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A Theory of Feelings Anger and Forgiveness"My Madness Saved Me"10 Good Questions about Life and Death12 Modern Philosophers50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a GodA Cabinet of Philosophical CuriositiesA Case for IronyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to Buddhist PhilosophyA Companion to FoucaultA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to HumeA Companion to KantA Companion to Phenomenology and ExistentialismA Companion to PragmatismA Companion to the Philosophy of ActionA Companion to the Philosophy of BiologyA Companion to the Philosophy of LiteratureA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Critical Overview of Biological FunctionsA Critique of Naturalistic Philosophies of MindA Cursing Brain?A Delicate BalanceA Farewell to AlmsA Frightening LoveA Future for PresentismA Guide to the Good LifeA History of PsychiatryA History of the MindA Life Worth LivingA Manual of Experimental PhilosophyA Map of the MindA Metaphysics of PsychopathologyA Mind So RareA Natural History of Human MoralityA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Natural History of VisionA Parliament of MindsA Philosopher Looks at The Sense of HumorA Philosophical DiseaseA Philosophy of BoredomA Philosophy of Cinematic ArtA Philosophy of CultureA Philosophy of EmptinessA Philosophy of FearA Philosophy of PainA Physicalist ManifestoA Place for ConsciousnessA Question of TrustA Research Agenda for DSM-VA Revolution of the MindA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Stroll With William JamesA Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Theory of FreedomA Thousand MachinesA Universe of ConsciousnessA Very Bad WizardA Very Bad Wizard: Morality Behind the CurtainA Virtue EpistemologyA World Full of GodsA World Without ValuesAbout FaceAbout the Beginning of the Hermeneutics of the SelfAction and ResponsibilityAction in ContextAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionAction, Contemplation, and HappinessAction, Emotion and WillAdam SmithAdaptive DynamicsAddictionAddictionAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction Is a ChoiceAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAftermathAfterwarAgainst AdaptationAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HappinessAgainst HealthAgency and ActionAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and EmbodimentAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAl-JununAlain BadiouAlain BadiouAlasdair MacIntyreAlien Landscapes?Altered EgosAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Ethics for TodayAn Intellectual History of CannibalismAn Interpretation of DesireAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy An Introduction to Philosophy of EducationAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of PsychologyAn Introductory Philosophy of MedicineAn Odd Kind of FameAnalytic FreudAnalytic Philosophy in AmericaAncient AngerAncient Models of MindAncient Philosophy of the SelfAngerAnimal LessonsAnimal MindsAnimals Like UsAnnihilationAnother PlanetAnswers for AristotleAnti-ExternalismAnti-Individualism and KnowledgeAntigone’s ClaimAntipsychiatryAre We Hardwired?Are Women Human?Arguing about DisabilityArguing About Human NatureAristotle and the Philosophy of FriendshipAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's ChildrenAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle, Emotions, and EducationArt & MoralityArt After Conceptual ArtArt in Three DimensionsArt, Self and KnowledgeArtificial ConsciousnessArtificial HappinessAspects of PsychologismAsylum to ActionAtonement and ForgivenessAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutobiography as PhilosophyAutonomyAutonomy and Mental DisorderAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismBabies by DesignBackslidingBadiouBadiou's DeleuzeBadiou, Balibar, Ranciere: Rethinking EmancipationBare Facts And Naked TruthsBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBattlestar Galactica and PhilosophyBe Like the FoxBeautyBecoming a SubjectBecoming HumanBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing AmoralBeing HumanBeing Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory Being No OneBeing Realistic about ReasonsBeing ReducedBeing YourselfBelief's Own EthicsBending Over BackwardsBerlin Childhood around 1900Bernard WilliamsBertrand RussellBetter than BothBetter Than WellBetween Two WorldsBeyond HealthBeyond Hegel and NietzscheBeyond KuhnBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond PostmodernismBeyond ReductionBeyond SchizophreniaBeyond the DSM StoryBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics in the ClinicBiological Complexity and Integrative PluralismBiology Is TechnologyBiosBipolar ExpeditionsBlackwell Companion to the Philosophy of EducationBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlues - Philosophy for EveryoneBlushBob Dylan and PhilosophyBody ConsciousnessBody Image And Body SchemaBody ImagesBody LanguageBody MattersBody WorkBody-Subjects and Disordered MindsBoundBoundaries of the MindBoyleBrain Evolution and CognitionBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-WiseBrainchildrenBrains, Buddhas, and BelievingBrainstormingBrave New WorldsBreakdown of WillBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and FaithBrief Therapy Homework PlannerBritain on the CouchBritish Idealism and the Concept of the SelfBrute RationalityBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyBut Is It Art?Camus and SartreCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCarving Nature at Its JointsCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsCassandra's DaughterCato's TearsCausation and CounterfactualsCauses, Laws, and Free WillChanging Conceptions of the Child from the Renaissance to Post-ModernityChanging the SubjectChaosophyCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionCharles DarwinCherishmentChildhood and the Philosophy of EducationChildrenChildren, Families, and Health Care Decision MakingChoices and ConflictChoosing Not to ChooseChristmas - Philosophy for EveryoneCinema, Philosophy, BergmanCinematic MythmakingCity and Soul in Plato's RepublicClassifying MadnessClear and Queer ThinkingClinical EthicsClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyCodependent ForevermoreCoffee - Philosophy for EveryoneCognition and the BrainCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognition Through Understanding: Self-Knowledge, Interlocution, Reasoning, ReflectionCognitive BiologyCognitive FictionsCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Systems and the Extended Mind Cognitive Theories of Mental IllnessCoherence in Thought and ActionCollected Papers, Volume 1Collected Papers, Volume 2College SexComedy IncarnateCommitmentCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentConcealment And ExposureConceptual Analysis and Philosophical NaturalismConceptual Art and PaintingConceptual Issues in Evolutionary BiologyConfessionsConfucianismConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConquest of AbundanceConscience and ConvenienceConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the SelfConsciousness EmergingConsciousness EvolvingConsciousness ExplainedConsciousness in ActionConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Color, and ContentConsole and ClassifyConstructing the WorldConstructive AnalysisContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Philosophy of BiologyContemporary Debates in Philosophy of MindContemporary Debates in Political PhilosophyContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContemporary Perspectives on Natural LawContested Knowledge: Social Theory TodayContesting PsychiatryContext and the AttitudesContinental Philosophy of ScienceControlControlling Our DestiniesConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCopernicus, Darwin and FreudCrazy for YouCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCreating ConsilienceCreating HysteriaCreating Mental IllnessCreating Scientific ConceptsCreating the American JunkieCreation, Rationality and AutonomyCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCrimes of ReasonCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychiatryCritical PsychologyCritical ResistanceCritical Thinking About PsychologyCritical VisionsCross and KhoraCruel CompassionCTRL [SPACE]Cultural Psychology of the SelfCultural Theory: An IntroductionCulture and Psychiatric DiagnosisCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCulture of DeathCultures of NeurastheniaCurious EmotionsCurrent Controversies in Experimental PhilosophyCustom and Reason in HumeCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCutting God in Half - And Putting the Pieces Together AgainCylons in AmericaDamaged IdentitiesDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous EmotionsDaniel DennettDaniel DennettDark AgesDarwin and DesignDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDarwin, God and the Meaning of LifeDarwinian PsychiatryDarwinian ReductionismDarwinizing CultureDating: Philosophy for EveryoneDeathDeathDeath and CharacterDeath and CompassionDeath and the AfterlifeDebating DesignDebating HumanismDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecomposing the WillDeconstructing PsychotherapyDeconstruction and DemocracyDeeper Than DarwinDeeper than ReasonDefending Science - within ReasonDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDegrees of BeliefDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions and Other Irrational BeliefsDelusions and the Madness of the MassesDementiaDemons, Dreamers, and MadmenDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDennett’s PhilosophyDepression Is a ChoiceDepression, Emotion and the SelfDepthDerrida, Deleuze, PsychoanalysisDescartesDescartes and the Passionate MindDescartes' CogitoDescartes's Changing MindDescartes's Concept of MindDescribing Inner Experience?Descriptions and PrescriptionsDesembodied Spirits and Deanimated Bodies Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Desire and AffectDesire, Love, and IdentityDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDeveloping the VirtuesDiagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersDialectics of the SelfDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital SoulDimensional Models of Personality DisordersDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDisjunctivismDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDispatches from the Freud WarsDisrupted LivesDistractionDisturbed ConsciousnessDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Do We Still Need Doctors?