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A Theory of Feelings Anger and Forgiveness"My Madness Saved Me"10 Good Questions about Life and Death12 Modern Philosophers50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a GodA Cabinet of Philosophical CuriositiesA Case for IronyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to Buddhist PhilosophyA Companion to FoucaultA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to HumeA Companion to KantA Companion to Phenomenology and ExistentialismA Companion to PragmatismA Companion to the Philosophy of ActionA Companion to the Philosophy of BiologyA Companion to the Philosophy of LiteratureA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Critique of Naturalistic Philosophies of MindA Cursing Brain?A Delicate BalanceA Farewell to AlmsA Frightening LoveA Future for PresentismA Guide to the Good LifeA History of PsychiatryA History of the MindA Life Worth LivingA Manual of Experimental PhilosophyA Map of the MindA Metaphysics of PsychopathologyA Mind So RareA Natural History of Human MoralityA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Natural History of VisionA Parliament of MindsA Philosopher Looks at The Sense of HumorA Philosophical DiseaseA Philosophy of BoredomA Philosophy of Cinematic ArtA Philosophy of CultureA Philosophy of EmptinessA Philosophy of FearA Philosophy of PainA Physicalist ManifestoA Place for ConsciousnessA Question of TrustA Research Agenda for DSM-VA Revolution of the MindA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Stroll With William JamesA Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Theory of FreedomA Thousand MachinesA Universe of ConsciousnessA Very Bad WizardA Virtue EpistemologyA World Full of GodsA World Without ValuesAbout FaceAbout the Beginning of the Hermeneutics of the SelfAction and ResponsibilityAction in ContextAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionAction, Contemplation, and HappinessAction, Emotion and WillAdam SmithAdaptive DynamicsAddictionAddictionAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction Is a ChoiceAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAftermathAfterwarAgainst AdaptationAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HappinessAgainst HealthAgency and ActionAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and EmbodimentAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAl-JununAlain BadiouAlain BadiouAlasdair MacIntyreAlien Landscapes?Altered EgosAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Ethics for TodayAn Intellectual History of CannibalismAn Interpretation of DesireAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy An Introduction to Philosophy of EducationAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of PsychologyAn Introductory Philosophy of MedicineAn Odd Kind of FameAnalytic FreudAnalytic Philosophy in AmericaAncient AngerAncient Models of MindAncient Philosophy of the SelfAngerAnimal LessonsAnimal MindsAnimals Like UsAnnihilationAnother PlanetAnswers for AristotleAnti-ExternalismAnti-Individualism and KnowledgeAntigone’s ClaimAntipsychiatryAre We Hardwired?Are Women Human?Arguing about DisabilityArguing About Human NatureAristotle and the Philosophy of FriendshipAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's ChildrenAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle, Emotions, and EducationArt & MoralityArt After Conceptual ArtArt in Three DimensionsArt, Self and KnowledgeArtificial ConsciousnessArtificial HappinessAspects of PsychologismAsylum to ActionAtonement and ForgivenessAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutobiography as PhilosophyAutonomyAutonomy and Mental DisorderAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismBabies by DesignBackslidingBadiouBadiou's DeleuzeBadiou, Balibar, Ranciere: Rethinking EmancipationBare Facts And Naked TruthsBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBattlestar Galactica and PhilosophyBeautyBecoming a SubjectBecoming HumanBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing AmoralBeing HumanBeing Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory Being No OneBeing Realistic about ReasonsBeing ReducedBeing YourselfBelief's Own EthicsBending Over BackwardsBerlin Childhood around 1900Bernard WilliamsBertrand RussellBetter than BothBetter Than WellBetween Two WorldsBeyond HealthBeyond Hegel and NietzscheBeyond KuhnBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond PostmodernismBeyond ReductionBeyond the DSM StoryBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics in the ClinicBiological Complexity and Integrative PluralismBiology Is TechnologyBiosBipolar ExpeditionsBlackwell Companion to the Philosophy of EducationBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlues - Philosophy for EveryoneBlushBob Dylan and PhilosophyBody ConsciousnessBody Image And Body SchemaBody ImagesBody LanguageBody MattersBody WorkBody-Subjects and Disordered MindsBoundBoundaries of the MindBoyleBrain Evolution and CognitionBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-WiseBrainchildrenBrains, Buddhas, and BelievingBrainstormingBrave New WorldsBreakdown of WillBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and FaithBrief Therapy Homework PlannerBritain on the CouchBrute RationalityBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyBut Is It Art?Camus and SartreCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCarving Nature at Its JointsCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsCassandra's DaughterCato's TearsCausation and CounterfactualsCauses, Laws, and Free WillChanging Conceptions of the Child from the Renaissance to Post-ModernityChanging the SubjectChaosophyCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionCharles DarwinCherishmentChildhood and the Philosophy of EducationChildrenChildren, Families, and Health Care Decision MakingChoices and ConflictChoosing Not to ChooseChristmas - Philosophy for EveryoneCinema, Philosophy, BergmanCinematic MythmakingCity and Soul in Plato's RepublicClassifying MadnessClear and Queer ThinkingClinical EthicsClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyCodependent ForevermoreCoffee - Philosophy for EveryoneCognition and the BrainCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognition Through Understanding: Self-Knowledge, Interlocution, Reasoning, ReflectionCognitive BiologyCognitive FictionsCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Systems and the Extended Mind Cognitive Theories of Mental IllnessCoherence in Thought and ActionCollected Papers, Volume 1Collected Papers, Volume 2College SexComedy IncarnateCommitmentCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentConcealment And ExposureConceptual Analysis and Philosophical NaturalismConceptual Art and PaintingConceptual Issues in Evolutionary BiologyConfessionsConfucianismConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConquest of AbundanceConscience and ConvenienceConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the SelfConsciousness EmergingConsciousness EvolvingConsciousness ExplainedConsciousness in ActionConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Color, and ContentConsole and ClassifyConstructing the WorldConstructive AnalysisContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Philosophy of BiologyContemporary Debates in Philosophy of MindContemporary Debates in Political PhilosophyContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContemporary Perspectives on Natural LawContested Knowledge: Social Theory TodayContesting PsychiatryContext and the AttitudesContinental Philosophy of ScienceControlControlling Our DestiniesConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCopernicus, Darwin and FreudCrazy for YouCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCreating ConsilienceCreating HysteriaCreating Mental IllnessCreating Scientific ConceptsCreating the American JunkieCreation, Rationality and AutonomyCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCrimes of ReasonCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychiatryCritical PsychologyCritical ResistanceCritical Thinking About PsychologyCritical VisionsCross and KhoraCruel CompassionCTRL [SPACE]Cultural Psychology of the SelfCultural Theory: An IntroductionCulture and Psychiatric DiagnosisCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCulture of DeathCultures of NeurastheniaCurious EmotionsCurrent Controversies in Experimental PhilosophyCustom and Reason in HumeCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCutting God in Half - And Putting the Pieces Together AgainCylons in AmericaDamaged IdentitiesDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous EmotionsDaniel DennettDaniel DennettDark AgesDarwin and DesignDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDarwin, God and the Meaning of LifeDarwinian PsychiatryDarwinian ReductionismDarwinizing CultureDating: Philosophy for EveryoneDeathDeathDeath and CharacterDeath and CompassionDeath and the AfterlifeDebating DesignDebating HumanismDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecomposing the WillDeconstructing PsychotherapyDeconstruction and DemocracyDeeper Than DarwinDeeper than ReasonDefending Science - within ReasonDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDegrees of BeliefDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions and Other Irrational BeliefsDelusions and the Madness of the MassesDementiaDemons, Dreamers, and MadmenDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDennett’s PhilosophyDepression Is a ChoiceDepression, Emotion and the SelfDepthDerrida, Deleuze, PsychoanalysisDescartesDescartes and the Passionate MindDescartes' CogitoDescartes's Changing MindDescartes's Concept of MindDescribing Inner Experience?Descriptions and PrescriptionsDesembodied Spirits and Deanimated Bodies Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Desire and AffectDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDiagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersDialectics of the SelfDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital SoulDimensional Models of Personality DisordersDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDisjunctivismDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDispatches from the Freud WarsDisrupted LivesDistractionDisturbed ConsciousnessDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Do We Still Need Doctors?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Does the Woman Exist?Doing without ConceptsDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDonald DavidsonDonald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the MentalDoubting Darwin?Dreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR CasebookDworkin and His CriticsDying to KnowDynamics in ActionDysthymia and the Spectrum of Chronic DepressionsEccentricsEducational MetamorphosesEffective IntentionsElbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth WantingEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbodied RhetoricsEmbodied Selves and Divided MindsEmbryos under the MicroscopeEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotionEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion and PsycheEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotional ReasonEmotional ReasonEmotional TruthEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmpathyEmpathy and AgencyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpathy in the Context of PhilosophyEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEnchanted LoomsEngaging BuddhismEngineering the Human GermlineEnjoymentEnvyEpicureanismEpistemic LuckEpistemologyEpistemology and EmotionsEpistemology and the Psychology of Human JudgmentEros and the GoodErotic MoralityEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssays in the Metaphysics of Mind Essays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEssays on Nonconceptual ContentEssays on Philosophical CounselingEssays on Reference, Language, and MindEssays on the Concept of Mind in Early-Modern PhilosophyEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEsssential Philosophy of PsychiatryEternal Sunshine of the Spotless MindEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in Human CloningEthical TheoryEthicsEthicsEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics in Plain EnglishEthics in PracticeEthics in Psychiatric ResearchEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEuropean Review of Philosophy. Vol. 5Everyday IrrationalityEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolutionEvolution and the Human MindEvolution's RainbowEvolutionary Origins of MoralityEvolutionary PsychologyExamined LifeExamined LivesExistential AmericaExistentialismExistentialism and Romantic LoveExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and NaturalismExperiments in EthicsExplaining ConsciousnessExplaining the BrainExplaining the Computational MindExplanatory PluralismExploding the Gene MythExploring HappinessExploring the SelfExpression and the InnerExpressions of JudgmentFaces of IntentionFact and ValueFact and Value in EmotionFacts, Values, and NormsFads and Fallacies in the Social SciencesFaith and Wisdom in ScienceFatherhoodFear of KnowledgeFearless SpeechFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFeelings of BeingFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminism and Philosophy of ScienceFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist Interpretations of Rene DescartesFeminist TheoryField Notes from ElsewhereFinding Consciousness in the BrainFingerprints of GodFlesh in the Age of ReasonFolk Psychological NarrativesFolk Psychology Re-AssessedForces of HabitForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and RetributionFoucault 2.0Foucault and PhilosophyFoucault NowFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in PsychologyFour Views on Free WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree Will and Action ExplanationFree Will and LuckFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree: Why Science Hasn't Disproved Free WillFreedomFreedom and DeterminismFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom and ResponsibiltyFreedom and ValueFreedom EvolvesFreedom RegainedFreedom vs. InterventionFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFreudFreud and the Question of PseudoscienceFreud As PhilosopherFreud's AnswerFreud, the Reluctant PhilosopherFriedrich NietzscheFrom Chance to ChoiceFrom Clinic to ClassroomFrom Complexity to LifeFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution for Science and the HumanitiesFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrontiers of ConsciousnessFrontiers of JusticeFurnishing the MindGalileo in PittsburghGenderGender and Mental HealthGender in the MirrorGender TroubleGenesGenes, Women, EqualityGenetic Nature/CultureGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetic SecretsGenocide's AftermathGenomes and What to Make of ThemGerman Idealism and the JewGerman PhilosophyGetting HookedGilles DeleuzeGlobal PhilosophyGluttonyGod and Phenomenal ConsciousnessGoffman's LegacyGoing Amiss in Experimental ResearchGoodness & AdviceGrassroots SpiritualityGrave MattersGrave MattersGreedGreek Models of Mind and SelfGut ReactionsHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHabits of MindHallucinationHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of EmotionsHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness and EducationHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHappiness, Death, and the Remainder of LifeHard LuckHarmful ThoughtsHaving the World in ViewHealing PsychiatryHealing the Soul in the Age of the BrainHealth, Illness and DiseaseHealth, Science, and Ordinary LanguageHegelHeidegger and a Metaphysics of FeelingHeidegger, Metaphysics and the Univocity of BeingHermann von Helmholtz's MechanismHermeneutics As PoliticsHeterophobiaHeterosyncraciesHeuristics and BiasesHeuristics and the LawHidden ResourcesHidden SelvesHiding from HumanityHigh Art LiteHistorical OntologyHistory of Psychiatry and Medical PsychologyHistory, Historicity And ScienceHobbesHomosexualitiesHope and Dread in PsychoanalysisHot ThoughtHow Can I Be Trusted?How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains?How Do We Know Who We Are?How Emotions WorkHow Emotions WorkHow History Made the MindHow Images ThinkHow is Nature Possible?How Propaganda WorksHow Science WorksHow Scientific Practices MatterHow Scientists Explain DiseaseHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Make Opportunity EqualHow to Solve the Mind-Body Problemhow to stop timeHow to Think More About SexHow We HopeHow We ReasonHuman CloningHuman Development, Language and the Future of MankindHuman EnhancementHuman Evolution, Reproduction, and MoralityHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman NatureHuman NatureHuman Nature and the Limits of ScienceHuman-Built WorldHumanismHumanism, What's That?HumanityHumans, Animals, MachinesHumeHumeHume on Motivation and VirtueHusserlHystoriesI of the VortexI Was WrongIdeas that MatterIdentifying the MindIdentity and Agency in Cultural WorldsIgnorance and ImaginationIllnessImagination and Its PathologiesImagination and the Meaningful BrainImagining NumbersImmortal RemainsImproving Nature?In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of HealthIn Defense of SentimentalityIn Love With LifeIn Praise of Athletic BeautyIn Praise of the WhipIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of HappinessIn the Name of GodIn the Name of IdentityIn the Space of ReasonsIn Two MindsIncompatibilism's AllureIndividual Differences in Conscious ExperienceInfinity and PerspectiveInformation ArtsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchIngmar Bergman, Cinematic PhilosopherInhuman ThoughtsInner PresenceInsanityIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntelligent VirtueIntentionIntentionality, Deliberation and AutonomyIntentions and IntentionalityIntentions and IntentionalityInterpreting MindsInterpreting NietzscheIntroducing Greek PhilosophyIntrospection and ConsciousnessIntrospection VindicatedIntuition, Imagination, and Philosophical MethodologyIntuitionismInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIrrationalityIs Academic Feminism Dead?Is It Me or My Meds?