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A Theory of Feelings Anger and Forgiveness"My Madness Saved Me"10 Good Questions about Life and Death12 Modern Philosophers50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a GodA Cabinet of Philosophical CuriositiesA Case for IronyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to Buddhist PhilosophyA Companion to FoucaultA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to HumeA Companion to KantA Companion to Phenomenology and ExistentialismA Companion to PragmatismA Companion to the Philosophy of ActionA Companion to the Philosophy of BiologyA Companion to the Philosophy of LiteratureA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Critical Overview of Biological FunctionsA Critique of Naturalistic Philosophies of MindA Cursing Brain?A Delicate BalanceA Farewell to AlmsA Frightening LoveA Future for PresentismA Guide to the Good LifeA History of PsychiatryA History of the MindA Life Worth LivingA Manual of Experimental PhilosophyA Map of the MindA Metaphysics of PsychopathologyA Mind So RareA Natural History of Human MoralityA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Natural History of VisionA Parliament of MindsA Philosopher Looks at The Sense of HumorA Philosophical DiseaseA Philosophy of BoredomA Philosophy of Cinematic ArtA Philosophy of CultureA Philosophy of EmptinessA Philosophy of FearA Philosophy of PainA Physicalist ManifestoA Place for ConsciousnessA Question of TrustA Research Agenda for DSM-VA Revolution of the MindA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Stroll With William JamesA Tapestry of ValuesA Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Theory of FreedomA Thousand MachinesA Universe of ConsciousnessA Very Bad WizardA Very Bad Wizard: Morality Behind the CurtainA Virtue EpistemologyA World Full of GodsA World Without ValuesAbout FaceAbout the Beginning of the Hermeneutics of the SelfAction and ResponsibilityAction in ContextAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionAction, Contemplation, and HappinessAction, Emotion and WillAdam SmithAdaptive DynamicsAddictionAddictionAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction Is a ChoiceAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAftermathAfterwarAgainst AdaptationAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HappinessAgainst HealthAgency and ActionAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and EmbodimentAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAl-JununAlain BadiouAlain BadiouAlasdair MacIntyreAlien Landscapes?Altered EgosAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Ethics for TodayAn Intellectual History of CannibalismAn Interpretation of DesireAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy An Introduction to Philosophy of EducationAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of PsychologyAn Introductory Philosophy of MedicineAn Odd Kind of FameAnalytic FreudAnalytic Philosophy in AmericaAncient AngerAncient Models of MindAncient Philosophy of the SelfAngerAnimal LessonsAnimal MindsAnimals Like UsAnnihilationAnother PlanetAnswers for AristotleAnti-ExternalismAnti-Individualism and KnowledgeAntigone’s ClaimAntipsychiatryAre We Hardwired?Are Women Human?Arguing about DisabilityArguing About Human NatureAristotle and the Philosophy of FriendshipAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's ChildrenAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle, Emotions, and EducationArt & MoralityArt After Conceptual ArtArt in Three DimensionsArt, Self and KnowledgeArtificial ConsciousnessArtificial HappinessAspects of PsychologismAsylum to ActionAt the Existentialist CaféAtonement and ForgivenessAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutobiography as PhilosophyAutonomyAutonomy and Mental DisorderAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismBabies by DesignBackslidingBadiouBadiou's DeleuzeBadiou, Balibar, Ranciere: Rethinking EmancipationBare Facts And Naked TruthsBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBattlestar Galactica and PhilosophyBe Like the FoxBeautyBecoming a SubjectBecoming HumanBefore ConsciousnessBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing AmoralBeing HumanBeing Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory Being No OneBeing Realistic about ReasonsBeing ReducedBeing YourselfBelief's Own EthicsBending Over BackwardsBerlin Childhood around 1900Bernard WilliamsBertrand RussellBetter than BothBetter Than WellBetween Two WorldsBeyond HealthBeyond Hegel and NietzscheBeyond KuhnBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond PostmodernismBeyond ReductionBeyond SchizophreniaBeyond the DSM StoryBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics in the ClinicBiological Complexity and Integrative PluralismBiology Is TechnologyBiosBipolar ExpeditionsBlackwell Companion to the Philosophy of EducationBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlues - Philosophy for EveryoneBlushBob Dylan and PhilosophyBody ConsciousnessBody Image And Body SchemaBody ImagesBody LanguageBody MattersBody WorkBody-Subjects and Disordered MindsBoundBoundaries of the MindBoyleBrain Evolution and CognitionBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-WiseBrainchildrenBrains, Buddhas, and BelievingBrainstormingBrave New WorldsBreakdown of WillBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and FaithBrief Therapy Homework PlannerBritain on the CouchBritish Idealism and the Concept of the SelfBrute RationalityBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyBut Is It Art?Camus and SartreCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCarving Nature at Its JointsCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsCassandra's DaughterCato's TearsCausation and CounterfactualsCauses, Laws, and Free WillChanging Conceptions of the Child from the Renaissance to Post-ModernityChanging the SubjectChaosophyCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionCharles DarwinCherishmentChildhood and the Philosophy of EducationChildrenChildren, Families, and Health Care Decision MakingChoices and ConflictChoosing Not to ChooseChristmas - Philosophy for EveryoneCinema, Philosophy, BergmanCinematic MythmakingCity and Soul in Plato's RepublicClassifying MadnessClear and Queer ThinkingClinical EthicsClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyCodependent ForevermoreCoffee - Philosophy for EveryoneCognition and the BrainCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognition Through Understanding: Self-Knowledge, Interlocution, Reasoning, ReflectionCognitive BiologyCognitive FictionsCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Systems and the Extended Mind Cognitive Theories of Mental IllnessCoherence in Thought and ActionCollected Papers, Volume 1Collected Papers, Volume 2College SexComedy IncarnateCommitmentCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentConcealment And ExposureConceptual Analysis and Philosophical NaturalismConceptual Art and PaintingConceptual Issues in Evolutionary BiologyConfessionsConfucianismConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConquest of AbundanceConscience and ConvenienceConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the SelfConsciousness EmergingConsciousness EvolvingConsciousness ExplainedConsciousness in ActionConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Color, and ContentConsole and ClassifyConstructing the WorldConstructive AnalysisContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Philosophy of BiologyContemporary Debates in Philosophy of MindContemporary Debates in Political PhilosophyContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContemporary Perspectives on Natural LawContested Knowledge: Social Theory TodayContesting PsychiatryContext and the AttitudesContinental Philosophy of ScienceControlControlling Our DestiniesConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCopernicus, Darwin and FreudCrazy for YouCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCreating ConsilienceCreating HysteriaCreating Mental IllnessCreating Scientific ConceptsCreating the American JunkieCreation, Rationality and AutonomyCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCrimes of ReasonCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychiatryCritical PsychologyCritical ResistanceCritical Thinking About PsychologyCritical VisionsCross and KhoraCruel CompassionCTRL [SPACE]Cultural Psychology of the SelfCultural Theory: An IntroductionCulture and Psychiatric DiagnosisCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCulture of DeathCultures of NeurastheniaCurious EmotionsCurrent Controversies in Experimental PhilosophyCurrent Controversies in Values and ScienceCustom and Reason in HumeCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCutting God in Half - And Putting the Pieces Together AgainCylons in AmericaDamaged IdentitiesDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous EmotionsDaniel DennettDaniel DennettDark AgesDarwin and DesignDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDarwin, God and the Meaning of LifeDarwinian PsychiatryDarwinian ReductionismDarwinizing CultureDating: Philosophy for EveryoneDeathDeathDeath and CharacterDeath and CompassionDeath and the AfterlifeDebating DesignDebating HumanismDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecomposing the WillDeconstructing PsychotherapyDeconstruction and DemocracyDeeper Than DarwinDeeper than ReasonDefending Science - within ReasonDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDegrees of BeliefDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions and Other Irrational BeliefsDelusions and the Madness of the MassesDementiaDemons, Dreamers, and MadmenDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDennett’s PhilosophyDepression Is a ChoiceDepression, Emotion and the SelfDepthDerrida, Deleuze, PsychoanalysisDescartesDescartes and the Passionate MindDescartes' CogitoDescartes's Changing MindDescartes's Concept of MindDescribing Inner Experience?Descriptions and PrescriptionsDesembodied Spirits and Deanimated Bodies Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Desire and AffectDesire, Love, and IdentityDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDeveloping the VirtuesDiagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersDialectics of the SelfDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital SoulDimensional Models of Personality DisordersDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDisjunctivismDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDispatches from the Freud WarsDisrupted LivesDistractionDisturbed ConsciousnessDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Do We Still Need Doctors?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Does the Woman Exist?Doing without ConceptsDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDonald DavidsonDonald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the MentalDoubting Darwin?Dreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR CasebookDworkin and His CriticsDying to KnowDynamics in ActionDysthymia and the Spectrum of Chronic DepressionsEccentricsEducational MetamorphosesEffective IntentionsElbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth WantingEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbodied RhetoricsEmbodied Selves and Divided MindsEmbryos under the MicroscopeEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotionEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion and PsycheEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotional ReasonEmotional ReasonEmotional TruthEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions, Value, and AgencyEmpathyEmpathy and AgencyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpathy in the Context of PhilosophyEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEnchanted LoomsEngaging BuddhismEngineering the Human GermlineEnjoymentEnvyEpicureanismEpistemic LuckEpistemologyEpistemology and EmotionsEpistemology and the Psychology of Human JudgmentEros and the GoodErotic MoralityEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssays in the Metaphysics of Mind Essays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEssays on Nonconceptual ContentEssays on Philosophical CounselingEssays on Reference, Language, and MindEssays on the Concept of Mind in Early-Modern PhilosophyEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEsssential Philosophy of PsychiatryEternal Sunshine of the Spotless MindEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in Human CloningEthical TheoryEthicsEthicsEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics in Plain EnglishEthics in PracticeEthics in Psychiatric ResearchEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEuropean Review of Philosophy. Vol. 5Everyday IrrationalityEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolutionEvolution and the Human MindEvolution's RainbowEvolutionary Origins of MoralityEvolutionary PsychologyExamined LifeExamined LivesExistential AmericaExistentialismExistentialism and Romantic LoveExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and NaturalismExperiments in EthicsExplaining ConsciousnessExplaining the BrainExplaining the Computational