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Does the Woman Exist?Doing without ConceptsDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDonald DavidsonDonald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the MentalDoubting Darwin?Dreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR CasebookDworkin and His CriticsDying to KnowDynamics in ActionDysthymia and the Spectrum of Chronic DepressionsEccentricsEducational MetamorphosesEffective IntentionsElbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth WantingEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbodied RhetoricsEmbodied Selves and Divided MindsEmbryos under the MicroscopeEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotionEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion and PsycheEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotional ReasonEmotional ReasonEmotional TruthEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions, Value, and AgencyEmpathyEmpathy and AgencyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpathy in the Context of PhilosophyEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEnchanted LoomsEngaging BuddhismEngineering the Human GermlineEnjoymentEnvyEpicureanismEpistemic LuckEpistemologyEpistemology and EmotionsEpistemology and the Psychology of Human JudgmentEros and the GoodErotic MoralityEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssays in the Metaphysics of Mind Essays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEssays on Nonconceptual ContentEssays on Philosophical CounselingEssays on Reference, Language, and MindEssays on the Concept of Mind in Early-Modern PhilosophyEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEsssential Philosophy of PsychiatryEternal Sunshine of the Spotless MindEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in Human CloningEthical TheoryEthicsEthicsEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics in Plain EnglishEthics in PracticeEthics in Psychiatric ResearchEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEuropean Review of Philosophy. Vol. 5Everyday IrrationalityEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolutionEvolution and the Human MindEvolution's RainbowEvolutionary Origins of MoralityEvolutionary PsychologyExamined LifeExamined LivesExistential AmericaExistentialismExistentialism and Romantic LoveExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and NaturalismExperiments in EthicsExplaining ConsciousnessExplaining the BrainExplaining the Computational MindExplanatory PluralismExploding the Gene MythExploring HappinessExploring the SelfExpression and the InnerExpressions of JudgmentFaces of IntentionFact and ValueFact and Value in EmotionFacts, Values, and NormsFads and Fallacies in the Social SciencesFaith and Wisdom in ScienceFatherhoodFear of KnowledgeFearless SpeechFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFeelings of BeingFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminism and Philosophy of ScienceFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist Interpretations of Rene DescartesFeminist TheoryField Notes from ElsewhereFinding Consciousness in the BrainFingerprints of GodFlesh in the Age of ReasonFolk Psychological NarrativesFolk Psychology Re-AssessedForces of HabitForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and RetributionFoucault 2.0Foucault and PhilosophyFoucault NowFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in PsychologyFour Views on Free WillFrank Ramsey (1903-1930)Free WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree Will and Action ExplanationFree Will and LuckFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree: Why Science Hasn't Disproved Free WillFreedomFreedom and DeterminismFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom and ResponsibiltyFreedom and ValueFreedom EvolvesFreedom RegainedFreedom vs. InterventionFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFreudFreud and the Question of PseudoscienceFreud As PhilosopherFreud's AnswerFreud, the Reluctant PhilosopherFriedrich NietzscheFrom Chance to ChoiceFrom Clinic to ClassroomFrom Complexity to LifeFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution for Science and the HumanitiesFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrontiers of ConsciousnessFrontiers of JusticeFurnishing the MindGalileo in PittsburghGenderGender and Mental HealthGender in the MirrorGender TroubleGenesGenes, Women, EqualityGenetic Nature/CultureGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetic SecretsGenocide's AftermathGenomes and What to Make of ThemGerman Idealism and the JewGerman PhilosophyGetting HookedGilles DeleuzeGlobal PhilosophyGluttonyGod and Phenomenal ConsciousnessGoffman's LegacyGoing Amiss in Experimental ResearchGoodness & AdviceGrassroots SpiritualityGrave MattersGrave MattersGreedGreek Models of Mind and SelfGut ReactionsHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHabits of MindHallucinationHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of EmotionsHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness and EducationHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHappiness, Death, and the Remainder of LifeHard LuckHarmful ThoughtsHaving the World in ViewHealing PsychiatryHealing the Soul in the Age of the BrainHealth, Illness and DiseaseHealth, Science, and Ordinary LanguageHegelHeidegger and a Metaphysics of FeelingHeidegger, Metaphysics and the Univocity of BeingHermann von Helmholtz's MechanismHermeneutics As PoliticsHeterophobiaHeterosyncraciesHeuristics and BiasesHeuristics and the LawHidden ResourcesHidden SelvesHiding from HumanityHigh Art LiteHistorical OntologyHistory of Psychiatry and Medical PsychologyHistory, Historicity And ScienceHobbesHomosexualitiesHope and Dread in PsychoanalysisHot ThoughtHow Can I Be Trusted?How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains?How Do We Know Who We Are?How Emotions WorkHow Emotions WorkHow History Made the MindHow Images ThinkHow is Nature Possible?How Propaganda WorksHow Science WorksHow Scientific Practices MatterHow Scientists Explain DiseaseHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Make Opportunity EqualHow to Solve the Mind-Body Problemhow to stop timeHow to Think More About SexHow We HopeHow We ReasonHuman CloningHuman Development, Language and the Future of MankindHuman EnhancementHuman Evolution, Reproduction, and MoralityHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman NatureHuman NatureHuman Nature and the Limits of ScienceHuman-Built WorldHumanismHumanism, What's That?HumanityHumans, Animals, MachinesHumeHumeHume on Motivation and VirtueHusserlHystoriesI of the VortexI Was WrongIdeas that MatterIdentifying the MindIdentity and Agency in Cultural WorldsIgnorance and ImaginationIllnessImagination and Its PathologiesImagination and the Meaningful BrainImagining NumbersImmortal RemainsImproving Nature?In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of HealthIn Defense of SentimentalityIn Love With LifeIn Praise of Athletic BeautyIn Praise of the WhipIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of HappinessIn the Name of GodIn the Name of IdentityIn the Space of ReasonsIn Two MindsIncompatibilism's AllureIndividual Differences in Conscious ExperienceInfinity and PerspectiveInformation ArtsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchIngmar Bergman, Cinematic PhilosopherInhuman ThoughtsInner PresenceInsanityIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntelligent VirtueIntentionIntentionality, Deliberation and AutonomyIntentions and IntentionalityIntentions and IntentionalityInterpreting MindsInterpreting NietzscheIntroducing Greek PhilosophyIntrospection and ConsciousnessIntrospection VindicatedIntuition, Imagination, and Philosophical MethodologyIntuitionismInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIrrationalityIs Academic Feminism Dead?Is It Me or My Meds?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is Oedipus Online?Is Science Neurotic?Is Science Value Free?Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion?Is There a Duty to Die?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJacques LacanJacques RancièreJacques RanciereJean-Paul SartreJohn McDowellJohn SearleJohn Searle's Ideas About Social RealityJohn Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill and the Writing of CharacterJoint AttentionJokesJonathan EdwardsJudging and UnderstandingJustice for ChildrenJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeKantKant and MiltonKant and the Fate of AutonomyKant and the Limits of AutonomyKant and the Role of Pleasure in Moral ActionKant on Freedom, Law, and HappinessKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Anatomy of EvilKant's Anatomy of the Intelligent MindKant's Theory of VirtueKarl JaspersKarl PopperKey Concepts in PhilosophyKierkegaardKierkegaard as PhenomenologistKierkegaard's Concept of DespairKierkegaard's MuseKinds of MindsKinds, Things, and StuffKnowing, Knowledge and BeliefsKnowledge MonopoliesKnowledge, Belief, and CharacterKnowledge, Possibility, and ConsciousnessLacanLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLanguageLanguage in ContextLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Culture, and MindLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw and the BrainLaw, Liberty, and PsychiatryLaws, Mind, and Free WillLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberatory PsychiatryLife and ActionLife at the Texas State Lunatic Asylum, 1857-1997Life Is Not a Game of PerfectLife of the MindLife's FormLife, Death, & MeaningLife, Death, and Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of UtilityLife, Sex, and IdeasLight in the Dark RoomLike a Splinter in Your MindLiving and Dying WellLiving NarrativeLiving Outside Mental IllnessLiving with DarwinLiving With One’s PastLockeLocke LockeLogic and the Art of Memory Loneliness in Philosophy, Psychology, and LiteratureLooking for SpinozaLooking for The StrangerLost SoulsLOT 2LoveLoveLove's ConfusionsLove's VisionLove, Friendship, and the SelfLove, Sex & TragedyLuckyLudwig WittgensteinLustLyingMachine ConsciousnessMad for FoucaultMad TravelersMade with WordsMadness And Death In PhilosophyMadness and DemocracyMadness at HomeMadness Is CivilizationMaking Natural KnowledgeMaking Sense of EvolutionMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMaking the DSM-5Making the Social WorldMaking TruthMale Female EmailMan, Beast, and ZombieMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManiaManic Depression and CreativityMapping the Edges and the In-betweenMapping the Future of BiologyMarcus AureliusMaster PassionsMatters of the MindMe++Meaning and Moral OrderMeaning and Value in a Secular AgeMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeaning, Basic Self-Knowledge, and MindMeasuring HappinessMeasuring PsychopathologyMedia MadnessMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedicine of the PersonMedicine, Mental Health, Religion, Science and Well-BeingMelancholy And the Care of the SoulMelancholy and the Otherness of GodMementoMemory and NarrativeMental ActionsMental CausationMental Causation and OntologyMental HealthMental Health At The CrossroadsMental Health Policy in BritainMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMerleau-PontyMerleau-Ponty and the Possibilities of PhilosophyMetacognition and Theory of MindMetacreationMetaethical SubjectivismMetaethicsMetal and FleshMetaphors of MemoryMetapoliticsMethods in MindMichel FoucaultMill's UtilitarianismMindMindMind and ConsciousnessMind and CosmosMind and MechanismMind GamesMind in a Physical WorldMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind in LifeMind TimeMind's LandscapeMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMind, Brain, and Free WillMind, Reason and ImaginationMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds and PersonsMinds, Brains, and LawMinds, Ethics, and ConditionalsMindshapingMindsightMindworldsMirror, MirrorMixed FeelingsMockingbird YearsModels of the SelfModern Social ImaginariesModern Theories of JusticeModernity and SubjectivityModernity and TechnologyMoody Minds DistemperedMoral BrainsMoral DimensionsMoral FailureMoral ImaginationMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral ParticularismMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology and Human AgencyMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Moral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMotherhoodMotive and RightnessMoving Beyond Prozac, DSM, and the New PsychiatryMultiple Analogies in Science and PhilosophyMultiple Identities & False MemoriesMusic, Madness, and the Unworking of LanguageMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Double UnveiledMy WayNarrativeNarrative and IdentityNarrative MedicineNarrative PsychiatryNarrative Theory and the Cognitive SciencesNatural Ethical FactsNatural Kinds and Conceptual ChangeNatural MindsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalism and the First-Person PerspectiveNaturalism and the Human ConditionNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalized BioethicsNaturalizing the MindNatureNature and NarrativeNear Death ExperienceNeither Bad nor MadNeither Victim nor SurvivorNeuro-Philosophy and the Healthy MindNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neurophilosophy at WorkNeurophilosophy of Free WillNeuropoliticsNeuropsychoanalysis in PracticeNeuroscience and PhilosophyNew Essays on the Explanation of ActionNew Philosophy for a New MediaNew Versions of VictimsNew Waves in Philosophy of ActionNietzscheNietzsche and Buddhist PhilosophyNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNietzsche's TherapyNietzsche, Culture and EducationNietzsche: The Man and His PhilosophyNihil UnboundNoir AnxietyNormative EthicsNormativityNorms of NatureNotebooks 1951-1959Notes Toward a Performative Theory of AssemblyNothing So AbsurdOblivionOn AnxietyOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn Being AuthenticOn BeliefOn BetrayalOn BullshitOn DelusionOn DesireOn EmotionsOn HashishOn Human RightsOn Loving Our EnemiesOn Nature and LanguageOn PersonalityOn ReflectionOn Romantic LoveOn the EmotionsOn the Freud WatchOn the Government of the LivingOn the Human ConditionOn the InternetOn the Meaning of LifeOn the Philosophy of LawOn the Pragmatics of CommunicationOn the Punitive SocietyOn TruthOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne Hundred DaysOnflowOnly a Promise of HappinessOntology of ConsciousnessOpen MindedOpen Your EyesOrgans without BodiesOther MindsOur Last Great IllusionOur Own MindsOur Posthuman FutureOur StoriesOut of Its MindOut of Our HeadsOxford Guide to the MindOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPanic DisorderPanpsychismPanpsychism in the WestPartialityPassionate EnginesPassionate EnginesPathologies of BeliefPathologies of ReasonPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perceiving the WorldPerception & CognitionPerception and Basic BeliefsPerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPerceptual ExperiencePerfecting VirtuePerplexities of ConsciousnessPersistencePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal IdentityPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonal Identity and Fractured SelvesPersonhood and Health CarePersonsPersons and BodiesPersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPersons, Souls and DeathPerspectives on ImitationPerspectives on PragmatismPessimismPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenal ConsciousnessPhenomenal IntentionalityPhenomenology and ExistentialismPhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophersPhilosophers on MusicPhilosophers without GodsPhilosophical CounselingPhilosophical Counselling and the UnconsciousPhilosophical DevicesPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical History and the Problem of ConsciousnessPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in Psychiatry IIPhilosophical MethodologyPhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophical Myths of the FallPhilosophical Perspectives on DepictionPhilosophical Perspectives on Technology and PsychiatryPhilosophical PracticePhilosophical Reflections on DisabilityPhilosophizing About Sex Philosophizing the EverydayPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy and LivingPhilosophy and PsychiatryPhilosophy and PsychotherapyPhilosophy and Science FictionPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the Interpretation of Pop CulturePhilosophy and the Moving ImagePhilosophy and the NeurosciencesPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy As FictionPhilosophy BitesPhilosophy Bites BackPhilosophy for Counselling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy for LifePhilosophy in a New CenturyPhilosophy in an Age of SciencePhilosophy in Children's LiteraturePhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BodyPhilosophy of Film and Motion PicturesPhilosophy of LovePhilosophy of Love, Sex, and MarriagePhilosophy of MindPhilosophy of Mind and CognitionPhilosophy of Personal Identity and Multiple PersonalityPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy of Public HealthPhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhilosophy of the Social SciencesPhilosophy on TapPhilosophy PracticePhilosophy the Day after TomorrowPhilosophy's Role in Counseling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhilosophy, Politics, DemocracyPhotography and PhilosophyPhysical RealizationPhysicalism and Its DiscontentsPhysicalism and Mental CausationPhysicalism, or Something Near EnoughPhysician-Assisted DyingPillar of SaltPin-up GrrrlsPlatoPlatoPlato, Not Prozac!Platonic Ethics, Old and NewPluralistic CasuistryPolarities of ExperiencesPolitical EmotionsPopper, Objectivity and the Growth of KnowledgePornPorn StudiesPornography, Sex, and FeminismPortrait of the Psychiatrist as a Young ManPostcolonial DisordersPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPower and the SelfPower SplitPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical ConflictsPractical Identity and Narrative AgencyPractical PhilosophyPractical RulesPractical Tortoise RaisingPractically ProfoundPracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPragmatic BioethicsPragmatismPragmatism, Old And NewPraise and BlamePredicative MindsPreferences and Well-BeingPrescriptions for the MindPresocraticsPrimary and Secondary QualitiesPrimates and PhilosophersPrivacyPrivileged AccessProblems in MindProblems of RationalityProzac As a Way of LifeProzac BacklashProzac on the CouchPsyche and SomaPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric Cultures ComparedPsychiatric Diagnosis and ClassificationPsychiatric EthicsPsychiatric HegemonyPsychiatric PowerPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry and Philosophy of SciencePsychiatry and ReligionPsychiatry as a Human SciencePsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry in SocietyPsychiatry in the New MilleniumPsychiatry in the Scientific ImagePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsycho-Physical Dualism TodayPsychoanalysis and Narrative MedicinePsychoanalysis and the Philosophy of SciencePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and PhilosophyPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, and the Politics of Human RelationshipsPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPsychotherapy As PraxisPublic PhilosophyPunishmentPure ImmanencePurple HazePursuing MeaningQuality of Life and Human DifferenceQueer PhilosophyQuestions for FreudQuestions for FreudQuine and Davidson on Language, Thought and RealityRaceRace in Contemporary MedicineRadiant CoolRadical AlterityRadical ExternalismRadical HopeRational and Social AgencyRational CausationRational Choice in an Uncertain WorldRationality + Consciousness = Free WillRationality and FreedomRationality and the Reflective MindRationality in ActionRawls, Dewey, and ConstructivismRe-creating MedicineRe-EmergenceRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReading AutobiographyReading Bernard WilliamsReading SartreReadings in the Philosophy of TechnologyReal MaterialismReal Natures and Familiar ObjectsReal ScienceRealism in ActionReason & EmancipationReason in ActionReason in PhilosophyReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReasoning About Rational AgentsReasoning in Biological DiscoveriesReasons from WithinReasons without RationalismReclaiming CognitionReclaiming the SoulReconceiving SchizophreniaReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecreative MindsRediscovering EmotionRediscovering EmpathyReference and ExistenceReference and the Rational MindReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRegulating SexReinventing the SoulRelativism and Human RightsRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyReliable ReasoningReligion without GodRelying on OthersRemembering HomeResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsRestraining RageRethinking ExpertiseRethinking IntrospectionRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeRethinking the DSMRethinking the Sociology of Mental HealthRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfReturn to ReasonRevolt, She SaidRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard Rorty's New PragmatismRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRise And Fall of Soul And SelfRitalin NationRobert NozickRousseauRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Derrida on DeconstructionRules, Reason, and Self-KnowledgeSaints, Scholars, and Schizophrenics: Mental Illness in Rural IrelandSartreSartreSartreSartre in Search of an EthicsSatisficing and MaximizingSaving GodScandalous KnowledgeSchizophreniaSchizophrenia and the Fate of the SelfSchizophrenia: A Scientific Delusion?SchopenhauerSchopenhauer's TelescopeScienceScience and EthicsScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and SpiritualityScience and the Pursuit of WisdomScience Fiction and PhilosophyScience Fiction and PhilosophyScience in Civil SocietyScience in DemocracyScience RulesScience WarsScience, Consciousness and Ultimate RealityScience, Policy, and the Value-Free IdealSciences from BelowScientific EvidenceScientific IrrationalismScientific PerspectivismScientific PluralismScientific Realism and the Rationality of ScienceScratching the Surface of BioethicsSecond NatureSecond OpinionsSecond PhilosophySecrets of the MindSecular Philosophy and the Religious TemperamentSecurity, Territory, PopulationSeeing and VisualizingSeeing DoubleSeeing 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Moral Psychology, Volume 3Review - Moral Psychology, Volume 3
The Neuroscience of Morality: Emotion, Brain Disorders, and Development
by Walter Sinnott-Armstrong
MIT Press, 2008
Review by Luc Faucher, Ph.D.
Aug 4th 2009 (Volume 13, Issue 32)