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is Oedipus Online?Is Science Neurotic?Is Science Value Free?Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion?Is There a Duty to Die?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJacques LacanJacques RancièreJacques RanciereJean-Paul SartreJohn McDowellJohn SearleJohn Searle's Ideas About Social RealityJohn Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill and the Writing of CharacterJoint AttentionJokesJonathan EdwardsJudging and UnderstandingJustice for ChildrenJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeKantKant and MiltonKant and the Fate of AutonomyKant and the Limits of AutonomyKant and the Role of Pleasure in Moral ActionKant on Freedom, Law, and HappinessKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Anatomy of EvilKant's Anatomy of the Intelligent MindKant's Theory of VirtueKarl JaspersKarl PopperKey Concepts in PhilosophyKierkegaardKierkegaard as PhenomenologistKierkegaard's Concept of DespairKinds of MindsKinds, Things, and StuffKnowing, Knowledge and BeliefsKnowledge MonopoliesKnowledge, Belief, and CharacterKnowledge, Possibility, and ConsciousnessLacanLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLanguageLanguage in ContextLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Culture, and MindLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw and the BrainLaw, Liberty, and PsychiatryLaws, Mind, and Free WillLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberatory PsychiatryLife and ActionLife at the Texas State Lunatic Asylum, 1857-1997Life Is Not a Game of PerfectLife of the MindLife's FormLife, Death, & MeaningLife, Death, and Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of UtilityLife, Sex, and IdeasLight in the Dark RoomLike a Splinter in Your MindLiving and Dying WellLiving NarrativeLiving Outside Mental IllnessLiving with DarwinLiving With One’s PastLockeLocke LockeLogic and the Art of Memory Loneliness in Philosophy, Psychology, and LiteratureLooking for SpinozaLooking for The StrangerLost SoulsLOT 2LoveLoveLove's ConfusionsLove's VisionLove, Friendship, and the SelfLove, Sex & TragedyLuckyLudwig WittgensteinLustLyingMachine ConsciousnessMad for FoucaultMad TravelersMade with WordsMadness And Death In PhilosophyMadness and DemocracyMadness at HomeMadness Is CivilizationMaking Natural KnowledgeMaking Sense of EvolutionMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMaking the DSM-5Making the Social WorldMaking TruthMale Female EmailMan, Beast, and ZombieMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManiaManic Depression and CreativityMapping the Edges and the In-betweenMapping the Future of BiologyMarcus AureliusMaster PassionsMatters of the MindMe++Meaning and Moral OrderMeaning and Value in a Secular AgeMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeaning, Basic Self-Knowledge, and MindMeasuring HappinessMeasuring PsychopathologyMedia MadnessMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedicine of the PersonMedicine, Mental Health, Religion, Science and Well-BeingMelancholy And the Care of the SoulMelancholy and the Otherness of GodMementoMemory and NarrativeMental ActionsMental CausationMental Causation and OntologyMental HealthMental Health At The CrossroadsMental Health Policy in BritainMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMerleau-PontyMerleau-Ponty and the Possibilities of PhilosophyMetacognition and Theory of MindMetacreationMetaethical SubjectivismMetaethicsMetal and FleshMetaphors of MemoryMetapoliticsMethods in MindMichel FoucaultMill's UtilitarianismMindMindMind and ConsciousnessMind and CosmosMind and MechanismMind GamesMind in a Physical WorldMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind in LifeMind TimeMind's LandscapeMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMind, Brain, and Free WillMind, Reason and ImaginationMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds and PersonsMinds, Brains, and LawMinds, Ethics, and ConditionalsMindshapingMindsightMindworldsMirror, MirrorMixed FeelingsMockingbird YearsModels of the SelfModern Social ImaginariesModern Theories of JusticeModernity and SubjectivityModernity and TechnologyMoody Minds DistemperedMoral DimensionsMoral FailureMoral ImaginationMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral ParticularismMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology and Human AgencyMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Moral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMotherhoodMotive and RightnessMoving Beyond Prozac, DSM, and the New PsychiatryMultiple Analogies in Science and PhilosophyMultiple Identities & False MemoriesMusic, Madness, and the Unworking of LanguageMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Double UnveiledMy WayNarrativeNarrative and IdentityNarrative MedicineNarrative PsychiatryNarrative Theory and the Cognitive SciencesNatural Ethical FactsNatural Kinds and Conceptual ChangeNatural MindsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalism and the First-Person PerspectiveNaturalism and the Human ConditionNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalized BioethicsNaturalizing the MindNatureNature and NarrativeNear Death ExperienceNeither Bad nor MadNeither Victim nor SurvivorNeuro-Philosophy and the Healthy MindNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neurophilosophy at WorkNeurophilosophy of Free WillNeuropoliticsNeuropsychoanalysis in PracticeNeuroscience and PhilosophyNew Essays on the Explanation of ActionNew Philosophy for a New MediaNew Versions of VictimsNew Waves in Philosophy of ActionNietzscheNietzsche and Buddhist PhilosophyNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNietzsche's TherapyNietzsche, Culture and EducationNietzsche: The Man and His PhilosophyNihil UnboundNoir AnxietyNormative EthicsNormativityNorms of NatureNotebooks 1951-1959Notes Toward a Performative Theory of AssemblyNothing So AbsurdOblivionOn AnxietyOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn Being AuthenticOn BeliefOn BullshitOn DelusionOn DesireOn EmotionsOn HashishOn Human RightsOn Loving Our