email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
A New Understanding of Mental Disorders A Theory of Feelings Addictions Memory and the Self"Intimate" Violence against Women1001 Solution-Focused Questions101 Healing Stories101 Things I Wish I'd Known When I Started Using Hypnosis50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God8 Keys to Body Brain BalanceA Brief History of Modern PsychologyA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Conceptual History of Psychology: Exploring the Tangled Web A Cooperative SpeciesA Guide to Teaching Introductory PsychologyA History of Modern Experimental PsychologyA History of Psychology in AutobiographyA History of Social PsychologyA History of the BrainA History of the MindA Hole in the HeadA Matter of SecurityA Mind of Its OwnA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Place for ConsciousnessA Short Introduction to Promoting Resilience in ChildrenA Social History of PsychologyA Stroll With William JamesA System Architecture Approach to the BrainA Theory of FreedomA Very Bad WizardAbductedAbout FacesAccounts of InnocenceAction, Emotion and WillAdapting MindsAddiction and Self-ControlADHD & MeADHD in AdultsAdieu to GodAdolescence and Body ImageAdult Bipolar DisordersAdvances in Culture and PsychologyAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAffect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of SelfAffective MappingAgainst EmpathyAgainst HappinessAges and StagesAll Joy and No FunAll Out!All We Have to FearAlterations of ConsciousnessAmerican Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical NeurosciencesAn Argument for MindAncient Bodies, Modern LivesAnd BreatheAnimal MadnessAnimal Tool BehaviorAnimals in TranslationAnomalous CognitionAping MankindArtificial ConsciousnessAspects of PsychologismAsperger Syndrome and Your ChildAsperger Syndrome, Adolescence, and IdentityAssessment and Treatment of Childhood Problems, Second EditionAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAttachedAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutism and the Myth of the Person AloneAutopsy of a Suicidal MindBecoming an Effective PsychotherapistBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing No OneBelievingBetween Two WorldsBeyond AppearanceBeyond BlueBeyond BullyingBeyond MadnessBeyond MelancholyBeyond the BrainBeyond the DSM StoryBig DreamsBiofeedback for the BrainBipolar ChildrenBipolar DisorderBipolar KidsBlackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive DevelopmentBlind SpotsBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlubberlandBlushBodiesBody ConsciousnessBody Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity in YouthBody SenseBody WorkBorderline Personality DisorderBorderline Personality Disorder and the Conversational ModelBorn DigitalBorn to Be GoodBorn Together - Reared ApartBounceBoundaries in Human RelationshipsBounded RationalityBozo SapiensBrain and CultureBrain and the GazeBrain Arousal and Information TheoryBrain BugsBrain Change TherapyBrain Circuitry and Signaling in PsychiatryBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-Based Therapy with AdultsBrain-WiseBrainstormBrainstormingBraintrustBrainwashingBrandedBreaking Murphy's LawBright-SidedBuddha's BrainBullying and TeasingBuyologyCan't You Hear Them?CaptureCare of the PsycheCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCerebrum 2007Cerebrum 2010Cerebrum 2015Cerebrum Anthology 2013Changing the SubjectCharacter Strengths and VirtuesCheating LessonsChild and Adolescent Psychological DisordersChildren’s Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness Chomsky NotebookClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyClinical Psychology in Practice ClosureCognition and PerceptionCognition and the BrainCognitive BiologyCognitive DissonanceCognitive FictionsCognitive Mechanisms of Belief ChangeCognitive PragmaticsCognitive ScienceCognitive ScienceCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Therapy of Anxiety DisordersCognitive Unconscious and Human RationalityCold-Blooded KindnessComing of Age in Second LifeCommunication Issues In Autism And Asperger SyndromeCompassion and Healing in Medicine and SocietyComplementary and Alternative Therapies ResearchComprehending ColumbineConfessions of a SociopathConquering Shame and CodependencyConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the Social BrainConsciousness EmergingConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Self-Consciousness, and the Science of Being HumanConstructing PainConsumer NeuroscienceContemporary Debates in Cognitive ScienceConversations on ConsciousnessConviction of the InnocentCooperation and Its EvolutionCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCredit and BlameCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychologyCritical Thinking About PsychologyCross-Cultural PsychologyCrowdsourcingCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCuriousDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous and Severe Personality DisorderDaniel DennettDaughters of MadnessDeafness In MindDeath and ConsciousnessDeath of a ParentDecomposing the WillDeep Brain StimulationDeep ChinaDefining DifferenceDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions of GenderDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDeparting from DevianceDescartes' BabyDescartes's Changing MindDescribing Inner Experience?Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Destructive EmotionsDevelopment of Geocentric Spatial Language and CognitionDevelopment of PsychopathologyDialogues on DifferenceDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Digital HemlockDirty MindsDisgust and Its DisordersDisorders of VolitionDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Doing without ConceptsDrunk Tank PinkEducating People to Be Emotionally IntelligentEffective IntentionsEffective Writing in PsychologyEffortless AttentionEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbracing MindEmbracing UncertaintyEMDR Therapy and Somatic PsychologyEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotionally InvolvedEmotionsEmotionsEmotions and LifeEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions RevealedEmotions, Aggression, and Morality in ChildrenEmotions, Stress, and HealthEmpathyEnjoymentErotic MoralityEscape Your Own PrisonEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthically Challenged ProfessionsEveryday Mind ReadingEvidence for PsiEvidence-Based Mental Health PracticeEvil MenEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution and LearningEvolution, Games, and GodEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolutionary Psychology as Maladapted PsychologyExacting BeautyExperiences of DepressionExperimenterExplaining the BrainExplaining the BrainExplorations in Neuroscience, Psychology and ReligionExploring TranssexualismExpression and the InnerExtending Self-Esteem ResearchExtraordinary BeliefsFact and Value in EmotionFaking ItFatigue as a Window to the BrainFavorite Activities for the Teaching of PsychologyFeeling GoodFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFinding Meaning, Facing FearsFitting In Is OverratedFive Constraints on Predicting BehaviorFlourishingFlow: The Psychology of Optimal ExperienceFolk Psychological NarrativesFooling HoudiniForever YoungFormulation in Psychology and PsychotherapyFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Psychological ThoughtFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom EvolvesFrom Axons to IdentityFrom Madness to Mental HealthFrom Neurons to Self-ConsciousnessFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Symptom to SynapseFrontiers of ConsciousnessGay, Straight, and the Reason WhyGenerosityGenes, Environment, and PsychopathologyGenetic Nature/CultureGeniusGetting Under the SkinGlued to GamesGoing SaneGot Parts?Group GeniusGrowing Up GirlGuilt, Shame, and AnxietyGut ReactionsHallucinationHandbook New Sexuality StudiesHandbook of Closeness and IntimacyHandbook of Critical PsychologyHandbook of Emotion RegulationHandbook of EmotionsHandbook of Personality DisordersHandbook of PsychopathyHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Spatial CognitionHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness at WorkHappiness Is.Happy at LastHard to GetHardwired BehaviorHatredHealing the SplitHidden ResourcesHope and DespairHot ThoughtHot ThoughtHouse and PsychologyHow Animals Affect UsHow Animals GrieveHow Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Doctors ThinkHow Enlightenment Changes Your BrainHow Families Still MatterHow History Made the MindHow Infants Know MindsHow Many Friends Does One Person Need?How People ChangeHow Professors ThinkHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Change Someone You LoveHow We ReasonHow We RememberHughes' Outline of Modern PsychiatryHumanHuman BondingHuman Reasoning and Cognitive ScienceHume’s Moral Philosophy and Contemporary PsychologyHypnotismHysteriaiBrainIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIdentifying the MindiDisorderImagination and the Meaningful BrainImitation and the Social MindImpulse Control DisordersImpulsivityIn an Unspoken VoiceIn Defense of SentimentalityIn DoubtIn Search of HappinessIn the Wake of 9/11Individual and Collective Memory ConsolidationInner Experience and NeuroscienceInner PresenceInside the American CoupleIntegrated Behavioral Health CareIntegrating Evolution and DevelopmentIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntellectual DisabilityIntelligenceIntelligence, Destiny, and EducationIntentions and IntentionalityInterdependent MindsInterpreting MindsInto the Minds of MadmenIntoxicating MindsIntrospection VindicatedIntuitionInventing PersonalityInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIs There Anything Good About Men?Issues for Families, Schools and CommunitiesJane Sexes It UpJoint AttentionJoint AttentionJudgment and Decision MakingJust a DogJust BabiesJuvenile-Onset SchizophreniaKarl JaspersKey Thinkers in PsychologyKidding OurselvesKids of CharacterKilling MonstersLack of CharacterLanguage OriginsLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw, Mind and BrainLess Than HumanLet Kids Be KidsLet's Talk About DeathLiving NarrativeLiving with Mild Cognitive ImpairmentLonelinessLooking for SpinozaLossLOT 2Love at Goon ParkMachine ConsciousnessMacrocognitionMade for Each OtherMadnessMadness and Modernism: Insanity in the light of modern art, literature, and thought Making a Good Brain GreatMaking Habits, Breaking HabitsMaking Minds and MadnessMaking Up the MindMale SexualityMan and WomanMan's Search for MeaningMan, Beast, and ZombieManic MindsManlinessMapping the MindMarking the MindMarvelous Learning AnimalMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaningMeaning, Mortality, and ChoiceMedical MusesMeditating SelflesslyMeetings with a Remarkable ManMemoryMemory and DreamsMemory and EmotionMemory And UnderstandingMental BiologyMental IllnessMental Time TravelMetacognitionMetacognition and Theory of MindMethods in MindMindMindMind and BrainMind and ConsciousnessMind Games:Mind in LifeMind TimeMind to MindMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMindful AngerMindfulnessMindfulnessMindfulness and AcceptanceMindfulness-Based Treatment Approaches: Clinician's Guide to Evidence Base and ApplicationsMinding AnimalsMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds, Brains, and LawMindsightMindworldsMirrors in the BrainMistakes Were Made (But Not by Me)Models of MadnessMoodMoral Development and RealityMoral MindsMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Mothers and OthersMotivation and Cognitive ControlMotivational Interviewing: Preparing People For ChangeMovies and the MindMulticulturalism and the Therapeutic ProcessMultiplicityMuses, Madmen, and ProphetsMy Family AlbumMyths about SuicideNarrative IdentitiesNarrative PsychiatryNarratives in PsychiatryNaturalizing Intention in ActionNature and NarrativeNature Via NurtureNeither Bad nor MadNerveNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeurochemistry of ConsciousnessNeurodiversityNeuroethicsNeuroLogicNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroscience and PhilosophyNo Child Left DifferentNo Two AlikeNot By Genes AloneNot Much Just Chillin'Not So Abnormal PsychologyNurturing the Older Brain and MindOn AnxietyOn Being an Introvert or Highly Sensitive PersonOn Being HumanOn Being MovedOn Deep History and the BrainOn DesireOn KillingOn Nature and LanguageOn PaedophiliaOn PersonalityOn the Frontier of AdulthoodOn the Origins of Cognitive ScienceOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOnflowOpen MindsOpening Skinner's BoxOrigin of MindOrigins of PsychopathologyOther MindsOut of Our HeadsOut of the WoodsOvercoming Depersonalization DisorderPanpsychism and the Religious AttitudePanpsychism in the WestParenting and the Child's WorldPassionate EnginesPathologies of the WestPatient-Based Approaches to Cognitive NeurosciencePediatric PsychopharmacologyPeople Types and Tiger StripesPerception & CognitionPerception beyond InferencePerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPersonal Development and Clinical PsychologyPerspectives on ImitationPhantoms in the BrainPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhrenologyPhysical RealizationPhysics in MindPieces of LightPlaying with FirePositive PsychologyPositive PsychologyPostcards from the Brain MuseumPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPoverty and Brain Development During ChildhoodPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical Management of Personality DisorderPractical Management of Personality DisorderPredicative MindsPredictably IrrationalPreference, Belief, and SimilarityPrenatal Testosterone in MindPrivileged AccessProcess-Based CBTProcrastinationProust Was a NeuroscientistPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsychological AgencyPsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychological Dimensions of the SelfPsychologists Defying the CrowdPsychologyPsychologyPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology for ScreenwritersPsychology of Women: A Handbook of Issues and TheoriesPsychology's GhostsPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology's TerritoriesPsychopathologyPsychopathyPsychosis and EmotionPsychotherapy, American Culture, and Social PolicyPutnam CampPutting a Name to ItQuantum Memory PowerQuietRadical DistortionRadical Embodied Cognitive ScienceRadical ExternalismRadical GraceRapeRe-Visioning PsychiatryReal MaterialismReality CheckReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecovery in Mental IllnessRecreative MindsRedirectReducing Adolescent RiskRegulating EmotionsRelational BeingRelational Mental HealthRelational Suicide AssessmentReliability in Cognitive NeuroscienceRemembering HomeRemembering Our ChildhoodResearch Advances in Genetics and GenomicsResearching Children's ExperienceResilience in ChildrenRestoring ResilienceRethinking ADHDRethinking Learning DisabilitiesRethinking Middle YearsRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfRevolution in PsychologyRoadmap to ResilienceRomance and Sex in Adolescence and Emerging AdulthoodSchadenfreudeSchizophrenia RevealedSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologySecond NatureSecond NatureSecond That EmotionSecond-order Change in PsychotherapySecrets of the MindSee What I'm SayingSee What I'm SayingSeeing and VisualizingSeeing RedSelf and SocietySelf Comes to MindSelf Control in Society, Mind, and BrainSelf-Awareness Deficits in Psychiatric PatientsSelf-CompassionSelf-Consciousness and 'Split' BrainsSelf-RegulationSelf-Representational Approaches to ConsciousnessSelfless InsightSelvesSerial KillersSex at DawnSex on the BrainSex, Time and PowerSexual Coercion in Primates and HumansSexual DisordersSexual FluiditySexual ReckoningsSexualized BrainsShame and GuiltShatteredSimulating MindsSisyphus's BoulderSleepyheadSNAPSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial Psychology and DiscourseSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSoul DustSparkSpiral of EntrapmentSplendors and Miseries of the BrainSports Hypnosis in PracticeStanding at Water's EdgeStich and His CriticsStillpowerStop OverreactingStructure and Agency in Everyday LifeStructures of AgencyStuffStumbling on HappinessSubjectivity and SelfhoodSubstance Abuse and EmotionSuicidalSupersizing the MindSweet DreamsSynaptic SelfTales from Both Sides of the BrainTalking Oneself SoberTalking to BabiesTaming the Troublesome ChildTargeting AutismTeaching Problems and the Problems of TeachingTeleological RealismTen Years of Viewing from WithinTestosterone RexThat's DisgustingThe 5 Elements of Effective ThinkingThe Accidental MindThe Age of EmpathyThe Altruism EquationThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Clinical PsychiatryThe Anatomy of BiasThe Anxious BrainThe Archaeology of MindThe Art and Science of MindfulnessThe Art InstinctThe Art of HypnosisThe Asymmetrical BrainThe Bifurcation of the SelfThe Big Book of ConceptsThe Big DisconnectThe Birth of IntersubjectivityThe Birth of the MindThe Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge ManagementThe Blank SlateThe Body Has a Mind of Its OwnThe Bounds of CognitionThe Boy Who Was Raised as a DogThe BrainThe BrainThe Brain and the Meaning of LifeThe Brain SupremacyThe Brain That Changes ItselfThe Brain's Way of HealingThe Brain: Big Bangs, Behaviors, and BeliefsThe Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive ScienceThe Cambridge Handbook of Situated CognitionThe Character of ConsciousnessThe Chemistry Between UsThe Choice EffectThe Clinical Science of Suicide PreventionThe Cognitive Approach to Conscious MachinesThe Cognitive Behavioral Workbook for Anxiety: A Step-By-Step ProgramThe Cognitive NeurosciencesThe Cognitive-Emotional BrainThe College Fear FactorThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Compass of PleasureThe Compassionate ConnectionThe Concepts of ConsciousnessThe Conscious BrainThe Conscious SelfThe Consuming InstinctThe Creating BrainThe Creative BrainThe Crucible of ConsciousnessThe Crucible of ExperienceThe Cure WithinThe Dao of NeuroscienceThe Developing MindThe Developing MindThe