The Neuroscience of Morality: Emotion, Brain Disorders, and Development is the third and final volume of Moral Psychology's collection, edited by Walter Sinnott-Armstrong. In keeping with previous volumes, it contains target chapters written by leading figures in moral psychology along with short critical commentaries to these chapters, and replies to said commentaries from the author of the target chapter. Before presenting the chapters of the book, a caveat to the reader: despite its title, the book does not solely contain papers authored by neuroscientists; it also presents papers written by philosophers, speculating about the possible impact of neuroscientific discoveries on debates in their discipline. Indeed, the book can be divided into these two categories: Chapters 1,3, 6, and 7 are theoretical papers by neuroscientists (or psychologists who have performed neuroscientific investigations) and Chapters 4 ,5 and 8 are papers by philosophers debating the interpretation of the work of neuroscientists in relation to moral theories. In the following review, I'll give a brief overview of the target papers, mentioning only in passing some of the critical commentaries on them.

In Chapter 1, "The Cognitive Neuroscience of Moral Emotions", Jorge Moll and his colleagues report their observations of the brain activation in certain moral judgment tasks. According to Moll et al, moral emotions triggered in response to these tasks result from the blending of brain regions activated by non-moral (basic) emotions, semantic memory, the perception of social cues, as well as decision making. Moral emotions are thus the product of the activity of a mix of regions, some of which underlie processes shared with other mammals (for instance, those responsible for emotional subjective experiences, like disgust and fear), while others are specific to humans (for instance, those that underlie semantic memory and decision making). More precisely, moral emotions are the result of the work of six mechanisms responsible respectively for attachment, aggressiveness, social ranking, outcome assessment, agency or intentionality and norm violation. Moll and his colleagues end their paper with some speculation about the way moral emotions could emerge from specific combinations of the representations produced by these mechanisms. For instance, it could be said that pity "depends on the recognition of bad outcomes to another person plus a sense of attachment" (p.15). At that point in the article, one might have the feeling that the authors are reverting to Aristotle's Rhetoric or Descartes' Passions of the Soul way of talking about emotions, leaving the reader to question why we need neuroscience at all to learn about these components. A generous interpretation of this section of the article would be to think of these speculations as ways to guide research on the neural substrate of moral emotions by detailing what kind of representations contribute to each emotion -- assuming that each kind of representation is produced by a distinct neural substrate.

