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A Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Cooperative SpeciesA Mind So RareA Natural History of RapeAcquiring GenomesAdapting MindsAgeing, Health and CareAlas, Poor DarwinAn Introduction to Evolutionary EthicsAncient Bodies, Modern LivesAnimal ArchitectsAping MankindAre We Hardwired?Bang!BehavingBeyond EvolutionBeyond GeneticsBlood MattersBody BazaarBoneBrain Evolution and CognitionBrain StormBrave New BrainBrave New WorldsChoosing ChildrenCloneCloningConceptual Issues in Evolutionary BiologyConsciousness EvolvingContemporary Debates in Philosophy of BiologyControlling Our DestiniesCooperation and Its EvolutionCreatures of AccidentDarwin Loves YouDarwin's Brave New WorldDarwin's Gift to Science and ReligionDarwin's UniverseDarwin's WormsDarwinian ConservatismDarwinian PsychiatryDarwinism and its DiscontentsDarwinism as ReligionDebating DesignDecoding DarknessDefenders of the TruthDo We Still Need Doctors?Doubting Darwin?Early WarningEngineering the Human GermlineEnhancing EvolutionEnoughEntwined LivesEthical Issues in Human CloningEthical Issues in the New GeneticsEvil GenesEvolutionEvolutionEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution and Human Sexual BehaviorEvolution and LearningEvolution and ReligionEvolution and the Human MindEvolution in MindEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolution: The Modern SynthesisEvolutionary Ethics and Contemporary BiologyEvolutionary Origins of MoralityEvolutionary PsychiatryEvolutionary PsychologyEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolutionary Psychology as Maladapted PsychologyExploding the Gene MythFaces of Huntington'sFlesh of My FleshFrom Chance to ChoiceFrom Darwin to HitlerGenesGenes in ConflictGenes on the CouchGenes, Environment, and PsychopathologyGenes, Environment, and PsychopathologyGenes, Women, EqualityGenetic Nature/CultureGenetic PoliticsGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetic SecretsGenetics of Criminal and Antisocial BehaviourGenetics of Mental DisordersGenetics of Original SinGenetics of Original SinGenomeGenomeGenome: Updated EditionGenomes and What to Make of ThemGlowing GenesHow Women Got Their Curves and Other Just-So StoriesHuman CloningHuman Evolution, Reproduction, and MoralityImproving Nature?In Our Own ImageIn Pursuit of the GeneIn the Name of GodIngenious GenesInheritanceInside the Human GenomeInside the O'BriensIntegrating Evolution and DevelopmentIntelligence, Race, and GeneticsIs Human Nature Obsolete?Language OriginsLess Than HumanLiberal EugenicsLiving with Our GenesMaking Genes, Making WavesMaking Sense of EvolutionMan As The PrayerMean GenesMenMood GenesMoral OriginsMothers and OthersNature Via NurtureNever Let Me GoNot By Genes AloneOf Flies, Mice, and MenOn the Origin of StoriesOrigin of MindOrigins of Human NatureOrigins of PsychopathologyOur Posthuman FuturePhilosophy of BiologyPlaying God?Playing God?Portraits of Huntington'sPrimates and PhilosophersPromiscuityPsychiatric Genetics and GenomicsPsychologyQuality of Life and Human DifferenceRe-creating MedicineRedesigning HumansResearch Advances in Genetics and GenomicsResponsible GeneticsResponsible GeneticsScience, Seeds and CyborgsSex and WarSociological Perspectives on the New GeneticsStrange BedfellowsStrange BehaviorSubjects of the WorldSubordination and DefeatThe Age of EmpathyThe Agile GeneThe Ape and the Sushi MasterThe Biotech CenturyThe Blank SlateThe Book of LifeThe Boy Who Loved Too MuchThe Bridge to HumanityThe Case Against PerfectionThe Case for PerfectionThe Case of the Female OrgasmThe Century of the GeneThe Common ThreadThe Concept of the Gene in Development and EvolutionThe Debated MindThe Double-Edged HelixThe Epidemiology of SchizophreniaThe Ethics of Human CloningThe Evolution of CooperationThe Evolution of MindThe Evolution of MindThe Evolved ApprenticeThe Evolving WorldThe Fact of EvolutionThe Folly of FoolsThe Future of Human NatureThe God GeneThe Immortal Life of Henrietta LacksThe Impact of the GeneThe Innate MindThe Innate MindThe Innate Mind: Volume 3The Limits and Lies of Human Genetic ResearchThe Lives of the BrainThe Maladapted MindThe Meme MachineThe Misunderstood GeneThe Moral, Social, and Commercial Imperatives of Genetic Testing and ScreeningThe Most Dangerous AnimalThe New Genetic MedicineThe Nurture AssumptionThe Origin and Evolution of CulturesThe Origins of FairnessThe Paradoxical PrimateThe Perfect BabyThe Robot's RebellionThe Selfish GeneThe Shape of ThoughtThe Shattered SelfThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Story WithinThe Stuff of LifeThe Talking ApeThe Temperamental ThreadThe Terrible GiftThe Theory of OptionsThe Top 10 Myths About EvolutionThe Triple HelixThe Triumph of SociobiologyThe Woman Who Walked into the SeaTwinsUnderstanding CloningUnderstanding the GenomeUnnatural SelectionUnto OthersUp From DragonsWar Against the WeakWhat Genes Can't DoWhat It Means to Be 98 Percent ChimpanzeeWho Owns YouWhose View of Life?Why Evolution Is TrueWhy Think? WondergenesWrestling with Behavioral GeneticsYour Genetic Destiny
In case you missed it, 2009 is the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth and the 150th anniversary of the publication of his masterpiece, "On the Origin of Species." Already, there have been exhibitions and lectures, television documentaries and radio shows, postage stamps and playing cards. 2009 has been a great year to learn about Charles Darwin and his revolutionary theory of natural selection. The resources made available on the World Wide Web are quite amazing, and the books published are equally informative and insightful in placing Darwin in the history of ideas. A list of the books, events and documentaries that have been produced are available here. Obviously, the best way to celebrate the one hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the publication of On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life is to read it. Unfortunately, many have not. Especially Darwin's critics.