Development of PsychopathologyThe Disappearance of the Social in American Social PsychologyThe Dissolution of MindThe Duty to ProtectThe Educated ParentThe Ego TunnelThe Elephant in the RoomThe Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human ExperienceThe Emotional Foundations of PersonalityThe Emotional Journey of the Alzheimer's FamilyThe Encultured BrainThe Encyclopedia of StupidityThe Enduring Self in People with Alzheimer'sThe Epidemiology of SchizophreniaThe Essential DifferenceThe Ethical BrainThe Evolution of BeautyThe Evolution of ChildhoodThe Evolution of CooperationThe Evolution of LanguageThe Evolution of MindThe Evolving BrainThe Executive BrainThe Faces of TerrorismThe Feeling BrainThe Feeling of What HappensThe First IdeaThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Foundations of Cognitive ArchaeologyThe Fundamentalist MindsetThe GapThe Gender TrapThe Geography of BlissThe Gift of ShynessThe Good LifeThe Good LifeThe Happiness HypothesisThe Happiness of PursuitThe Health Psychology HandbookThe Healthy Aging BrainThe Heart of TraumaThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of PsychologyThe Human FaceThe Human SparkThe Hypomanic EdgeThe Imagery DebateThe Immeasurable MindThe Imprinted BrainThe Incredible Shrinking MindThe Innate MindThe Innate MindThe Integrated SelfThe Intentional BrainThe Language of ThoughtThe Languages of the BrainThe Lexicon of Adlerian PsychologyThe Lie DetectorsThe Lives of the BrainThe Lonely AmericanThe Lust for BloodThe Madness of WomenThe Male BrainThe Man Who Lost His LanguageThe Man Who Shocked the WorldThe Man Who Tasted ShapesThe Man Who Wasn't ThereThe Matter of the MindThe Mature MindThe Mean Girl MotiveThe Meaning of EvilThe Meaning of OthersThe Meaning of the BodyThe Measure of MadnessThe Measure of MindThe Medicalization of Everyday LifeThe Mind and the BrainThe Mind in ContextThe Mind of the ChildThe Mind of the HorseThe Mind's EyeThe Mind, the Body and the WorldThe Mind-Gut ConnectionThe Mindful BrainThe Misleading MindThe Moral MindThe Most Dangerous AnimalThe Most Human HumanThe Mother FactorThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of Depression as DiseaseThe Myth of Mirror NeuronsThe Myth of Self HelpThe Myth of Self-EsteemThe Myth of the Spoiled ChildThe Nature of the SelfThe Necessity Of MadnessThe Neuro RevolutionThe Neuron and the MindThe Neuropsychology of the UnconsciousThe Neuroscience of Human RelationshipsThe Neuroscience of PsychotherapyThe Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social BrainThe New BrainThe New Science of DreamingThe New Science of the MindThe New UnconsciousThe Normal PersonalityThe Origins of FairnessThe Overflowing BrainThe Oxford Companion to the MindThe Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of MindThe Paradoxical PrimateThe Perfectionist's HandbookThe Peripheral MindThe Phenomenology ReaderThe Philosopher's Secret FireThe Philosophical BabyThe Political MindThe Politics of HappinessThe Positive Side of Negative EmotionsThe Postnational SelfThe Postpartum EffectThe Power of PlayThe Praeger Handbook of TranssexualityThe Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday LifeThe Primate MindThe Prism of GrammarThe Psychobiology of Trauma and Resilience Across the LifespanThe Psychological Construction of EmotionThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of HappinessThe Psychology of LifestyleThe Psychology of Religious FundamentalismThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of SpiritualityThe Psychology of StereotypingThe Psychology of SuperheroesThe Psychophysiology of Self-AwarenessThe Pursuit of PerfectThe Quest for Mental HealthThe Rational ImaginationThe Ravenous BrainThe Reasons of LoveThe Righteous MindThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Handbook of ConsciousnessThe Science of EvilThe Science of Intimate RelationshipsThe Science of Shame and its Treatment The Second SelfThe Secret History of EmotionThe Secret Lives of BoysThe Self and Its EmotionsThe Self-Sabotage CycleThe Sense of SelfThe Sensitive SelfThe Shape of ThoughtThe Social AnimalThe Social Nature of Mental IllnessThe Social Neuroscience of EmpathyThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Story of Intellectual DisabilityThe Structure of ThinkingThe Survivors ClubThe Talking ApeThe Teenage BrainThe Tell-Tale BrainThe Temperamental ThreadThe Tender CutThe Tending InstinctThe Time ParadoxThe Trauma MythThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trouble with IllnessThe True PathThe Truth About GriefThe Turing TestThe Uncertain SciencesThe Undoing ProjectThe Unhappy ChildThe Upside of IrrationalityThe War for Children's MindsThe Well-Tuned BrainThe Wild Girl, Natural Man, and the MonsterThe Winner's BrainThe Wisdom in FeelingThe Woman RacketThe World in My Mind, My Mind in the WorldThe Wow ClimaxThe Yipping TigerThemes, Issues and Debates in PsychologyTheoretical Issues in Psychology: An IntroductionTheory of AddictionTheory of MindThings and PlacesThink CatThink Confident, Be ConfidentThinking about AddictionThinking and SeeingThis Emotional Life: In Search of Ourselves...and HappinessThought and LanguageThought in a Hostile WorldTo Have and To Hurt:Toward an Evolutionary Biology of LanguageToward Replacement Parts for the BrainTrauma and Human ExistenceTrauma, Tragedy, TherapyTreating Attachment DisordersTreating Self-InjuryTreating Self-Injury: A Practical GuideTrue to Our FeelingsTrusting the Subject?Understanding and Treating Borderline Personality DisorderUnderstanding ConsciousnessUnderstanding ParanoiaUnderstanding PeopleUnderstanding TerrorismUndoing Perpetual StressUnlock the Genius WithinUnsettled MindsUnstrange MindsUnthinkingUnthoughtUs and ThemViolent PartnersVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVision and MindVisual AgnosiaWarrior's DishonourWe Who Are DarkWednesday Is Indigo BlueWelcome to Your BrainWhat Do Women Want?What Dying People WantWhat Have We DoneWhat Intelligence Tests MissWhat Is an Emotion: Classic and Contemporary ReadingsWhat Is Emotion?What is Intelligence?What