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Anger and Forgiveness"Are You There Alone?"10 Good Questions about Life and DeathA Casebook of Ethical Challenges in NeuropsychologyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to Muslim EthicsA Cooperative SpeciesA Critique of the Moral Defense of VegetarianismA Delicate BalanceA Fragile LifeA Life for a LifeA Life-Centered Approach to BioethicsA Matter of SecurityA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Natural History of Human MoralityA Philosophical DiseaseA Practical Guide to Clinical Ethics ConsultingA Question of TrustA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Short Stay in SwitzerlandA Tapestry of ValuesA Very Bad WizardA World Without ValuesAction and ResponsibilityAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionActs of ConscienceAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction NeuroethicsAdvance Directives in Mental HealthAfter HarmAftermathAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HealthAgainst MarriageAgainst Moral 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and ScienceCutting to the CoreCyborg CitizenDamaged IdentitiesDeaf Identities in the MakingDeath Is That Man Taking NamesDebating ProcreationDebating Same-Sex MarriageDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecoding the Ethics CodeDefining DifferenceDefining Right and Wrong in Brain ScienceDefining the Beginning and End of LifeDelusions of GenderDementiaDemocracy in What State?Demons of the Modern WorldDescriptions and PrescriptionsDesert and VirtueDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDestructive Trends in Mental HealthDeveloping the VirtuesDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital HemlockDigital SoulDignityDignityDisability BioethicsDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDiscrimination against the Mentally IllDisordered Personalities and CrimeDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDoes Feminism Discriminate against Men?Does Torture Work?Doing HarmDouble Standards in Medical Research in Developing CountriesDown GirlDrugs 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RightnessMovies and the Moral Adventure of LifeMurder in the InnMy Body PoliticMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Sister's KeeperMy Sister's KeeperMy WayNano-Bio-EthicsNarrative MedicineNarrative ProsthesisNatural Ethical FactsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalized BioethicsNeither Bad nor MadNeoconservatismNeonatal BioethicsNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNew Takes in Film-PhilosophyNew Waves in EthicsNew Waves in MetaethicsNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNo Child Left DifferentNo Impact ManNormative EthicsNormativityNothing about us, without us!Oath BetrayedOf War and LawOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn EvilOn Human RightsOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOn the TakeOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne ChildOne Nation Under TherapyOne World NowOne World NowOur Bodies, Whose Property?Our Bodies, Whose Property?Our Daily MedsOur Faithfulness to the PastOur Posthuman FutureOut of EdenOut of Its MindOut of the ShadowsOverdosed AmericaOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Studies in Normative EthicsOxford Studies in Normative Ethics, Volume 7Oxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPassionate DeliberationPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perfecting VirtuePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonalities on the PlatePersonhood and Health CarePersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPerspectives On Health And Human RightsPharmaceutical FreedomPharmacracyPharmageddonPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhysician-Assisted DyingPicturing DisabilityPilgrim at Tinker CreekPlaying God?Playing God?Political EmotionsPornlandPowerful MedicinesPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical EthicsPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical RulesPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic NeuroethicsPraise and BlamePreferences and Well-BeingPrimates and PhilosophersPro-Life, Pro-ChoiceProcreation and ParenthoodProfits Before People?Progress in BioethicsProperty in the BodyProzac As a Way of LifeProzac on the CouchPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric EthicsPsychiatry and EmpirePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychotropic Drug Prescriber's Survival GuidePublic Health LawPublic Health Law and EthicsPublic PhilosophyPunishing the Mentally IllPunishmentPursuits of WisdomPutting Morality Back Into PoliticsPutting on VirtueQuality of Life and Human DifferenceRaceRadical HopeRadical VirtuesRape Is RapeRe-creating MedicineRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReckoning With HomelessnessReconceiving Medical EthicsRecovery from SchizophreniaRedefining RapeRedesigning HumansReducing the Stigma of Mental IllnessReflections on Ethics and ResponsibilityReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease 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with ChildrenThieves of VirtueThree Generations, No ImbecilesTimes of Triumph, Times of DoubtTolerance Among The VirtuesTolerance and the Ethical LifeTolerationToxic PsychiatryTrauma, Truth and ReconciliationTreatment Kind and FairTrusting on the EdgeTry to RememberUltimate JudgementUnborn in the USA: Inside the War on AbortionUndermining ScienceUnderstanding AbortionUnderstanding CloningUnderstanding EmotionsUnderstanding EvilUnderstanding Kant's EthicsUnderstanding Moral ObligationUnderstanding Physician-Pharmaceutical Industry InteractionsUnderstanding