email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
Anger and Forgiveness"Are You There Alone?"10 Good Questions about Life and DeathA Casebook of Ethical Challenges in NeuropsychologyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to Muslim EthicsA Cooperative SpeciesA Critique of the Moral Defense of VegetarianismA Delicate BalanceA Fragile LifeA Life for a LifeA Life-Centered Approach to BioethicsA Matter of SecurityA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Natural History of Human MoralityA Philosophical DiseaseA Practical Guide to Clinical Ethics ConsultingA Question of TrustA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Short Stay in SwitzerlandA Tapestry of ValuesA Very Bad WizardA World Without ValuesAction and ResponsibilityAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionActs of ConscienceAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction NeuroethicsAdvance Directives in Mental HealthAfter HarmAftermathAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HealthAgainst MarriageAgainst Moral ResponsibilityAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAging, Biotechnology, and the FutureAlbert Schweitzer's Reverence for LifeAlphavilleAltruismAltruismAmerican EugenicsAmerican PsychosisAn American SicknessAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Evolutionary EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy Ancient Greek and Roman SlaveryAnd a Time to DieAnimal LessonsAnimal RightsAnimals Like UsApplied Ethics in Mental Health CareAre Women Human?Arguments about AbortionAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAutonomyAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismAutonomy, Consent and the LawBabies by DesignBackslidingBad PharmaBad SoulsBarriers and BelongingBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBeauty JunkiesBefore ForgivingBeing AmoralBeing YourselfBending Over BackwardsBending ScienceBernard WilliamsBetter Humans?Better Than WellBeyond BioethicsBeyond ChoiceBeyond GeneticsBeyond HatredBeyond Humanity?Beyond LossBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond SpeechBeyond the DSM StoryBias in Psychiatric DiagnosisBioethicsBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics at the MoviesBioethics Beyond the HeadlinesBioethics Critically ReconsideredBioethics in a Liberal SocietyBioethics in the ClinicBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical Research and BeyondBiosBioscience EthicsBipolar ChildrenBluebirdBodies out of BoundsBodies, Commodities, and BiotechnologiesBody BazaarBoundBoundaries and Boundary Violations in PsychoanalysisBraintrustBrandedBreaking the SilenceBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyCapital PunishmentCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsChallenging the Stigma of Mental IllnessCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionChild Well-BeingChildrenChildren's RightsChoosing ChildrenChoosing Not to ChooseClinical Dilemmas in PsychotherapyClinical EthicsCloningClose toYouCoercion as CureCoercive Treatment in PsychiatryCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognitive Disability and Its Challenge to Moral Philosophy Comfortably NumbCommonsense RebellionCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentComprehending CareConducting Insanity EvaluationsConfidential RelationshipsConfidentiality and Mental HealthConflict of Interest in the ProfessionsConsuming KidsContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContentious IssuesContesting PsychiatryCrazy in AmericaCreating CapabilitiesCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCritical Perspectives in Public HealthCritical PsychiatryCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCurrent Controversies in BioethicsCurrent Controversies in Values and ScienceCutting to the CoreCyborg CitizenDamaged IdentitiesDeaf Identities in the MakingDeath Is That Man Taking NamesDebating ProcreationDebating Same-Sex MarriageDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecoding the Ethics CodeDefining DifferenceDefining Right and Wrong in Brain ScienceDefining the Beginning and End of LifeDelusions of GenderDementiaDemocracy in What State?Demons of the Modern WorldDescriptions and PrescriptionsDesert and VirtueDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDestructive Trends in Mental HealthDeveloping the VirtuesDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital HemlockDigital SoulDignityDignityDisability BioethicsDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDiscrimination against the Mentally IllDisordered Personalities and CrimeDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDoes Feminism Discriminate against Men?Does Torture Work?Double Standards in Medical Research in Developing CountriesDown GirlDrugs and JusticeDworkin and His CriticsDying in the Twenty-First CenturyEarly WarningEconomics and Youth ViolenceEmbodied RhetoricsEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotional ReasonEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmpathyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEncountering NatureEncountering the Sacred in PsychotherapyEngendering International HealthEnhancing EvolutionEnhancing Human CapacitiesEnoughEros and the GoodErotic InnocenceErotic MoralityEssays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEthical Choices in Contemporary MedicineEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Dilemmas