email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
A Theory of Feelings Addictions Memory and the Self"Intimate" Violence against Women1001 Solution-Focused Questions101 Healing Stories101 Things I Wish I'd Known When I Started Using Hypnosis50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God8 Keys to Body Brain BalanceA Brief History of Modern PsychologyA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Conceptual History of Psychology: Exploring the Tangled Web A Cooperative SpeciesA Guide to Teaching Introductory PsychologyA History of Modern Experimental PsychologyA History of Psychology in AutobiographyA History of Social PsychologyA History of the BrainA History of the MindA Hole in the HeadA Matter of SecurityA Mind of Its OwnA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Place for ConsciousnessA Short Introduction to Promoting Resilience in ChildrenA Social History of PsychologyA Stroll With William JamesA System Architecture Approach to the BrainA Theory of FreedomA Very Bad WizardAbductedAbout FacesAccounts of InnocenceAction, Emotion and WillAdapting MindsADHD & MeADHD in AdultsAdieu to GodAdolescence and Body ImageAdult Bipolar DisordersAdvances in Culture and PsychologyAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAffect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of SelfAffective MappingAgainst EmpathyAgainst HappinessAges and StagesAll Joy and No FunAll Out!All We Have to FearAlterations of ConsciousnessAmerican Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical NeurosciencesAn Argument for MindAncient Bodies, Modern LivesAnd BreatheAnimal MadnessAnimal Tool BehaviorAnimals in TranslationAnomalous CognitionAping MankindArtificial ConsciousnessAspects of PsychologismAsperger Syndrome and Your ChildAsperger Syndrome, Adolescence, and IdentityAssessment and Treatment of Childhood Problems, Second EditionAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAttachedAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutism and the Myth of the Person AloneAutopsy of a Suicidal MindBecoming an Effective PsychotherapistBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing No OneBelievingBetween Two WorldsBeyond AppearanceBeyond BlueBeyond BullyingBeyond MadnessBeyond MelancholyBeyond the BrainBeyond the DSM StoryBig DreamsBiofeedback for the BrainBipolar ChildrenBipolar DisorderBipolar KidsBlackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive DevelopmentBlind SpotsBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlubberlandBlushBodiesBody ConsciousnessBody Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity in YouthBody SenseBody WorkBorderline Personality DisorderBorderline Personality Disorder and the Conversational ModelBorn DigitalBorn to Be GoodBorn Together - Reared ApartBounceBoundaries in Human RelationshipsBounded RationalityBozo SapiensBrain and CultureBrain and the GazeBrain Arousal and Information TheoryBrain BugsBrain Change TherapyBrain Circuitry and Signaling in PsychiatryBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-Based Therapy with AdultsBrain-WiseBrainstormBrainstormingBraintrustBrainwashingBrandedBreaking Murphy's LawBright-SidedBuddha's BrainBullying and TeasingBuyologyCan't You Hear Them?CaptureCare of the PsycheCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCerebrum 2007Cerebrum 2010Cerebrum 2015Cerebrum Anthology 2013Changing the SubjectCharacter Strengths and VirtuesCheating LessonsChild and Adolescent Psychological DisordersChildren’s Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness Chomsky NotebookClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyClinical Psychology in Practice ClosureCognition and PerceptionCognition and the BrainCognitive BiologyCognitive DissonanceCognitive FictionsCognitive Mechanisms of Belief ChangeCognitive PragmaticsCognitive ScienceCognitive ScienceCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Therapy of Anxiety DisordersCognitive Unconscious and Human RationalityCold-Blooded KindnessComing of Age in Second LifeCommunication Issues In Autism And Asperger SyndromeCompassion and Healing in Medicine and SocietyComplementary and Alternative Therapies ResearchComprehending ColumbineConfessions of a SociopathConquering Shame and CodependencyConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the Social BrainConsciousness EmergingConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Self-Consciousness, and the Science of Being HumanConstructing PainContemporary Debates in Cognitive ScienceConversations on ConsciousnessConviction of the InnocentCooperation and Its EvolutionCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCredit and BlameCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychologyCritical Thinking About PsychologyCross-Cultural PsychologyCrowdsourcingCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCuriousDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous and Severe Personality DisorderDaniel DennettDaughters of MadnessDeafness In MindDeath and ConsciousnessDeath of a ParentDecomposing the WillDeep Brain StimulationDeep ChinaDefining DifferenceDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions of GenderDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDeparting from DevianceDescartes' BabyDescartes's Changing MindDescribing Inner Experience?Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Destructive EmotionsDevelopment of Geocentric Spatial Language and CognitionDevelopment of PsychopathologyDialogues on DifferenceDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Digital HemlockDirty MindsDisgust and Its DisordersDisorders of VolitionDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Doing without ConceptsDrunk Tank PinkEducating People to Be Emotionally IntelligentEffective IntentionsEffective Writing in PsychologyEffortless AttentionEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbracing MindEmbracing UncertaintyEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotionally InvolvedEmotionsEmotionsEmotions and LifeEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions RevealedEmotions, Aggression, and Morality in ChildrenEmotions, Stress, and HealthEmpathyEnjoymentErotic MoralityEscape Your Own PrisonEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthically Challenged ProfessionsEveryday Mind ReadingEvidence for PsiEvidence-Based Mental Health PracticeEvil MenEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution and LearningEvolution, Games, and GodEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolutionary Psychology as Maladapted PsychologyExacting BeautyExperiences of DepressionExperimenterExplaining the BrainExplaining the BrainExplorations in Neuroscience, Psychology and ReligionExploring TranssexualismExpression and the InnerExtending Self-Esteem ResearchExtraordinary BeliefsFact and Value in EmotionFaking ItFatigue as a Window to the BrainFavorite Activities for the Teaching of PsychologyFeeling GoodFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFinding Meaning, Facing FearsFitting In Is OverratedFive Constraints on Predicting BehaviorFlourishingFlow: The Psychology of Optimal ExperienceFolk Psychological NarrativesFooling HoudiniForever YoungFormulation in Psychology and PsychotherapyFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Psychological ThoughtFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom EvolvesFrom Axons to IdentityFrom Madness to Mental HealthFrom Neurons to Self-ConsciousnessFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Symptom to SynapseFrontiers of ConsciousnessGay, Straight, and the Reason WhyGenerosityGenes, Environment, and PsychopathologyGenetic Nature/CultureGeniusGetting Under the SkinGlued to GamesGoing SaneGot Parts?Group GeniusGrowing Up GirlGuilt, Shame, and AnxietyGut ReactionsHallucinationHandbook New Sexuality StudiesHandbook of Closeness and IntimacyHandbook of Critical PsychologyHandbook of Emotion RegulationHandbook of EmotionsHandbook of Personality DisordersHandbook of PsychopathyHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Spatial CognitionHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness at WorkHappiness Is.Happy at LastHard to GetHardwired BehaviorHatredHealing the SplitHidden ResourcesHope and DespairHot ThoughtHot ThoughtHouse and PsychologyHow Animals Affect UsHow Animals GrieveHow Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Doctors ThinkHow Enlightenment Changes Your BrainHow Families Still MatterHow History Made the MindHow Infants Know MindsHow Many Friends Does One Person Need?How People ChangeHow Professors ThinkHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Change Someone You LoveHow We ReasonHow We RememberHughes' Outline of Modern PsychiatryHumanHuman BondingHuman Reasoning and Cognitive ScienceHypnotismHysteriaiBrainIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIdentifying the MindiDisorderImagination and the Meaningful BrainImitation and the Social MindImpulse Control DisordersImpulsivityIn an Unspoken VoiceIn Defense of SentimentalityIn DoubtIn Search of HappinessIn the Wake of 9/11Individual and Collective Memory ConsolidationInner Experience and NeuroscienceInner PresenceInside the American CoupleIntegrated Behavioral Health CareIntegrating Evolution and DevelopmentIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntellectual DisabilityIntelligenceIntelligence, Destiny, and EducationIntentions and IntentionalityInterdependent MindsInterpreting MindsInto the Minds of MadmenIntoxicating MindsIntrospection VindicatedIntuitionInventing PersonalityInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIs There Anything Good About Men?Issues for Families, Schools and CommunitiesJane Sexes It UpJoint AttentionJoint AttentionJudgment and Decision MakingJust a DogJust BabiesJuvenile-Onset SchizophreniaKarl JaspersKey Thinkers in PsychologyKidding OurselvesKids of CharacterKilling MonstersLack of CharacterLanguage OriginsLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw, Mind and BrainLess Than HumanLet Kids Be KidsLet's Talk About DeathLiving NarrativeLiving with Mild Cognitive ImpairmentLonelinessLooking for SpinozaLossLOT 2Love at Goon ParkMachine ConsciousnessMacrocognitionMade for Each OtherMadnessMaking a Good Brain