MindExplanatory PluralismExploding the Gene MythExploring HappinessExploring the SelfExpression and the InnerExpressions of JudgmentFaces of IntentionFact and ValueFact and Value in EmotionFacts, Values, and NormsFads and Fallacies in the Social SciencesFaith and Wisdom in ScienceFatherhoodFear of KnowledgeFearless SpeechFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFeelings of BeingFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminism and Philosophy of ScienceFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist Interpretations of Rene DescartesFeminist TheoryField Notes from ElsewhereFinding Consciousness in the BrainFingerprints of GodFlesh in the Age of ReasonFolk Psychological NarrativesFolk Psychology Re-AssessedForces of HabitForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and RetributionFoucault 2.0Foucault and PhilosophyFoucault NowFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in PsychologyFour Views on Free WillFrank Ramsey (1903-1930)Free WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree Will and Action ExplanationFree Will and LuckFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree: Why Science Hasn't Disproved Free WillFreedomFreedom and DeterminismFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom and ResponsibiltyFreedom and ValueFreedom EvolvesFreedom RegainedFreedom vs. InterventionFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFreudFreud and the Question of PseudoscienceFreud As PhilosopherFreud's AnswerFreud, the Reluctant PhilosopherFriedrich NietzscheFrom Chance to ChoiceFrom Clinic to ClassroomFrom Complexity to LifeFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution for Science and the HumanitiesFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Valuing to ValueFrontiers of ConsciousnessFrontiers of JusticeFurnishing the MindGalileo in PittsburghGenderGender and Mental HealthGender in the MirrorGender TroubleGenesGenes, Women, EqualityGenetic Nature/CultureGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetic SecretsGenocide's AftermathGenomes and What to Make of ThemGerman Idealism and the JewGerman PhilosophyGetting HookedGilles DeleuzeGlobal PhilosophyGluttonyGod and Phenomenal ConsciousnessGoffman's LegacyGoing Amiss in Experimental ResearchGoodness & AdviceGrassroots SpiritualityGrave MattersGrave MattersGreedGreek Models of Mind and SelfGut ReactionsHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHabits of MindHallucinationHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of EmotionsHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness and EducationHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHappiness, Death, and the Remainder of LifeHard LuckHarmful ThoughtsHaving the World in ViewHealing PsychiatryHealing the Soul in the Age of the BrainHealth, Illness and DiseaseHealth, Science, and Ordinary LanguageHegelHeidegger and a Metaphysics of FeelingHeidegger, Metaphysics and the Univocity of BeingHermann von Helmholtz's MechanismHermeneutics As PoliticsHeterophobiaHeterosyncraciesHeuristics and BiasesHeuristics and the LawHidden ResourcesHidden SelvesHiding from HumanityHigh Art LiteHistorical OntologyHistory of Psychiatry and Medical PsychologyHistory, Historicity And ScienceHobbesHomosexualitiesHope and Dread in PsychoanalysisHot ThoughtHow Can I Be Trusted?How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains?How Do We Know Who We Are?How Emotions WorkHow Emotions WorkHow History Made the MindHow Images ThinkHow is Nature Possible?How Propaganda WorksHow Science WorksHow Scientific Practices MatterHow Scientists Explain DiseaseHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Make Opportunity EqualHow to Solve the Mind-Body Problemhow to stop timeHow to Think More About SexHow We HopeHow We ReasonHuman CloningHuman Development, Language and the Future of MankindHuman EnhancementHuman Evolution, Reproduction, and MoralityHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman NatureHuman NatureHuman Nature and the Limits of ScienceHuman-Built WorldHumanismHumanism, What's That?HumanityHumans, Animals, MachinesHumeHumeHume on Motivation and VirtueHusserlHystoriesI of the VortexI Was WrongIdeas that MatterIdentifying the MindIdentity and Agency in Cultural WorldsIgnorance and ImaginationIllnessImagination and Its PathologiesImagination and the Meaningful BrainImagining NumbersImmortal RemainsImproving Nature?In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of HealthIn Defense of SentimentalityIn Love With LifeIn Praise of Athletic BeautyIn Praise of Natural PhilosophyIn Praise of the WhipIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of HappinessIn the Name of GodIn the Name of IdentityIn the Space of ReasonsIn the SwarmIn Two MindsIncompatibilism's AllureIndividual Differences in Conscious ExperienceInfinity and PerspectiveInformation ArtsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchIngmar Bergman, Cinematic PhilosopherInhuman ThoughtsInner PresenceInsanityIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntelligent VirtueIntentionIntentionality, Deliberation and AutonomyIntentions and IntentionalityIntentions and IntentionalityInterpreting MindsInterpreting NietzscheIntroducing Greek PhilosophyIntrospection and ConsciousnessIntrospection VindicatedIntuition, Imagination, and Philosophical MethodologyIntuitionismInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIrrationalityIs Academic Feminism Dead?Is It Me or My Meds?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is Oedipus Online?Is Science Neurotic?Is Science Value Free?Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion?Is There a Duty to Die?