email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
A Theory of Feelings Addictions Memory and the Self"Intimate" Violence against Women1001 Solution-Focused Questions101 Healing Stories101 Things I Wish I'd Known When I Started Using Hypnosis50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God8 Keys to Body Brain BalanceA Brief History of Modern PsychologyA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Conceptual History of Psychology: Exploring the Tangled Web A Cooperative SpeciesA Guide to Teaching Introductory PsychologyA History of Modern Experimental PsychologyA History of Psychology in AutobiographyA History of Social PsychologyA History of the BrainA History of the MindA Hole in the HeadA Matter of SecurityA Mind of Its OwnA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Place for ConsciousnessA Short Introduction to Promoting Resilience in ChildrenA Social History of PsychologyA Stroll With William JamesA System Architecture Approach to the BrainA Theory of FreedomA Very Bad WizardAbductedAbout FacesAccounts of InnocenceAction, Emotion and WillAdapting MindsADHD & MeADHD in AdultsAdieu to GodAdolescence and Body ImageAdult Bipolar DisordersAdvances in Culture and PsychologyAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAffect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of SelfAffective MappingAgainst EmpathyAgainst HappinessAges and StagesAll Joy and No FunAll Out!All We Have to FearAlterations of ConsciousnessAmerican Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical NeurosciencesAn Argument for MindAncient Bodies, Modern LivesAnimal Tool BehaviorAnimals in TranslationAnomalous CognitionAping MankindArtificial ConsciousnessAspects of PsychologismAsperger Syndrome and Your ChildAsperger Syndrome, Adolescence, and IdentityAssessment and Treatment of Childhood Problems, Second EditionAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAttachedAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutism and the Myth of the Person AloneAutopsy of a Suicidal MindBecoming an Effective PsychotherapistBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing No OneBelievingBetween Two WorldsBeyond AppearanceBeyond BlueBeyond BullyingBeyond MadnessBeyond the BrainBeyond the DSM StoryBig DreamsBiofeedback for the BrainBipolar ChildrenBipolar DisorderBipolar KidsBlackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive DevelopmentBlind SpotsBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlubberlandBlushBodiesBody ConsciousnessBody Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity in YouthBody SenseBody WorkBorderline Personality DisorderBorderline Personality Disorder and the Conversational ModelBorn DigitalBorn to Be GoodBorn Together - Reared ApartBounceBoundaries in Human RelationshipsBounded RationalityBozo SapiensBrain and CultureBrain and the GazeBrain Arousal and Information TheoryBrain BugsBrain Change TherapyBrain Circuitry and Signaling in PsychiatryBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-Based Therapy with AdultsBrain-WiseBrainstormBrainstormingBraintrustBrainwashingBrandedBreaking Murphy's LawBright-SidedBuddha's BrainBullying and TeasingBuyologyCaptureCare of the PsycheCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCerebrum 2007Cerebrum 2010Cerebrum 2015Cerebrum Anthology 2013Changing the SubjectCharacter Strengths and VirtuesCheating LessonsChild and Adolescent Psychological DisordersChildren’s Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness Chomsky NotebookClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyClinical Psychology in Practice ClosureCognition and PerceptionCognition and the BrainCognitive BiologyCognitive DissonanceCognitive FictionsCognitive Mechanisms of Belief ChangeCognitive PragmaticsCognitive ScienceCognitive ScienceCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Therapy of Anxiety DisordersCognitive Unconscious and Human RationalityCold-Blooded KindnessComing of Age in Second LifeCommunication Issues In Autism And Asperger SyndromeCompassion and Healing in Medicine and SocietyComplementary and Alternative Therapies ResearchComprehending ColumbineConfessions of a SociopathConquering Shame and CodependencyConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the Social BrainConsciousness EmergingConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Self-Consciousness, and the Science of Being HumanContemporary Debates in Cognitive ScienceConversations on ConsciousnessConviction of the InnocentCooperation and Its EvolutionCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCredit and BlameCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychologyCritical Thinking About PsychologyCross-Cultural PsychologyCrowdsourcingCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCuriousDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous and Severe Personality DisorderDaniel DennettDaughters of MadnessDeafness In MindDeath and ConsciousnessDeath of a ParentDecomposing the WillDeep Brain StimulationDeep ChinaDefining DifferenceDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions of GenderDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDeparting from DevianceDescartes' BabyDescartes's Changing MindDescribing Inner Experience?Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Destructive EmotionsDevelopment of Geocentric Spatial Language and CognitionDevelopment of PsychopathologyDialogues on DifferenceDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Digital HemlockDirty MindsDisgust and Its DisordersDisorders of VolitionDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Doing without ConceptsDrunk Tank PinkEducating People to Be Emotionally IntelligentEffective IntentionsEffective Writing in PsychologyEffortless AttentionEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbracing MindEmbracing UncertaintyEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotionally InvolvedEmotionsEmotionsEmotions and LifeEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions RevealedEmotions, Aggression, and Morality in ChildrenEmotions, Stress, and HealthEmpathyEnjoymentErotic MoralityEscape Your Own PrisonEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthically Challenged ProfessionsEveryday Mind ReadingEvidence for PsiEvidence-Based Mental Health PracticeEvil MenEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution and LearningEvolution, Games, and GodEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolutionary Psychology as Maladapted PsychologyExacting BeautyExperiences of DepressionExperimenterExplaining the BrainExplaining the BrainExplorations in Neuroscience, Psychology and ReligionExploring TranssexualismExpression and the InnerExtending Self-Esteem ResearchExtraordinary BeliefsFact and Value in EmotionFaking ItFatigue as a Window to the BrainFavorite Activities for the Teaching of PsychologyFeeling GoodFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFinding Meaning, Facing FearsFitting In Is OverratedFlourishingFlow: The Psychology of Optimal ExperienceFolk Psychological NarrativesFooling HoudiniForever YoungFormulation in Psychology and PsychotherapyFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Psychological ThoughtFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom EvolvesFrom Axons to IdentityFrom Madness to Mental HealthFrom Neurons to Self-ConsciousnessFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Symptom to SynapseFrontiers of ConsciousnessGay, Straight, and the Reason WhyGenerosityGenes, Environment, and PsychopathologyGenetic Nature/CultureGeniusGetting Under the SkinGlued