in PediatricsEthical Issues in Behavioral ResearchEthical Issues in Dementia CareEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in the New GeneticsEthical LifeEthical Reasoning for Mental Health ProfessionalsEthical TheoryEthical WillsEthically Challenged ProfessionsEthicsEthicsEthicsEthics and AnimalsEthics and ScienceEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Discovery of the UnconsciousEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics at the CinemaEthics at the End of LifeEthics Case Book of the American Psychoanalytic AssociationEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics for EveryoneEthics for PsychologistsEthics for the New MillenniumEthics in CyberspaceEthics in Everyday PlacesEthics in Health CareEthics In Health Services ManagementEthics in Mental Health ResearchEthics in PracticeEthics in PsychiatryEthics in PsychologyEthics in Psychotherapy and CounselingEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEthics, Culture, and PsychiatryEthics, Sexual Orientation, and Choices about ChildrenEvaluating the Science and Ethics of Research on HumansEvilEvil GenesEvil in Modern ThoughtEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Ethics and Contemporary BiologyEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolved MoralityExperiments in EthicsExploding the Gene MythExploiting ChildhoodFacing Human SufferingFact and ValueFacts and ValuesFaking ItFalse-Memory Creation in Children and AdultsFat ShameFatal FreedomFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist TheoryFinal ExamFirst Do No HarmFirst, Do No HarmFlashpointFlesh WoundsForced to CareForgivenessForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and ReconciliationForgiveness and RetributionForgiveness is Really StrangeFoucault and the Government of DisabilityFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Forensic Mental Health AssessmentFree WillFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will and Reactive AttitudesFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree?Freedom and ValueFreedom vs. InterventionFriendshipFrom Darwin to HitlerFrom Disgust to HumanityFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Silence to VoiceFrom Valuing to ValueFrontiers of JusticeGender in the MirrorGenetic PoliticsGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetics of Original SinGenetics of Original SinGenocide's AftermathGetting RealGluttonyGood WorkGoodness & AdviceGreedGroups in ConflictGrowing Up GirlGut FeminismHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHandbook for Health Care Ethics CommitteesHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of Children's RightsHandbook of PsychopathyHappinessHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHard FeelingsHard LuckHardwired BehaviorHarmful ThoughtsHeal & ForgiveHealing PsychiatryHealth Care Ethics for PsychologistsHeterosyncraciesHistorical and Philosophical Perspectives on Biomedical EthicsHoly WarHookedHookedHow Can I Be Trusted?How Fascism WorksHow Propaganda WorksHow to Do Things with Pornography How to Make Opportunity EqualHow Universities Can Help Create a Wiser WorldHow We HopeHow We Think About DementiaHuman BondingHuman Dignity and Assisted DeathHuman EnhancementHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman TrialsHumanism, What's That?Humanitarian ReasonHumanityHumanizing MadnessI am Not Sick I Don't Need Help!I Was WrongIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIf That Ever Happens to MeImproving Nature?In Defense of FloggingIn Defense of SinIn Love With LifeIn Our Own ImageIn the FamilyIn the Land of the DeafIn the Name of IdentityIn the Wake of 9/11In Two MindsInclusive EthicsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchInnovation in Medical TechnologyInside Assisted LivingInside EthicsIntelligence, Race, and GeneticsIntensive CareInto the Gray ZoneIs Human Nature Obsolete?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is There a Duty to Die?Is There an Ethicist in the House?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJudging Children As ChildrenJust a DogJust BabiesJust CareJustice for ChildrenJustice for HedgehogsJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeJustifiable ConductKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Theory of VirtueKids of CharacterKilling McVeighLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLaw and the BrainLearning About School ViolenceLearning from Baby PLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLegal and Ethical Aspects of HealthcareLegal Aspects of Mental CapacityLegal ConceptionsLegal InsanityLegalizing ProstitutionLet Them Eat ProzacLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberal EugenicsLife After FaithLife at the BottomLife, Sex, and IdeasListening to the WhispersLiving ProfessionalismLosing Matt ShepardLostLuckyMad in AmericaMad PrideMadhouseMaking Another World PossibleMaking Babies, Making FamiliesMaking Genes, Making WavesMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMalignantMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaning and Moral OrderMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeans, Ends, and PersonsMeans, Ends, and PersonsMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedical Research for HireMedicalized MasculinitiesMedically Assisted DeathMeditations for the HumanistMelancholia and MoralismMental Health Professionals, Minorities and the PoorMental