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJacques LacanJacques RancièreJacques RanciereJean-Paul SartreJohn McDowellJohn SearleJohn Searle's Ideas About Social RealityJohn Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill and the Writing of CharacterJoint AttentionJokesJonathan EdwardsJudging and UnderstandingJustice for ChildrenJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeKantKant and MiltonKant and the Fate of AutonomyKant and the Limits of AutonomyKant and the Role of Pleasure in Moral ActionKant on Freedom, Law, and HappinessKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Anatomy of EvilKant's Anatomy of the Intelligent MindKant's Theory of VirtueKarl JaspersKarl PopperKey Concepts in PhilosophyKierkegaardKierkegaard as PhenomenologistKierkegaard's Concept of DespairKierkegaard's MuseKinds of MindsKinds, Things, and StuffKnowing, Knowledge and BeliefsKnowledge MonopoliesKnowledge, Belief, and CharacterKnowledge, Possibility, and ConsciousnessLacanLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLanguageLanguage in ContextLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Culture, and MindLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw and the BrainLaw, Liberty, and PsychiatryLaws, Mind, and Free WillLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberatory PsychiatryLife and ActionLife at the Texas State Lunatic Asylum, 1857-1997Life Is Not a Game of PerfectLife of the MindLife's FormLife, Death, & MeaningLife, Death, and Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of UtilityLife, Sex, and IdeasLight in the Dark RoomLike a Splinter in Your MindLiving and Dying WellLiving NarrativeLiving Outside Mental IllnessLiving with DarwinLiving With One’s PastLockeLocke LockeLogic and the Art of Memory Loneliness in Philosophy, Psychology, and LiteratureLooking for SpinozaLooking for The StrangerLost SoulsLOT 2LoveLoveLove's ConfusionsLove's VisionLove, Friendship, and the SelfLove, Sex & TragedyLuckyLudwig WittgensteinLustLyingMachine ConsciousnessMad for FoucaultMad TravelersMade with WordsMadness And Death In PhilosophyMadness and DemocracyMadness at HomeMadness Is CivilizationMaking Natural KnowledgeMaking Sense of EvolutionMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMaking the DSM-5Making the Social WorldMaking TruthMale Female EmailMan, Beast, and ZombieMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManiaManic Depression and CreativityMapping the Edges and the In-betweenMapping the Future of BiologyMarcus AureliusMaster PassionsMatters of the MindMe++Meaning and Moral OrderMeaning and Value in a Secular AgeMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeaning, Basic Self-Knowledge, and MindMeanings of ArtMeasuring HappinessMeasuring PsychopathologyMedia MadnessMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedicine of the PersonMedicine, Mental Health, Religion, Science and Well-BeingMelancholy And the Care of the SoulMelancholy and the Otherness of GodMementoMemory and NarrativeMental ActionsMental CausationMental Causation and OntologyMental HealthMental Health At The CrossroadsMental Health Policy in BritainMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMerleau-PontyMerleau-Ponty and the Possibilities of PhilosophyMetacognition and Theory of MindMetacreationMetaethical SubjectivismMetaethicsMetal and FleshMetaphors of MemoryMetapoliticsMethods in MindMichel FoucaultMill's UtilitarianismMindMindMind and ConsciousnessMind and CosmosMind and MechanismMind GamesMind in a Physical WorldMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind in LifeMind TimeMind's LandscapeMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMind, Brain, and Free WillMind, Reason and ImaginationMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds and PersonsMinds, Brains, and LawMinds, Ethics, and ConditionalsMindshapingMindsightMindworldsMirror, MirrorMixed FeelingsMockingbird YearsModels of the SelfModern Social ImaginariesModern Theories of JusticeModernity and SubjectivityModernity and TechnologyMoody Minds DistemperedMoral BrainsMoral DimensionsMoral FailureMoral ImaginationMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral ParticularismMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology and Human AgencyMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Moral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMotherhoodMotive and RightnessMoving Beyond Prozac, DSM, and the New PsychiatryMultiple Analogies in Science and PhilosophyMultiple Identities & False MemoriesMusic, Madness, and the Unworking of LanguageMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Double UnveiledMy WayNarrativeNarrative and IdentityNarrative MedicineNarrative PsychiatryNarrative Theory and the Cognitive SciencesNatural Ethical FactsNatural Kinds and Conceptual ChangeNatural MindsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalism and the First-Person PerspectiveNaturalism and the Human ConditionNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalized BioethicsNaturalizing the MindNatureNature and NarrativeNear Death ExperienceNeither Bad nor MadNeither Victim nor SurvivorNeuro-Philosophy and the Healthy MindNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neurophilosophy at WorkNeurophilosophy of Free WillNeuropoliticsNeuropsychoanalysis in PracticeNeuroscience and PhilosophyNew Essays on the Explanation of ActionNew Philosophy for a New MediaNew Versions of VictimsNew Waves in Philosophy of ActionNietzscheNietzsche and Buddhist PhilosophyNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNietzsche's TherapyNietzsche, Culture and EducationNietzsche: The Man and His PhilosophyNihil UnboundNoir AnxietyNormative EthicsNormativityNorms of NatureNotebooks 1951-1959Notes Toward a Performative Theory of AssemblyNothing So AbsurdOblivionOn AnxietyOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn Being AuthenticOn BeliefOn BetrayalOn BullshitOn DelusionOn DesireOn EmotionsOn HashishOn Human RightsOn Loving Our EnemiesOn Nature and LanguageOn PersonalityOn ReflectionOn Romantic LoveOn the EmotionsOn the Freud WatchOn the Government of the LivingOn the Human ConditionOn the InternetOn the Meaning of LifeOn the Philosophy of LawOn the Pragmatics of CommunicationOn the Punitive SocietyOn TruthOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne Hundred DaysOnflowOnly a Promise of HappinessOntology of ConsciousnessOpen MindedOpen Your EyesOrgans without BodiesOther MindsOur Last Great IllusionOur Own MindsOur Posthuman FutureOur StoriesOut of Its MindOut of Our HeadsOxford Guide to the MindOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPanic DisorderPanpsychismPanpsychism in the WestPartialityPassionate EnginesPassionate EnginesPathologies of BeliefPathologies of ReasonPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perceiving the WorldPerception & CognitionPerception and Basic BeliefsPerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPerceptual ExperiencePerfecting VirtuePerplexities of ConsciousnessPersistencePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal IdentityPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonal Identity and Fractured SelvesPersonhood and Health CarePersonsPersons and BodiesPersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPersons, Souls and DeathPerspectives on ImitationPerspectives on PragmatismPessimismPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenal ConsciousnessPhenomenal IntentionalityPhenomenology and ExistentialismPhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophersPhilosophers on MusicPhilosophers without GodsPhilosophical