to GamesGoing SaneGot Parts?Group GeniusGrowing Up GirlGuilt, Shame, and AnxietyGut ReactionsHallucinationHandbook New Sexuality StudiesHandbook of Closeness and IntimacyHandbook of Critical PsychologyHandbook of Emotion RegulationHandbook of EmotionsHandbook of Personality DisordersHandbook of PsychopathyHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Spatial CognitionHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness at WorkHappiness Is.Happy at LastHard to GetHardwired BehaviorHatredHealing the SplitHidden ResourcesHope and DespairHot ThoughtHot ThoughtHouse and PsychologyHow Animals Affect UsHow Animals GrieveHow Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Doctors ThinkHow Enlightenment Changes Your BrainHow Families Still MatterHow History Made the MindHow Infants Know MindsHow Many Friends Does One Person Need?How Professors ThinkHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Change Someone You LoveHow We ReasonHow We RememberHughes' Outline of Modern PsychiatryHumanHuman BondingHuman Reasoning and Cognitive ScienceHypnotismHysteriaiBrainIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIdentifying the MindiDisorderImagination and the Meaningful BrainImitation and the Social MindImpulse Control DisordersImpulsivityIn an Unspoken VoiceIn Defense of SentimentalityIn DoubtIn Search of HappinessIn the Wake of 9/11Individual and Collective Memory ConsolidationInner Experience and NeuroscienceInner PresenceInside the American CoupleIntegrated Behavioral Health CareIntegrating Evolution and DevelopmentIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntellectual DisabilityIntelligenceIntelligence, Destiny, and EducationIntentions and IntentionalityInterdependent MindsInterpreting MindsInto the Minds of MadmenIntoxicating MindsIntrospection VindicatedIntuitionInventing PersonalityInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIs There Anything Good About Men?Issues for Families, Schools and CommunitiesJane Sexes It UpJoint AttentionJoint AttentionJudgment and Decision MakingJust a DogJust BabiesJuvenile-Onset SchizophreniaKarl JaspersKey Thinkers in PsychologyKidding OurselvesKids of CharacterKilling MonstersLack of CharacterLanguage OriginsLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw, Mind and BrainLess Than HumanLet Kids Be KidsLet's Talk About DeathLiving NarrativeLiving with Mild Cognitive ImpairmentLonelinessLooking for SpinozaLossLOT 2Love at Goon ParkMachine ConsciousnessMacrocognitionMade for Each OtherMadnessMaking a Good Brain GreatMaking Habits, Breaking HabitsMaking Minds and MadnessMaking Up the MindMale SexualityMan and WomanMan's Search for MeaningMan, Beast, and ZombieManic MindsManlinessMapping the MindMarking the MindMarvelous Learning AnimalMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaningMeaning, Mortality, and ChoiceMedical MusesMeditating SelflesslyMeetings with a Remarkable ManMemoryMemory and DreamsMemory and EmotionMemory And UnderstandingMental BiologyMental IllnessMental Time TravelMetacognitionMetacognition and Theory of MindMethods in MindMindMindMind and BrainMind and ConsciousnessMind Games:Mind in LifeMind TimeMind to MindMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMindful AngerMindfulnessMindfulness and AcceptanceMindfulness-Based Treatment Approaches: Clinician's Guide to Evidence Base and ApplicationsMinding AnimalsMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds, Brains, and LawMindsightMindworldsMirrors in the BrainMistakes Were Made (But Not by Me)Models of MadnessMoodMoral Development and RealityMoral MindsMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Mothers and OthersMotivation and Cognitive ControlMotivational Interviewing: Preparing People For ChangeMovies and the MindMulticulturalism and the Therapeutic ProcessMultiplicityMuses, Madmen, and ProphetsMy Family AlbumMyths about SuicideNarrative IdentitiesNarrative PsychiatryNarratives in PsychiatryNaturalizing Intention in ActionNature and NarrativeNature Via NurtureNeither Bad nor MadNerveNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeurochemistry of ConsciousnessNeurodiversityNeuroethicsNeuroLogicNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroscience and PhilosophyNo Child Left DifferentNo Two AlikeNot By Genes AloneNot Much Just Chillin'Not So Abnormal PsychologyNurturing the Older Brain and MindOn AnxietyOn Being HumanOn Being MovedOn Deep History and the BrainOn DesireOn KillingOn Nature and LanguageOn PaedophiliaOn PersonalityOn the Frontier of AdulthoodOn the Origins of Cognitive ScienceOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOnflowOpen MindsOpening Skinner's BoxOrigin of MindOrigins of PsychopathologyOther MindsOut of Our HeadsOut of the WoodsOvercoming Depersonalization DisorderPanpsychism and the Religious AttitudePanpsychism in the WestParenting and the Child's WorldPassionate EnginesPathologies of the WestPatient-Based Approaches to Cognitive NeurosciencePediatric PsychopharmacologyPeople Types and Tiger StripesPerception & CognitionPerception beyond InferencePerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPersonal Development and Clinical PsychologyPerspectives on ImitationPhantoms in the BrainPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhrenologyPhysical RealizationPhysics in MindPieces of LightPlaying with FirePositive PsychologyPositive PsychologyPostcards from the Brain MuseumPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPoverty and Brain Development During ChildhoodPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical Management of Personality DisorderPractical Management of Personality DisorderPredicative MindsPredictably IrrationalPreference, Belief, and SimilarityPrenatal Testosterone in MindPrivileged AccessProcrastinationProust Was a NeuroscientistPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsychological AgencyPsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychological Dimensions of the SelfPsychologists Defying the CrowdPsychologyPsychologyPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology for ScreenwritersPsychology of Women: A Handbook of Issues and TheoriesPsychology's GhostsPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology's TerritoriesPsychopathologyPsychopathyPsychosis and EmotionPsychotherapy, American Culture, and Social PolicyPutnam CampPutting a Name to ItQuantum Memory PowerQuietRadical DistortionRadical Embodied Cognitive ScienceRadical ExternalismRadical GraceRapeRe-Visioning PsychiatryReal MaterialismReality CheckReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecovery in Mental IllnessRecreative MindsRedirectReducing Adolescent RiskRegulating EmotionsRelational BeingRelational Mental HealthRelational Suicide AssessmentReliability in Cognitive NeuroscienceRemembering HomeRemembering Our ChildhoodResearch Advances in Genetics and GenomicsResearching Children's ExperienceResilience in ChildrenRestoring ResilienceRethinking ADHDRethinking Learning DisabilitiesRethinking Middle YearsRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfRevolution in PsychologyRoadmap to ResilienceRomance and Sex in Adolescence and Emerging AdulthoodSchizophrenia RevealedSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologySecond NatureSecond NatureSecond That EmotionSecond-order Change in PsychotherapySecrets of the MindSee What I'm SayingSee What I'm SayingSeeing and VisualizingSeeing RedSelf and SocietySelf Comes to MindSelf Control in Society, Mind, and BrainSelf-Awareness Deficits in Psychiatric PatientsSelf-CompassionSelf-RegulationSelf-Representational Approaches to