TerrorismUnderstanding the GenomeUnderstanding the Stigma of Mental IllnessUnderstanding Treatment Without ConsentUnhingedUnprincipled VirtueUnsanctifying Human Life: Essays on EthicsUnspeakable Acts, Ordinary PeopleUp in FlamesUpheavals of ThoughtUsers and Abusers of PsychiatryValue-Free Science?Values and Psychiatric DiagnosisValues in ConflictVegetarianismViolence and Mental DisorderVirtue EthicsVirtue, Rules, and JusticeVirtue, 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In The Form of Practical Knowledge, Stephen Engstrom writes that the "principal aim" of his book is to "develop an account of the categorical imperative that elucidates its basis in practical reason in a way that also clarifies how it constitutes substantive constraint on the will" (241, emphasis added). Both of these claims – (i) that the categorical imperative is in fact related to practical reason (i.e., the imperative's a priori nature), and (ii) that Kant's morality can be a source of substantive commands – have long been targets of Kant's many critics. Engstrom skillfully reconstructs Kant's account of the imperative of morality to argue that the categorical imperative (in all of its formulations) is essentially related to the formal and the material conditions of our practical rationality, and that in fact Kantian morality belongs to the general cognitivist tradition in moral thought. This tradition considers virtue to be a type of knowledge, knowledge of the good, and according to Engstrom, in Kant we find both the "most systematic and deeply conceived elaboration of this idea" but also a "sharp break" with some of this tradition's key presuppositions (ix).
A brief overview cannot do justice to Engstrom's intricate argument, but the backbone of his position is the following. Morality (for Kant) is a type of cognition, i.e., a set of practical judgments, judgments of ought. That morality is related to judgment and knowledge implies (importantly) that it is subject to some formal constraints on judgment in general. Furthermore, since morality is a type of practical knowledge, it is also subject to some formal and material constraints that come from the fact that morality is knowledge of the good.
Consider the formal constraints on practical judgment first. The form of judging, Engstrom points out, boils down to this. When we exercise the capacity to judge (practically), we (at least implicitly) acknowledge that "it is possible for every subject with the capacity for practical knowledge to share (not only in absracto but also in use) the practical judgment that every subject is to act as determined in the particular judgment when in the conditions on which it is based" (126). In other words, if I judge that φ is obligatory, I (at least implicitly) acknowledge that (i) everyone ought to φ (when in appropriate conditions), and that (ii) all instances of φ are obligatory. In Engstrom's words, there is a "double universality" condition at work here – judgments of ought are both "subjectively" and "objectively universally valid" (112-24). This double universality condition applies to practical judgments merely in virtue of them being instances of judging, i.e., to exercise the capacity to judge correctly just is to be subject to these formal conditions. Notice that this notion of universal validity (or universality) is a "thick" one (cf. "thin" universality of space as the form of outer intuition). This means that these formal conditions are normative and not constitutive of practical judgments (131). In other words, while all practical judgments ought to comply to the formal conditions of universality, they very well might not do so, as it is the case with false practical judgments (e.g., 'There is nothing wrong with giving a false promise when in financial distress'). The bottom line, however, is this: as all practical knowledge, willing must have a certain form, the form of universality, and this is most straightforwardly captured by Kant's first formulation of the categorical imperative (although, as Kant argues and as Engstrom shows, the same idea of double universality can be seen in other formulations as well).
Aside from the formal conditions, practical judgments must live up to a set of material conditions. (In this claim, Engstrom's study is, perhaps, the most innovative, although his analysis of universality is quite original as well.) By 'material' we of course do not mean 'empirical'. Rather, there are certain necessary aspects of volition that can be "traced to the concept of a person" (cf. the concept of a human being) (137) and that are therefore known a priori and not through e.g., anthropological or psychological study. Engstrom argues that while "choice is the body and the letter of the act of the free power of choice, wish [is] its soul and spirit" and that "only by determining the latter can the moral law extend its inward influence to the former" (81, emphasis added). In taking Kant to be the proponent of morality formally construed, commentators tend to loose sight of the end-setting aspect of volition. Engstrom emphasizes this feature as, arguably, the most important aspect of volition, the aspect that stems from wishing, which is the "soul and spirit" of our free power of choice. In particular, Engstrom focuses on the wish for happiness, where happiness is taken generically and not in any of its specific conceptions. And the essential requirements on the generic concept of happiness are these: on the one hand, happiness includes the idea of agreeableness (as far as the objects of our wishing go), and on the other hand, happiness implies what Engstrom calls the "casual sufficiency of the subject for [the object's] production" (89).