CounselingPhilosophical Counselling and the UnconsciousPhilosophical DevicesPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical History and the Problem of ConsciousnessPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in Psychiatry IIPhilosophical MethodologyPhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophical Myths of the FallPhilosophical Perspectives on DepictionPhilosophical Perspectives on Technology and PsychiatryPhilosophical PracticePhilosophical Reflections on DisabilityPhilosophizing About Sex Philosophizing the EverydayPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy and LivingPhilosophy and PsychiatryPhilosophy and PsychotherapyPhilosophy and Science FictionPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the Interpretation of Pop CulturePhilosophy and the Moving ImagePhilosophy and the NeurosciencesPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy As FictionPhilosophy BitesPhilosophy Bites BackPhilosophy for Counselling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy for LifePhilosophy in a New CenturyPhilosophy in an Age of SciencePhilosophy in Children's LiteraturePhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BodyPhilosophy of Film and Motion PicturesPhilosophy of LovePhilosophy of Love, Sex, and MarriagePhilosophy of MindPhilosophy of Mind and CognitionPhilosophy of Personal Identity and Multiple PersonalityPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy of Public HealthPhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhilosophy of the Social SciencesPhilosophy on TapPhilosophy PracticePhilosophy the Day after TomorrowPhilosophy's Role in Counseling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhilosophy, Politics, DemocracyPhotography and PhilosophyPhysical RealizationPhysicalism and Its DiscontentsPhysicalism and Mental CausationPhysicalism, or Something Near EnoughPhysician-Assisted DyingPillar of SaltPin-up GrrrlsPlant MindsPlatoPlatoPlato, Not Prozac!Platonic Ethics, Old and NewPluralistic CasuistryPolarities of ExperiencesPolitical EmotionsPopper, Objectivity and the Growth of KnowledgePornPorn StudiesPornography, Sex, and FeminismPortrait of the Psychiatrist as a Young ManPostcolonial DisordersPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPower and the SelfPower SplitPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical ConflictsPractical Identity and Narrative AgencyPractical PhilosophyPractical RulesPractical Tortoise RaisingPractically ProfoundPracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPragmatic BioethicsPragmatismPragmatism, Old And NewPraise and BlamePredicative MindsPreferences and Well-BeingPrescriptions for the MindPresocraticsPrimary and Secondary QualitiesPrimates and PhilosophersPrivacyPrivileged AccessProblems in MindProblems of RationalityProzac As a Way of LifeProzac BacklashProzac on the CouchPsyche and SomaPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric Cultures ComparedPsychiatric Diagnosis and ClassificationPsychiatric EthicsPsychiatric HegemonyPsychiatric PowerPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry and Philosophy of SciencePsychiatry and ReligionPsychiatry as a Human SciencePsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry in SocietyPsychiatry in the New MilleniumPsychiatry in the Scientific ImagePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsycho-Physical Dualism TodayPsychoanalysis and Narrative MedicinePsychoanalysis and the Philosophy of SciencePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and PhilosophyPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, and the Politics of Human RelationshipsPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPsychotherapy As PraxisPublic PhilosophyPunishmentPure ImmanencePurple HazePursuing MeaningQuality of Life and Human DifferenceQueer PhilosophyQuestions for FreudQuestions for FreudQuine and Davidson on Language, Thought and RealityRaceRace in Contemporary MedicineRadiant CoolRadical AlterityRadical ExternalismRadical HopeRational and Social AgencyRational CausationRational Choice in an Uncertain WorldRationality + Consciousness = Free WillRationality and FreedomRationality and the Reflective MindRationality in ActionRawls, Dewey, and ConstructivismRe-creating MedicineRe-EmergenceRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReading AutobiographyReading Bernard WilliamsReading SartreReadings in the Philosophy of TechnologyReal MaterialismReal Natures and Familiar ObjectsReal ScienceRealism in ActionReason & EmancipationReason in ActionReason in PhilosophyReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReasoning About Rational AgentsReasoning in Biological DiscoveriesReasons from WithinReasons without RationalismReclaiming CognitionReclaiming the SoulReconceiving SchizophreniaReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecreative MindsRediscovering EmotionRediscovering EmpathyReference and ExistenceReference and the Rational MindReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRegulating SexReinventing the SoulRelativism and Human RightsRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyReliable ReasoningReligion without GodRelying on OthersRemembering HomeResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsRestraining RageRethinking ExpertiseRethinking IntrospectionRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeRethinking the DSMRethinking the Sociology of Mental HealthRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfReturn to ReasonRevolt, She SaidRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard Rorty's New PragmatismRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRise And Fall of Soul And SelfRitalin NationRobert NozickRousseauRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Derrida on DeconstructionRules, Reason, and 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Benny Shanon's The Representational and the Presentational (RP) offers a wide-ranging critique of the representational/computational view of mind (RCVM) that has ruled cognitive psychology. The book was originally released in 1993, but because of publishing woes, was not advertised or distributed, which is unfortunate because of its significance for cognitive science. In the second edition, Shanon offers no revision to the original text. However, he does include a new postscript in which he states, "I am happy to say that I still hold on to everything I say in [RP]. If anything, I have become even more ardent in my opposition to RCVM and more entrenched in my alternative view of both mind and the science of psychology." (364). I will focus on the postscript at the end of the review.