ConsciousnessSelfless InsightSelvesSerial KillersSex at DawnSex on the BrainSex, Time and PowerSexual Coercion in Primates and HumansSexual DisordersSexual FluiditySexual ReckoningsSexualized BrainsShame and GuiltShatteredSimulating MindsSisyphus's BoulderSNAPSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial Psychology and DiscourseSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSoul DustSparkSpiral of EntrapmentSplendors and Miseries of the BrainSports Hypnosis in PracticeStanding at Water's EdgeStich and His CriticsStillpowerStop OverreactingStructure and Agency in Everyday LifeStructures of AgencyStuffStumbling on HappinessSubjectivity and SelfhoodSubstance Abuse and EmotionSupersizing the MindSweet DreamsSynaptic SelfTales from Both Sides of the BrainTalking Oneself SoberTalking to BabiesTaming the Troublesome ChildTargeting AutismTeaching Problems and the Problems of TeachingTeleological RealismTen Years of Viewing from WithinThat's DisgustingThe 5 Elements of Effective ThinkingThe Accidental MindThe Age of EmpathyThe Altruism EquationThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Clinical PsychiatryThe Anatomy of BiasThe Anxious BrainThe Archaeology of MindThe Art and Science of MindfulnessThe Art InstinctThe Art of HypnosisThe Asymmetrical BrainThe Bifurcation of the SelfThe Big Book of ConceptsThe Big DisconnectThe Birth of IntersubjectivityThe Birth of the MindThe Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge ManagementThe Blank SlateThe Body Has a Mind of Its OwnThe Bounds of CognitionThe Boy Who Was Raised as a DogThe BrainThe Brain and the Meaning of LifeThe Brain SupremacyThe Brain That Changes ItselfThe Brain's Way of HealingThe Brain: Big Bangs, Behaviors, and BeliefsThe Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive ScienceThe Cambridge Handbook of Situated CognitionThe Character of ConsciousnessThe Chemistry Between UsThe Choice EffectThe Clinical Science of Suicide PreventionThe Cognitive Approach to Conscious MachinesThe Cognitive Behavioral Workbook for Anxiety: A Step-By-Step ProgramThe Cognitive NeurosciencesThe Cognitive-Emotional BrainThe College Fear FactorThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Compass of PleasureThe Concepts of ConsciousnessThe Conscious BrainThe Conscious SelfThe Consuming InstinctThe Creating BrainThe Creative BrainThe Crucible of ConsciousnessThe Crucible of ExperienceThe Cure WithinThe Dao of NeuroscienceThe Developing MindThe Developing MindThe Development of PsychopathologyThe Disappearance of the Social in American Social PsychologyThe Dissolution of MindThe Duty to ProtectThe Educated ParentThe Ego TunnelThe Elephant in the RoomThe Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human ExperienceThe Emotional Journey of the Alzheimer's FamilyThe Encultured BrainThe Encyclopedia of StupidityThe Enduring Self in People with Alzheimer'sThe Epidemiology of SchizophreniaThe Essential DifferenceThe Ethical BrainThe Evolution of ChildhoodThe Evolution of CooperationThe Evolution of LanguageThe Evolution of MindThe Evolving BrainThe Executive BrainThe Faces of TerrorismThe Feeling BrainThe Feeling of What HappensThe First IdeaThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Foundations of Cognitive ArchaeologyThe Fundamentalist MindsetThe GapThe Gender TrapThe Geography of BlissThe Gift of ShynessThe Good LifeThe Good LifeThe Happiness HypothesisThe Happiness of PursuitThe Health Psychology HandbookThe Healthy Aging BrainThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of PsychologyThe Human FaceThe Human SparkThe Hypomanic EdgeThe Imagery DebateThe Immeasurable MindThe Imprinted BrainThe Incredible Shrinking MindThe Innate MindThe Innate MindThe Integrated SelfThe Intentional BrainThe Language of ThoughtThe Languages of the BrainThe Lexicon of Adlerian PsychologyThe Lie DetectorsThe Lives of the BrainThe Lonely AmericanThe Lust for BloodThe Madness of WomenThe Male BrainThe Man Who Lost His LanguageThe Man Who Shocked the WorldThe Man Who Tasted ShapesThe Man Who Wasn't ThereThe Matter of the MindThe Mature MindThe Mean Girl MotiveThe Meaning of EvilThe Meaning of OthersThe Meaning of the BodyThe Measure of MadnessThe Measure of MindThe Medicalization of Everyday LifeThe Mind and the BrainThe Mind in ContextThe Mind of the ChildThe Mind of the HorseThe Mind's EyeThe Mind, the Body and the WorldThe Mind-Gut ConnectionThe Mindful BrainThe Misleading MindThe Moral MindThe Most Dangerous AnimalThe Most Human HumanThe Mother FactorThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of Depression as DiseaseThe Myth of Mirror NeuronsThe Myth of Self HelpThe Myth of Self-EsteemThe Myth of the Spoiled ChildThe Nature of the SelfThe Necessity Of MadnessThe Neuro RevolutionThe Neuropsychology of the UnconsciousThe Neuroscience of Human RelationshipsThe Neuroscience of PsychotherapyThe Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social BrainThe New BrainThe New Science of DreamingThe New Science of the MindThe New UnconsciousThe Normal PersonalityThe Origins of FairnessThe Overflowing BrainThe Oxford Companion to the MindThe Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of MindThe Paradoxical PrimateThe Perfectionist's HandbookThe Peripheral MindThe Phenomenology ReaderThe Philosopher's Secret FireThe Philosophical BabyThe Political MindThe Politics of HappinessThe Positive Side of Negative EmotionsThe Postnational SelfThe Postpartum EffectThe Power of PlayThe Praeger Handbook of TranssexualityThe Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday LifeThe Primate MindThe Prism of GrammarThe Psychobiology of Trauma and Resilience Across the LifespanThe Psychological Construction of EmotionThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of HappinessThe Psychology of LifestyleThe Psychology of Religious FundamentalismThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of SpiritualityThe Psychology of StereotypingThe Psychology of SuperheroesThe Psychophysiology of Self-AwarenessThe Pursuit of PerfectThe Quest for Mental HealthThe Rational ImaginationThe Ravenous BrainThe Reasons of LoveThe Righteous MindThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Science of EvilThe Science of Intimate RelationshipsThe Science of Shame and its Treatment The Second SelfThe Secret History of EmotionThe Secret Lives of BoysThe Self and Its EmotionsThe Self-Sabotage CycleThe Sensitive SelfThe Shape of ThoughtThe Social AnimalThe Social Nature of Mental IllnessThe Social Neuroscience of EmpathyThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Story of Intellectual DisabilityThe Structure of ThinkingThe Survivors ClubThe Talking ApeThe Teenage BrainThe Tell-Tale BrainThe Temperamental ThreadThe Tender CutThe Tending InstinctThe Time ParadoxThe Trauma MythThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe True PathThe Truth About GriefThe Turing TestThe Uncertain SciencesThe Undoing ProjectThe Unhappy ChildThe Upside of IrrationalityThe War for Children's MindsThe Well-Tuned BrainThe Wild Girl, Natural Man, and the MonsterThe Winner's BrainThe Wisdom in FeelingThe Woman RacketThe World in My Mind, My Mind in the WorldThe Wow ClimaxThe Yipping TigerThemes, Issues and Debates in PsychologyTheoretical Issues in Psychology: An IntroductionTheory of AddictionTheory of MindThings and PlacesThink CatThink Confident, Be ConfidentThinking about AddictionThinking and SeeingThis Emotional Life: In Search of Ourselves...and HappinessThought and LanguageThought in a Hostile WorldTo Have and To Hurt:Toward an Evolutionary Biology of LanguageToward Replacement Parts for the BrainTrauma