With these components in hand (i.e., with the formal requirements on morality as a type of knowledge and with the material condition of willing that is rooted in the generic wish for happiness), Engstrom develops a reading of Kant that does justice to his innovative deontology. In particular, Engstrom explains in detail in what way the three main formulations of the categorical imperative are related to one another (or that, as Kant himself puts it, "the three ways of representing the principle of morality are at bottom only so many formulae of the very same law" (G 4:436)). Also, The Form of Practical Knowledge shows how the four types of duties can be derived from the conjunction of the formal and of the material conditions of willing, and especially from the formula of universal law (the latter task is notoriously difficult to carry out with respect to imperfect duties and with respect to duties to oneself).
Engstrom acknowledges that in his study he has "stepped back from the details of Kant's argument in order to take a broader interpretative approach" (241). Indeed, in The Form of Practical Knowledge we do not find a step-by-step analysis of e.g., the Groundwork or of the second Critique. However, virtually all substantive claims that Engstrom attributes to Kant are carefully backed up by exegetical arguments, and The Form of Practical Knowledge retains more than the general spirit of Kant's philosophy – it is very much true to the letter of his works. Furthermore, a serious student of Kant will find numerous fine and original textual points throughout Engstrom's study and will have many occasions for augmenting and correcting her understanding of Kant's texts. That Engstrom's study takes the road of a "broader interpretative approach" does, however, mean that a beginning student of Kant will find it very challenging to develop a systematic interpretation of Kant's texts, since Engstrom's work presupposes a great degree of fluency with Kant's corpus.
In his remarks against "popular" philosophy, Kant writes that in the popular essays on morality "one will sometimes encounter the particular vocation of human nature, sometimes perfection, sometimes happiness, here moral feeling, there fear of God, some of this and some of that, all in a wondrous mixture" (G 4:410). Rather, Kant believes, we ought to start from the "pure concepts of reason, fully a priori, free from everything empirical" (ibid.) and then to develop a consistent account of morality. Kant's charge against "philosophical popularity" can very well be applied to some of Kant-scholarship today: interpreting Kant's own works, commentators explain the application of the categorical imperative and the relation between its different formulations by appealing to a number of heterogeneous explanance. Sometimes, the focus is on the logical consistency of maxims, at other times it shifts to the requirements of prudential reasoning, and yet on other occasions, the appeal is made to teleology and to the laws of (human) nature. This eclectic application and analysis of Kant's categorical imperative is not only explanatorily suspect, but also goes explicitly against the methodological approach that Kant himself urges us to adopt. In this respect, Engstrom's study is an exemplar of philosophical and exegetical consistency. The Form of Practical Knowledge is true to a single line of interpretation of the categorical imperative throughout the numerous questions arising while reading and understanding Kant. E.g., Engstrom skillfully shows how the universalization test is to be applied to all four types of duties in the same way, and Engstrom's exposition is a welcome exception in the literature on Kant, in which we sometimes see a "mish-mash of patched-together" (G 4:409) explanations of how the categorical imperative is to be applied and of how its formulations are to be reconciled. Engstrom's work can be used as a guide to a consistent reading of Kant's many (cryptic) remarks concerning how the supreme principle of morality works in various contexts.
The Form of Practical Knowledge is a challenging read. To benefit and to learn from it, one must already be at home with Kant's corpus (at least its practical side), and with Anglophone literature on Kant. But for those who are ready to engage Kant on a deep level, and for those who are eager to come up with a coherent interpretation of Kant's deontology, Engstrom's study will be a wonderful supplement to Kant's practical works (and especially to his Groundwork). In particular, I would like to stress (again) that The Form of Practical Knowledge contains numerous textual insights that allow for a much cleaner reading of Kant that one might have prior to picking up Engstrom's monograph.
© 2009 Tatiana Patrone
Tatiana Patrone is an Assistant Professor of Philosophy at Ithaca College. She is author of How Kant's Conception of Reason Implies a Liberal Politics (Edwin Mellen Press, 2008)