In Chapter 2, Joshua Green puts another spin on the results he presented in his famous 2001 Science paper ("An fMRI Investigation of Emotional Engagement in Moral Judgment") and elsewhere.  In his "The Secret Joke of Kant's Soul", he now argues that deontological judgments and consequential judgments should be considered as "psychological natural kinds"; like other natural kinds, deontological and consequential judgments have an underlying essence, which is composed of particular types of psychological processes (emotional vs. cognitive) which are themselves marked by different neurological substrates. As with other natural kinds like gold or water, folks do not have immediate access to the underlying essence of the phenomena and have to rely on science to discover it. Green suggests that this is what his previous work has consisted of, i.e. discovering the essence of moral judgments. Most notably, his work has shown that deontological judgments are produced by emotional processes, while consequentialist judgments arise from cold cognitive processes (reasoning). In his chapter, Green also provides numerous examples that show that deontological philosophy -- that for many is the paradigmatic example of a cold and disincarnate philosophy -- is the product of an a posteriori rationalization (a "moral confabulation", as he puts it), while the real essence of deontological judgments is in fact the expression of moral emotions (this hypothesis brings Green closer to Jonathan Haidt's brand of "moral intuitionism"). However, the ultimate reduction of a type of judgment to an emotional base might not be very appealing to philosophers, who might be less willing than Green to think that moral judgments have "psychological essence", that these judgments indeed form "natural kinds".