EnemiesOn Nature and LanguageOn PersonalityOn ReflectionOn Romantic LoveOn the EmotionsOn the Freud WatchOn the Government of the LivingOn the Human ConditionOn the InternetOn the Meaning of LifeOn the Philosophy of LawOn the Pragmatics of CommunicationOn the Punitive SocietyOn TruthOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne Hundred DaysOnflowOnly a Promise of HappinessOntology of ConsciousnessOpen MindedOpen Your EyesOrgans without BodiesOther MindsOur Last Great IllusionOur Own MindsOur Posthuman FutureOur StoriesOut of Its MindOut of Our HeadsOxford Guide to the MindOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPanic DisorderPanpsychism in the WestPartialityPassionate EnginesPassionate EnginesPathologies of BeliefPathologies of ReasonPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perceiving the WorldPerception & CognitionPerception and Basic BeliefsPerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPerceptual ExperiencePerfecting VirtuePerplexities of ConsciousnessPersistencePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal IdentityPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonal Identity and Fractured SelvesPersonhood and Health CarePersonsPersons and BodiesPersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPersons, Souls and DeathPerspectives on ImitationPerspectives on PragmatismPessimismPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenal ConsciousnessPhenomenal IntentionalityPhenomenology and ExistentialismPhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophersPhilosophers on MusicPhilosophers without GodsPhilosophical CounselingPhilosophical Counselling and the UnconsciousPhilosophical DevicesPhilosophical Foundations of 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LiteraturePhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BodyPhilosophy of Film and Motion PicturesPhilosophy of LovePhilosophy of Love, Sex, and MarriagePhilosophy of MindPhilosophy of Mind and CognitionPhilosophy of Personal Identity and Multiple PersonalityPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy of Public HealthPhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhilosophy of the Social SciencesPhilosophy on TapPhilosophy PracticePhilosophy the Day after TomorrowPhilosophy's Role in Counseling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhilosophy, Politics, DemocracyPhotography and PhilosophyPhysical RealizationPhysicalism and Its DiscontentsPhysicalism and Mental CausationPhysicalism, or Something Near EnoughPhysician-Assisted DyingPillar of SaltPin-up GrrrlsPlatoPlatoPlato, Not Prozac!Platonic Ethics, Old and NewPluralistic CasuistryPolarities of ExperiencesPolitical EmotionsPopper, Objectivity and the Growth of KnowledgePornPorn StudiesPornography, Sex, and FeminismPortrait of the Psychiatrist as a Young ManPostcolonial DisordersPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPower and the SelfPower SplitPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical ConflictsPractical Identity and Narrative AgencyPractical PhilosophyPractical RulesPractical Tortoise RaisingPractically ProfoundPracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPragmatic BioethicsPragmatismPragmatism, Old And NewPraise and BlamePredicative MindsPreferences and Well-BeingPrescriptions for the MindPresocraticsPrimary and Secondary QualitiesPrimates and PhilosophersPrivacyPrivileged AccessProblems in MindProblems of RationalityProzac As a Way of LifeProzac BacklashProzac on the CouchPsyche and SomaPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric Cultures ComparedPsychiatric Diagnosis and 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ExternalismRadical HopeRational and Social AgencyRational CausationRational Choice in an Uncertain WorldRationality + Consciousness = Free WillRationality and FreedomRationality and the Reflective MindRationality in ActionRawls, Dewey, and ConstructivismRe-creating MedicineRe-EmergenceRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReading AutobiographyReading Bernard WilliamsReading SartreReadings in the Philosophy of TechnologyReal MaterialismReal Natures and Familiar ObjectsReal ScienceRealism in ActionReason & EmancipationReason in ActionReason in PhilosophyReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReasoning About Rational AgentsReasoning in Biological DiscoveriesReasons from WithinReasons without RationalismReclaiming CognitionReclaiming the SoulReconceiving SchizophreniaReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecreative MindsRediscovering EmotionRediscovering EmpathyReference and ExistenceReference and the Rational MindReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRegulating SexReinventing the SoulRelativism and Human RightsRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyReliable ReasoningReligion without GodRelying on OthersRemembering HomeResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsRestraining RageRethinking ExpertiseRethinking IntrospectionRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeRethinking the DSMRethinking the Sociology of Mental HealthRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfReturn to ReasonRevolt, She SaidRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard Rorty's New PragmatismRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRise And Fall of Soul And SelfRitalin NationRobert NozickRousseauRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Derrida on DeconstructionRules, Reason, and Self-KnowledgeSaints, Scholars, and Schizophrenics: Mental 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The Empathy Gap is, with the author's words, a "story of the American freedom", as seen from the point of view of psychology of behavior and decision-making. With a friendly style of discoursing and down-to-earth examples the author explains why, what we think as freedom of choosing and determining our own future, ends up being a cage in which our own psychological shortcomings trap us. These shortcomings have a name, 'psychological biases', and are omnipresent in people's everyday decision-making practices.