Is Mental Illness?What Is Thought?What Makes Your Brain Happy and Why You Should Do the Opposite What the Best College Students DoWhat the Dog SawWhat We Know about Emotional IntelligenceWhat We Say MattersWhat's Wrong With Morality?When Boys Become BoysWhen Perfect Isn't Good EnoughWhen the Impossible HappensWhen Walls Become DoorwaysWho's Been Sleeping in Your HeadWho's in Charge?Why Humans Like to CryWhy Love MattersWhy Lyrics LastWhy People CooperateWhy People Die by SuicideWhy Sex Matters: A Darwinian Look at Human BehaviorWhy Smart People Can Be So StupidWhy the Mind is Not a ComputerWhy Us?Why We LieWhy We LoveWhy We SleepWider than the SkyWilliam James at the BoundariesWilling, Wanting, WaitingWittgenstein And PsychologyWomen and Child Sexual AbuseWorking MindsYoga and PsychologyYou Are What You RememberYoung Minds in Social WorldsYour Brain on CubsYour Brain on FoodYour Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings,Your Brain on YogaYour Child in the BalanceZombies and Consciousness
The Medicalization of Everyday Life is a collection of sixteen essays written by Thomas Szasz between 1972 and 2006. Although each of the essays has been published elsewhere, there is substantial value attained by viewing them together in a single volume. The collection is unified by the idea there have been, and continue to be, powerful trends toward the "medicalization" of many aspects of life -- indeed, too many aspects of life. Its aim is to clarify what medicalization is, how it is manifested in different medical institutions and practices, what is wrong with it, why it occurs, and what should be done about it. The focus of the discussion is, of course, psychiatric practices and institutions, although other medical practices also receive close scrutiny. The collection is divided into two parts. The first, Demarcating Disease from Nondisease, consists of seven essays addressing questions of the definition of 'disease' and 'mental disease' and clarifying the history and significance of such definitions. The second, Disturbing Behavior and Medicine's Responses to It, consists of nine essays surveying numerous putative examples of medicalization and providing detailed discussion of each (e.g., coercive psychiatric practices, hysteria, routine neonatal circumcision, suicide, pedophilia, criminal responsibility, euthanasia, medical ethics, relations between medicine and the state.)
Those familiar with Szasz's writings over the past fifty years, will recognize many of the themes found in this collection: the importance of history for understanding current medical and psychiatric practices, the importance of language in structuring medical practices and institutions, the coercive potential of language, the "myth" of mental illness, the importance of individual autonomy, the threat to individual autonomy and responsibility posed by psychiatric diagnosis, the tensions between individual autonomy and the state, and the recruitment of medicine and psychiatry as extensions of the police powers of the state. Those who are new to Szasz's writings will quickly be brought up to speed on Szasz's critical stance toward contemporary psychiatry and the deeper trends in medicine and society that underlie psychiatric practices and institutions.
The basic conceptual framework underwriting Szasz's analysis is as follows. Assuming that the distinction between medical and non-medical practice is of critical importance because it influences medical care, law and social policy, and hence the lives people live, it is of paramount importance to delineate legitimate medical practice. Simply put, 'medicalization' refers to an illegitimate practice of introducing medical terms, concepts, and practices into an area of social or personal life when it is inappropriate to do so (e.g., viewing racism or homosexuality as diseases.) As Szasz understands it, medicalization is a semantic and attributional strategy that shapes forms of social and professional practice and forms of individual consciousness and behavior. The thrust of this strategy is that, when someone is viewed as sick (ill, diseased) or their behavior is viewed as the product of sickness (illness, disease), then the behavior is viewed as not under the person's rational control (i.e., not reason-based, not motivated), the individual is viewed as not fully a moral agent, and his/her moral and social status is diminished. As a consequence, medicalized individuals are viewed as less responsible for their behavior and as more fitting candidates for being the object of coercive treatment by others. Furthermore, such individuals are classified in a way that enlists various social institutions and practices erected for the purpose of dealing with them (e.g., sick individuals fall within the domain of medical practice.)
There are two general forms of medicalization. First, there is "medicalization from below" (i.e., from powerlessness) which takes the form of malingering or self-medicalization, wherein the individual (falsely) assumes the role of patient to be treated in certain ways and excused from certain responsibilities. In this sort of case, the individual adopts the medicalizing strategy to pursue certain interests (e.g., avoid punishment, avoid having to confront difficult situations, receive benefits), at the expense of others. Second, there is "medicalization from above" (i.e., from power) which takes the form of "medicalization of the other to control or punish", wherein individuals who are disruptive, deviant, dangerous, troublesome, etc are placed in the patient role which then legitimates various forms of "treatment" or other (coercive) measures with or without the person's consent. In this sort of case, an individual (or group) viewed as detrimental in some way to other people, society or the state, is identified as diseased and controlled in ways that harm them (via dehumanization and deprivations of liberty). In both sorts of case, the interests of some are served while those of others are harmed as a consequence of a powerful linguistic-social strategy.
