsDisgust and Its DisordersDisorders of VolitionDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Doing without ConceptsDrunk Tank PinkEducating People to Be Emotionally IntelligentEffective IntentionsEffective Writing in PsychologyEffortless AttentionEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbracing MindEmbracing UncertaintyEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotionally InvolvedEmotionsEmotionsEmotions and LifeEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions RevealedEmotions, Aggression, and Morality in ChildrenEmotions, Stress, and HealthEmpathyEnjoymentErotic MoralityEscape Your Own PrisonEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthically Challenged ProfessionsEveryday Mind ReadingEvidence for PsiEvidence-Based Mental Health PracticeEvil MenEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution and LearningEvolution, Games, and GodEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolutionary Psychology as Maladapted PsychologyExacting BeautyExperiences of DepressionExperimenterExplaining the BrainExplaining the BrainExplorations in Neuroscience, Psychology and ReligionExploring TranssexualismExpression and the InnerExtending Self-Esteem ResearchExtraordinary BeliefsFact and Value in EmotionFaking ItFatigue as a Window to the BrainFavorite Activities for the Teaching of PsychologyFeeling GoodFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFinding Meaning, Facing FearsFitting In Is OverratedFlourishingFlow: The Psychology of Optimal ExperienceFolk Psychological NarrativesFooling HoudiniForever YoungFormulation in Psychology and PsychotherapyFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Psychological ThoughtFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom EvolvesFrom Axons to IdentityFrom Madness to Mental HealthFrom Neurons to Self-ConsciousnessFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Symptom to SynapseFrontiers of ConsciousnessGay, Straight, and the Reason WhyGenerosityGenes, Environment, and PsychopathologyGenetic Nature/CultureGeniusGetting Under the SkinGlued to GamesGoing SaneGot Parts?Group GeniusGrowing Up GirlGuilt, Shame, and AnxietyGut ReactionsHallucinationHandbook New Sexuality StudiesHandbook of Closeness and IntimacyHandbook of Critical PsychologyHandbook of Emotion RegulationHandbook of EmotionsHandbook of Personality DisordersHandbook of PsychopathyHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Spatial CognitionHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness at WorkHappiness Is.Happy at LastHard to GetHardwired BehaviorHatredHealing the SplitHidden ResourcesHope and DespairHot ThoughtHot ThoughtHouse and PsychologyHow Animals Affect UsHow Animals GrieveHow Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Doctors ThinkHow Enlightenment Changes Your BrainHow Families Still MatterHow History Made the MindHow Infants Know MindsHow Many Friends Does One Person Need?How Professors ThinkHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Change Someone You LoveHow We ReasonHow We RememberHughes' Outline of Modern PsychiatryHumanHuman BondingHuman Reasoning and Cognitive ScienceHypnotismHysteriaiBrainIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIdentifying the MindiDisorderImagination and the Meaningful BrainImitation and the Social MindImpulse Control DisordersImpulsivityIn an Unspoken VoiceIn Defense of SentimentalityIn DoubtIn Search of HappinessIn the Wake of 9/11Individual and Collective Memory ConsolidationInner Experience and NeuroscienceInner PresenceInside the American CoupleIntegrated Behavioral Health CareIntegrating Evolution and DevelopmentIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntellectual DisabilityIntelligenceIntelligence, Destiny, and EducationIntentions and IntentionalityInterdependent MindsInterpreting MindsInto the Minds of MadmenIntoxicating MindsIntrospection VindicatedIntuitionInventing PersonalityInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIs There Anything Good About Men?Issues for Families, Schools and CommunitiesJane Sexes It UpJoint AttentionJoint AttentionJudgment and Decision MakingJust a DogJust BabiesJuvenile-Onset SchizophreniaKarl JaspersKey Thinkers in PsychologyKidding OurselvesKids of CharacterKilling MonstersLack of CharacterLanguage OriginsLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw, Mind and BrainLess Than HumanLet Kids Be KidsLet's Talk About DeathLiving NarrativeLiving with Mild Cognitive ImpairmentLonelinessLooking for SpinozaLossLOT 2Love at Goon ParkMachine ConsciousnessMacrocognitionMade for Each OtherMadnessMaking a Good Brain GreatMaking Habits, Breaking HabitsMaking Minds and MadnessMaking Up the MindMale SexualityMan and WomanMan's Search for