In the opening sections of the book, Shanon offers a summary of the reasons for representationalism. In part 1, he provides four distinct lines of critique of representationalism. In part 2, he elucidates ramifications of rejecting representationalism and provides a "picture" of his alternative approach. In the postscript, he updates RP. According to Shanon, representationalism is based on three basic ideas: 1. People behave by virtue of their possessing knowledge; 2. Knowledge is constituted by mental representations; 3. Cognitive activity consists in the manipulation of these representations, namely, the application of computational operations to them. As Shanon suggests, his focus is on evaluating whether the theoretical frameworks are appropriate or useful in explaining diverse psychological phenomena, which suggests that RP is a critique by way of a distinctive kind of cognitive phenomenology.
Shanon's target is representationalism. He distinguishes six different senses and rationales for positing representations:
1) General sense and rationale: Representations are concrete external things that stand for something else and are non-theoretically posited because we observe them. While this notion of representation is not the target of critique, it emerges as central to the claim that Shanon makes: humans create representations through cognitive activity rather than manipulate representations through computations (18).
2) Experiential sense and rationale: Representations are phenomenal entities and are posited because we directly experience them.
3) Naïve sense and rationale: Representations are the locus of a range of cognitive phenomena, perception, action and emotion and are posited to explain and predict behavior.
4) Epistemic sense and rationale: Representations are the substrate of significance of linguistic and non-linguistic behavior and are posited to account for the orderly and rule-governed nature of such behavior.
5) Functional sense and rationale: Representations are input/output mediating functions between organism and environment and are posited to account for behavior that cannot be understood in terms of either organism contribution or environment contribution alone.
6) Technical-psychological sense and rationale: Technical-psychological or semantic representations are "well-formed structures of well-defined abstract symbolic entities constituting a complete and exhaustive canonical code which is determinate and static" (12).
Shanon's target is predominantly the technical-psychological or semantic sense of representationalism, most centrally, the work of Fodor and Pylyshyn (Fodor (1975); Fodor and Pylyshyn (1988)). However, readers familiar with the Fodor/Pylyshyn account will recognize that Shanon's expressed target is quite different. Shanon offers four lines of critique.
The first line of critique focuses on the epistemic rationale and argues that the fixed, abstract and determinate nature of semantic representations cannot capture the knowledge that humans have of the world. The critiques are that the determinateness of semantic representations cannot account for the context-sensitivity of thought, the abstractness of semantic representations cannot account for the "medium" of thought and the fixedness of semantic representations cannot account for the temporal aspect of thought.
The second line of critique focuses on the functionalist rationale and argues that the representations that cognitive scientists posit issue unbridgeable gaps between the cognitive system and the body, the cognitive system and the external physical world, the cognitive system and the social other and the cognitive system and non-cognitive features of the individual.
The third line of critique focuses on the temporal dimension of cognition and argues that since representations are fundamentally atemporal, and cognition is fundamentally temporal, then RCVM fails to capture the nature of cognition. Shanon argues through a conceptual analysis that cognition is intrinsically temporal and representations are intrinsically atemporal. Then, he focuses on a description of human actions in time. Cognition, it is argued, is not only temporal at a time, but also temporal from the perspective of development and evolution.
The fourth line of critique focuses on the technical-psychological sense and semantic rationale for positing representations. In an "intermezzo," Shanon pauses to discuss the reasons for theorizing with representations at all. This chapter is the most helpful chapter in the text, since it makes Shanon's target more transparent. However, one problem is that his major critique is that RCVM is committed to naive realism (243), however, the major figures in non-representational cognitive science inspired by James J. Gibson (one of Shanon's main influences in the text) have supported naive realism. Otherwise, according to Shanon, cognitive scientists are wrong to make a substantive-metaphysical assumption of dualism (inspired by Descartes, they segregate mind and world) and a theoretical-methodological assumption of purism (inspired by Plato, they are wedded to formal or structural posits). I would suggest that readers read "Why Representationalism?" after reading Chapter 1, for this reason.
The second line of critique provides the most articulate challenge to RCVM, since the other lines of critique suffer from a lack of clarity and precision. The first line of critique leaves several central premises without argument, key notions obscure and imprecise, and does not defend the basic thesis. For instance, in the discussion of context, Shanon claims without argument that knowledge of context is essential for cognition. Throughout the text, the phrase "the medium of thought" is used, and the only attempt to clarify that notion is through an extended analogy in which cognition is compared to swimming: "it concretely manifests what is, in essence, true of cognition in general" (270). The argument that is presented that we create representations rather than manipulate representations is at best circular.
The third line of critique does not consider the ways in which computational processes could be considered to be temporal. The argument for the premise that representations and computations of RCVM are atemporal is based solely on a limited focus on the static accounts of RCVM. But, since the dynamicist challenge to symbolicism and connectionism (Van Gelder and Port (1995), Van Gelder (1995)), there have been attempts to respond to these challenges (Eliasmith (1996)). Shanon also does not provide an argument for the claim that cognition is fundamentally temporal, but instead highlights ways in which the phenomena of perception, memory, learning and development involve temporality.