At the root of this analysis is a conception of what is a genuine medical disease and, hence, what is an appropriate use of the terms 'disease', 'diagnosis', 'treatment', "physician", and "patient". Without such an analysis, the distinction between "medicalization" and legitimate medical practice cannot be made. According to Szasz, a genuine disease involves an objectively identifiable physical lesion of the body, where a lesion is a disturbance in the structure or function of cells, tissues, and organs. (22) In legitimate medical practice, such diseases are discovered and classified by research pathologists, and they are diagnosed and treated by physicians, always with the consent of the individual patient. In medicalization, there are departures from this standard in which "diseases" are constructed and projected onto "patients" for the purposes of justifying "treatment" by "physicians", with or without consent. The deep significance of this latter practice is at least twofold. First, medicalization leads to increased dehumanization (viewing someone as less than a moral agent) and loss of freedom (depriving someone of their rights) for individuals in a wide range of contexts. Second, it is a driving force in the emergence of the "therapeutic state": as individuals, the public, the government, and various special interest groups promote medicalization of more and more areas of personal or social life, the prestige and power of science and medicine are recruited into legitimizing medical practices in the service of the economic, political, ideological, and social interests of the state, thereby increasing its sphere of influence. The various papers in the volume aim, in one way or another, to clarify and justify these two points of significance. A few examples will have to suffice.
As explained by most of the essays in the volume, the paradigmatic example of medicalization, according to Szasz, is the use in psychiatry and related "mental health" professions of such terms as 'disease', 'diagnosis', 'treatment', 'patient', and other terms designating medical conditions, practices, and roles. Though literally applicable in genuine medicine contexts, such terms are used at best "metaphorically" when applied to disturbing behavior and life problems that become the objects of psychiatric practice. One argument for this claim proceeds as follows: a genuine disease involves a physical lesion of the body, and, hence, only bodily parts or processes can be diseased; the mind and all things mental are either thoughts or behaviors or dispositions to think or behave, none of which are substances or parts of bodies and, hence, none of them can be diseased. To attribute 'disease' to the mind is to commit a "category mistake" or to engage in a metaphor (as in a "sick" joke), perhaps for rhetorical and strategic purposes. Buttressing this argument are two further points: 1) rejection of naïve materialist reductionism and determinism (i.e., the mind is not reducible to or otherwise determined by the brain); and 2) assertion that the standards by which bodies and minds are judged are different (e.g., while bodies can be diseased, minds can only be irrational or vicious.) To bring home the point, Szasz uses the following analogy: physical disease is to "mental disease" as a broken television is to a bad television show.
Szasz famously concludes that mental illness is a harmful myth, psychiatry is not a bona fide medical specialty, and psychiatrists are not medical experts. The deep harms that result from these practices include: dehumanization of individuals by not viewing them as the authors of their behavior and as responsible for it (e.g., the Church's initial internal response to child-abusing priests), loss of freedom by coercive intervention (e.g., involuntary commitment, involuntary treatment, suicide prevention), undermining of legal and social justice by influence on legal proceedings and social policy (e.g., the insanity defense, the Americans with Disabilities Act), and creation of a broad culture of pathologizing and control in contexts where other approaches are called for. Of medical classification in general, but especially psychiatric classification, he charges that its purpose is not to objectively identify conditions that are diseases but to prescribe what conditions should be viewed as diseases for the purposes of prescribing social policy regarding what is appropriate treatment for what conditions and paid for by whom; he links such classification to monetary gain and the politicization of medicine.
Past or present categories of mental disorder that come under critical scrutiny in this volume include homosexuality, masturbation, hysteria, depression, schizophrenia, pedophilia, sexual perversions, and drug addiction: in all cases medical, disease-oriented interpretations of the behavior associated with these categories are disputed; if there were a brain disease associated with any of them (which Szasz deems most improbable), then they would be brain diseases, not mental diseases.
Szasz's alternative view of individuals who are classified as "mentally ill" is as follows: the individual is a moral agent who is the author of his or her actions and hence is responsible for them. Since life is fundamentally tragic, involving free will, responsibility, and human weakness, some people are unhappy, failures, in conflict with others, liars, manipulative, violent, or criminals or have bad habits; but none of these things are appropriately called "illness." For example:
· -Of individuals expressing "delusional ideas" he contends that, on a par with actors and criminals, such individuals should be viewed as acting on "the desire to gain existential rather than economic advantage" and "we ought to view such behavior as a type of "existential identity theft..." (39)
· -With respect to "hysteria" he insists that "hysterical symptoms" are a form of communication used in the context of "game-playing" and that "hysterics act disabled and sick; their illness is not real but an imitation of a bodily illness. By means of body language, hysterics communicate with themselves and others, especially those willing, perhaps even eager, to assume the role of protecting and controlling them." (76)
· -And, finally, commenting on a defendant pursuing a verdict of not guilty by reason of insanity, Szasz writes that the defendant was "suffering from the consequences of having lived a life very badly, very stupidly. Very evilly; that from the time of her teens, for reasons which I don't know, she had, whatever she had done, she has done very badly. She was a bad student. There is no evidence that she was a particularly good daughter, sister. She was a bad wife. She was a bad mother. She was a bad employee insofar as she was employable. Then she started to engage [in taking] illegal drugs, then she escalated to illegal assault, and finally she committed this murder...Life is a task. You either cope with it or it gets you...If you do not know how to build, you can always destroy. These are the people that destroy us in society, our society, and other people." (110-111)
In addition to psychiatry, Szasz discusses several other examples of medicalizing trends and practices. In "The Fatal Temptation: Drug Control and Suicide", Szasz attempts to draw out latent contradictions in orthodox talk about suicide, drugs, autonomy, and rights involving life and death. Associating the "right to die" with "our skittishness about suicide and our longing for good doctors to kill us at just the right time and in just the right way but, more fundamentally, ... [with] our repudiation of bodily self ownership and the responsibilities that go with it", Szasz argues that suicide is a basic human right and that it implies a right to free access to drugs. He suggests that it is the dual fears of dying a protracted, pointless, and painful death and of living with a free market in drugs that undermine "pharmacological autonomy" and that inappropriately vest power in medical agents, institutions, and practices.