MeaningMan, Beast, and ZombieManic MindsManlinessMapping the MindMarking the MindMarvelous Learning AnimalMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaningMeaning, Mortality, and ChoiceMedical MusesMeditating SelflesslyMeetings with a Remarkable ManMemoryMemory and DreamsMemory and EmotionMemory And UnderstandingMental BiologyMental IllnessMental Time TravelMetacognitionMetacognition and Theory of MindMethods in MindMindMindMind and BrainMind and ConsciousnessMind Games:Mind in LifeMind TimeMind to MindMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMindful AngerMindfulnessMindfulness and AcceptanceMindfulness-Based Treatment Approaches: Clinician's Guide to Evidence Base and ApplicationsMinding AnimalsMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds, Brains, and LawMindsightMindworldsMirrors in the BrainMistakes Were Made (But Not by Me)Models of MadnessMoodMoral Development and RealityMoral MindsMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Mothers and OthersMotivation and Cognitive ControlMotivational Interviewing: Preparing People For ChangeMovies and the MindMulticulturalism and the Therapeutic ProcessMultiplicityMuses, Madmen, and ProphetsMy Family AlbumMyths about SuicideNarrative IdentitiesNarrative PsychiatryNarratives in PsychiatryNaturalizing Intention in ActionNature and NarrativeNature Via NurtureNeither Bad nor MadNerveNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeurochemistry of ConsciousnessNeurodiversityNeuroethicsNeuroLogicNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroscience and PhilosophyNo Child Left DifferentNo Two AlikeNot By Genes AloneNot Much Just Chillin'Not So Abnormal PsychologyNurturing the Older Brain and MindOn AnxietyOn Being HumanOn Being MovedOn Deep History and the BrainOn DesireOn KillingOn Nature and LanguageOn PaedophiliaOn PersonalityOn the Frontier of AdulthoodOn the Origins of Cognitive ScienceOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOnflowOpen MindsOpening Skinner's BoxOrigin of MindOrigins of PsychopathologyOther MindsOut of Our HeadsOut of the WoodsOvercoming Depersonalization DisorderPanpsychism and the Religious AttitudePanpsychism in the WestParenting and the Child's WorldPassionate EnginesPathologies of the WestPatient-Based Approaches to Cognitive NeurosciencePediatric PsychopharmacologyPeople Types and Tiger StripesPerception & CognitionPerception beyond InferencePerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPersonal Development and Clinical PsychologyPerspectives on ImitationPhantoms in the BrainPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhrenologyPhysical RealizationPhysics in MindPieces of LightPlaying with FirePositive PsychologyPositive PsychologyPostcards from the Brain MuseumPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPoverty and Brain Development During ChildhoodPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical Management of Personality DisorderPractical Management of Personality DisorderPredicative MindsPredictably IrrationalPreference, Belief, and SimilarityPrenatal Testosterone in MindPrivileged AccessProcrastinationProust Was a NeuroscientistPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsychological AgencyPsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychological Dimensions of the SelfPsychologists Defying the CrowdPsychologyPsychologyPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology for ScreenwritersPsychology of Women: A Handbook of Issues and TheoriesPsychology's GhostsPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology's TerritoriesPsychopathologyPsychopathyPsychosis and EmotionPsychotherapy, American Culture, and Social PolicyPutnam CampPutting a Name to ItQuantum Memory PowerQuietRadical DistortionRadical Embodied Cognitive ScienceRadical ExternalismRadical GraceRapeRe-Visioning PsychiatryReal MaterialismReality CheckReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecovery in Mental IllnessRecreative MindsRedirectReducing Adolescent RiskRegulating EmotionsRelational BeingRelational Mental HealthRelational Suicide AssessmentReliability in Cognitive NeuroscienceRemembering HomeRemembering Our ChildhoodResearch Advances in Genetics and GenomicsResearching Children's ExperienceResilience in ChildrenRestoring ResilienceRethinking ADHDRethinking Learning DisabilitiesRethinking Middle YearsRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfRevolution in PsychologyRoadmap to ResilienceRomance and Sex in Adolescence and Emerging AdulthoodSchizophrenia RevealedSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologySecond NatureSecond NatureSecond That EmotionSecond-order Change in PsychotherapySecrets of the MindSee What I'm SayingSee What I'm SayingSeeing and VisualizingSeeing