In "Without Morals: The Cognitive Neuroscience of Criminal Psychopaths" (Chapter 3), Kent Kiehl provides a comprehensive review of the literature on the neural systems known to be involved in psychopathy. While people who are well-read on the topic will not learn much from it, the chapter can be used as an up-to-date introduction to the neuroscience of psychopathy. However, this is not to say that Kiehl does not propose an interesting neuroscientific theory in the paper; he does in fact speculate that the family of features that characterize psychopathy (problems in language, attention and affect) are the product of a network of regions comprising the paralimbic system. This constitutes an advance from previous theories which have tended to focus exclusively on certain brain regions like the amygdala or the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and have neglected other regions, like the posterior cingulated or the insula, that are also involved in the production of psychopathy features.

In their chapter entitled "Internalism and the Evidence from Psychopaths and Acquired Sociopathy" (Chapter 4), Jeanette Kennett and Cordelia Fine take on Adina Roskies' "Are Ethical Judgments Intrinsically Motivational? Lessons from Acquired Psychopathy" published in 2002 in Philosophical Psychology. In her paper, Roskies argues against a version of moral internalism, a theory according to which there is a connection between moral judgment and moral motivation (so that if you judge that something is good, you are motivated or disposed to do it).  To prove this, she uses the case of people who became sociopaths after suffering brain injuries due to lesions, a population which is different from "developmental psychopaths" who are, so to speak, born psychopaths. According to Roskies, contrary to developmental psychopaths for whom the question "Is there an adequate grasp of moral concepts?" can always be asked, people suffering from acquired sociopathy constitute a good example of individuals able to make moral judgments while not being motivated by them. When asked to judge the moral content of vignettes, acquired sociopaths come up with the same judgments as so-called normal people. The behavior of acquired sociopaths speaks differently though, as they get in all sorts of trouble that their better judgments should have made them avoid.

Kennett and Fine are not impressed by Roskies' example of "acquired sociopaths". In their view, to demonstrate that internalism is false, Roskies would need to show two things: "first she must show that VM patients make the relevant moral judgments, and second she must show that a deficit specifically in moral motivation in VM patients is the best explanation of their apparent failure to act in accordance with their allegedly unimpaired moral judgments" (p.182); however Roskies shows neither of these things. Firstly while patients can make "detached" moral judgments (judgments about situations that relate to others or to counterfactual situations), they were never tested on "in situ" cases (that is, cases where the judgment concerns their own actions). Secondly, it has not been shown that people suffering from acquired psychopathy have a problem with motivation; a closer look suggests that their problem is one of decision making: they can't decide which action is better suited to the situation in which they are in. If Kennett and Fine are right, moral internalism has nothing to fear from "acquired sociopaths".