In "Routine Neonatal Circumcision: A Medical Ritual", Szasz argues that routine neonatal circumcision (RNC) is a practice that demonstrates how contemporary culture has bought into medicalizing practices. According to Szasz, RNC is not justifiable on health grounds (e.g., prevention of cancer or infection), is ethically and medically on a par with female genital mutilation, and, hence, is an essentially religious ritual that is legitimized as a medical practice to serve ideological, political, and religious interests.
"Killing as Therapy: The Case of Terri Schiavo" is presented as a study of hypocrisies concerning euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, the medicalization of death and dying, and access to drugs. Szasz observes that "The Schiavo drama was a classic battle of words: he who controlled the vocabulary controlled the debate and was assured of victory," (118) and he details how the language of ethics (e.g., 'rights', 'persons', 'autonomy') and medicine (e.g., 'coma', 'permanent vegetative state', 'irreversible brain damage', 'patient', 'physician', 'treatment', 'physician assisted suicide') shaped the unfolding of the case which, on his view, was badly handled by all parties involved: the husband, the parents, the media, medical ethicists, religious groups, physicians, the courts, and the state. He concludes that "Terri Schiavo was killed ... [b]ecause no one --not her husband, not her parents, not any philanthropist, not the American taxpayer- was willing to pay to keep her alive ... If we believe that executing innocent people is wrong, then the Schiavo case presents no ethical problem. It presents economic, political, and social problems." (129-130) And the deeper moral is supposed to be that practices concerning death, dying, and dependency, matters that previously have been problems for the family and the church, are now becoming problems for the state and are increasingly being framed in medical terms (e.g., 'physician-assisted suicide"). But, again, such medicalization comes with a cost: "In short, the legal definition of PAS as a procedure that only a physician can perform expands the medicalization of everyday life, extends medical control over personal conduct, especially at the end of life, and diminishes patient autonomy." (129)
"Peter Singer's Ethics of Medicalization", is a study of the views of Peter Singer, a medical ethicist. Szasz writes as follows: "Why do I consider his views --which I think are mistaken and wicked- in this volume? I do so because he is a prominent figure in contemporary bioethics and because his "preference utilitarian perspective" is a striking example of the contemporary debauchment of morality and politics by means of the medicalization of ethics." (134) Szasz sees in Singer a prime example of how processes of medicalization and the therapeutic state, with their objectionable consequences for personal responsibility and freedom, are buttressed by medical ethicists.
"Pharmacracy: The New Despotism" (2001), focuses on issues related to practices informed by medicalizing ideology and the use of force "by physicians acting --explicitly or implicitly, wittingly or unwittingly- as agents of the state." (151) In particular, Szasz argues that, although certain coercive public health measures can be legitimate instruments of state control (e.g., quarantine during an epidemic), this sort of justification does not legitimately extend the role of the state to matters of private health. Just as it is important to maintain a separation between the church and the state, so, Szasz contends, it is important to maintain a separation between medicine and the coercive apparatus of the state: such a separation "is necessary for the protection of our traditional rights to life, liberty, and property." (154) Thus, "the answer to the question of whether a person has a "right to be ill" --physically or mentally- comes down to whether he is viewed as a private person or as public property: the former has no obligation to the community to be or stay healthy; the latter does have such an obligation. In proportion as medical care is provided by the state, doctors and patients alike cease to be private persons and forfeit their "rights" against the opposing interests of the state." (161)
Szasz's diagnosis for why America is drifting toward pharmacracy and the therapeutic state is that "Americans want a therapist-in-chief who is both physician and priest, an authority that will protect them from having to assume responsibility not only for their own health but also for their behaviors that make them ill, literally or figuratively. Pandering to this passion, politicians assure people that they have a "right to health" and that their maladies are "no-fault diseases"; promise them a "patient's bill of rights" and an America "free of cancer" and "free of drugs"; and stupefy them with an inexhaustible torrent of mind-altering prescription drugs and mind-numbing anti-disease and anti-drug propaganda --as if anyone could be for illness or drug abuse." (167-8) But, Szasz warns, as people rush to embrace the therapeutic state, "by the time they discover that the therapeutic state is about tyranny, not therapy, it will be too late." (168)
Strengths and Weaknesses
In addition to being quite readable and often entertaining, this collection of papers has several strengths. First, Szasz provides a critical perspective that demonstrates the sorts of analysis (e.g., unmasking influential ideologies and vested interests; identifying flawed inferences) that ought to be pursued if contemporary medical and psychiatric practices and institutions are to be understood, improved, or (if necessary) replaced. His is a perspective that all interested parties should understand and know how to respond to. Second, Szasz pursues attempts to clarify the historical roots and, hence, the contingency of contemporary practices: i.e., the world is not the way it is necessarily and understanding how it came to be the way it is is essential for progress. Third, more specifically, he provides a valuable clarification of the nature of medicalization practices and how they operate to shape consciousness, practices, and institutions. Fourth, he identifies important dimensions of medical and psychiatric practice that are often obscured from view: e.g., the psychosocial structure of mental health contexts and the risks to individuals inherent in such contexts (e.g., dehumanization, stigma, discrimination, and coercion.) Finally, he clarifies the importance of understanding the grades and types of criticism that might be pursued: some critical stances, while addressing recognizable problems, may (in so doing) reinforce problematic underlying assumptions that sustain the very practices being criticized (e.g., criticizing a specific category of mental disorder while implicitly affirming the concept of mental disorder).