RedSelf and SocietySelf Comes to MindSelf Control in Society, Mind, and BrainSelf-Awareness Deficits in Psychiatric PatientsSelf-CompassionSelf-RegulationSelf-Representational Approaches to ConsciousnessSelfless InsightSelvesSerial KillersSex at DawnSex on the BrainSex, Time and PowerSexual Coercion in Primates and HumansSexual DisordersSexual FluiditySexual ReckoningsSexualized BrainsShame and GuiltShatteredSimulating MindsSisyphus's BoulderSNAPSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial Psychology and DiscourseSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSoul DustSparkSpiral of EntrapmentSplendors and Miseries of the BrainSports Hypnosis in PracticeStanding at Water's EdgeStich and His CriticsStillpowerStop OverreactingStructure and Agency in Everyday LifeStructures of AgencyStuffStumbling on HappinessSubjectivity and SelfhoodSubstance Abuse and EmotionSupersizing the MindSweet DreamsSynaptic SelfTales from Both Sides of the BrainTalking Oneself SoberTalking to BabiesTaming the Troublesome ChildTargeting AutismTeaching Problems and the Problems of TeachingTeleological RealismTen Years of Viewing from WithinThat's DisgustingThe 5 Elements of Effective ThinkingThe Accidental MindThe Age of EmpathyThe Altruism EquationThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Clinical PsychiatryThe Anatomy of BiasThe Anxious BrainThe Archaeology of MindThe Art and Science of MindfulnessThe Art InstinctThe Art of HypnosisThe Asymmetrical BrainThe Bifurcation of the SelfThe Big Book of ConceptsThe Big DisconnectThe Birth of IntersubjectivityThe Birth of the MindThe Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge ManagementThe Blank SlateThe Body Has a Mind of Its OwnThe Bounds of CognitionThe Boy Who Was Raised as a DogThe BrainThe Brain and the Meaning of LifeThe Brain SupremacyThe Brain That Changes ItselfThe Brain's Way of HealingThe Brain: Big Bangs, Behaviors, and BeliefsThe Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive ScienceThe Cambridge Handbook of Situated CognitionThe Character of ConsciousnessThe Chemistry Between UsThe Choice EffectThe Clinical Science of Suicide PreventionThe Cognitive Approach to Conscious MachinesThe Cognitive Behavioral Workbook for Anxiety: A Step-By-Step ProgramThe Cognitive NeurosciencesThe Cognitive-Emotional BrainThe College Fear FactorThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Compass of PleasureThe Concepts of ConsciousnessThe Conscious BrainThe Conscious SelfThe Consuming InstinctThe Creating BrainThe Creative BrainThe Crucible of ConsciousnessThe Crucible of ExperienceThe Cure WithinThe Dao of NeuroscienceThe Developing MindThe Developing MindThe Development of PsychopathologyThe Disappearance of the Social in American Social PsychologyThe Dissolution of MindThe Duty to ProtectThe Educated ParentThe Ego TunnelThe Elephant in the RoomThe Emotional Journey of the Alzheimer's FamilyThe Encultured BrainThe Encyclopedia of StupidityThe Enduring Self in People with Alzheimer'sThe Epidemiology of SchizophreniaThe Essential DifferenceThe Ethical BrainThe Evolution of ChildhoodThe Evolution of CooperationThe Evolution of LanguageThe Evolution of MindThe Evolving BrainThe Executive BrainThe Faces of TerrorismThe Feeling BrainThe Feeling of What HappensThe First IdeaThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Foundations of Cognitive ArchaeologyThe Fundamentalist MindsetThe GapThe Gender TrapThe Geography of BlissThe Gift of ShynessThe Good LifeThe Good LifeThe Happiness HypothesisThe Happiness of PursuitThe Health Psychology HandbookThe Healthy Aging BrainThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of PsychologyThe Human FaceThe Human SparkThe Hypomanic EdgeThe Imagery DebateThe Immeasurable MindThe Imprinted BrainThe Incredible Shrinking MindThe Innate MindThe Innate MindThe Integrated SelfThe Intentional BrainThe Language of ThoughtThe Languages of the BrainThe Lexicon of Adlerian PsychologyThe Lie DetectorsThe Lives of the BrainThe Lonely AmericanThe Lust for BloodThe Madness of WomenThe Male BrainThe Man Who Lost His LanguageThe Man Who Shocked the WorldThe Man Who Tasted ShapesThe Man Who Wasn't ThereThe Matter of the MindThe Mature MindThe Mean Girl MotiveThe Meaning of OthersThe Meaning of the BodyThe Measure of MadnessThe Measure of MindThe Medicalization of Everyday LifeThe Mind and the BrainThe Mind in ContextThe Mind of the ChildThe Mind of the HorseThe Mind's EyeThe Mind, the Body and the WorldThe Mind-Gut ConnectionThe Mindful BrainThe Misleading MindThe Moral MindThe Most Dangerous AnimalThe Most Human HumanThe Mother FactorThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of Depression as DiseaseThe Myth of Mirror NeuronsThe Myth of Self HelpThe