Victoria McGeer's Chapter 5, entitled "Varieties of Moral Agency: Lessons from Autism (and Psychopathy)" is similar to the two previous chapters as it also considers 'atypical moral psychology', more specifically the case of autism. Autistic patients are known to lack empathy and perspective-taking capacities, which puts them in contrast to psychopaths who lack empathy, but who are good at perspective taking. Nonetheless, autistic patients show a sense of duty that psychopaths lack -- though this sense of duty is in many respects more rigid than ours. This goes against a vision of moral development in which empathy plays a necessary role, it also shows that the essence of our moral nature is probably not located in a single cognitive capacity. Indeed, McGeer suggests that our moral nature is shaped by three different concerns: (1) concern or compassion for others (2) concern for social position and social structure and (3) concern with "cosmic" structure and position (in more prosaic terms, a concern for order and meaning). In the case of autistic patients, she argues that the third concern can "go some way toward compensating for the lack of empathetic attunement that is essential for the development of a typically structured moral agency" (p.238). In other words, the moral judgments of autistic patients would not be motivated by concerns for others, but rather by an exaggerated concern for order, which makes them react really strongly when order is disrupted or is to be disrupted by a norm-breaking behavior. The theory proposed in this chapter has many problems: firstly, it is far from clear that autistic patients lack all forms of empathy (a finer theory of empathy might distinguish between a lower and higher form of empathy, with autistic patients maybe lacking only one sort of empathy); secondly, as Heidi Meibom notes in her commentary, concerns about social position -- and the necessity to conform to social rules -- might well be enough to explain the peculiar morality of autistic patients (norm-breaking behavior and the "social turmoil" that follows it is what concerns autistic patients); thirdly, a connection between the concern for "cosmic order" and morality has not been established (one might really desire that life has meaning, but it is hard to see how this concern should impact the moral evaluation of behavior).  If such is the case, McGeer's general thesis might be true (that is, moral agency might be varied), but the underlying capacities she is positing to explain it might be wrong. Despite its problems, the proposal is nevertheless very promising and deserves attention.

In "Morality and Development" (Chapter 6), Jerome Kagan traces the sequence of stages in the development of morality. Unfortunately for the reader, this description is extremely sketchy and does not rest on any interesting new studies that would renew the way we think about the development of morality. Kagan's most interesting contribution is his reflection on the role of social categories in morality. According to him, an important part of moral development stems from the acquisition of social categories to which one belongs ("boy", "girl", "friend", "student", "brother", "white", "black", etc.). These categories come with sets of obligatory actions and intentions, or what is sometimes called social roles or sets of social expectations. Kagan locates the causes of contemporary moral disarray in the dilution of the content of social categories. As he puts it: "Some social categories that were awarded virtue in the past have lost some of their moral potency because the virtue gained from membership in the past has been diluted … priests abuse young boys; 60 year-old-men wearing sneakers and blue jeans divorce their wives of 30 years to consort with 25-year-old single women. The broad advertisement of these violations dilutes the coherence of the category and the power to create guilt in those who violate the standards linked to their category" (p.305). Kagan furthers that, "One consequence of the loss of the moral power of social categories has been an increased reliance on a person's feelings of pleasure and satisfaction, rather than the feelings of others, as a criterion for selecting behaviors or goals that might enhance virtue" (p.306-7; see also p. 312). This hypothesis is surely interesting (though it has an unpleasantly conservative ring), but unfortunately, it is pure speculation, and is not supported by any studies concerning the evolution of the perception of social categories (or the mutation or replacement of these categories). For instance, one might consider that the election of Barak Obama as President of the United States of America might lead to the content of the social category "Black male" changing for the better.  Therefore, while it might be true that some "traditional" social categories are not as coherent as they once were, nothing indicates that this inevitably leads to moral disarray.

In Chapter 7, "Adolescent Moral Reasoning: The Integration of Emotion and Cognition", Abigail Baird also describes moral development. In her view, strongly inspired by Kohlberg, moral development has four stages: "The first stage is based on classical conditioning through which behaviors come to be unconsciously paired with sensory outcomes and are consequently reduced or encouraged. In stage two the child has advanced to the point of being able to internalize mental schemas that represent behavioral standards and has the ability to integrate past and present; concurrently it has gained some ability in the area of self-regulation. … The third stage in this development heralds the emergence of abstract thought and the recognition of internal visceral states in relation to thoughts and/or behaviors. This enables both self-awareness and the formation of self-conscious emotions. The fourth and final stage integrates self-perceptions with other perceptions, permitting empathy for other individuals, both known and unknown. What awakens during this last stage is the sense of belonging to a larger society, an important requirement for engaging in socially based moral reasoning. This sense of being a member of a society will eventually enable the individual to act in accordance with the society's prescribed moral code …" (p.339). Baird describes in particular the difficulties encountered by adolescents in arriving at the fourth stage, namely that for a time, adolescents have a tendency to exaggerate both the convergence and divergence of others' views with their own (they tend to overgeneralize the extent to which their views are shared as well as thinking that they are unique). These exaggerations deform adolescent (moral) reasoning and, when combined with the dynamic of peer group participation (and the desire to conform), this might make them prey to all kinds of morally reprehensible behaviors, some very similar to the one committed by psychopaths. Though this idea is interesting, Baird does not offer evidence that this is what actually happens in the kind of cases she describes, nor does she gives a precise description of what goes wrong in the decision making of adolescents that commit extremely immoral actions (like torturing and killing a peer).

The final chapter, "What Neuroscience Can (and Cannot) Contribute to Metaethics", could be seen as a counterpoint to the first chapter of the first volume in this book series. While Flanagan, Sarkissian, and Wong's "Naturalizing Ethics" (Vol. 1) was optimistic in regards to the prospects of psychology's contribution to ethics, Richard Joyce's paper might have the effect of a cold shower on enthusiastic naturalists. It isn't that Joyce thinks that science has nothing to contribute to moral psychology, or that he has disdain for empirical matters; rather he thinks that some metaethical views are framed in such a way that there is nothing neuroscience can discover that would have a bearing on them. Notice that contrary to what his title might suggest, Joyce is not trying to access the relevance of neuroscience to metathics as a domain, but instead its relevance only to two very circumscribed theories. As a matter of fact, Joyce focuses solely on two questions in his chapter: (1) Can psychology support moral emotivism? and (2) Can it undermine moral rationalism? I'll spend a little more time on this chapter, because I think it illustrates quite vividly the difficulties of moral psychology -- difficulties that psychologists are not always aware of.