Weaknesses of the volume are of three sorts. Szasz often depends on questionable assumptions and flawed argumentation, he is frequently silent on critical matters, and he makes limited recommendations for constructive change. First, Szasz relies upon a 19th century conception of disease that has been variously criticized as being unclear (what precisely is a "lesion"), as harboring normative assumptions, as failing to provide necessary and sufficient conditions, and as being too narrow if it precludes mental processes and functions from the domain of possible disease. Further, along with the definition of 'disease', Szasz relies on a quite dated philosophy of mind and an overly simplistic conception of "reduction" in the sciences to buttress his arguments for the mythical or metaphorical nature of "mental illness". As a consequence the arguments are not very compelling. Similar flaws undercut arguments for other claims made in the book (e.g., arguments about the right to suicide entailing an unrestricted right to drugs); although interesting and suggestive, the arguments are often not persuasive.
Second, there are several matters, the clarification of which would both strengthen his arguments and promote a more effective agenda of change. For example, in recent years the so-called "harmful dysfunction" analysis of mental disorder has led many to (incorrectly) believe that the central organizing concept of psychiatry has been sufficiently clarified to render Szasz's critique otiose. Szasz's case would be strengthened by showing why such an analysis falls short; simplistic claims about category mistakes and minds not being substances do not suffice for this. And again, his case would be strengthened by explaining in technical detail why contemporary genetic and neuroscience research programs are not producing findings that support a disease model of "depression", "schizophrenia", and other psychiatric categories. For this, a more sophisticated philosophy of science than the crude anti-reductionism Szasz embraces, one which clarifies the nature of scientific evidence, inference, and explanation, is required. Further, although alert to the problem of dehumanization and stigma, Szasz does not adequately emphasize and explain why contemporary "anti-stigma" programs, currently pursued by defenders of psychiatric practice, are so wrong-headed. Performing these tasks would help arm the public for coping with the rhetoric of defenders of psychiatric practice who "educate" us about the disease status of these categories. The key limitation is that of not providing more effective tools for those who are confronted with the pressures of medicalization and the therapeutic state.
Finally, Szasz's constructive proposals for change are limited. In the first essay, he makes three such proposals as follows. First, since "mental health problems" are "not medical but human (that is, moral, social, political) problems, we cannot solve them by therapeutic means; hence we must stop continuing and even intensifying our efforts to solve them by such means." (8) Second, "since the vocabulary of psychiatry serves to systematically redefine moral and political problems as diseases, we must repudiate and stop this abuse of our language." (9) Third, "as psychiatric "treatments" are chiefly overtly or covertly involuntary, such interventions must be disavowed; we must reject the use of psychiatrists as policemen, judges and jailers; and we must seriously dedicate ourselves to the proposition that "mental health" workers should help only those who want to be helped, that they should do so only in ways acceptable to their clients, and they should stop doing everything else." (9) And, in the Introduction he makes yet a fourth proposal in the context of discussing "education" about mental illness: "It is also obvious that the self-styled psychiatric "educators" never mention two major risks inherent in every professional contact between an individual and a psychiatrist, namely, stigmatization by diagnosis and loss of liberty by forced psychiatric "hospitalization."" (xxvi) The proposal, of course, is that such risks should be regularly disclosed. Finally, Szasz's alternative conceptualizations of the behavior of those identified as "mentally ill" (e.g., the hysteric, the delusional person, the defendant pleading insanity) repudiates a disease interpretation in favor of using non-disease descriptions heavily freighted with moral terms of evaluation.
Unfortunately, for the most part, the above recommendations are negative, far too abstract to be of much use, and not terribly responsive to the demands of the context in which change might be pursued. In the case of alternatives to a disease conceptualization of behavior, Szasz seems to promote the false dichotomy, "brain disease or moral failing" that is relied upon by many defenders of psychiatry. In general, more detailed and constructive proposals are called for: e.g., proposals which clarify not only what viable alternative forms of discourse, institutions, and practices might be like, but also how change might be realistically implemented with alternatives that do not reinforce problematic dichotomies and assumptions that inform current practices.
Despite the critical points just rehearsed, this is a valuable collection of papers. In a culture of rampant medicalization with many apparent crises brewing (e.g., widespread psychiatric diagnosis and drug treatment of increasingly younger children; deep confusion in the development of the DSM system of classification), most of us are quite ill-equipped for recognizing and resisting the powerful social and linguistic influences that promote such practices and breed such crises. Szasz's writing stimulates thought, motivates a desire for change, and demonstrates forms of criticism in which everyone (especially those in the mental health professions) should be well versed.
© 2008 Jeffrey Poland
Jeffrey Poland, Rhode Island School of Design & Brown University