The book opens with a mention of the big elephant in the room: the series of economic downturns that struck most of the populated world since 2007 and which are still ongoing as this review is being written. The economic crisis manifested its first symptoms as early as 2003, with the less popularized credit crisis of thousands of military families and some years later the better-known and widely talked about subprime mortgage crisis. Why do we take up loans that we know we will likely be unable to pay back? Why do we offer loans to people whose risk of defaulting from payment is too high to take? Psychological biases are shared by creditors and debtors and affect all indiscriminately, and ultimately, affect the whole society. With these questions Trout begins investigating what goes on, or better, what goes wrong, in the human mind, when we judge events, evaluate options and take decisions.
The first chapter, Bridging the Empathy Gap, recalls the title of the book and explains it: empathy is the capacity of "feeling" the other person, in the sense of being able to share her feelings by putting oneself in the other person's point of perspective. Empathy is an important and probably evolutionary-developed social device that enables the human race to form beneficial bonds but it can also create an obstacle to the need for helping others in complex societies like the one we live in. Psychological research shows that we feel more empathic for the sufferings of people if we can "identify in some way with the sufferer" (p. 23). In small communities the capacity to indentify with the disadvantaged others, promotes socially beneficial behaviors like charity or assistance. On the other hand, in big societies, we fail to feel empathic for those who are not close to us in any of the relevant ways for empathy but who are yet equally deserving of assistance and help. The empathy gap is the name for this failure, which social scientists call a bias -- a "systematically defective patterns of reasoning". Reason tells us that, from the mere point of view of the needs they deserve, Thai jobless men are no different from the homeless of an American megalopolis, nonetheless, psychological experiments show that we fail to empathize with the Thai man and are better inclined to donate to homeless shelters. Similarly, we are psychologically moved by seeing our next-door orphans more than we are shaken by the daily news about millions of children living in the same or often worse conditions worldwide.
If we go by the saying that "charity begins at home" this is certainly fine, but from the point of view of rationality and from a social perspective it is a flaw. But the empathy gap is not an exception, together with a several other biases it is rather the norm in our psychological life and every day decision-making practices.
Do we really "decide" to donate to the near homeless? If psychological biases are pervasive in our daily errands and choices, what about the claim that we have a free will? Chapter 2 opens with a brief survey of the problem of the will; philosophers have taken all the possible stands on the matter claiming the existence of a free will as well as denying even the possibility of it. Free will, in the first place, comes as a primitive feeling, as Samuel Johnson puts it in a famous quote "I know we're free and there's the end on't". At the same time, much-cited pioneering psychological experiments on consciousness (the Libet experiments on volitional acts and readiness potential) seem to show that the feeling of control does not correspond to real control; instead, it is often a byproduct of the action the will was supposed to originate and conditional on the environment in which the action takes place. We are, so it seems, not as free as we think, and impairment of the will comes at clashes with the pursuit of our own happiness by conditioning us to often wrong or bad choices. The "road ahead", Trout claims, starts by identifying and correcting such biases, tasks which Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 are dedicated to.
Chapter 3 is a user-friendly list of psychological biases, presented through examples as well as explained and verified by experiments in the psychologists' laboratories. Most of the biases arise because of the complex environment in which we are to live: from the necessity to operate as groups to the limited information that, individually, we have at our disposal when taking decisions -- "a solitary mind is no match for the complexity of the natural and social world" (p. 87).
The list of biases is long, from the base-rate fallacy to self-flattering and overconfident behaviors and then the framing, omission and status quo biases, this latter being the tendency to prefer the present condition even when a chance of positive change is at hand. Each of these and many others are not just some isolated phenomenon discovered in the laboratories of the psychology departments: Trout makes a substantial effort to document each of the biases with examples of fallacious behaviors that, even when they don't affect our lives on a daily basis, can affect major choices that we take once or twice in a lifetime but that could end up affecting the rest of our existence. One of the perhaps more telling examples of how biases affect us, comes from the retail business, where large money is dedicated to research on how to exploit the gaps in our rational behavior in order to maximize gains. The particular arrangement of cereals on a shelf, the choice of a particular color to attract customers and countless other trickeries are examples of how psychological biases make us loose money or choose for the wrong reasons.
The question then, is how can we free ourselves from biases, which by now have been shown to produce all sorts of evils, such as economic losses, wrong purchases and at the end of it all, unhappiness. This is the point where the book is taking the reader towards some heated topics, the discourse about institutions, liberalism, paternalism, regulations and many other much debated matters in the American public arena.