Letters to the editor in local newspapers across North America are too often a platform for such "criticism". The letters I have read suffer fatally from the Strawman fallacy; exhibiting almost immediately the writer's ignorance of the primary text. Recently I tangled with my local Member of Parliament who rose in the House of Commons to claim Darwin was wrong and a creator god had to be at work. His knowledge of Darwin's theory of natural selection was, shall I say, limited.
Darwin's Universe: Evolution from A to Z by Richard Milner is an easy way for the biology beginner to open a door to the wonders of Darwin, his life, his work, his friends and enemies; as well as the history of his scientific theory. The book is also a joy for readers already familiar with Darwin and his work. Every reader will find something new and fascinating between its covers. It is thorough, interesting, and an absolute delight to read from A to Z. Neither an encyclopaedia nor a biography, nor a biology text book; Milner's book functions admirably as all three.
On the way from A to Z the reader learns about Abang, the orangutan toolmaker (8); P. T. Barnum (35); Samuel Butler's anti-Darwinism (82); the coprolite industry (92); the "Hundredth Monkey Phenomenon" (227); Kennewick Man (257); and Zoopharmacognosy (452); and hundreds of other interesting entries.
As everyone knows Darwin's work revolutionized not only biology, but most disciplines in the sciences and the humanities. Evolution provides a brand new way of looking at the world. William Paley's (340) book Natural Theology is the perfect foil for Darwin's book in that both writers observe the same marvelous natural world and yet draw different inferences. Paley's famous "the watch in the heath" example provides the best argument from analogy for the existence of a creator or designer. Paley looks at the world and sees a creator's hand responsible for the observed design. Darwin looks more closely and infers a process over time which produces changes in a predictable way and does not require super natural involvement.
Milner's book is not just a compilation of interesting alphabetically arranged entries related to Darwin and his work, although it is that; but also a comprehensive introduction to the joy of discovery, the passion stirred by a new paradigm, the flim-flammery of those looking to cash in, and the difficulties of achieving scientific objectivity. Biography, science, poetry, and even movies are here for the readers' enjoyment and edification.
The book is a revised and updated successor to Milner's earlier Encyclopedia of Evolution containing some one hundred new essays and filled with pictures, diagrams, and text. In the original preface, reprinted in this edition, Stephen Jay Gould, a childhood friend of Richard Milner, writes "he has produced a popular book worthy of Darwin's words to his friend Thomas Huxley, as he importuned his old friend and combative champion to write a work on evolution for the general public: "I sometimes think that general and popular treatises are almost as important for the progress of science as original work.""
Richard Milner is an associate in anthropology at the American Museum of Natural History, a contributing editor of Natural History Magazine, and a performer -- his one-man musical Charles Darwin: Live & In Concert has toured the U.S., the U.K., Germany, Australia, and the Galápagos Islands. [Visit Milner's musical performance website here.] He was a childhood pal of the late Stephen Jay Gould (who wrote the Preface), and there is a charming photo of both of them, circa 1954 -- Gould was known on the playground as "Fossilface," and Milner as "Dino."
As Gould remarked, "Milner has given us so much more than a conventional reference work. His book is a series of mini-essays on the highways and byways of this most socially contentious of all scientific ideas."
What a great gift Darwin's Universe: Evolution from A to Z will be for anyone interested in ideas!
© 2009 Bob Lane
Bob Lane is an Honorary Research Associate in Philosophy and Literature at Vancouver Island University in British Columbia.