and Human ExistenceTrauma, Tragedy, TherapyTreating Attachment DisordersTreating Self-InjuryTreating Self-Injury: A Practical GuideTrue to Our FeelingsTrusting the Subject?Understanding and Treating Borderline Personality DisorderUnderstanding ConsciousnessUnderstanding ParanoiaUnderstanding PeopleUnderstanding TerrorismUndoing Perpetual StressUnlock the Genius WithinUnsettled MindsUnstrange MindsUnthinkingUs and ThemViolent PartnersVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVision and MindVisual AgnosiaWarrior's DishonourWe Who Are DarkWednesday Is Indigo BlueWelcome to Your BrainWhat Do Women Want?What Dying People WantWhat Have We DoneWhat Intelligence Tests MissWhat Is an Emotion: Classic and Contemporary ReadingsWhat Is Emotion?What is Intelligence?What Is Mental Illness?What Is Thought?What Makes Your Brain Happy and Why You Should Do the Opposite What the Best College Students DoWhat the Dog SawWhat We Know about Emotional IntelligenceWhat We Say MattersWhat's Wrong With Morality?When Boys Become BoysWhen Perfect Isn't Good EnoughWhen the Impossible HappensWhen Walls Become DoorwaysWho's Been Sleeping in Your HeadWho's in Charge?Why Humans Like to CryWhy Love MattersWhy Lyrics LastWhy People CooperateWhy People Die by SuicideWhy Sex Matters: A Darwinian Look at Human BehaviorWhy Smart People Can Be So StupidWhy the Mind is Not a ComputerWhy Us?Why We LieWhy We LoveWider than the SkyWilliam James at the BoundariesWilling, Wanting, WaitingWittgenstein And PsychologyWomen and Child Sexual AbuseWorking MindsYoga and PsychologyYou Are What You RememberYoung Minds in Social WorldsYour Brain on CubsYour Brain on FoodYour Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings,Your Brain on YogaYour Child in the BalanceZombies and Consciousness
Cartesian Linguistics was originally published with the purpose of deepening "our understanding of the nature of language and the mental processes and structures that underlies its use and acquisition" (Chomsky, 1966, p. ix). When I heard that a third edition (2009) had followed so shortly after the second (2002) I wondered about several things. First, would it finally address the long standing criticisms (e.g. Miel, 1969; Lakoff, 1969; Aarsleff, 1970, 1971; Percival, 1972; Gipper&Schmitter, 1979) regarding the accuracy of tracing the history of Chomsky's linguistic theorizing to alleged Cartesian antecedents? Second, would it eliminate the 'polemic elements' that "elevate 'Cartesian' approaches to the study of language and ...depreciate [all other approaches]" (Aarsleff, 1971, p. 570)? And third, would it be more than just another virtually unchanged reprint of Chomsky's 40+ year old work? Clearly, these questions have been answered, albeit rather differently from what I had hoped for. In this review I will focus on these three points and have little to say about the content of Cartesian Linguistics. This unusual approach is justified by the facts that (i) the main work, which is reprinted here virtually unchanged, has been reviewed extensively (e.g., Lakoff, 1969; Aarsleff, 1970; Percival, 1972, Bracken, 1982, 1984; Barsky, 1997; Sharbani, 2003) so it is pointless to add yet another descriptive review and (ii) much of the original content has undergone thorough theoretical reformulations (e.g., Chomsky 1980, 1986, 1995, 2002, 2005). Therefore, I want to focus on what has not been said about the Cartesian connection before and on what is new in the third edition (McGilvray's introduction).
Undoubtedly, Chomsky's methodology as a historian is questionable. First, as editor McGilvray explains in a footnote (p. 109f), Chomsky advocates what could be called the 'selective-history-approach' (SHA) : "One might say that I'm looking at history ... from the point of view of … an art lover who wants to look at the 17th century to find in it things that are of particular value and that obtain part of their value … because of the perspective with which he approaches them." (Chomsky, 1971). And, in case a critic might still complain that art-lovers frequently agree on which pieces by an artist are worth collecting, Chomsky added later what I would call the 'rewrite-history-approach' (RHA): "The first [question], the actual sequence of events, is not in itself very interesting in my opinion; it's a story of chance events and personal accidents, accidents of personal history. The second question, namely, how it should have happened, is far more interesting and important, and that certainly has never been told or even investigated." (Chomsky, 1997, emphasis added). Combined SHA and RHA allow Chomsky to pick and choose what he considers of value in Descartes' (and other rationalist/romantic predecessors') writings and to transform other passages into 'what Descartes/Rationalists should have written'. This might seem to justify the artistic freedom Chomsky applies to history. However, since Chomsky advocates this approach to history as superior, he cannot complain if someone else (a behaviourist, say) uses the same method (choosing some suitable bits from Descartes and re-writing some other passages) in support of her claim that Descartes really was foreshadowing her view and using this as justification for calling her linguistics "Cartesian". In the process it becomes entirely irrelevant what Descartes said. He has been relegated to the sidelines of a battle that (were he still alive) he might watch in utter bewilderment.
When we allow Descartes to speak on his own behalf it becomes dubious that Chomsky's work can be traced back to a coherent rationalist tradition of which Descartes was one important founder. On the one hand we find statements from Descartes that appear to support a very different judgment regarding his views of language acquisition:
When for example on hearing that the word "K-I-N-G" signifies supreme power, I commit this to my memory and then subsequently recall the meaning by means of my memory, it must be intellectual memory that makes this possible For there is no relationship between the four letters (K-I-N-G), which would enable me to derive the meaning from the letters. It is intellectual memory that enables me to recall what the letters stand for (CSM III, pp. 336-7)
Here Descartes' emphasis is on associationist learning of the sort usually associated with empiricism, not on innate knowledge (for several similar examples see Behme, 2009). Similarly, there is little indication that Descartes would support a domain-specific language faculty. For him minds are indivisible: "we cannot understand a mind except as being indivisible. For we cannot conceive of half a mind" (CSM II, p. 9). Furthermore, Descartes states that our knowledge depends only on a purely spiritual power which is "one single power...it is one and the same power. ...According to its different functions... the same power is called either pure intellect or imagination or memory or sense perception" (CSM I, p.42, emphasis added). Finally, when we look closely at some of the passages cited by Chomsky, it becomes evident that Descartes focuses not only on creativity of language use but also on behaviorist criteria for testing whether or not an organism is intelligent. For example "men born deaf and dumb...usually invent their own signs to make themselves understood by those who being regularly in their company have the time to learn their language" (CSMK, III, p. 303; cited without reference on p. 60 of CL). Here, clearly, the emphasis seems to be on communication because the success criterion is "being understood" (for more similar examples see Behme, 2009).