GreatMaking Habits, Breaking HabitsMaking Minds and MadnessMaking Up the MindMale SexualityMan and WomanMan's Search for MeaningMan, Beast, and ZombieManic MindsManlinessMapping the MindMarking the MindMarvelous Learning AnimalMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaningMeaning, Mortality, and ChoiceMedical MusesMeditating SelflesslyMeetings with a Remarkable ManMemoryMemory and DreamsMemory and EmotionMemory And UnderstandingMental BiologyMental IllnessMental Time TravelMetacognitionMetacognition and Theory of MindMethods in MindMindMindMind and BrainMind and ConsciousnessMind Games:Mind in LifeMind TimeMind to MindMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMindful AngerMindfulnessMindfulnessMindfulness and AcceptanceMindfulness-Based Treatment Approaches: Clinician's Guide to Evidence Base and ApplicationsMinding AnimalsMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds, Brains, and LawMindsightMindworldsMirrors in the BrainMistakes Were Made (But Not by Me)Models of MadnessMoodMoral Development and RealityMoral MindsMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Mothers and OthersMotivation and Cognitive ControlMotivational Interviewing: Preparing People For ChangeMovies and the MindMulticulturalism and the Therapeutic ProcessMultiplicityMuses, Madmen, and ProphetsMy Family AlbumMyths about SuicideNarrative IdentitiesNarrative PsychiatryNarratives in PsychiatryNaturalizing Intention in ActionNature and NarrativeNature Via NurtureNeither Bad nor MadNerveNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeurochemistry of ConsciousnessNeurodiversityNeuroethicsNeuroLogicNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroscience and PhilosophyNo Child Left DifferentNo Two AlikeNot By Genes AloneNot Much Just Chillin'Not So Abnormal PsychologyNurturing the Older Brain and MindOn AnxietyOn Being an Introvert or Highly Sensitive PersonOn Being HumanOn Being MovedOn Deep History and the BrainOn DesireOn KillingOn Nature and LanguageOn PaedophiliaOn PersonalityOn the Frontier of AdulthoodOn the Origins of Cognitive ScienceOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOnflowOpen MindsOpening Skinner's BoxOrigin of MindOrigins of PsychopathologyOther MindsOut of Our HeadsOut of the WoodsOvercoming Depersonalization DisorderPanpsychism and the Religious AttitudePanpsychism in the WestParenting and the Child's WorldPassionate EnginesPathologies of the WestPatient-Based Approaches to Cognitive NeurosciencePediatric PsychopharmacologyPeople Types and Tiger StripesPerception & CognitionPerception beyond InferencePerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPersonal Development and Clinical PsychologyPerspectives on ImitationPhantoms in the BrainPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhrenologyPhysical RealizationPhysics in MindPieces of LightPlaying with FirePositive PsychologyPositive PsychologyPostcards from the Brain MuseumPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPoverty and Brain Development During ChildhoodPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical Management of Personality DisorderPractical Management of Personality DisorderPredicative MindsPredictably IrrationalPreference, Belief, and SimilarityPrenatal Testosterone in MindPrivileged AccessProcrastinationProust Was a NeuroscientistPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsychological AgencyPsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychological Dimensions of the SelfPsychologists Defying the CrowdPsychologyPsychologyPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology for ScreenwritersPsychology of Women: A Handbook of Issues and TheoriesPsychology's GhostsPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology's TerritoriesPsychopathologyPsychopathyPsychosis and EmotionPsychotherapy, American Culture, and Social PolicyPutnam CampPutting a Name to ItQuantum Memory PowerQuietRadical DistortionRadical Embodied Cognitive ScienceRadical ExternalismRadical GraceRapeRe-Visioning PsychiatryReal MaterialismReality CheckReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecovery in Mental IllnessRecreative MindsRedirectReducing Adolescent RiskRegulating EmotionsRelational BeingRelational Mental HealthRelational Suicide AssessmentReliability in Cognitive NeuroscienceRemembering HomeRemembering Our ChildhoodResearch Advances in Genetics and GenomicsResearching Children's ExperienceResilience in ChildrenRestoring ResilienceRethinking ADHDRethinking Learning DisabilitiesRethinking Middle YearsRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfRevolution in PsychologyRoadmap to ResilienceRomance and Sex in Adolescence and Emerging AdulthoodSchizophrenia RevealedSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologySecond NatureSecond NatureSecond That EmotionSecond-order Change in PsychotherapySecrets of the MindSee What I'm SayingSee What I'm SayingSeeing and VisualizingSeeing RedSelf and SocietySelf Comes to MindSelf Control in Society, Mind, and BrainSelf-Awareness Deficits in Psychiatric PatientsSelf-CompassionSelf-RegulationSelf-Representational Approaches to ConsciousnessSelfless