Myth of Self-EsteemThe Myth of the Spoiled ChildThe Nature of the SelfThe Necessity Of MadnessThe Neuro RevolutionThe Neuropsychology of the UnconsciousThe Neuroscience of Human RelationshipsThe Neuroscience of PsychotherapyThe Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social BrainThe New BrainThe New Science of DreamingThe New Science of the MindThe New UnconsciousThe Normal PersonalityThe Origins of FairnessThe Overflowing BrainThe Oxford Companion to the MindThe Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of MindThe Paradoxical PrimateThe Perfectionist's HandbookThe Peripheral MindThe Phenomenology ReaderThe Philosopher's Secret FireThe Philosophical BabyThe Political MindThe Politics of HappinessThe Positive Side of Negative EmotionsThe Postnational SelfThe Postpartum EffectThe Power of PlayThe Praeger Handbook of TranssexualityThe Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday LifeThe Primate MindThe Prism of GrammarThe Psychobiology of Trauma and Resilience Across the LifespanThe Psychological Construction of EmotionThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of HappinessThe Psychology of LifestyleThe Psychology of Religious FundamentalismThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of SpiritualityThe Psychology of StereotypingThe Psychology of SuperheroesThe Psychophysiology of Self-AwarenessThe Pursuit of PerfectThe Quest for Mental HealthThe Rational ImaginationThe Ravenous BrainThe Reasons of LoveThe Righteous MindThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Science of EvilThe Science of Intimate RelationshipsThe Science of Shame and its Treatment The Second SelfThe Secret History of EmotionThe Secret Lives of BoysThe Self and Its EmotionsThe Self-Sabotage CycleThe Sensitive SelfThe Shape of ThoughtThe Social AnimalThe Social Nature of Mental IllnessThe Social Neuroscience of EmpathyThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Story of Intellectual DisabilityThe Structure of ThinkingThe Survivors ClubThe Talking ApeThe Teenage BrainThe Tell-Tale BrainThe Temperamental ThreadThe Tender CutThe Tending InstinctThe Time ParadoxThe Trauma MythThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe True PathThe Truth About GriefThe Turing TestThe Uncertain SciencesThe Unhappy ChildThe Upside of IrrationalityThe War for Children's MindsThe Well-Tuned BrainThe Wild Girl, Natural Man, and the MonsterThe Winner's BrainThe Wisdom in FeelingThe Woman RacketThe World in My Mind, My Mind in the WorldThe Wow ClimaxThe Yipping TigerThemes, Issues and Debates in PsychologyTheoretical Issues in Psychology: An IntroductionTheory of AddictionTheory of MindThings and PlacesThink CatThink Confident, Be ConfidentThinking about AddictionThinking and SeeingThis Emotional Life: In Search of Ourselves...and HappinessThought and LanguageThought in a Hostile WorldTo Have and To Hurt:Toward an Evolutionary Biology of LanguageToward Replacement Parts for the BrainTrauma and Human ExistenceTrauma, Tragedy, TherapyTreating Attachment DisordersTreating Self-InjuryTreating Self-Injury: A Practical GuideTrue to Our FeelingsTrusting the Subject?Understanding and Treating Borderline Personality DisorderUnderstanding ConsciousnessUnderstanding ParanoiaUnderstanding PeopleUnderstanding TerrorismUndoing Perpetual StressUnlock the Genius WithinUnsettled MindsUnstrange MindsUnthinkingUs and ThemViolent PartnersVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVision and MindVisual AgnosiaWarrior's DishonourWe Who Are DarkWednesday Is Indigo BlueWelcome to Your BrainWhat Do Women Want?What Dying People WantWhat Have We DoneWhat Intelligence Tests MissWhat Is an Emotion: Classic and Contemporary ReadingsWhat Is Emotion?What is Intelligence?What Is Mental Illness?What Is Thought?What Makes Your Brain Happy and Why You Should Do the Opposite What the Best College Students DoWhat the Dog SawWhat We Know about Emotional IntelligenceWhat We Say MattersWhat's Wrong With Morality?When Boys Become BoysWhen Perfect Isn't Good EnoughWhen the Impossible HappensWhen Walls Become DoorwaysWho's Been Sleeping in Your HeadWho's in Charge?Why Humans Like to CryWhy Love MattersWhy Lyrics LastWhy People CooperateWhy People Die by SuicideWhy Sex Matters: A Darwinian Look at Human BehaviorWhy Smart People Can Be So StupidWhy the Mind is Not a ComputerWhy Us?Why We LieWhy We LoveWider than the SkyWilliam James at the BoundariesWilling, Wanting, WaitingWittgenstein And PsychologyWomen and Child Sexual AbuseWorking MindsYoga and PsychologyYou Are What You RememberYoung Minds in Social WorldsYour Brain on CubsYour Brain on FoodYour Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings,Your Brain on YogaYour Child in the BalanceZombies and Consciousness