On the other hand, the fundamental distinction between human and animal communication is brought out equally forcefully by John Locke
Brutes abstract not. If it may be doubted whether beasts compound and enlarge their ideas that way to any degree; this, I think, I may be positive in,- that the power of abstracting is not at all in them; and that the having of general ideas is that which puts a perfect distinction betwixt man and brutes, and is an excellency which the faculties of brutes do by no means attain to. For it is evident we observe no footsteps in them of making use of general signs for universal ideas; from which we have reason to imagine that they have not the faculty of abstracting, or making general ideas, since they have no use of words, or any other general signs. (Locke, Book 2, Chapter XI, 10)
And in the writings of another empiricist we find a more succinct expression of the belief in language universals than in Descartes' writings:
Among different languages, even where we suspect the least connexion or communication, it is found, that the words, expressive of ideas, the most compounded, do yet nearly correspond to each other: a certain proof that the simple ideas, comprehended in the compound ones were bound together by some universal principle, which had an equal influence on all mankind (Hume, 1777/1958, p. 22-3)
Obviously, from these few examples we cannot conclude that there was no specifically and uniquely rationalist linguistic tradition. However, they suggest that there was a much richer and more diverse tradition of linguistic thought in the Cartesian and Romantic period and that the divide between rationalists and empiricists was by no means as 'hard and fast' as suggested by Chomsky. Probably, then, renaming of Cartesian Linguistics into Chomskian Linguistics would be appropriate. This would allow keeping the familiar CL abbreviation, avoid further debates about issues that are only tangentially important to Chomsky's project and also meet a requirement that Chomsky applies to others when he cautions that we need to adhere to agreed upon conventional usage of terms because "description in [certain] terms is incorrect if these terms have anything like their technical meanings, and highly misleading otherwise" (p. 65). Last but not least it would give credit to whom credit is due: Noam Chomsky.
Undoubtedly, there is more to Cartesian Linguistics than the historic aspect. Even if it is neither a good history book nor an accurate depiction of a singular Cartesian or even rationalist linguistic research strategy it still could be a valuable contribution. This much has been suggested: "[Chomsky] was just providing a source book for transformational linguists to see how their work manifested important philosophical currents ... Judged as spade work in a neglected (indeed, rejected) area of language philosophy in order to inform current practice, it's very fine indeed, even thrilling" (Harris, 1998). Can we confirm Harris' claim? Obviously, Harris refers to the 1966 edition; what has been an informative 'even thrilling' source book then may not be of equal value 43 years later. Is Cartesian Linguistics like wine getting better over the years or is it more like bread becoming stale, maybe even moldy? In other words, can and should it still 'inform current practice'?
Editor McGilvray resolutely attempts to steer us to the wine rack by providing a 52-page introduction (massive, considering that CL itself is only 50 pages short). Unfortunately, this introduction re-introduces the polemics of earlier editions with a vengeance. Beginning with the definitions of the competing linguistic research strategies we find the battle lines drawn: "Those who Chomsky thinks can plausibly deal with the issues that linguistic creativity poses for the mind he calls "rationalists"; those who cannot, he calls empiricists" (p. 1). According to McGilvray this divide separates the 'good guys' from the 'bad guys' not only in regard to a correct understanding of the nature of language but extends to the areas of language acquisition, language evolution, determinism/free will, externalism/internalism and even politics, education and arts. For the purpose of this review I will focus on only two out of these: computational models of language acquisition and language evolution. This choice is motivated by the newly emerging biolinguitsic enterprise (Di Sciullo & Boeckx, in press) and recent publications in Cartesian biolinguistics (Boeckx, 2009, in press).
McGilvray is anything but tentative when he describes the success of the 'rationalist-romantics' (RR) and the failure of the empiricist research programs. RR researchers are innatist, internalist, and nativist and this combination allows them to account for 'everyday linguistic creativity' which is acquired by children at an early age (four years according to McGilvray, p. 7). Innate concepts alone can account for the uniform acquisition of language across human populations in spite of poverty of stimulus facts, or so McGilvray claims. On this account the child does not learn language but accesses what is innately available to her: "...the mind's concepts and the way of putting them together in language and thought are largely innate" (p.6), "the only way to explain the early appearance of creativity is to assume innateness of both concepts and combinatorial principles" (p. 7). "Innateness provides a basis for understanding one another even at a young age" (Ibid.) and again "concepts and language are somehow implicit in some kind of natural 'mechanism' of the human body-mind, under (partial) control of the genome and the course of development it controls" (p. 18f). McGilvray asserts that Chomsky's beautiful theory is simple, objective, descriptively and explanatorily adequate. It accommodates the science of language to biology and makes steady progress. What else could one ask for? Maybe an example or two for exactly what the progress is would have been helpful. But, seemingly, this is not a reasonable request. Instead of boring the reader with such trivialities McGilvray moves to his demonstration that "empiricists seem to have added little [to the study of language since Locke] ... like Locke's efforts, theirs generally fail to meet the conditions of adequacy of a naturalistic theory" (p. 20, original emphasis). McGilvray claims that this failure is not merely contingent but necessary because the models used by connectionists (the only empiricists he considers) are inadequate: "[Connectionists'] claim that the mind is made up of 'neural nets' is innocuous; it is their claim about the initial state of the net (undifferentiated, approximating Locke's 'blank slate') and their view about how this net gets its 'content' (by training, learning) that place them firmly in the empiricist camp" (p. 110). Obviously, the 'blank slate' view is indeed problematic but McGilvray does not provide any examples of connectionists and/or empiricists who hold such an extreme view. My survey of recent literature found no evidence for such positions. It revealed, instead, that several researchers have explicitly or implicitly rejected completely unconstrained 'blank slate' views of language acquisition (e.g., Hare & Elman, 1995; Elman et al., 1996; Redington & Chater, 1998; MacWhinney, 2000; McDermott, 2001; Zolan et al, 2005; Edelman & Waterfall, 2007; Christiansen & Chater, 2008; Chater & Christiansen, 2009*).