InsightSelvesSerial KillersSex at DawnSex on the BrainSex, Time and PowerSexual Coercion in Primates and HumansSexual DisordersSexual FluiditySexual ReckoningsSexualized BrainsShame and GuiltShatteredSimulating MindsSisyphus's BoulderSNAPSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial Psychology and DiscourseSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSoul DustSparkSpiral of EntrapmentSplendors and Miseries of the BrainSports Hypnosis in PracticeStanding at Water's EdgeStich and His CriticsStillpowerStop OverreactingStructure and Agency in Everyday LifeStructures of AgencyStuffStumbling on HappinessSubjectivity and SelfhoodSubstance Abuse and EmotionSupersizing the MindSweet DreamsSynaptic SelfTales from Both Sides of the BrainTalking Oneself SoberTalking to BabiesTaming the Troublesome ChildTargeting AutismTeaching Problems and the Problems of TeachingTeleological RealismTen Years of Viewing from WithinTestosterone RexThat's DisgustingThe 5 Elements of Effective ThinkingThe Accidental MindThe Age of EmpathyThe Altruism EquationThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Clinical PsychiatryThe Anatomy of BiasThe Anxious BrainThe Archaeology of MindThe Art and Science of MindfulnessThe Art InstinctThe Art of HypnosisThe Asymmetrical BrainThe Bifurcation of the SelfThe Big Book of ConceptsThe Big DisconnectThe Birth of IntersubjectivityThe Birth of the MindThe Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge ManagementThe Blank SlateThe Body Has a Mind of Its OwnThe Bounds of CognitionThe Boy Who Was Raised as a DogThe BrainThe BrainThe Brain and the Meaning of LifeThe Brain SupremacyThe Brain That Changes ItselfThe Brain's Way of HealingThe Brain: Big Bangs, Behaviors, and BeliefsThe Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive ScienceThe Cambridge Handbook of Situated CognitionThe Character of ConsciousnessThe Chemistry Between UsThe Choice EffectThe Clinical Science of Suicide PreventionThe Cognitive Approach to Conscious MachinesThe Cognitive Behavioral Workbook for Anxiety: A Step-By-Step ProgramThe Cognitive NeurosciencesThe Cognitive-Emotional BrainThe College Fear FactorThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Compass of PleasureThe Concepts of ConsciousnessThe Conscious BrainThe Conscious SelfThe Consuming InstinctThe Creating BrainThe Creative BrainThe Crucible of ConsciousnessThe Crucible of ExperienceThe Cure WithinThe Dao of NeuroscienceThe Developing MindThe Developing MindThe Development of PsychopathologyThe Disappearance of the Social in American Social PsychologyThe Dissolution of MindThe Duty to ProtectThe Educated ParentThe Ego TunnelThe Elephant in the RoomThe Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human ExperienceThe Emotional Journey of the Alzheimer's FamilyThe Encultured BrainThe Encyclopedia of StupidityThe Enduring Self in People with Alzheimer'sThe Epidemiology of SchizophreniaThe Essential DifferenceThe Ethical BrainThe Evolution of ChildhoodThe Evolution of CooperationThe Evolution of LanguageThe Evolution of MindThe Evolving BrainThe Executive BrainThe Faces of TerrorismThe Feeling BrainThe Feeling of What HappensThe First IdeaThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Foundations of Cognitive ArchaeologyThe Fundamentalist MindsetThe GapThe Gender TrapThe Geography of BlissThe Gift of ShynessThe Good LifeThe Good LifeThe Happiness HypothesisThe Happiness of PursuitThe Health Psychology HandbookThe Healthy Aging BrainThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of PsychologyThe Human FaceThe Human SparkThe Hypomanic EdgeThe Imagery DebateThe Immeasurable MindThe Imprinted BrainThe Incredible Shrinking MindThe Innate MindThe Innate MindThe Integrated SelfThe Intentional BrainThe Language of ThoughtThe Languages of the BrainThe Lexicon of Adlerian PsychologyThe Lie DetectorsThe Lives of the BrainThe Lonely AmericanThe Lust for BloodThe Madness of WomenThe Male BrainThe Man Who Lost His LanguageThe Man Who Shocked the WorldThe Man Who Tasted ShapesThe Man Who Wasn't ThereThe Matter of the MindThe Mature MindThe Mean Girl MotiveThe Meaning of EvilThe Meaning of OthersThe Meaning of the BodyThe Measure of MadnessThe Measure of MindThe Medicalization of Everyday LifeThe Mind and the BrainThe Mind in ContextThe Mind of the ChildThe Mind of the HorseThe Mind's EyeThe Mind, the Body and the WorldThe Mind-Gut ConnectionThe Mindful BrainThe Misleading MindThe Moral MindThe Most Dangerous AnimalThe Most Human HumanThe Mother FactorThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of Depression as DiseaseThe Myth of Mirror NeuronsThe Myth of Self HelpThe Myth of Self-EsteemThe Myth of the Spoiled ChildThe Nature of the SelfThe Necessity Of MadnessThe Neuro RevolutionThe Neuron and the MindThe Neuropsychology of the UnconsciousThe Neuroscience of Human RelationshipsThe Neuroscience of PsychotherapyThe Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social BrainThe New BrainThe New Science of DreamingThe New Science of the MindThe New UnconsciousThe Normal PersonalityThe Origins of FairnessThe Overflowing BrainThe Oxford Companion