Illness, Medicine and LawMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMetaethical SubjectivismMill's UtilitarianismMind FieldsMind WarsMind WarsModern Theories of JusticeModernity and TechnologyMoney ShotMonsterMoral Acquaintances and Moral DecisionsMoral BrainsMoral ClarityMoral CultivationMoral Development and RealityMoral Dilemmas in Real LifeMoral DimensionsMoral EntanglementsMoral FailureMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral MindsMoral OriginsMoral Panics, Sex PanicsMoral ParticularismMoral PerceptionMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RealismMoral RelativismMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral Status and Human LifeMoral StealthMoral Theory at the MoviesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMoral, Immoral, AmoralMoralismMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMorals, Rights and Practice in the Human ServicesMorals, Rights and Practice in the Human ServicesMore Than HumanMotive and RightnessMovies and the Moral Adventure of LifeMurder in the InnMy Body PoliticMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Sister's KeeperMy Sister's KeeperMy WayNano-Bio-EthicsNarrative MedicineNarrative ProsthesisNatural Ethical FactsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalized BioethicsNeither Bad nor MadNeoconservatismNeonatal BioethicsNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNew Takes in Film-PhilosophyNew Waves in EthicsNew Waves in MetaethicsNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNo Child Left DifferentNo Impact ManNormative EthicsNormativityNothing about us, without us!Oath BetrayedOf War and LawOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn EvilOn Human RightsOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOn the TakeOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne ChildOne Nation Under TherapyOne World NowOne World NowOur Bodies, Whose Property?Our Bodies, Whose Property?Our Daily MedsOur Faithfulness to the PastOur Posthuman FutureOut of EdenOut of Its MindOut of the ShadowsOverdosed AmericaOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Studies in Normative EthicsOxford Studies in Normative Ethics, Volume 7Oxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPassionate DeliberationPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perfecting VirtuePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonalities on the PlatePersonhood and Health CarePersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPerspectives On Health And Human RightsPharmaceutical FreedomPharmacracyPharmageddonPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhysician-Assisted DyingPicturing DisabilityPilgrim at Tinker CreekPlaying God?Playing God?Political EmotionsPornlandPowerful MedicinesPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical EthicsPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical RulesPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic NeuroethicsPraise and BlamePreferences and Well-BeingPrimates and PhilosophersPro-Life, Pro-ChoiceProcreation and ParenthoodProfits Before People?Progress in BioethicsProperty in the BodyProzac As a Way of LifeProzac on the CouchPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric EthicsPsychiatry and EmpirePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychotropic Drug Prescriber's Survival GuidePublic Health LawPublic Health Law and EthicsPublic PhilosophyPunishing the Mentally IllPunishmentPursuits of WisdomPutting Morality Back Into PoliticsPutting on VirtueQuality of Life and Human DifferenceRaceRadical HopeRadical VirtuesRape Is RapeRe-creating MedicineRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReckoning With HomelessnessReconceiving Medical EthicsRecovery from SchizophreniaRedefining RapeRedesigning HumansReducing the Stigma of Mental IllnessReflections on Ethics and ResponsibilityReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRefuting Peter Singer's Ethical TheoryRelative JusticeRelativism and Human RightsReligion ExplainedReprogeneticsRescuing JeffreyRespecting AnimalsResponsibilityResponsibility and PsychopathyResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsResponsible GeneticsRethinking CommodificationRethinking Informed Consent in BioethicsRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeReturn to ReasonRevolution in PsychologyRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRisk and Luck in Medical EthicsRobert NozickRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Rule of Law, Misrule of MenRun, Spot, RunRunning on RitalinSatisficing and MaximizingSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and EthicsScience in the Private InterestScience, Policy, and the Value-Free IdealScience, Seeds and CyborgsScratching the Surface of BioethicsSecular Philosophy and the Religious TemperamentSeeing the LightSelf-ConstitutionSelf-Made MadnessSelf-Trust and Reproductive AutonomySentimental RulesSex Fiends, Perverts, and PedophilesSex OffendersSex, Family, and the Culture WarsSexual DevianceSexual EthicsSexual PredatorsSexualized BrainsShaping Our SelvesShock TherapyShould I Medicate My Child?ShunnedSick to Death and Not Going to Take It AnymoreSickoSide EffectsSidewalk StoriesSister CitizenSkeptical FeminismSocial Dimensions of Moral ResponsibilitySocial Inclusion of People with Mental IllnessSocial JusticeSociological Perspectives on the New GeneticsSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSovereign VirtueSpeech MattersSpiral of EntrapmentSplit DecisionsSticks and StonesStories MatterSubhumanSubjectivity and Being SomebodySuffering, Death, and IdentitySuicide ProhibitionSurgery JunkiesSurgically Shaping ChildrenTaking Morality SeriouslyTaming the Troublesome ChildTechnology and the Good Life?TestimonyText and Materials on International Human RightsThe Aims of Higher EducationThe Almost MoonThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Forensic PsychiatryThe Animal ManifestoThe Animals' AgendaThe Art of LivingThe Autonomy of MoralityThe Beloved SelfThe Best Things in LifeThe Big FixThe Bioethics ReaderThe Biology and Psychology of Moral AgencyThe Blackwell Guide to Medical EthicsThe Body SilentThe BondThe Book of LifeThe Burden of SympathyThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Textbook of BioethicsThe Case against Assisted SuicideThe Case Against PerfectionThe Case Against PunishmentThe Case for PerfectionThe Case of Terri SchiavoThe Challenge of Human RightsThe Character GapThe Code for Global EthicsThe Colonization Of Psychic SpaceThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Common ThreadThe Connected SelfThe Constitution of AgencyThe Creation of PsychopharmacologyThe Criminal BrainThe Decency WarsThe Difficult-to-Treat Psychiatric PatientThe Disability PendulumThe Disability Rights Movement: From Charity to ConfrontationThe Domain of ReasonsThe Double-Edged HelixThe Duty to ProtectThe Emotional Construction of MoralsThe End of Ethics in a Technological SocietyThe End of Stigma?The Essentials of New York Mental Health LawThe Ethical BrainThe Ethical Dimensions of the Biological and Health SciencesThe Ethics of BioethicsThe Ethics of Choosing ChildrenThe Ethics of Human EnhancementThe Ethics of ParenthoodThe Ethics of SightseeingThe Ethics of the FamilyThe Ethics of the Family in SenecaThe Ethics of the LieThe Ethics of TransplantsThe Ethics of WarThe Ethics ToolkitThe Evolution of Mental Health LawThe Evolution of MoralityThe FamilyThe Fat Studies ReaderThe Forgiveness ProjectThe Form of Practical KnowledgeThe Fountain of YouthThe Freedom ParadoxThe Future of Assisted Suicide and EuthanasiaThe Future of Human NatureThe Good BookThe Good LifeThe Great BetrayalThe Handbook of Disability StudiesThe Healing VirtuesThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of Human RightsThe HorizonThe Idea of JusticeThe Ideal of NatureThe Illusion of Freedom and EqualityThe Immortal Life of Henrietta LacksThe Importance of Being UnderstoodThe Insanity OffenseThe Joy of SecularismThe Language PoliceThe Last Normal ChildThe Last UtopiaThe Limits of MedicineThe LobotomistThe Love CureThe Lucifer EffectThe Manual of EpictetusThe Mark of ShameThe Meaning of NiceThe Medicalization of SocietyThe Merck DruggernautThe Mind Has MountainsThe Modern Art of DyingThe Modern SavageThe Moral ArcThe Moral BrainThe Moral Demands of MemoryThe Moral FoolThe Moral MindThe Moral Psychology HandbookThe Moral Punishment Instinct The Moral, Social, and Commercial Imperatives of Genetic Testing and ScreeningThe Most Good You Can DoThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of the Moral BrainThe Nature of NormativityThe New Disability HistoryThe New Genetic MedicineThe New Religious IntoleranceThe Offensive InternetThe Origins of FairnessThe Oxford Handbook of Animal EthicsThe Oxford Handbook of Ethics at the End of LifeThe Oxford Handbook of Food EthicsThe Palgrave Handbook of Practical Animal EthicsThe Perfect BabyThe Philosophical ParentThe Philosophy of NeedThe Philosophy of PornographyThe Philosophy of PsychiatryThe Politics Of LustThe Portable Ethicist for Mental Health Professionals The Power of Religion in the Public SphereThe Price of PerfectionThe Price of TruthThe Problem of PunishmentThe Prosthetic ImpulseThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe PsychopathThe Purity MythThe Pursuit of PerfectionThe Relevance of Philosophy to LifeThe Right Road to Radical FreedomThe Right to Be ParentsThe Righteous MindThe Root of All EvilThe Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal MindsThe Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of EmpathyThe Rules of InsanityThe Second SexismThe Second-Person StandpointThe Silent World of Doctor and PatientThe Sleep of ReasonThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Speed of DarkThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Story of Cruel and UnusualThe Story WithinThe Stubborn System of Moral ResponsibilityThe Suicide TouristThe Terrible GiftThe Theory of OptionsThe Therapy of DesireThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Triple HelixThe Trolley Problem MysteriesThe Trouble with DiversityThe Truth About the Drug CompaniesThe Ugly LawsThe Varieties of Religious ExperienceThe Virtue of Defiance and Psychiatric EngagementThe Virtues of FreedomThe Virtues of HappinessThe Virtuous Life in Greek EthicsThe Virtuous PsychiatristThe Voice of Breast Cancer in Medicine and BioethicsThe War Against BoysThe War for Children's MindsThe Whole ChildThe Woman RacketThe Worldwide Practice of TortureTherapy with ChildrenThieves of VirtueThree Generations, No ImbecilesTimes of Triumph, Times of DoubtTolerance Among The VirtuesTolerance and the Ethical LifeTolerationToxic PsychiatryTrauma, Truth and ReconciliationTreatment Kind and FairTrusting on the EdgeTry to RememberUltimate JudgementUnborn in the USA: Inside the War on