The fourth line of critique is the professed aim of the book, to critique the main proponents of RCVM, namely, the views of Fodor and Pylyshyn. But, this short chapter becomes a reflection on the concept of knowing and cognizing, which does not provide a critique as much as engage in word play about etymology. The upshot is that cognitive scientists beholden to the sense of cognition that implies information should focus on the sense of cognition that implies intentionality. There are too many cognitive scientists to mention that are currently doing so.
About the second line of critique, Shanon raises interesting problems for cognitive science. However, Shanon's claim that the unbridgeable gaps between a representational/computational cognitive system and the body, the world, the other and the emotions is overstated. Paul Thagard (2005) has provided an introductory summary of the challenges to RCVM similar to Shanon's, and Shanon does not consider all the possible avenues of response that cognitive scientists might utilize. For instance, Thagard considers three options. Cognitive scientists might deny the challenges. They might expand and supplement RCVM to deal with the challenges. Or, they might reject RCVM. Shanon suggests that the last of the three options is the only option: "the representational account is not— nor can it ever be— complete" (101). He does not consider the other two options. As Thagard documents well, cognitive scientists have been supplementing RCVM to deal with the various challenges, and so Shanon's focus might have been why he thinks these attempts have failed.
In Part II, Shanon presents a non-representational account of the mind. The locus of his account is action in the world (261). The representational account of the mind suggests that mental activity is computational processing that operates on semantic representations. Shanon suggests that the non-representational account of the mind can be summarized with the claim that "human behavior is rooted in action which is realized in a medium constituted in a context traced in the space of a time-world" (282). Shanon's account provides an alternative to the explanatory dualism and the formalistic purism of RCVM. The alternative is to replace the ability to refer by symbols with the ability to act in the world and the ability to manipulate symbols with "the ability to crystallize cognitive activity into manifest expressions" (291). As Shanon suggests in the earliest pages, "representational structures, if and when they exist, are the products of cognitive activity, not the basis for it" (18). The creation of representations arise out of what Shanon calls "crystallization"; however, the reader gets the following account of crystallization: "When rice is boiled and the water evaporates, ordered hexagonal holes are formed in the rice mass. Usually, the holes are identical in size and shape and their distribution across a surface is even. The rice is the substrate and the holes are the generated expressions [the crystallizations]: the rice is necessary for the holes to form, the holes can be generated only out of the rice, yet the rice is not an underlying structure" (284).
In the 2008 postscript, Shanon does make some references to his recent allies in the anti-representational battle and highlights some of the benefits of RP: "the value of my book is not merely in the arguments it puts forth, but also in their composition, in an aesthetic musical-like sense" (367). However, there is no substantive compare and contrast with the contemporary trends in the philosophy of mind: the extended mind hypothesis (Chalmers and Clark (1998)), the arguments for externalism (Putnam (1975) and Burge (1979)), the embodied phenomenology approach (Varela et al (1991) and Thompson (2007)) and the enactivist approach (Noe and O'Regan (2001); Noe (2006); Noe (2009)). The postscript focuses mostly, however, on extended meditations about the importance of taking a psychoactive potion Ayahuasca for the study of consciousness. Further, Shanon also points out that his cognitive phenomenology does not consider the brain; according to Shanon, "the substrate of cognition are neither representational structures nor the brain but rather the interface between cognitive agent and the world as spanned by the set of non-purely cognitive factors" (382). It seems puzzling however how Shanon could think that taking psychoactive drugs– which presumably affect the brain– could help us to understand consciousness– which according to Shanon is not realized in the brain.
Shanon's RP does offer a critique of the representational/computational view of mind (RCVM) that has ruled cognitive psychology. However, Shanon's presentation could have been more careful in his use of philosophical arguments, psychological observations and neuroscientific data.
Burge, T. (1979) "Individualism and the Mental" Midwest Studies in Philosophy 4: 73–121.
Chalmers, D. and Andy Clark (1998) "The Extended Mind" Analysis 58:10-23, 1998. Reprinted in (P. Grim, ed) The Philosopher's Annual, vol XXI, 1998
Eliasmith, C. (1996) "The third contender: a critical examination of the dynamicist theory of cognition." Philosophical Psychology, 9(4), 441-463.
Fodor, J. (1975) The Language of Thought. New York, NY: T. Crowell Company
Fodor, J., & Pylyshyn, Z. (1988). Connectionism and cognitive architecture: A critical analysis. Cognition, 28, pp. 3-71
Noe, A. (2006) Action in Perception. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Noe, A. (2009) Out of Our Heads. New York, NY: Hill and Wang
Noe, A. and T. O'Regan (2001) "A sensorimotor account of vision and visual consciousness" Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24, 939–1031
Putnam, H. (1975) "The Meaning of Meaning" Mind, Language and Reality. Philosophical Papers, vol. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Thagard, P. (2005) Mind: Introduction to Cognitive Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Thompson, E. (2007) Mind in Life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Van Gelder, T. (1995) "What might cognition be, if not computation?" Journal of Philosophy, 91, 345-381.
Van Gelder, T. and Port, R. (1995). "It's about time: an overview of the dynamical approach to cognition." In Mind as motion: explorations in the dynamics of cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Varela, Francisco J.; Thompson, Evan; Rosch, Eleanor (1991) The embodied mind: Cognitive science and Human Experience Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
© 2010 James M. Dow
James M. Dow is in the Philosophy PhD program at City University of New York, Graduate Center.