to the MindThe Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of MindThe Paradoxical PrimateThe Perfectionist's HandbookThe Peripheral MindThe Phenomenology ReaderThe Philosopher's Secret FireThe Philosophical BabyThe Political MindThe Politics of HappinessThe Positive Side of Negative EmotionsThe Postnational SelfThe Postpartum EffectThe Power of PlayThe Praeger Handbook of TranssexualityThe Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday LifeThe Primate MindThe Prism of GrammarThe Psychobiology of Trauma and Resilience Across the LifespanThe Psychological Construction of EmotionThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of HappinessThe Psychology of LifestyleThe Psychology of Religious FundamentalismThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of SpiritualityThe Psychology of StereotypingThe Psychology of SuperheroesThe Psychophysiology of Self-AwarenessThe Pursuit of PerfectThe Quest for Mental HealthThe Rational ImaginationThe Ravenous BrainThe Reasons of LoveThe Righteous MindThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Science of EvilThe Science of Intimate RelationshipsThe Science of Shame and its Treatment The Second SelfThe Secret History of EmotionThe Secret Lives of BoysThe Self and Its EmotionsThe Self-Sabotage CycleThe Sense of SelfThe Sensitive SelfThe Shape of ThoughtThe Social AnimalThe Social Nature of Mental IllnessThe Social Neuroscience of EmpathyThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Story of Intellectual DisabilityThe Structure of ThinkingThe Survivors ClubThe Talking ApeThe Teenage BrainThe Tell-Tale BrainThe Temperamental ThreadThe Tender CutThe Tending InstinctThe Time ParadoxThe Trauma MythThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trouble with IllnessThe True PathThe Truth About GriefThe Turing TestThe Uncertain SciencesThe Undoing ProjectThe Unhappy ChildThe Upside of IrrationalityThe War for Children's MindsThe Well-Tuned BrainThe Wild Girl, Natural Man, and the MonsterThe Winner's BrainThe Wisdom in FeelingThe Woman RacketThe World in My Mind, My Mind in the WorldThe Wow ClimaxThe Yipping TigerThemes, Issues and Debates in PsychologyTheoretical Issues in Psychology: An IntroductionTheory of AddictionTheory of MindThings and PlacesThink CatThink Confident, Be ConfidentThinking about AddictionThinking and SeeingThis Emotional Life: In Search of Ourselves...and HappinessThought and LanguageThought in a Hostile WorldTo Have and To Hurt:Toward an Evolutionary Biology of LanguageToward Replacement Parts for the BrainTrauma and Human ExistenceTrauma, Tragedy, TherapyTreating Attachment DisordersTreating Self-InjuryTreating Self-Injury: A Practical GuideTrue to Our FeelingsTrusting the Subject?Understanding and Treating Borderline Personality DisorderUnderstanding ConsciousnessUnderstanding ParanoiaUnderstanding PeopleUnderstanding TerrorismUndoing Perpetual StressUnlock the Genius WithinUnsettled MindsUnstrange MindsUnthinkingUnthoughtUs and ThemViolent PartnersVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVision and MindVisual AgnosiaWarrior's DishonourWe Who Are DarkWednesday Is Indigo BlueWelcome to Your BrainWhat Do Women Want?What Dying People WantWhat Have We DoneWhat Intelligence Tests MissWhat Is an Emotion: Classic and Contemporary ReadingsWhat Is Emotion?What is Intelligence?What Is Mental Illness?What Is Thought?What Makes Your Brain Happy and Why You Should Do the Opposite What the Best College Students DoWhat the Dog SawWhat We Know about Emotional IntelligenceWhat We Say MattersWhat's Wrong With Morality?When Boys Become BoysWhen Perfect Isn't Good EnoughWhen the Impossible HappensWhen Walls Become DoorwaysWho's Been Sleeping in Your HeadWho's in Charge?Why Humans Like to CryWhy Love MattersWhy Lyrics LastWhy People CooperateWhy People Die by SuicideWhy Sex Matters: A Darwinian Look at Human BehaviorWhy Smart People Can Be So StupidWhy the Mind is Not a ComputerWhy Us?Why We LieWhy We LoveWhy We SleepWider than the SkyWilliam James at the BoundariesWilling, Wanting, WaitingWittgenstein And PsychologyWomen and Child Sexual AbuseWorking MindsYoga and PsychologyYou Are What You RememberYoung Minds in Social WorldsYour Brain on CubsYour Brain on FoodYour Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings,Your Brain on YogaYour Child in the BalanceZombies and Consciousness
Nikola Grahek's fascinating book has many aims, interwoven with each other. In order to provide a sketchy overview, we should distinguish between methodological aims and philosophical aims. Methodologically speaking, Grahek draws upon empirical evidence to show that armchair philosophical reflection alone is not an appropriate tool to enquire about the nature of mental phenomena such as pain experience. On the philosophical side, his ambition is to show that, once we take clinical evidence about pain experience into account, we find that there is more to pain than its painfulness. More generally, Grahek claims that the distinctive features of mental phenomena are not exhausted by their phenomenal character. Let's see more in detail how he pursues these double tasks.