To demonstrate the inadequacy of connectionist modeling McGilvray does provide at least one specific example. On page 23 he quotes from a personal letter Chomsky sent him: "Elman's famous paper - the most quoted in [cognitive science,]... - on learning nested dependencies. Two problems: (1) the method works just as well on crossing dependencies, so doesn't bear on why language near universally has nested but not crossing dependencies. (2) His program works up to depth two, but fails totally on depth three." However, no reference to the 'famous paper' could be found in McGilvray's bibliography. Further, a direct inquiry to Elman indicated that no such paper existed. Elman suggested 'most cited' might refer to his 1990 paper 'Finding structure in time' and he sent me references to a couple of papers he co-authored that deal with recursion. None of them dealt with crossing dependencies or 'total failure of models on depth three'. Undaunted, I contacted Chomsky and McGilvray to obtain information about the elusive paper. Chomsky replied immediately that he had made reference to this paper in a personal letter to his editor and that he would attempt to provide me with a reference. Later he sent me reference to four papers (Elman, 1990, 1991, 1993; Christiansen & Chater, 1999) and a book (Elman et al., 1996). None of these fully fits his description. Additionally, McGilvray provided reference to two different papers (Weckerly & Elman, 1992; Morris, Cottrell, & Elman, 2000), again not fully fitting the description. While I appreciate the assistance I wish the team had spend a fraction of this effort on checking this reference before the new edition of Cartesian Linguistics went in print. In the process they might have discovered that the far-reaching claims that are based on this one reference are unsupported. But making this discovery is left to the reader. McGilvray suggests that "with common sense concepts, and especially language, there is no reason to take empiricist speculations at all seriously" (p. 23). He never tells us what exactly these speculations amount to. Instead, he continues "No one finds children subjected to the training procedures for concepts or language explored by connectionists, for example" (Ibid.). When I confronted some computational and experimental language researchers with this claim they asked whose work was referenced. But no example supported McGilvray's 'for example' and, given the trouble I encountered with the alleged Elman reference, that might have been a good thing. Again, I easily found evidence suggesting that researchers are paying close attention to the conditions under which children acquire language (e.g., Morgan, & Demuth, 1996; Cartwright & Brent, 1997; Redington et al., 1998; Christiansen et al., 1998; Hausser, 1999; Lewis & Elman, 2001; Christiansen & Chater, 2001; Sagae et al., 2004; Botvinick & Plaut, 2004; Zolan et al., 2005; Perruchet & Pacton, 2006; Brodsky et al. 2007; Edelman & Waterfall, 2007; MacWhinney, 2008, Monaghan & Christiansen, 2008; Christiansen & MacDonald, 2009; Bod, 2009; Perruchet & Tilman, in press). There is a similar problem with McGilvray's assertions that "dogma, not reason drives the empiricist research strategy" (p. 23) and that "empiricist efforts like these make no contribution to sciences of the mind" (p. 24). What is upsetting to computational and experimental language researchers is not that their work is being critiqued but that the critique is seemingly not based on knowledge of their work but on the a priori assumption that "there is no reason to take empiricist speculations seriously at all" (p. 23).
The situation regarding language evolution closely mirrors the foregoing. Again, we find McGilvray's enthusiastic support for the Chomskian hypothesis that "language could have come about as the result of a single mutation...[as] side result ... of a modification in some other system. It must, though, be 'saltational' - happen in a single jump - for otherwise we would have to suppose that language developed over millennia, and there is no evidence for that" (p.34). To understand why McGilvray calls this somewhat controversial account 'naturalistic' we need to remember that, like Chomsky, he denies that communication is an important function of language. It is from this perspective that he assumes that only Merge is in need of an evolutionary explanation (see also Chomsky, 2007; Berwick & Chomsky, forthcoming, for a defense of this view). When discussing language evolution, McGilvray does not refer to any competing accounts which may leave the reader with the impression that there are none. This is far from the truth. On the one hand, we find specific criticisms of the single jump saltational evolution hypothesis (e.g., Pinker & Bloom, 1990; Deacon, 1997; Studdert-Kennedy, 1998; Botha, 1999; Briscoe, 2003; MacWhinney, 2005, 2009; Arbib, 2005a; Lieberman, 2006; Deacon, 2007; Hurford & Dediu, 2007; Christiansen & Chater, 2008; Tomasello, 2008; Arbib 2008). On the other hand, the last decades have seen a wealth of work regarding language evolution resulting in numerous suggestions that are supported by extensive theorizing (Deacon, 1997; Dunbar, 1997; Knight et al., 2000; Botha, 2001, 2003; Wray, 2002; Givon & Molle, 2002; Christiansen & Kirby, 2003; Wildgen, 2004; Arbib, 2005b; Burling, 2005; Johannson, 2005; Tallerman, 2005; Lyon et al., 2007; Hurford & Dediu, 2007; Hurford, 2007; Tomasello, 2008), computational modeling (Briscoe, 1999; Christiansen et al., 2002; Zolan et al., 2005; Chater et al., 2009), comparative empirical research of different aspects of language components (Deacon, 2000, 2004; Arbib, 2005a; Arbib et al. 2008; Tomasello, 2008; Botha, 2009) and of language related brain evolution (e.g., Deacon, 1997; 2000; 2007; Lieberman, 2002, 2007; Aboitiz et al., 2006; Arbib, 2007). It is not for me to judge whether or not all these accounts of language evolution are correct. But it seems they deserve to be at least considered and, if found problematic, exposed to targeted criticism. Unfortunately, none of this is done in the introduction to Cartesian Linguistics.
Given the richness and diversity of the work completed by 'empiricists' that has been largely neglected by RR theorizers I think it is high time to close a chapter of linguistic warfare (Harris, 1993) and turn the page towards an inclusive collaboration in the exciting quest for a better understanding of the nature of human language. Those who believe that cooperation with 'the other side' is impossible may want to remember that 25 years ago only very few people believed that the Cold War would ever end but by now it has become a distant memory. It is my hope that the future of linguistic research will be equally 'peaceful'. When researching this review I encountered incredible helpfulness on both sides of the 'Cartesian divide' and consider this an encouraging sign that progress towards a critical dialogue can be made. Read on its own Cartesian Linguistics is too one-sided to make a substantial contribution to a more inclusive study of language and it can no longer inform current practices. But it could become an excellent course material for upper level/graduate seminars if it is used to motivate students to explore competing accounts and engage critically with them. Maybe surprisingly this would be quite Cartesian in spirit. Descartes was by no means the fanatical rationalist he is often caricatured as. In fact he was quite wary of those "who take no account of experience and think that truth will spring from their brains like Minerva from the head of Jupiter" (CSM I, p. 21). Cartesian science relied on sense experience (empiricism) and deduction (rationalism; for details on Cartesian Method see Flage & Bonnen, 1999) and it would be desirable to revive this part of Cartesian tradition.
* Here as below I have only selected a very small sample from the huge amount of available literature. My aim is not to give a comprehensive overview of all research conducted in the respective areas. I merely provide some representative samples showing that such research exists. In most cases, I confirmed with the researchers that I understand the results of their work correctly.