Related Topics
Frontiers of ConsciousnessReview - Frontiers of Consciousness
The Chichele Lectures
by Lawrence Weiskrantz and Martin Davies (Editors)
Oxford University Press, 2008
Review by Gareth Southwell, Ph.D.
Jan 19th 2010 (Volume 14, Issue 3)

The so-called problem of consciousness sits at the forefront of research in philosophy and science. It is, perhaps, not really a new problem, being a slightly different focus on the old philosophical chestnut of the mind-body problem. However, whereas Descartes -- and those who sought to defend or disprove him -- wrestled with how a supposedly 'immaterial' mind (or soul) could influence and interact with a material body, the modern debate -- which mostly rejects Cartesian dualism -- focuses on the role of the physical brain in generating and facilitating conscious experience.

The central question is therefore whether consciousness represents anything over and above the mere physical processes of the brain, and if not, how we may account for it. In the words of Thomas Nagel -- who appears to have set the ball rolling here in his article, 'What is it like to be a bat?' -- isn't there "something it is like" to be a conscious human being that a purely physical account of brain states and neurons necessarily excludes? For instance, if it were possible to model the human brain, perhaps creating artificially intelligent computers or robots that thought and behaved like conscious intelligent agents (that were able to communicate, deliberate, seek goals, etc.), wouldn't such a creation still lack the subjective experience of being conscious?