First of all, it seems sensible to say that there aren't many philosophers willing to deny that when one is in pain one feels it, and vice versa. When one feels pain it is because one is in pain. Nikola Grahek challenges precisely this philosophical view, and aims to "explain the distinction between feeling pain and being in pain, and defend it on conceptual and empirical grounds." (p. 1)
Grahek's views are not primarily directed against the commonsensical identification between these two facets of pain experience. Rather, as Dennett makes crystal-clear in his highly praiseworthy foreword to the book, they are especially directed against conceptual or a priori philosophical analyses of pain. That is, armchair analyses that are classified under the philosophical rubrics of 'subjectivism' and 'objectivism'. Broadly speaking, from the subjectivist's point what is essential to pain experience is its painfulness, that is the phenomenal, qualitative dimension of pain. On the other hand, according to the objectivist, pain experience can be explained in terms of its representational components. We will come back to Grahek's assessment of both subjectivism and objectivism later in this review. For the moment, it is important to stress that Grahek is not trying to dismiss conceptual analysis as such; rather, he is suggesting a different methodological route for philosophical investigation: conceptual truths need to be assessed in confrontation with empirical data. Most of all, philosophers should keep in mind the possibility that their conceptual tools could be inadequate to capture a priori the wealth and richness of the external world.
Grahek offers a prima facie dismissal of what many philosophers take to be a conceptual truth, i.e. that pain sensation and painfulness are inseparable. Actually, says Grahek, it doesn't require any a priori, philosophical, argument to tear apart such conceptual identification. All we have to do is to look at the clinical evidence concerning pain, specifically to two dissociation syndromes which seem to show that pain without painfulness and painfulness without pain, are possible. The book is mainly concerned with the syndrome called pain asymbolia, in which subjects report to feel pain deprived of its painful quality, while the discussion of the opposite dissociation is limited to a few pages of chapter 7 (pp. 107 ff.). Therefore, in this review I will be almost exclusively concerned with Grahek's discussion of pain asymbolia and what it is purportedly supposed to show with regard to pain.
So, what does pain asymbolia teach us with regard to pain experience? To my mind, Grahek's concern is not exhausted by the straightforward argument given above that painfulness is not essentially linked with pain. The first lesson we should learn from dissociation syndromes such as pain asymbolia is that inconceivability, i.e. intuitions (especially philosophical intuitions), are not always a guide to impossibility. In the specific case of pain, we have on the one hand the usual philosophical intuition that the overall pain experience is an unbreakable unity; on the other hand, clinical evidence shows us that pain is a complex and multilayered phenomenon.
In order to properly understand pain a few distinctions need to be made. The most fundamental one is between pain as a biological system and pain experience. Grahek discusses the biological role of pain in the second chapter of the book. As a biological system, pain comprises two subsystems: the 'avoidance system' and the 'restorative system'. Both systems instantiate two functional operations: a physiological activation and a behavioral reaction. In the case of the 'avoidance system', we find an activation of nociceptors (nerve endings responsive to potentially damaging stimuli) and a behavioral reaction in response to such activation. The 'restorative system' kicks in once the organism has been injured, and it includes physiological over-activation around the damaged area even in response to innocuous stimuli, and greatly reduced movements (in order to foster the healing process). It is important to stress that a properly functioning pain system is essential for our survival. Grahek describes pain as "certainly the most precious gift bestowed on us by Mother Nature for self-protective purposes." (p. 6)
In the third chapter Grahek focuses on pain experience. He claims that syndromes such as pain asymbolia clearly reveal the complex nature of pain, in which three basic components can be highlighted: a sensory component, an emotional-cognitive component, and a behavioral component. In the case of asymbolics, that is, of pain without painfulness, subjects are left with the sheer sensation of pain, or 'pure' pain, yet the overall pain experience has been stripped out of its cognitive and behavioral components. Grahek discusses (in chapter 3 and at more length in chapter 7) other cases in which subjects seem to show some sort of indifference to pain experience, especially when they are under the effect of morphine, or have undergone lobotomy or cingulotomy (a surgical procedure for excruciating pain alternative to pre-frontal lobotomy, in which the anterior cingulated gyrus is severed), cases that -- most importantly -- seem to show the same behavioral and cognitive patterns as asymbolics: i.e., no withdrawal actions, and no verbal reports of painfulness.