I would like to thank Noam Chomsky for responding extensively to my numerous inquiries. Further, I thank Michael Arbib, Paul Bloom, Rudolph Botha, Ted Briscoe, Nick Chater, Morten Christiansen, Terrence Deacon, Shimon Edelman, Jeff Elman, Daniel Flage, Randy Allen Harris, James Hurford, Philip Lieberman, Brian MacWhinney, Robert Martin, William Martin, Drew McDermott, James McGilvray, Gordon McOuat, Keith Percival, Pierre Perruchet, Michael Studdert-Kennedy, Michael Tomasello, and Thomas Vinci for generously providing assistance and/or clarifying issues regarding their research. This review would not have been possible without their contributions.
Aarsleff, H. (1970). The History of Linguistics and Professor Chomsky. Language, 46, 570-585.
Aarsleff, H. (1971). 'Cartesian Linguistics': History or Fantasy? Language Sciences, 17, 1-12.
Aarsleff, H. (1982). From Locke to Saussure. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Aboitiz, F., Garcia, R., Bosman, & C., Brunetti, E. (2006). Cortical memory mechanisms and language origins. Brain Language 98, 40-56.
Arbib, M. (2005a) The mirror systems hypothesis: how did protolanguage evolve? In: Tallerman, M. (Ed.) Language Origins. (pp. 21- 47). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Arbib, M. (2005b). From Monkey-like Action Recognition to Human Language: An Evolutionary Framework for Neurolinguistics. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 105-167.
Arbib, M. (2007) Autism - More than the Mirror System. Clinical Neuropsychiatry 4, 208-222.
Arbib, M., Liebal, K, & Pika, S. (2008). Primate vocalization, gesture, and the evolution of human language. Current Anthropology, 49, 1053-63.
Arbib, M. (2008). From Grasp to Language: Embodied Concepts and the Challenge of Abstraction. Journal of Physiology Paris 102, 4-20.
Barsky, R. (1997). Noam Chomsky: A life of discent. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Behme, C. (2009). Is cartesian linguistics cartesian or chomskian? presented at ACSEMP, Halifax.
Berwick, R. & Chomsky, N. (Forthcoming) The Biolinguistc Program: The current state of its evolution and development. In: DiSciullo, A. & Aguero, C. (Eds.) Biolinguistic Investigations. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Boeckx., C. (2009). Cartesian Biolinguistics. Presented at The State of the Art in Cartesian Linguistics
A lecture series of the Sophia Linguistic Institute for International Communication (SOLIFIC). Tokyo.
Boeckx, C. (In press). Some reﬂections on Darwin's Problem in the context of Cartesian Biolinguistics. In Di Sciullo, M. & Boeckx, C. (Eds.). The biolinguistic enterprise: New perspectives on the evolution and nature of the human language faculty.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bod, R. (2009). From Exemplar to Grammar: A Probabilistic Analogy-based Model of Language Learning. Cognitive Science, 33, In press.
Botha, R. (2009). Theoretical underpinnings of inferences about language evolution. In: Botha, R. & Knight, C. (Eds.). The Cradle of Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Botha, R. (2003). Unravelling the evolution of language. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Botha, R. (2001). On the role of bridge theories in accounts of the evolution of human language. Language and Communication 21, 61-71.
Botha, R. (1999). On Chomsky's "fable" of instantaneous language evolution. Language and Communication 19, 243-257.
Botvinick, M. & Plaut, D. (2004). Doing without schema hierarchies: A recurrent connectionist approach to normal and impaired routine sequential action. Psychological Review, 111, 395-429.
Bracken, H. (1982). Chomsky's Variations on a Theme by Descartes. History of Philosophy, 181-192.
Bracken, H. (1984). Mind and Language: Essays on Descartes and Chomsky. Dordrecht: Foris Publications.
Briscoe, E. (1999). The Acquisition of Grammar in an Evolving Population of Language Agents. Electronic Transactions on Artificial Intelligence, 3.
Briscoe, E. (2003). Grammatical Assimilation. In: Christiansen, M. & Kirby, S. (Eds.) Language evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Brodsky, P., Waterfall, H., & Edelman, S. (2007). Characterizing Motherese: on the computational structure of child-directed language. Proceedings of the 29th Cognitive Science Society Conference. Austin, TX.
Burling, R. (2005). The Talking Ape. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cangelosi, A., Smith, A., & K. Smith, K. (Eds.). (2006). The Evolution of Language. Singapore: World Scientific.
Cartwright, T. & Brent, M. (1997). Syntactic categorization in early language acquisition: Formalizing the role of distributional analysis. Cognition, 63, 121 - 170.
Chater, N., Reali, F. & Christiansen, M. (2009). Restrictions on biological adaptation in language evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 1015-1020.
Chomsky, N. (1966). Cartesian Linguistics. A chapter in the history of Rationalist Thought. New York: Harper & Row.
Chomsky, N. (1980). Rules and Representations. New York: Columbia University Press.
Chomsky, N. (1986). Lectures on government and binding. Dordrecht: Foris Publications.
Chomsky, N. (1995). The minimalist program. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Chomsky, N. (1997). History and Theory Construction in Modern Linguistics. In: Chomsky no
Brasil / Chomsky in Brazil: Revista de documentação de estudos em lingüistica teórica e aplicada (D. E. L. T. A.), vol. 13 (Número especial) Chomsky, N. (2002). On nature and language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chomsky, N. (2005). Three factors in language design. Linguistic Inquiry, 36, 1-22.
Chomsky, N. (2007). Biolinguistic explorations: design, development, evolution. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 15, 1-21.
Christiansen, M., Allen, J. & Seidenberg, M. (1998). Learning to segment speech using multiple cues: A connectionist model. Language and Cognitive Processes, 13, 221-268.
Christiansen, M. & Chater, N. (2001). Connectionist psycholinguistics in perspective. In M. Christiansen & N. Chater (Eds.), Connectionist psycholinguistics (pp. 19-75). Westport, CT: Ablex.
Christiansen, M., Dale, R., Ellefson, M., & Conway, C. (2002). The role of sequential learning in language evolution: Computational and experimental studies. In A. Cangelosi & D. Parisi (Eds.) Simulating the evolution of language (pp.165-187). London: Springer-Verlag.
Christiansen, M., & Kirby, S. (Eds.), (2003). Language Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Deacon, T. (1997). The Symbolic Species. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Deacon, T. (2000). Evolutionary perspective on language and brain plasticity. Journal of Communication Disorders, 33, 273 - 291.
Deacon, T. (2004). Monkey homologues of language areas: computing the ambiguities. Trends in Cognitive Science, 8, 288-290.
Deacon, T. (2007). The evolution of language systems in the human brain. Evolution of Nervous Systems, 4, 529 - 547.
Dunbar, R. (1997). Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Edelman, S. & Waterfall, H. (2007). Behavioral and computational aspects of language and its acquisition, Physics of Life Reviews 4. 253-277.
Elman, J. (1999). The emergence of language: A conspiracy theory. In B. MacWhinney (Ed.) Emergence of Language. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.