This question has divided philosophers into three main camps (following David Chalmers' The Conscious Mind): hard-line materialists, who argue that there is no deep problem, and that consciousness may be explained in purely physical terms; dualists, who argue that consciousness exists in some way 'outside' of physical reality, and cannot be reduced to it; and non-reductive materialists, who argue that whilst consciousness would seem to have a material basis, it is not identical with it, and we cannot therefore (for various reasons) entirely reduce it to descriptions of physical brain states.

In the context of the above debate Frontiers of Consciousness brings together twelve essays that each began as a contribution to a series of lectures and seminars held at All Souls College, Oxford, from April to June, 2006. Each essay represents a post-conference development of individual contributions, and chapters vary in length between approximately ten and sixty pages (averaging about twenty). Some chapters are therefore more developed and challenging than others, but all represent an interesting perspective on various aspects of the problem. The authors themselves hail from various fields -- psychology, neurology, philosophy -- and so the book's approach (and the purpose of the conference) is to approach the problem of consciousness from various interdisciplinary viewpoints in the hope that new light may be shed on what is proving to be an intractable problem.

The first thing to note about the book therefore is that it is not really an introduction to the problem of consciousness. Some chapters are more accessible than others, and the essentials of the debate are addressed in certain places, but most contributions assume a certain level of familiarity and intellectual involvement with the problem that really make it most suitable for those looking to build and extend upon an already established understanding. The language and detail reflect this, and whilst the book's blurb boasts that it is "distinctive in its accessibility, and unparalleled in its depth of coverage", this is really only true relative to the more obscure and narrow, purely academic contributions to the subject that readers might otherwise chance upon.

This said, Frontiers of Consciousness is a very useful book. As the title suggests, contributions represent thinkers at the forefront of the debate, and as such, those working in related fields and looking to further their understanding will benefit greatly from the snapshots of current research that the book provides. In fact, the interdisciplinary approach of the book is perhaps its greatest virtue. As a philosopher, whilst I found the philosophical contributions interesting and useful, I had less to learn from these than the contributions which came from neuropsychology -- which, incidentally, are the majority, the psychologists and neuroscientists outnumbering the philosophers ten to two). The reason for this bias toward neuropsychology is revealing: Do the editors/conference organizers think that the problem of consciousness is a fundamentally scientific -- as opposed to a philosophical -- one? Should we look to neuropsychology more than philosophy to provide a solution to the problem? Whatever the reason, the bias is something for which philosophers interested in neuroscience will be grateful, for most will be underinformed regarding developments in this field. On the other hand, the under-representation of philosophy puts a great emphasis on the two chapters that are included to punch their philosophical weight, and so let us look at these first.

In Chapter 1, 'Consciousness and Explanation', Martin Davies sets out the philosophical background to the problem in terms of the notion of an "explanatory gap" between our neuroscientific understanding of brain processes and our subjective experience of them. Is there, in fact, such a gap? Davies provides a precise overview of the various responses to this question, whilst showing that no approach is problem free.

In Chapter 2, 'Explanatory Gaps and Dualist Intuitions', Martin Papineau takes Davies to task on his use of the term "explanatory gap", which he sees as falling into a dualist trap (as if the conceptual problem of how mental states and brain states are related is uniquely problematic). He reinforces this point by suggesting that this mistake is based on a deep-seated human "intuition" that mind and brain are separate, and that even "professed physicalists don't always believe their physicalism" (p.58), often falling back into dualist phraseology where brain states cause or generate consciousness (rather than being identical with it, which is what hard-line physicalism should officially propose). However, he then suggests that the "intuition of distinctness" (between mind and body) that most people feel -- and which he sees as fundamentally responsible for the whole problem -- is, along with other celebrated "illusions", one that represents no fundamental problem, and is in fact one that we can live with. Therefore, there is no fundamental "explanatory gap".

Both these chapters are interesting, and Papineau's contribution is punchy and concise, but Davies's -- which is obviously meant to act as a detailed introduction to the subject -- is too closely argued to be useful to anyone not already fairly familiar with the philosophical landscape.

From the perspective of neuropsychology, the remaining ten chapters present different aspects of consciousness research. In chapter 3, 'Emotional Colouration of Consciousness: How Feelings Come About', Joseph LeDoux details the role of unconscious emotion in shaping and influencing conscious action. Based in the amygdalae (small, almond-shaped areas of the brain, located towards the latter part of the temporal lobe of the cerebrum), such basic emotional reactions as fear and anger draw conscious brain resources to their aid, directing their application in line with our most fundamental needs -- such as reproduction and survival -- all without conscious control or knowledge. Hereby, LeDoux proposes a "working memory" model of consciousness, whereby such unconscious processes work to shape the context of awareness.

Responding to this in Chapter 4, 'Emotion, higher-order syntactic thoughts, and consciousness', Edmund T. Rolls considers this working memory account of consciousness inadequate, arguing that "higher-order thoughts" (thoughts about other thoughts or states) are also required. In fact, Rolls goes so far as to suggest that "if a system were doing this type of processing (thinking about its own thoughts), it would then be very plausible that is should feel like something to do this", and even that "it is not plausible to suggest that it would not feel like anything to a system if it were doing this" (p.147) -- which, in effect, seems like an argument for strong AI (i.e. that not only can machines think, but they can be as conscious as humans are), for this "higher-order thought" model of consciousness would seem to be amenable to computer modeling. Rolls therefore sees qualia (subjective qualitative mental experiences) as a product of this: we are aware of what it is like to have certain feelings, sensations, etc., because we can 'step back' via higher-order thought. However, this still seems to sidestep or underestimate the problem, for it is not the role or origins of qualia in the conscious process that is the real issue, but how such subjectivity exists at all. So, to say that qualia exist because we can be aware of them is not really to solve any deep mysteries.