All this shows, claims Grahek, that Behaviorism is false and we cannot infer mental states from overt actions. Moreover, the analogy between asymbolia and other cases of apparent indifference to pain doesn't stand a closer scrutiny and it is based on a fundamental confusion between indifference to pain and indifference to harmful stimuli. In other words, lobotomics and morphinezed subjects are only indifferent to potentially noxious stimuli, not to pain itself. Moreover, such indifference is of limited scope, it
"is strictly limited to ongoing pain or persistent pain; […] its object is not the very sensation of pain, but its lasting meaning or significance; and […] this kind of indifference does not imply that pain is no longer disliked or experienced as unpleasant. [...] In other words, only in the case of pain asymbolia patients do we see total or complete indifference to pain, because only these patients have ceased to care about any kind of pain inflicted anywhere on their bodies, and only these patients no longer experience pain as unpleasant or as something that is disliked per se" (p. 137 and p. 139)
One might wonder whether it makes any sense to speak of indifference to harmful stimuli versus indifference to pain. Grahek provides us with such distinction: "in order to be indifferent to pain, one should be able to feel it, but not mind it, and also should lack any tendency to react negatively to it. On the other hand, one can be indifferent to noxious or harmful stimuli because these stimuli do not hurt. In the first case, indifference presupposes the presence of pain or pain-feeling, while in the second case, indifference is due to the absence of pain from stimuli that would normally be painful." (p. 113. Emphasis in the original)
A lobotomic patient can classify a stimulus as 'sharp', and distinguish it from a 'dull' one. She "is aware of the stimuli as pain" (p. 120), but she doesn't care. On the other hand, asymbolics "are not able to attach proper meaning or significance to the pain they literally feel." (Ibidem) They don't really know what to answer to the question: "Is it painful?" because they lack the specific quality of pain experience.
The upshot of all this is that having a pain sensation (such as the one caused by a sharp object stuck into one's knee) is not sufficient to feel pain. Apparently, is not even necessary, as the opposite dissociation of painfulness without pain purports to show. To see how this is exemplified in the case of asymbolics, let us see how Grahek describes its main characteristics: the subject has no unpleasant feelings; she shows no aversive attitude towards pain (i.e., she is utterly and thoroughly indifferent to pain); she displays no appropriate 'pain-behavior' (i.e., withdrawal behavior), because pain no longer means danger or threat to the organism. Nonetheless, Grahek contends, pain "is recognized by the subject as pain and is felt as located in certain body parts. But it means nothing to him and is at most something he laughs or smiles at." (p. 4)
I think the following quote best captures what Grahek wants to say here. "The affective quality is crucial for the organism to learn to protect itself by avoidance or defense. It is this affective dimension that is conspicuously missing in pain asymbolia patients, despite their intact sensory discrimination of noxious stimuli. So, to repeat the main point, although these patients feel pain, it does not represent threat or danger to them." (pp. 81-2)
I take that what Grahek is suggesting is that asymbolics feel pain just because they sense pain. Although, such sensation is deprived of its meaning, as Grahek puts it, and thus it "lacks representational and motivational force." (p. 82) Given all this, and given that apparently all asymbolics are left with are some neutral or indifferent sensory stimulation, one might wonder why Grahek qualifies such sensations as sensations of pain.
The first reason, I think, is based on verbal reports of asymbolics, who generally admit to feeling pain although it doesn't bother them. A simple point might be raised here: asymbolics do know when to classify a certain stimulus as pain, either because they experienced pain before the onset of asymbolia or because they can learn it from other people (even though, apparently, they cannot learn or be trained to react appropriately to harmful stimuli. On this, see Chapters 2 and 5), thus they could be biased to classify a certain stimulus as pain because they are aware it should feel like pain.
The second reason I think Grahek has for claiming that sheer harmful sensations are enough for asymbolics to classify stimuli as painful is grounded in his view that there is a direct link between pain experience and nerve fibers (nociceptive C and A-∆ fibers) selectively activated by harmful stimuli, "because pain is exactly conceived by us as distinctively evoked by such stimuli." (p. 157. Emphasis in the original) A stimulus is defined as harmful or noxious when it has a nocuous character in relation to the organism. What I take Grahek to be claiming here is that both pain experience and nociceptive fibres share one property that make such a relationship intelligible (this fact, according to Grahek, can be further used to explain why nociceptive fibers give rise to pain experience and not to some other experience, or to no feeling at all. On this, see chapter 8). Such commonality is enough for asymbolics to classify a stimulus as painful based on mere sensorial activation precisely because we conceive pain has been caused by such stimuli. In a way, it seems that he is claiming that asymbolics can rationally figure out what pain is, its function (i.e., an experience associated with noxious stimulation), even though they cannot feel its quality.