Elman, J. (1993). Learning and development in neural networks: The importance of starting small. Cognition, 48, 71-99.
Elman, J. (1991). Distributed representations, simple recurrent networks, and grammatical structure. Machine Learning, 7, 195-224.
Elman, J.L. (1990). Finding structure in time. Cognitive Science, 14, 179-211.
Elman, J., Bates, E., Johnson, M., Karmiloff-Smith, A., Parisi, D., & Plunkett, K. (1996). Rethinking Innateness: A Connectionist Perspective on Development. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Engelmann, F. & Vasishth, S. (2009). Processing grammatical and ungrammatical center embeddings in English and German: A computational model. Submitted manuscript.
Evans, N. & Levinson, S. (in press). The myth of language universals: Language diversity and its
importance for cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences.
Flage, D. & Bonnen, C. (1999). Descartes and method. New York: Routledge.
Gipper, H. & Schmitter, P. (1979). Sprachwissenschaft und Sprachphilosophy im Zeitalter der Romantik. Tuebingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.
Givon T. & Malle B. (Eds.) (2002). The evolution of language out of pre-language. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Hare, M., & Elman, J. (1995). Learning and morphological change. Cognition, 56, 61-98.
Harris, R. (1993). The linguistic wars. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Harris, R. (1998). http://www.booksincanada.com/article_view.asp?id=63, Books in Canada 27.2, 14-17.
Hausser, R. (1999). Foundations of computational linguistics. Berlin: Springer Verlag.
Hume, D. (1777/1958). An enquiry concerning human understanding. LaSalle, IL: Open Court Publishing.
Hurford, J. (2007). The Origins of Meaning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hurford, J. & Dediu, D. (2007). Diversity in languages, genes, and the language faculty In: Botha, R. & Knight, C. (Eds.). The Cradle of Language. (pp. 163 - 185). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Johansson, S. (2005). Origins of Language, Constraints on Hypotheses. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Knight, C., Studdert-Kennedy, M., & Hurford, J. (Eds.) (2000). The evolutionary emergence of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lakoff, R. (1969). Review of H. Brekle (Ed.) Grammaire generale et raisonnee. Language, 45, 343-364.
Leiber, J. (1988). Cartesian Linguistics? In: The Chomskyan Turn: Generative Linguistics, Mathematics, Philosophy and Psychology International Workshop, Tel Aviv, Philosophia, 1988, 309-46.
Lewis, J., & Elman, J. (2001). Learnability and the statistical structure of language: Poverty of stimulus arguments revisted. Proceedings of the 26th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development.
Lieberman, P. (2002). On the nature and evolution of the neural bases of human language. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology. 45, 36-62.
Lieberman, P. (2006). Toward an evolutionary biology of language. Harvard University Press.
Lieberman, P. (2007). The evolution of human speech; Its Anatomical and neural bases. Current Anthropology, 48, 39-66.
Locke, J. (1689). An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Book II. On line; http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/texts/locke/locke1/contents2.html. [accessed on August 4, 2009].
Lyon, C., Nehaniv, C., & Cangelosi, A., (Eds.). (2007). Emergence of Communication and Language. Springer Verlag.
MacWhinney, B. (2008). Cognitive precursors to language. In K. Oller & U. Griebel (Eds.). The evolution of communicative flexibility (pp. 193-214). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
MacWhinney, B. (2008). Enriching CHILDES for morphosyntactic analysis. In Behrens, H. (Ed.) Corpera in Language Acquisition Research. (pp. 165 - 197). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
MacWhinney, B. (2005). Language evolution and human development. In Bjorklund, D. & Pellegrini, A. Origins of the Social Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and Child Development (pp. 383-410). New York: Guilford.
McDermott, D. (2001). Mind and Mechanism. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
McGilvray, J. (2002). Introduction for cybereditions. In: Chomsky, N. Cartesian Linguistics. A chapter in the history of Rationalist Thought. Christchurch, NZ: Cybereditions.
Miel, J. (1969). Pascal, Port-Royal, and Cartesian Linguistics. Journal of the History of Ideas, 30, 261-271.
Monahagan, P. & Christiansen, M. (2008). Integration of multiple probabilistic cues in syntax acquisition. In: Behrens, H. (Ed.) Corpera in Language Acquisition Research. (pp. 139 - 163). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Morgan, J., & Demuth, K. (1996). Signal to syntax: Bootstrapping from speech to grammar in early acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Morris, W. Cottrell, G. & Elman, J. (2000). A Connectionist Simulation of the Empirical Acquisition
of Grammatical Relations. In: Wermter, S. & Sun, R. (Eds.) Hybrid Neural Systems. (pp. 179 - 193). Berlin: Springer Verlag.
Percival, K. (1972). On the non-existence of Cartesian linguistics. In: Buttler, R. (Ed.). Cartesian Studies. pp. 137 - 145. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Perruchet, P., & Pacton, S. (2006). Implicit learning and statistical learning : Two approaches, one phenomenon. Trends in cognitive science, 10, 233-238.
Perruchet, P & Tillmann, B. (in press). Exploiting multiple sources of information in learning an artificial language: Human data and modeling. Cognitive Science.
Pinker, S. & Bloom, P. (1990). Natural language and natural selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 13, 707–784.
Redington, M., Chater, N., & Finch, S. (1998). Distributional information: A powerful cue for acquiring syntactic categories. Cognitive Science, 22, 425-469.
Redington, M. & Chater, N. (1998). Connectionist and statistical approaches to language acquisition: A distributional perspective. Language and Cognitive Processes, 13, 129-191.
Sagae, K., MacWhinney, B., & Lavie, A. (2004). Automatic parsing of parent-child interactions. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 36, 113-126.
Sharbani, B. (2003). Review of Cartesian Linguistics. LINGUIST List 14.2061. On-line http://linguistlist.org/issues/14/14-2061.html [accessed on August 14, 2009]
Solan, Z., Horn, D., Ruppin, E. & Edelman, S. (2005). Evolution of language diversity: why fitness counts. In: Tallerman, M. (Ed.) Language Origins. (pp. 357 - 371). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Solan, Z., Horn, D., Ruppin, E., & Edelman, S. (2005). Unsupervised learning of natural languages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 102, 11629-11634.
Studdert-Kennedy, M. (1992). Leap of Faith. Applied Psycholinguistics, 13, 515-527.
Studdert-Kennedy, M. (1998). The particulate origins of language generativity. In: Hurford, J., Studdert-Kennedy, M. & Knight, C.(Eds.) Approaches to the evolution of language. (pp.202-221). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tallerman, M. (Ed.) (2005). Language Origins: Perspectives on Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Weckerly, J., & Elman, J. (1992). A PDP approach to processing center-embedded sentences. In Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Wildgen, W. (2004). The Evolution of Human Language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Wray, A. (Ed.), (2002). The Transition to Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.