AbortionUndermining ScienceUnderstanding AbortionUnderstanding CloningUnderstanding EmotionsUnderstanding EvilUnderstanding Kant's EthicsUnderstanding Moral ObligationUnderstanding Physician-Pharmaceutical Industry InteractionsUnderstanding TerrorismUnderstanding the GenomeUnderstanding the Stigma of Mental IllnessUnderstanding Treatment Without ConsentUnhingedUnprincipled VirtueUnsanctifying Human Life: Essays on EthicsUnspeakable Acts, Ordinary PeopleUp in FlamesUpheavals of ThoughtUsers and Abusers of PsychiatryValue-Free Science?Values and Psychiatric DiagnosisValues in ConflictVegetarianismViolence and Mental DisorderVirtue EthicsVirtue, Rules, and JusticeVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVirtues and Their VicesVoracious Science and Vulnerable AnimalsVulnerability, Autonomy, and Applied EthicsWar Against the WeakWar, Torture and TerrorismWarrior's DishonourWeaknessWelfare and Rational CareWhat are you staring at?What Genes Can't DoWhat Have We DoneWhat Is a Human?What Is Good and WhyWhat Is Good and WhyWhat Is the Good Life?What Price Better Health?What Should I Do?What We Owe to Each OtherWhat Would Aristotle Do?What's Good on TVWhat's Normal?What's Wrong with Children's RightsWhat's Wrong with Homosexuality?What's Wrong With Morality?When Is Discrimination Wrong?Who Holds the Moral High Ground?Who Owns YouWho Qualifies for Rights?Whose America?Whose View of Life?Why Animals MatterWhy Animals MatterWhy Does Inequality Matter?Why I Burned My Book and Other Essays on DisabilityWhy Not Kill Them All?Why Punish? How Much?Why Some Things Should Not Be for SaleWisdom, Intuition and EthicsWithout ConscienceWomen and Borderline Personality DisorderWomen and MadnessWondergenesWould You Kill the Fat Man?Wrestling with Behavioral GeneticsWriting About PatientsYou Must Be DreamingYour Genetic DestinyYour Inner FishYouth Offending and Youth Justice Yuck!
Now in its second edition, The Stem Cell Controversy has been an invaluable anthology for my own personal research, and in my teaching as well. I should say, right away, that in my experience this is one of the best books available for introducing the issue to students and really discussing the scientific, ethical, and religious implications of embryonic and adult stem cell research. One of the main reasons that this book is so helpful and accessible is that it is broken down into five distinct sections that provide comprehensive overview of the different aspects of this current and divisive issue. I will mostly deal with the contents of the second edition, since this is the one currently available, but will refer back to the first edition if I believe that it was superior to the second edition in any respect.
The book begins with the full text of President George W. Bush's August 9, 2001 speech, where he announced his decision to allow federal funding for stem cell research only on existing stem cell lines derived from embryos prior to that point in time, but that no new embryos were to be killed for the research using tax-payer dollars. I like that the students, and readers in general, are able to read exactly what Bush's reasoning was when he made this decision, and I usually go through it carefully with them, extracting some philosophical arguments from the speech and then critically evaluating them. For future editions, it may be beneficial to include the full transcript of his more recent 2006 decision to veto the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act.
All the sections of this book begin with very concise and helpful editors' introductions. A rather useful addition in the second edition for those who are interested in using the book as a teaching tool is a section entitled "Questions to think about," located at the end of each editors' introduction, which can serve as insightful discussion questions or may be used for the purposes of concentrating the reader's mind on certain specific issues. In both editions, there is also an extensive and very helpful glossary of key terms located in the back of the book.
The first section of the book contains articles on the science of stem cell research, which served to, firstly, educate me while I was conducting research for my dissertation and, secondly, helps to disabuse many of my students of the misconceptions a number of them have in regards to the research (e.g., that mid- to late-term fetuses were the main ones being aborted expressly for the purposes of deriving stem cells).
The National Institutes of Health's "Stem Cell Primer" is a very basic and clear article that defines key terms, clarifies exactly what stem cells are, explains the different ways in which stem cells can be derived (making it clear that developed fetuses are not the main source of stem cell derivation), and discusses the many potential therapeutic applications of pluripotent stem cells. The article also briefly discusses the distinction between embryonic and adult stem cells. One of the main strengths of this article is its honesty. While it delineates all the positive aspects of embryonic stem cell research, it also informs the reader that there are hurdles to overcome, and it does the same when it discusses adult stem cells. In other words, the article not only clearly and accurately explains what stem cell research is, it is direct and honest concerning the benefits and drawbacks of both types of research, rather than exclusively touting one and deriding the other.