Chapter 5 ('Consciousness and unconscious visual processing in the human brain', by A. David Milner), looks at the different roles played by separate areas of the brain in aspects of visual awareness and processing, arguing for a dualistic split between unconscious visuomotor processing (e.g. grasping, throwing, etc.), and perceptual awareness. Milner concludes that the former processes are not only unconscious, but inaccessible to consciousness. In other words, I can be aware of grasping, throwing, etc., but not of the processes and visuomotor calculations (such as object recognition, hand-eye coordination, and so on) which allow me to do so (these remain unconscious abilities).

Responding to this, in Chapter 6 ('Vision, Action, and Awareness'), Manos Tsakiris and Patrick Haggard largely agree with Milner's proposed division of visual processing duties, but criticize the "Cartesian theatre" model of consciousness that he seems to favor, whereby the subject is a passive observer of conscious experience. In its place, they propose a view of consciousness in sympathy with that of Martin Heidegger, which sees consciousness as embodied and embedded in our actions and experience of the world.

Perhaps the most philosophically interesting contribution is Chapter 7, 'The Social Functions of Consciousness', where Chris D. Frith sets out some of the extraordinary findings of psychological studies concerning agency. For instance, via hypnosis or precisely constructed experiments, it is possible to show that subjects can either be disassociated from their own actions (such as being convinced that they have no control over the movement of their own arms), or associate themselves with actions over which they have no control (such as pre-programmed computer sequences). Frith also points out the relevance of such issues for practical decision-making, citing problems faced (for example) in attempting to communicate with patients with 'locked in' syndrome or autistic children. Frith concludes therefore that consciousness and agency are very closely linked concepts, and that, as a result, we need to think of consciousness as a "joint endeavor", for, as with agency, how we ascribe consciousness (even our own) is as much determined by social practices and the attitudes of others as it is by the existence of any internal subjective experiences.

In Chapter 8, 'Are We Studying Consciousness Yet?', Hakwan C. Lau provides a perceptive critique of the various attempts to isolate the "neural correlate of consciousness" (NCC) -- that is, which parts of the brain are active when we are conscious. Lau points out that, to date, this holy grail of neuroscience and philosophy has focused mainly on objective measures, such as a subject's task performance, whereas actually what we need is to isolate the neural correlate of subjective awareness itself. Lau makes an important point here: task performance is not identical to perceptual awareness. I could perform well at a task unconsciously, or display knowledge of something I claim to have no conscious awareness of. However, this merely informs us of the brain's capacity for unconscious information processing and task performance, and does not necessarily shed direct light on what subjective consciousness actually is. Therefore, greater care is needed to isolate this subjective state and to divorce it from non-conscious brain processes.

Chapters 9 and 10 consider problems related to the question of animal consciousness. As Cecilia Heyes argues ('Beast Machines? Questions of Animal Consciousness'), it is most tempting to argue by analogy: animals do or don't behave like us, therefore there is something similar (or not) happening 'inside' them. However, as she points out, the question is not so easily decided, and this and other common approaches either demonstrate serious flaws or require accepting as-yet-unproven assumptions, leaving the most important question -- whether animals possess anything like human phenomenal consciousness, or are just unconscious "beast machines" -- undecided. Heyes believes, intuitively, that they do (and I agree), but that, whilst some approaches promise more than others (namely, testing for consciousness in the form of "higher-order thinking" -- that is, thinking about thoughts), science is yet to find a means of conclusively establishing this.

Taking issue with Heyes' conclusions, Anthony Dickinson ('Why a Rat is not a Beast Machine') argues that animals do not require second- or higher-order thought in order to possess phenomenal consciousness, which can accompany "first-order representation" or thought. This is because phenomenal consciousness can fulfill a functional role for animals. So, a rat may not be aware that it's aware, or have a concept of self, but there may still be, in Nagel's phrase, "something it is like" to be that animal via its possession of phenomenal experiences -- desires or emotions -- that serve various purposes and goal-directed behavior. The question of whether an animal possesses this form of consciousness is therefore dependent on whether, in analyzing its behaviour, we can identify a functional role for such phenomenal consciousness (and which would also rule out it being possessed by more rudimentary species for which phenomenal consciousness would fulfill no functional role).