Benny Shanon (Department of Psychology, Hebrew University) sent the following response on January 14, 2010. Published January 31, 2010.
Here are a few comments in response to a review of the second, expanded edition of my book "The Representational and the Presentational" (Imprint Academic, 2008) that now appears in Metapsychology:
1. Overall, I would like to note that the reviewer focuses, in quite some detail, on the first, critical, part of my book by devotes only one scanty paragraph to the second, constructive, part. In this second part I consider alternatives to representationalism, draw a new picture of mind and propose a novel conception of psychological theory and psychological explanation. This reconceptualization of the cognitive endeavor is further expanded and developed in the new chapter (the Postscript) of the second edition of my book. Regrettably, the reviewer does not address the substance of new picture of mind I offer nor my proposal for a novel conceptualization of psychological science.
2. The reviewer writes: "The upshot is that cognitive scientists beholden to the sense of cognition that implies information should focus on the sense of cognition that implies intentionality. There are too many cognitive scientists to mention that are currently doing so." But No! The upshot of my alternative view of cognition is the centrality of intensional (with an "S") analysis, not intentionality (with "T"), as the reviewer wrongly remarks. The former has indeed been at the focus of much discussion in recent years, mostly in conjunction with consciousness - not so the former which had to be to a post-Heideggerian notion of intrinsic meaningfulness. I discuss this at length in Chapter 20 of the book and further in the Postscript. The distinction between the two technical terms at hand is explicitly made clear and explained in the Postscript.
3. The reviewer states: "The postscript focuses mostly on extended meditations about the importance of taking a psychoactive potion Ayahuasca for the study of consciousness." No true! Admittedly, Ayahuasca is discussed in conjunction with the study of consciousness but the great part of this new chapter deals with a host of other topics, all of major cognitive significance: The nature of psychological theory and psychological science, the relationship between mind and brain, a response to the current biologization of cognitive science in general and the study of human consciousness in particular and the consideration of alternatives to this trend, the outline of new avenues for psychological phenomenological research, as well as some consideration of epistemological and metaphysical issues; a rather detailed discussion of the 19th century scholar, Franz Brentano is included as well. In sum, the reviewer's characterization of the Postscript is not accurate at all - indeed, it seems to me both misguided and misleading.
4. Further with respect to the reviewer's statement cited above: In no place (neither in the Postscript nor in my extensive writings on Ayahuasca) do I say that whoever wishes to study consciousness should partake this psychoactive potion. Clearly not. Rather, what I claim is that the study of the psychological effects of Ayahuasca (along with other psychotropic agents) can contribute in very interesting and important ways to our understanding of mind and consciousness. The very same claim has been made by William James in a classical passage in his "The Varieties of Religious Experience" following his personal experiences with NO, the laughter gaz.
5. The reviewer writes: "It seems puzzling however how Shanon could think that taking psychoactive drugs– which presumably affect the brain – could help us to understand consciousness – which according to Shanon is not realized in the brain." This statement involves a serious misunderstanding - not just of what I myself say but of the nature of psychological explanation in general. In advocating what I call a genuinely psychological cognitive science, and in countering the current biologization of the field, I am not at all denying that the mind is naturally realized by the brain. To do so would, of course, be ludicrous. Obviously, not only psychedelic experiences, but all states of consciousness along with cognition in general could not come to be without the workings of the brain. The upshot of my call is that this factual state of affairs notwithstanding, psychological theories need not be biological. This very basic insight was pointed out by one of the major champions of representationalism, and the main contemporary philosopher of psychology, Jerry Fodor at the beginning of his "The Language of Thought", where he draws the fundamental and crucial distinction between two types of reductionism - material and explanatory. From a material point of view psychology is reduced to biology, but this need not imply that psychological theories should be reduced to biological ones. Significantly, this assessment was fundamental in the very birth of the modern cognitive paradigm about 40 years ago.
6. The reviewer unfairly ridiculizes my term "crystallization" and claims that I fail to define it. But I surely do. Within my alterantive view of cognition and mind, this is the mark of concrete articulation, one having both specific meaning and specific form. The concreteness of cognition is a key constituent in the picture of mind proposed in my book. The example of the boiling rice that the reviewer cites was presented by way of metaphorical illustration, not a definition as such.
7. The reviewer criticizes me for not referring to various works. All the pertinent items he mentions appeared after the publication of my book. An exception is "The Embodied Mind" by Varela, Thompson and Rosch (1991) which has reached me when the manuscript for my book (published in 1993) was already being processed by the publishing house. In the new Postscript I consider with this work, as well as various other criticisms of representationalism raised after the appearance of my book. The reviewer also finds fault with me for not discussing similarities and differences between my earlier work and those various later works. As a whole, my writing involves original philosophical and psychological work - it is not meant to be a comparative review of the literature, unless specific issues are at stake. If anything, I would revert the criticism to those later authors who have not cited my own earlier (and in various respects pioneering) critique of orthodox cognitivism.
8. Mentioning other discussions of representationalism in the literature, let me reiterate that the perspectives usually taken, on the one hand, by philosophers and, on the other hand, by psychologists and other contemporary cognitive scientists, are fundamentally different. This is pointed out and explained at the outset of my book, where it is labeled as the distinction between horizontal and vertical senses of representation. It seems to me that the present review is grounded in a philosophical interest, whereas my own primary concern is psychological.