Jane Maienschein's "The Language Really Matters" mainly focuses on how the use of language in order to explain different aspects of stem cell research really makes a difference concerning how the public conceives of the issue. For example, in her discussion concerning the exact difference between cells that are totipotent and pluripotent, she clearly illustrates how stem cells produced from the inner cell mass of a five-day-old zygote are not themselves ontologically distinct organisms. Maienschein's article helps to make the important point that the quality of our thoughts on any matter can only be as good as the language that we use, and she implores us to understand certain key concepts in order to further our critical thinking on this important ethical issue.
Gretchen Vogel's "Can Old Cells Learn New Tricks?" and Sidney Houff's "Adult Stem Cells -- A Positive Perspective" delineates the therapeutic potential of adult stem cells. Vogel's article discusses both the benefits and drawbacks of adult stem cell research, and is successful in making the point that neither adult nor embryonic stem cells are ideal or problem-free. As a result, the point is made that true advancements in the field require research with both types of stem cells. Houff's article makes a similar point. While it is acknowledged that adult stem cells lack the same amount of plasticity as embryonic stem cells, Houff argues that this perceived weakness can actually be construed as a benefit. For example, adult stem cells are more likely to respond to the molecular signals in adult tissue than embryonic stem cells, precisely because of their antecedent differentiation into certain cell types. What is most beneficial about these two articles is that they illustrate the objectivity present in the whole book: the editors are obviously not out to convince anyone that either embryonic or adult stem cells are clearly superior. It is acknowledged in the various articles in this section that each have benefits and obstacles that the other does not. This gives the reader a fair an unbiased introduction to the issue, away from the slanted views that permeate the media by both supporters and detractors of stem cell research.
Rick Weiss' "'Parthenotes' Expand the Debate on Stem Cells," the last article in this section, brings to light even more interesting philosophical questions. By discussing the issue of parthenogensis in human eggs (when the unfertilized egg begins to divide on its own to form a zygote), Weiss forces the reader to consider the proper way of defining the term "human embryo," and whether unfertilized eggs that begin to divide on their own conform to this definition. If not, then it seems that we can derive cells from the inner cell mass of a parthenote in order to produce stem cells with no moral qualms. Yet if parthenotes are considered embryos, on a par with fertilized eggs, deeper philosophical questions arise, for the common adherence by conservatives to the idea that "life begins at conception" seems to be in danger here. If a parthenote embryo was never conceived, when did life begin then? What type of beings deserve rights, and when would those rights begin for a parthenote? What does this say about extending rights onto human zygotes or embryos that began as fertilized eggs? While Weiss' article is short, and does not attempt to answer any of these questions to any in-depth extent, it does a good job of bringing them to light and may serve as a good springboard for classroom discussion concerning the nature of rights and when human life truly begins.
Part two of the book contains essays that discuss the therapeutic promise of stem cell research. All the articles in this section are clear and accessible, easily aiding in the reader's comprehension of why this research is so alluring, exciting, and desired by so many. A notable article in this section is Katty Kay's and Mark Henderson's "Paralyzed Mouse Walks Again as Scientists Fight Stem Cell Ban." The article is particularly effective in conjunction with videos of the experiments discussed in the article; my students were very much affected when they saw the actual paralyzed mice dragging their feet and then walking again after being injected with human embryonic stem cells. The untimely death of Christopher Reeve in 2004 makes the article that much sadder to read, as the piece directly mentions him as one of the many people who could have benefited from this research in his attempts to regain mobility after his 1995 horse-riding accident and subsequent spinal cord injury.
Carol Martin's "60 Minutes II, Holy Grail" introduces the reader to the story of Keone Penn, who was cured from sickle cell anemia by the use of another person's umbilical cord stem cells. The article, thus, emphasizes the therapeutic potential of umbilical cord stem cells, which, again, serves the reader by keeping the debate honest, i.e., the reader is never lead to believe that research on embryonic stem cells is the only possibility where effective cures can be found, although it is also emphasized that they present the most potential.
The National Bioethics Advisory Commission's "Human Stem Cell Research and the Potential for Clinical Application" is an excellent article for those who are interested in a brief overview of the variety of different medical applications possible with stem cell research: from cancer therapy to Parkinson's disease to blood disorders. The article is not too technical, and thus it provides an accessible introduction to how stem cell therapy actually works in treating these, and other, afflictions. Marcia Barinaga's "Fetal Neuron Grafts Pave the Way for Stem Cell Therapies" accomplishes a similar task, but with a particular focus on the potential that embryonic stem cells possess for alleviating Parkinson's disease.