In Chapter 11, 'Does Consciousness Spring from the Brain? Dilemmas of Awareness in Practice and in Theory', Adam Zeman provides a neurologist's take on consciousness, suggesting that the problems we face in accounting for it spring from the traditional medical dichotomy between psychology and neurology -- between the study of the mind and the body. In a fascinating and extremely useful overview, and perhaps the best general contribution to the book, Zeman shows how again and again we are faced with phenomena which are most fully understood through being approached from a combination of both perspectives. Therefore, the most fruitful approach to consciousness is not one which attempts to ground a theory in one or other aspect (mind or body), but that seeks to understand the phenomenon as a whole from these two differing perspectives: our subjective experience cannot be completely reduced to the physical (we cannot have a "neurology of the soul"), but neither can we hold on to the old Cartesian notion of a private, immaterial, separate sense of self. Of course, even this approach has its problems, but it is one that promises a greater reward than any one-sided theory can offer.

In the final chapter, 'On the Ubiquity of Conscious-Unconscious Dissociations in Neuropsychology', Lawrence Weiskrantz's reviews various instances where, after damage to the relevant parts of the brain, subjects nonetheless retain certain functions at an unconscious level. The most celebrated example of this is of course 'blindsight', a phenomenon that Weiskrantz himself discovered, where subjects retain unconscious processing and knowledge of visual information after damage to the visual cortex. It is these phenomena that Weiskrantz sees as central to a possible understanding of consciousness, and -- he implies -- in the search for its neural correlate.

In Summary, Frontiers of Consciousness presents a varyingly readable and useful account of contemporary work in the various fields of consciousness research. In this sense, it succeeds, in that it covers the spectrum of the debate, and someone with an interest in focusing in on one or more of these aspects -- the role of emotion, the relation of consciousness to perception, the question of animal consciousness, and so on -- will find here a good account of where the latest research is at. Also, for those with a more general interest, certain chapters (most notably Chapters 1 and 11), provide a useful overview of the main philosophical, neurological and psychological obstacles we face in arriving at a successful theory. However, as already noted, chapters vary in both their readability and their general relation to the central question: some contributions will be hard or tedious going for readers from other disciplines or non-specialists, and others either construe the problem differently, or do not seem to recognize its full extent. Therefore, for those looking for an introduction to the subject there exist more accessible and useful books; however, for those with a specialist or academic interest, whilst it would have been nice if the various contributions had been interlinked more closely, there will be something here of both use and interest.

 

© 2010 Gareth Southwell

 

Gareth Southwell is a philosopher and author based in Wales, UK. He is currently writing a series of introductory philosophy books for Wiley-Blackwell, a book explaining the origin and meaning of philosophical quotations for Quercus, and developing the website www.philosophyonline.co.uk. His research interests include controversies to do with the definition of death (the subject of his PhD thesis), and the problem of consciousness. He is also a freelance illustrator.


Share

Welcome to MHN's unique book review site Metapsychology. We feature over 7700 in-depth reviews of a wide range of books and DVDs written by our reviewers from many backgrounds and perspectives. We update our front page weekly and add more than thirty new reviews each month. Our editor is Christian Perring, PhD. To contact him, use one of the forms available here.

Can't remember our URL? Access our reviews directly via 'metapsychology.net'


Metapsychology Online reviewers normally receive gratis review copies of the items they review.
Metapsychology Online receives a commission from Amazon.com for purchases through this site, which helps us send review copies to reviewers. Please support us by making your Amazon.com purchases through our Amazon links. We thank you for your support!


Join our e-mail list!: Metapsychology New Review Announcements: Sent out monthly, these announcements list our recent reviews. To subscribe, click here.

Interested in becoming a book reviewer for Metapsychology? Currently, we especially need thoughtful reviewers for books in fiction, self-help and popular psychology. To apply, write to our editor.

Metapsychology Online Reviews

Promote your Page too

Metapsychology Online Reviews
ISSN 1931-5716