Overcoming biases, avoiding reasoning fallacies, maximizing the results from our choices from an individual as well as from a social point of view, this is what the rest of the book is about. Chapter 4 opens up with the challenge of "breaking bad biases" (p. 123). One of the questions that Trout asks is whether we can change biased patterns of decision by making ourselves aware of our faulty reasoning. Unfortunately the answer is negative, knowing that we tend to discount future greater gains, in favor of present smaller ones, is not enough to self-correct one's behavior. Moreover, just imagining keeping a constant watch on every single decision that affects us daily, weighing alternatives, correcting for mistakes in judgment and many other so called "inside strategies", all this would be resource- and time-consuming and practically unfeasible for the average human being.
The way to improve human performance, Trout argues, is by adopting "outside strategies". Outside strategies come as regulations and public policies; they can aid people, when they fail as individuals, by redirecting them away from the dangerous paths towards which individual psychological gaps lead. But such policies need to be informed by psychological research and hardly any policy presently dictated at any governmental level is so-informed. Moreover, the research funds that are destined to the psychological and social sciences are a meager part (in the 1-digit percentage) of the total funds destined to scientific research.
The question posed is "what would the gains and the dangers of adopting psychology-informed policy-making be"? In chapter 5 Trout has a very clear answer: society has all to gain and nothing to lose from psychology-informed policy-making and from social sciences-informed policy making in general. The very optimistic stance is expressed in a metaphor: "I have always loved the idea that you could catch delicious crabs with a festering flounder carcass. Something for almost nothing: as a bait, the ripe flounder works just as well as fresh salmon. Wouldn't it be great if decision-making could be done more like crabbing?" (p. 151)
The chapter is meant to illustrate not only the fact that we could gain a lot with very little to lose (in technical terms, an almost Pareto-optimal change) but also that much of the losses we incur in are caused by not implementing good policies rather than by the adverse conditions that surround us. One example of that is in the findings by Amartya Sen: in his 1981 Poverty and Famines, the economist argues that famines have "little to do with the availability of food, and everything to do with political offices and institutions that are not accountable to the public." (p. 154)
Most of the present policies, from when to grant parole to a convict or when to accept a Ph.D. application, rely much on unstructured judgment and evaluation, and decision-makers use their insight and personal impressions more than scientific practices and scripts; in plain words, decision-makers tend to use their guts rather than their minds. But guts, it is a fact, constantly underperform reasoning, and this is not to say that at all times personal and unstructured judgment underperforms structured and de-biased decision making. There are clear instances when the outside strategy is obviously missing important and essential elements of the situation that has to be decided upon, but one should keep in mind that that is the exception, not the norm, and should therefore be treated as such. Defection from well-tested forecasting customs should happen only under extraordinary circumstances.
The very last section of chapter 5 touches openly on political issues. Trout makes the observation that the most commonly held degree by the members of the congress is the law degree (J.D.), which makes them somehow experts in juridical matters, but in hardly any way competent in all the other fields that a legislation is normally called to intervene on. Policy-making should be informed by scientists and by social scientists as well, but still too little is the influence of, and too little the funds given to, the social sciences.
Chapter 6, the last one, has a political scent (and title) and purports to outline the contours of a "New Republic" (p. 175) where "good constitutional designs" (idem) is at the service of enhancing people's lives. This chapter introduces the concept of happiness, which has been, as a theoretical concept, a research topic in philosophy since the human race started philosophizing, and has more recently become a prominent research field in sociology and (just very recently) in economics with the goal to "quantify happiness". The pursuit of social happiness (or social well-being), Trout argues, is a problem to be faced with the aid of science and research by building "architectures of safety" (p. 193) that protect us from our own mental and behavioral shortcomings in a similar way as motorcycle helmet laws save motorcyclists' lives.
At this point one of the main worries is that Trout is advocating a paternalistic society, which, though very safe, would also be quite intolerable. To object this interpretation Trout states that: "In order for a governmental measure to be paternalistic it must be introduced against a person's will and justified solely by a claim that the person interfered with will be better off or protected from harm. But the solutions I have proposed can't be painted as paternalistic -- not when the institutional assistance makes you freer, happier and more informed, and knowing this, you would have chosen it." (p. 210) Trout argues further that psychological research shows how people easily get accustomed to laws such as the motorcycle helmet law, so that the distress caused by "paternalistic" regulations should not be overestimated in the way that hard core proponents of liberalism do.
"There are many variations on the story of American freedom, stories of rags to riches, of immigration and the search for prosperity, and of refugee from persecution. […] This book presents and alternative story grounded not in the abstractions of political theory or economics, but in the moisture and grit of human psychology. This earthy story, about how real people make their choices and the real psychological resources they can wisely spend on that task, is far more likely to yield practical advice to improve human well-being." (p. 223) Trout wraps the book up with a close look at what can be done, practically, to make people's lives better. Down-and-dirty tips include the establishment of a Committee on Social Science next to the House Committee on Science, use of citizen assemblies on the model of the British Columbia Citizen Assembly on Electoral Reform (p. 229), and more funds to the social sciences.