An addition to the second edition is Leigh Shoemaker's "Promises of Stem Cells Kept," which again explains some of the potential applications of both adult and embryonic stem cells. Shoemaker emphasizes that the true promise of stem cells lies in the hands of the researchers and physicians who continue to conduct research; research that should be encouraged and allowed to progress in order to benefit future generations, no matter how frustratingly slow some of the research can be in terms of developing affective cures for diseases such as Type I diabetes or Parkinson's disease.
The third section of the book is where I take the majority of the readings from when I teach this issue in my applied ethics courses. There are seven articles in this section, all excellently written, some more difficult than others. For the sake of brevity, I will mention just a few of them, although all are recommended.
Michael Novak's "The Stem Cell Slide: Be Alert to the Beginnings of Evil" is useful as an opportunity to illustrate to readers how moral theories can be applied to practical issues. Novak quite rightly points out that President Bush's 2001 speech possesses Kantian undertones, and he brings those out clearly. He further uses Kant's 2nd Categorical Imperative to argue that President Bush's concession to allow federal funds on stem cell lines that already existed at that point also violated Kant's imperative. That is, humans, including embryos on Novak's interpretation, ought not to be treated solely as a means to an end, rendering the killing of embryos for research morally impermissible at all times. Novak's article is also a good tool for going back to Kant and attempting to interpret what he meant by the term "humanity", i.e., whether he meant to denote all and only Homo sapiens as the subject of his imperative or all and only persons, for if Kant meant the latter, Novak's application of the imperative to embryos is erroneous. Nevertheless, the article serves as a good tool for discussing questions about personhood, what counts as a person, and what type of beings may or may not be instrumentalized.
Another notable article in this section is John A. Robertson's "Ethics and Policy in Embryonic Stem Cell Research." In this article, Robertson covers a plethora of issues, from theories of complicity and its role in making stem cell researchers complicit in the death of embryos or aborted fetus, to the issue of creating embryos solely for research, rather than using only surplus In Virto Fertilization (IVF) embryos, to applying both utilitarian and deontic moral theories to this issue. Robertson's article offers a wealth of topics to discuss; when I teach the article I usually do so in on session of a three hour seminar class, and we still do not manage to cover all of his arguments. Students, and perhaps the beginning reader, may find it difficult to follow, but working through it results in thinking about a variety of difficult, but interesting, issues.
Another interesting article included in this section is "Research with Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Ethical Considerations" by the Geron Ethics Advisory Board. The article illustrates how advisory boards come to the decisions that they do and, more specifically for the topic at hand, the article also brings up complex ethical issues, e.g., what does it means for a blastocyst to be treated with respect even when one is endorsing its death at the hands of researchers?
Two philosophical articles included in the second edition that were not in the first are Søren Holm's "The Ethical Case Against Stem Cell Research" and Don Marquis' "Stem Cell Research: The Failure of Bioethics." Both articles present thought-provoking arguments against embryonic stem cell research, and therefore provide a good contrast to Robertson's article, which makes very strong arguments in favor of the research.
Other articles included in this section are Glenn McGee's and Arthur Caplan's "The Ethics and Politics of Small Sacrifices" and Ruth R. Faden's, Liza Dawson's et. al.'s "Public Stem Cell Banks: Considerations of Justice in Stem Cell Research and Therapy."
In both editions, section four is rather invaluable for offering a comprehensive view of the stem cell research issue: in this section, the reader is exposed to a variety of different religious views concerning the topic. There are some articles absent in the second edition that I was sorry to see go, e.g., "The Testimony of Nathan Salley" and "Testimony of Rabbi Elliot N. Dorff." I was particularly disappointed in the absence of the latter, since it provided a window into the Jewish religion and their view regarding the moral status of early embryonic life. I also appreciated Rabbi Dorff's emphasis on the Jewish view that humans have a duty to God and each other to proceed in the discovery of medical therapies.
Despite these omissions, good articles remain in this section of the second edition. "Patient's Voices: The Powerful Sound in the Stem Cell Debate" delineates the millions of people that may be helped by the enhancement of stem cell therapy, a total of 128.4 million. According to the editors' introduction in this section, the main reason they included this piece is to raise the question concerning whether religious groups have a right to impose their belief system on others, especially the dying and afflicted individuals that stem cell research could potentially help.
Aline H. Kalbian's "Stem Cells and the Catholic Church" and Abdulaziz Sachedina's "Testimony for the National Bioethics Commissions" deals with the Catholic and Muslim responses to the issue. Both articles are, of course, edifying, but, for anyone familiar with the first edition, Rabbi Dorff's article is glaringly absent as a complement to these two essays.