Concerning the first question, Joyce argues that the content of the metaethical emotivist theory makes it hard to see how psychology could support it. Psychologists have shown that the brain regions involved in affective processing are also involved in moral judgments, but, according to Joyce, this could not be used as support for philosophical emotivism. "Emotivism" is a theory according to which moral judgments express emotions, in the same way that someone expresses regret in an apology. Thus understood, emotivism is a thesis about the linguistic function of moral judgments. Given that all that neuroscience (and psychology) can do is demonstrate that moral judgments are caused by or accompanied by emotions, they cannot address what is central to the question of the truth of emotivism, i.e. do moral judgments express emotions? To determine if emotivism is true, one would have to focus on how people use moral terms and this is obviously a task more suited to sociologists or experimental philosophers than neuroscientists.   

In consideration of the second question, Joyce claims there are many versions of "moral rationalism", some of which are less likely than others to be touched upon using empirical evidence. Joyce suggests that there are three versions of moral rationalism: "psychological rationalism", "conceptual rationalism", and "justificatory rationalism". "Psychological rationalism" is probably the type of moral rationalism most likely to be challenged by empirical data. According to this theory, moral decisions causally flow from a rational faculty. The theory has two different versions, either: the activity of the rational faculty is necessary for moral decisions (this being the weaker version) or, the rational faculty is necessary and sufficient for moral decisions to be made (this being the stronger version). The weaker version would be invalidated if someone was making moral decisions despite completely lacking rational capacities. According to Joyce, a case where humans who completely lack rational capacities but regardless make moral decisions is difficult to even imagine; therefore it is hard to envision cases that would undermine weak psychological rationalism. The stronger variant can be invalidated by a subject who has a perfectly well-functioning rational faculty, but who is able to make moral decisions; an example of what would challenge this version of rationalism are psychopaths. However, the problem with this argument is that it is not clear that psychopaths are rational, or if, as we have seen in Chapter 4, they cannot make moral judgments.

According to Joyce, "[Conceptual rationalism] is the view that a reference to practical rationality will appear in any adequate explanation of our moral concepts, that it is a conceptual truth that moral transgressions are transgressions of practical rationality" (p.380). Data that could contradict this version of rationalism supposedly comes from either empirical surveys of people's intuitions (as performed by empirical philosophers like Shaun Nichols) or from neuroscience, as is claimed by philosophers like Roskies (see Kennett and Fine's paper for arguments showing that conceptual rationalism is not affected by cases of the type mentioned by Roskies). Joyce argues against Nichols, in terms of it being unclear that the conceptual truth is accessible to people, or that people could even recognize it (it might only be accessible or recognizable by philosophers). Even if it could be proven that people recognized the conceptual truth, Nichol's data shows that people are not moral internalists -- that they believe that it is possible to imagine cases of people making moral judgments but not being motivated by them (Satan would be a case of someone able to make moral judgment but who would not be motivated by them). Yet according to Joyce, the problem is that there are no direct links between moral internalism and conceptual rationalism; therefore, showing that the first (moral internalism) is false implies nothing about the second (conceptual rationalism).

Finally, "justificatory rationalism" is the theory that claims that moral transgressions are transgressions of rationality, so that immoral agents are to be considered as irrational. As such, this kind of rationalism is not about psychological states, it is about behavior  -- namely the behaviors that constitute moral transgressions. What justificatory rationalism claims is that consideration of the demands of rationality defends the view that "we should act morally". Since it is not proposing an account in which rationality plays a causal role, "… justificatory rationalism will not be affected by neuroscientific research concerning what is going on in people's brains when they make moral judgments, for the theory is compatible with just about any discovery concerning the springs of moral judgment and action. All that is required of human psychology in order for justificatory rationalism to be reasonable is that we at least fulfill the minimal requirements for being rational agents, for I take it that few persons would support the view that creatures constitutionally incapable of complying with rational considerations as such can still be subject to rational requirements." (p.390-1; our emphasis)

One might finish reading the chapter and have the feeling that neuroscience have not much to contribute to metaethics. The reader might decide to bite the bullet and leave philosophical theories like "emotivism" or "rationalism" to philosophers and turn their attention to more interesting questions like the role of emotion in moral cognition or to the development of the moral faculty or to the question of the innateness of the human moral faculty. She might also side with Nichols who argues, in his commentary to this chapter, against Joyce's view of the empirical immunity of conceptual and justificatory rationalism. Concerning conceptual rationalism, Nichols notes that it is hard to imagine how we could argue that it is a conceptual truth that moral requirements are rational requirements without making any reference whatsoever to people's  conceptions of it. If he is right, studying people's conceptions should be a necessary part of the assessment of the content of moral concepts. Concerning justificatory rationalism, Nichols proposes that the pull we feel toward its truth might indeed be the result of our intuitions. If such is the case, that is, if we have powerful intuitions underlying our judgments concerning the truth of this form of rationalism, then we have to explain their origin and this is hardly a job for armchair philosophers.

In conclusion, as a whole, the book is very interesting and presents some of the best recent work in naturalistic moral psychology. Though some chapters are theoretically and philosophically very weak (Chapter 3, 6 and 7), they still can be very informative (Chapter 3). Unfortunately, they could hardly be used in a philosophy graduate seminar. This said, I especially appreciated the papers from philosophers (Chapters 4, 5 and 8). These chapters illustrate the very high degree of sophistication of philosophical moral theories, a sophistication that psychologists (and even philosophers not working in the area) are not always aware of.

 

© 2009 Luc Faucher

 

Luc Faucher is professor in the Département de philosophie of the Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM). This year, he was Fellow at the Centre de Recherche en Éthique de l'Université de Montréal (CRÉUM).


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