Even though it only appears as the background, one of the central themes of this fine book is between the liberal and laissez-faire tradition, and the advocates of central intervention from states or other administrative institutions. The debate is certainly not a new one, having been featured in countless forms and perspectives, at least since Adam Smith first theorized the invisible-hands stance on economic theory. If anyone thought that the arguments for either side were somehow exhausted this book will prove them wrong, with Trout taking a psychology-informed perspective on the debate.
Trout's defense of a model of society in which outside strategies prevent us from harming ourselves, and promote our own well being, has a great appeal from the adopted psychological perspective but also falls short of the limitations that this perspective carries. In particular, there are two main issues that should be mentioned, the first having to do with the economics of decision-making and the second having to do with some observations from the perspective of political sciences.
With respect to the first point, Trout makes it look relatively easy to produce Pareto-improvements by changing the policy-making and decision-making sectors into psychology-informed institutions. However, in this case a realistic perspective on the feasibility of that implies some skepticism: while it may be relatively cheap to promote research-backed-up policies, these don't come each separately from the others and it is a harder task to coordinate amongst them. Policies come in bundles and coordination can be a major impediment. This observation does not constitute an objection to Trout's work, rather a cautionary remark; where psychology-informed policy making should be welcomed, and provided there is a consensus on at least some of the major issues in the psychological sciences (as Trout argues), it is not realistic to expect the "scientific consensus" to simply override individual (biased) preferences, corporate interests, political motives and so on. Decision-making requires coordination among the parts, as recent work by Philip Pettit and Christian List points out (see the forthcoming volume by Philip Pettit and Christian List: Group Agency -- The Possibility, Design and Status of Corporate Agents, Oxford University Press). Social choice and group decision-making theories are just as essential, when it comes to policy-making, as scientific information gathered from psychology, economics, or any other science relevant for a specific policy or regulation.
The second remark, on the other hand, highlights a more problematic objection to some of the theses expressed in the book. In particular, Trout defends the claim that his standpoint is not paternalistic principally by maintaining that paternalism merely aims at protecting from harm, whereas his recommendations are meant to serve the higher goal of a happier life.
A preliminary comment: it is highly arguable that there is a unique concept of happiness, and even if this were the case, it is even more arguable that we have the means to reach a consensus on what this concept amounts to. A longer and more comfortable life may not always be preferred or valued more by all, even when, on average, that is the case. While protective and bias-cleansing measures and policies may, on average, permit people to live "better", they may prevent others from fulfilling their idea well-living (enjoying helmet-free motorbike rides, for instance). It is a political question, not one pertaining to psychology, to which extent an institution should prevent people's freedom in order to create better, on average, living conditions. The psychological observation that people adapt easily to regulations is also not very convincing as this may be true in the isolation of a laboratory experiment but may not hold in a complex legislative environments filled with regulations and prohibitions.
The risk coming from Trout's form of "social interventionism" (to enhance people's lives) is to fall into a Rousseauian (at least according to Isaiah Berlin's interpretation) position in which freedom is identified with self-ruling, and the latter with conformity to the "common will". From a perspective informed by political sciences, identification of a common will separated from the expressed will of the population runs the risk of being turned into an instrument of oppression, if power is appropriated by wicked minded rulers. I am not hereby suggesting that the author is defending any extreme view of social interventionism, however, in the political context the line between a policy made to safeguard citizens' lives and a regulation that invades their liberties is a thin one, and one that can be easily crossed.
Lastly, regulations need not be the only open alternative in order to overcome biases. One argument is that I cannot simply correct my wrong judgment on the presidential candidate I will vote, by knowing, for instance, that I tend to be biased towards better looking candidates; we grant that biases are, as Trout cogently argues, not avoidable by internal correcting strategies. But this leaves the possibility open for me to deliberately decide to adopt an "outside strategy", without being forced to do so by a regulation. The power of education should not be discounted in favor of the power of rules: in modern western societies personal hygiene is acquired by habit, but we would shudder at the proposal of any law mandating people to take one shower per day or to brush their teeth after every meal.
Notwithstanding the aforementioned objections, to some at times too audacious claims present in the book, this work by Trout remains a very valuable source of insight. The Empathy Gap is a must for anyone who wants to know more about why we do what we do, when making decisions, and how to do it better. This is not just another one of those how-to guides on, for instance, how to shop better, or how to be a smarter personnel selector. It is a book that can be easily read without being an expert on the subject matter, containing myriads of explanatory examples, but its main tenets are all fully documented and backed-up by over 350 endnotes and over 300 references, thus providing the interested reader with much room for further research and analysis.
© 2009 Carlo Martini
Carlo Martini is a Ph.D. student in Philosophy at Tilburg University (NL) where he works in collaboration with the local department of Economics and Business Administration on social epistemology, formal epistemology and decision-making. He is also a member of the Tilburg Center for Logic and Philosophy of Science <TiLPS> where he co-organizes the research seminar in Philosophy and Economics. More information can be found on his website [http://www.martinicarlo.net/].