A nice addition to this section in the second edition, however, is LeRoy Walters' "Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: An Intercultural Perspective." The article first addresses the differing embryonic stem cell research policies in places like Europe, the Middle East, Asia, Australia, Canada, and the United States of America, amongst others. Walters then discusses differing religious traditions and how these groups approach the issue. Walters specifically discusses Sachedina's article, and hence Walter's essay compliments it nicely. I was particularly pleased to see Walters' inclusion of various eastern religions' (Buddhism, Hinduism, and Taoism) stance on this issue, since these voices are not often heard in our Western culture. Walters' article, therefore, gives a nice survey of both the religious and cultural differences concerning the ethics and practice of embryonic stem cell research. It is certainly a good teaching tool, and a good tool for anyone interested in a broader multicultural perspective on this issue.
Ted Peters, a former member of the Geron Ethics Advisory Board, lends his voice to the second edition with his article "The Stem Cell Controversy." Peters begins the article by noting the religious influence behind President Bush's 2001 decision (he visited Pope John Paul II the night before his speech) and is critical of the attempt to approach the embryonic stem cell research debate as simply a new incarnation of the abortion impasse. Moreover, Peters argues that there is an ethical and theological basis for pursuing embryonic stem cell research. He appeals to the duty of beneficence, the duty that all humans possess to benefit others and engage in good actions towards others. Moreover, he gives this duty a religious spin by stressing that, for those who take Christianity seriously, it should always be remembered that one of Jesus' primary activities was to the heal the sick. Peters does not, however, wish to rob early human life of any dignity whatsoever, and therefore he argues against creating embryos expressly for research purposes. However, he supports using surplus IVF embryos, those that are slated for destruction and thus will meet an inevitable death. According to Walters, the duty of beneficence behooves us to take those embryos that will never be implanted and use them, instead, to help human beings that are suffering from a variety of crippling afflictions and diseases.
Section five, the last part of the book, contains articles dealing with policy issues. While there are many good articles in this section, I was surprise to see absent from the second edition the National Bioethics Advisory Commission's "Ethical Issues in Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: Conclusions and Recommendations." This article was pivotal in my own research, and its absence in the second edition is unfortunate.
Nevertheless, the articles that are present in the second edition are insightful ones. Kenneth L. Ryan's piece, "The Politics and Ethics of Human Embryo and Stem Cell Research" is notable for its section on the history of federal funding regulations for destructive research on embryos and fetuses in the United States of America. Maureen L. Condic's "The Basics about Stem Cells" discusses some difficulties and disadvantages of transplanting embryonic stem cells into human patients, e.g., the issue of immune rejection when foreign cells enter the body of a patient (the same issue that renders organ transplantation a delicate practice), amongst others.
Cindy R. Towns' and D. Gareth Jones' "Stem Cells: Public Policy and Ethics" brings to light what has always seemed to me to be a glaring inconsistency in the current administration's embryonic stem cell policy. As Towns and Jones point out, it is blatantly contradictory to oppose embryonic stem cell research on the grounds that it destroys embryos, but simultaneously laude and support the practice of IVF, which is responsible for the creation and destruction of thousands of surplus embryos. As a manner of rectifying this inconstancy, the authors argue that we should move towards sanctioning the practice of using surplus IVF embryos for stem cell research, rather than allowing them to be destroyed in fertility clinics. Simon Clarke's article "Ethical Consistency in Embryonic Stem Cell Research" takes this argument one step further and argues in favor of creating embryos specifically for research purposes. His reasoning is a strong one: if we allow for the creation and destruction of embryos for the purpose of allowing a childless couple to conceive, it seems that we should also allow for the creation and destruction of embryos for the purpose of seeking therapy or possible cures for life-threatening illnesses. Indeed, Clarke argues, helping to attain cures for these illnesses is a much more important goal than relieving infertility, although the latter, he stresses, is a notable goal as well.
Other articles included in this section are Frank E. Young's "A Time for Restraint," and Andrew W. Siegel's "Locating Convergence: Ethics, Public Policy, and Human Stem Cell Research," For future editions, I hope the editors include, once again, the National Bioethics Advisory Commissions' article.
Overall, The Stem Cell Controversy is an invaluable book to read and own if you are interested in either teaching this issue, conducting your own research, or just if you are looking for an extensive introduction. Almost every possible manner of approaching the issue is covered: from a philosophical approach, to a religious approach, to a discussion concerning the science underlying stem cell research, and policy issues. I would advise someone who is really interested in stem cell research to acquire both editions, since each edition contains excellent articles that the other lacks. However, the book is a must-have for anyone interested in this topic in particular, or in biomedical ethics in general. This is certainly one of the best and most extensive introductory anthologies to the issue of stem cell research I have encountered.
© 2007 Bertha Alvarez Manninen
Bertha Alvarez Manninen, Ph.D., Arizona State University at the West Campus