This latter argument by Grahek, I think, is quite a piece of conceptual analysis, especially if we want to stick with the view that empirical data show just a mere (although very well supported) correlation between c-fibers firing and harmful stimuli. The same point could be made, I suspect, with regard to Grahek's rejection of the so-called 'perceptual model' of pain, according to which pain, roughly speaking, is identified with injuries, on the basis that 'pain' and 'injury' are "to use traditional terminology, distinct existences." (p. 163) Although we have to remember that Grahek is not rejecting conceptual analysis as such, but only a priori analyses of pain experience as inadequate to provide "intelligible psychophysical explanations" (p. 164), I think that it could still be objected that the claim that dissociation syndromes provide evidence for a such a radical ontological picture is stretching the data perhaps a bit too far.
Grahek uses these arguments against both 'subjectivist' and 'objectivist' views of pain (chapters 6 and 7). Before I start digging into Grahek's objections, it is worth pointing out that he doesn't intend to reject either of those philosophical intuitions; rather, he claims that "[t]he main theoretical or philosophical ambition of the book is a more modest one: to appreciate the strengths and weaknesses of these intuitions and thereby to show that a less doctrinaire and more balanced approach to the study of the mind-brain phenomena is quite salutary, and, indeed, highly recommendable." (p. 5)
As already mentioned, 'subjectivism' is the view according to which the qualitative experience of pain "is the essential and component of our total pain experience and plays the central or fundamental role in it." (p. 76) If this is case, continues Grahek, then "it seems that the subjectivists are committed to the claim that a sensation of pain is sufficient for somebody to be in pain." (Ibidem) Thus, Grahek takes that the qualitative character of pain experience provides both the necessary and sufficient condition for feeling pain.
Now, dissociation syndromes such as pain asymbolia clearly show that pain without painfulness is possible; moreover, claims Grahek, "[a]s the case of pure asymbolia vividly and conclusively shows, when pain is reduced to pure qualia, it loses any force that would make one remember it, fear it, or esteem it as a threat or danger." (p. 77) Thus, in the end, the subjectivist's main claim seem to be falsified by the very existence of asymbolics: pain quality is not essential to our overall pain experience, nor does it play a fundamental role in it.
There seems to be something fishy going on here: a subjectivist does not have to subscribe to such a strong version of the theory as the one that Grahek presents as the 'standard' subjectivist approach. She might very well claim that pain quality is a necessary but not sufficient condition for feeling pain, for instance. Secondly and most importantly, Grahek claims later in the book that "asymbolics do have sensations that have pain quality." (p. 102) Assuming that he still holds to the view that pain asymbolia is pain without painfulness, it would helpful to know how 'pain quality' and 'painfulness' differ from each other. Regardless, I don't think that Grahek should assume that the subjectivists would accept such identification between pain quality and pain sensation without argument.
Unlike subjectivism, objectivism claims that there is no pain quality essential to pain experience. "According to this model, the feeling of pain is just the awareness of objective bodily states of affairs: the perception or sensory representation of bodily or tissue damage." (p. 78) In other words, painfulness without pain is what is relevant to pain experience. This is called the 'perceptual' or 'representational' view of pain, and Grahek think that pain asymbolia has shown its major faults: it "fails to explain how pain can come to represent for the subject the threat or damage to his body; the model incorrectly locates this basic, primitive representational capacity of pain in the sensory-discriminative component, rather than in its emotional-cognitive dimensions." (p. 82) In brief, objectivists fail to realize that the qualitative character of pain plays a central role in the overall pain experience.
Thus, Grahek is not rejecting subjectivism. He does claim, against the objectivist, that "the common and distinctive felt quality of pain is the essential component of our total pain experience and […] that experience is not pain experience when that component is missing." (p. 107) One might wonder how Grahek's views differ from a subjectivist's view, given that this latter -- as said earlier -- doesn't have to subscribe to the strong thesis that pain quality is both necessary and sufficient for pain.
His aim is to find a middle ground between objectivism and subjectivism, in order to show that both pain quality and the sheer empty sensation of pain are both necessary but not sufficient conditions of pain. "The two phenomena give us real pain only when they work together." (p. 111-2) Yet, it seems that Grahek's views lean towards a weak form of subjectivism.
Unfortunately, what I have just given is only a rough and dirty overview of some of the issues Grahek deals with in his book, which deserves a more thorough treatment. The many challenging and refreshing ideas in it, and its controversial claims, make it a worthy addition to any philosopher's reading list.
[I would like to thank Christopher Mole and Colleen Nichols for very helpful suggestions on a previous draft of this review]
© 2008 Simone Marini
Simone Marini, Ph.D. student in Philosophy at University College Dublin, Simone.Marini@ucdconnect.ie