email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
A Theory of Feelings Addictions Memory and the Self"Intimate" Violence against Women1001 Solution-Focused Questions101 Healing Stories101 Things I Wish I'd Known When I Started Using Hypnosis50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God8 Keys to Body Brain BalanceA Brief History of Modern PsychologyA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Conceptual History of Psychology: Exploring the Tangled Web A Cooperative SpeciesA Guide to Teaching Introductory PsychologyA History of Modern Experimental PsychologyA History of Psychology in AutobiographyA History of Social PsychologyA History of the BrainA History of the MindA Hole in the HeadA Matter of SecurityA Mind of Its OwnA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Place for ConsciousnessA Short Introduction to Promoting Resilience in ChildrenA Social History of PsychologyA Stroll With William JamesA System Architecture Approach to the BrainA Theory of FreedomA Very Bad WizardAbductedAbout FacesAccounts of InnocenceAction, Emotion and WillAdapting MindsADHD & MeADHD in AdultsAdieu to GodAdolescence and Body ImageAdult Bipolar DisordersAdvances in Culture and PsychologyAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAffect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of SelfAffective MappingAgainst EmpathyAgainst HappinessAges and StagesAll Joy and No FunAll Out!All We Have to FearAlterations of ConsciousnessAmerican Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical NeurosciencesAn Argument for MindAncient Bodies, Modern LivesAnd BreatheAnimal MadnessAnimal Tool BehaviorAnimals in TranslationAnomalous CognitionAping MankindArtificial ConsciousnessAspects of PsychologismAsperger Syndrome and Your ChildAsperger Syndrome, Adolescence, and IdentityAssessment and Treatment of Childhood Problems, Second EditionAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAttachedAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutism and the Myth of the Person AloneAutopsy of a Suicidal MindBecoming an Effective PsychotherapistBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing No OneBelievingBetween Two WorldsBeyond AppearanceBeyond BlueBeyond BullyingBeyond MadnessBeyond MelancholyBeyond the BrainBeyond the DSM StoryBig DreamsBiofeedback for the BrainBipolar ChildrenBipolar DisorderBipolar KidsBlackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive DevelopmentBlind SpotsBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlubberlandBlushBodiesBody ConsciousnessBody Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity in YouthBody SenseBody WorkBorderline Personality DisorderBorderline Personality Disorder and the Conversational ModelBorn DigitalBorn to Be GoodBorn Together - Reared ApartBounceBoundaries in Human RelationshipsBounded RationalityBozo SapiensBrain and CultureBrain and the GazeBrain Arousal and Information TheoryBrain BugsBrain Change TherapyBrain Circuitry and Signaling in PsychiatryBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-Based Therapy with AdultsBrain-WiseBrainstormBrainstormingBraintrustBrainwashingBrandedBreaking Murphy's LawBright-SidedBuddha's BrainBullying and TeasingBuyologyCan't You Hear Them?CaptureCare of the PsycheCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCerebrum 2007Cerebrum 2010Cerebrum 2015Cerebrum Anthology 2013Changing the SubjectCharacter Strengths and VirtuesCheating LessonsChild and Adolescent Psychological DisordersChildren’s Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness Chomsky NotebookClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyClinical Psychology in Practice ClosureCognition and PerceptionCognition and the BrainCognitive BiologyCognitive DissonanceCognitive FictionsCognitive Mechanisms of Belief ChangeCognitive PragmaticsCognitive ScienceCognitive ScienceCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Therapy of Anxiety DisordersCognitive Unconscious and Human RationalityCold-Blooded KindnessComing of Age in Second LifeCommunication Issues In Autism And Asperger SyndromeCompassion and Healing in Medicine and SocietyComplementary and Alternative Therapies ResearchComprehending ColumbineConfessions of a SociopathConquering Shame and CodependencyConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the Social BrainConsciousness EmergingConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Self-Consciousness, and the Science of Being HumanContemporary Debates in Cognitive ScienceConversations on ConsciousnessConviction of the InnocentCooperation and Its EvolutionCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCredit and BlameCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychologyCritical Thinking About PsychologyCross-Cultural PsychologyCrowdsourcingCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCuriousDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous and Severe Personality DisorderDaniel DennettDaughters of MadnessDeafness In MindDeath and ConsciousnessDeath of a ParentDecomposing the WillDeep Brain StimulationDeep ChinaDefining DifferenceDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions of GenderDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDeparting from DevianceDescartes' BabyDescartes's Changing MindDescribing Inner Experience?Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Destructive EmotionsDevelopment of Geocentric Spatial Language and CognitionDevelopment of PsychopathologyDialogues on DifferenceDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Digital HemlockDirty MindsDisgust and Its DisordersDisorders of VolitionDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Doing without ConceptsDrunk Tank PinkEducating People to Be Emotionally IntelligentEffective IntentionsEffective Writing in PsychologyEffortless AttentionEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbracing MindEmbracing UncertaintyEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotionally InvolvedEmotionsEmotionsEmotions and LifeEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions RevealedEmotions, Aggression, and Morality in ChildrenEmotions, Stress, and HealthEmpathyEnjoymentErotic MoralityEscape Your Own PrisonEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthically Challenged ProfessionsEveryday Mind ReadingEvidence for PsiEvidence-Based Mental Health PracticeEvil MenEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution and LearningEvolution, Games, and GodEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolutionary Psychology as Maladapted PsychologyExacting BeautyExperiences of DepressionExperimenterExplaining the BrainExplaining the BrainExplorations in Neuroscience, Psychology and ReligionExploring TranssexualismExpression and the InnerExtending Self-Esteem ResearchExtraordinary BeliefsFact and Value in EmotionFaking ItFatigue as a Window to the BrainFavorite Activities for the Teaching of PsychologyFeeling GoodFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFinding Meaning, Facing FearsFitting In Is OverratedFlourishingFlow: The Psychology of Optimal ExperienceFolk Psychological NarrativesFooling HoudiniForever YoungFormulation in Psychology and PsychotherapyFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Psychological ThoughtFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom EvolvesFrom Axons to IdentityFrom Madness to Mental HealthFrom Neurons to Self-ConsciousnessFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Symptom to SynapseFrontiers of ConsciousnessGay, Straight, and the Reason WhyGenerosityGenes, Environment, and PsychopathologyGenetic Nature/CultureGeniusGetting Under the SkinGlued to GamesGoing SaneGot Parts?Group GeniusGrowing Up GirlGuilt, Shame, and AnxietyGut ReactionsHallucinationHandbook New Sexuality StudiesHandbook of Closeness and IntimacyHandbook of Critical PsychologyHandbook of Emotion RegulationHandbook of EmotionsHandbook of Personality DisordersHandbook of PsychopathyHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Spatial CognitionHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness at WorkHappiness Is.Happy at LastHard to GetHardwired BehaviorHatredHealing the SplitHidden ResourcesHope and DespairHot ThoughtHot ThoughtHouse and PsychologyHow Animals Affect UsHow Animals GrieveHow Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Doctors ThinkHow Enlightenment Changes Your BrainHow Families Still MatterHow History Made the MindHow Infants Know MindsHow Many Friends Does One Person Need?How People ChangeHow Professors ThinkHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Change Someone You LoveHow We ReasonHow We RememberHughes' Outline of Modern PsychiatryHumanHuman BondingHuman Reasoning and Cognitive ScienceHypnotismHysteriaiBrainIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIdentifying the MindiDisorderImagination and the Meaningful BrainImitation and the Social MindImpulse Control DisordersImpulsivityIn an Unspoken VoiceIn Defense of SentimentalityIn DoubtIn Search of HappinessIn the Wake of 9/11Individual and Collective Memory ConsolidationInner Experience and NeuroscienceInner PresenceInside the American CoupleIntegrated Behavioral Health CareIntegrating Evolution and DevelopmentIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntellectual DisabilityIntelligenceIntelligence, Destiny, and EducationIntentions and IntentionalityInterdependent MindsInterpreting MindsInto the Minds of MadmenIntoxicating MindsIntrospection VindicatedIntuitionInventing PersonalityInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIs There Anything Good About Men?Issues for Families, Schools and CommunitiesJane Sexes It UpJoint AttentionJoint AttentionJudgment and Decision MakingJust a DogJust BabiesJuvenile-Onset SchizophreniaKarl JaspersKey Thinkers in PsychologyKidding OurselvesKids of CharacterKilling MonstersLack of CharacterLanguage OriginsLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw, Mind and BrainLess Than HumanLet Kids Be KidsLet's Talk About DeathLiving NarrativeLiving with Mild Cognitive ImpairmentLonelinessLooking for SpinozaLossLOT 2Love at Goon ParkMachine ConsciousnessMacrocognitionMade for Each OtherMadnessMaking a Good Brain GreatMaking Habits, Breaking HabitsMaking Minds and MadnessMaking Up the MindMale SexualityMan and WomanMan's Search for MeaningMan, Beast, and ZombieManic MindsManlinessMapping the MindMarking the MindMarvelous Learning AnimalMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaningMeaning, Mortality, and ChoiceMedical MusesMeditating SelflesslyMeetings with a Remarkable ManMemoryMemory and DreamsMemory and EmotionMemory And UnderstandingMental BiologyMental IllnessMental Time TravelMetacognitionMetacognition and Theory of MindMethods in MindMindMindMind and BrainMind and ConsciousnessMind Games:Mind in LifeMind TimeMind to MindMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMindful AngerMindfulnessMindfulnessMindfulness and AcceptanceMindfulness-Based Treatment Approaches: Clinician's Guide to Evidence Base and ApplicationsMinding AnimalsMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds, Brains, and LawMindsightMindworldsMirrors in the BrainMistakes Were Made (But Not by Me)Models of MadnessMoodMoral Development and RealityMoral MindsMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Mothers and OthersMotivation and Cognitive ControlMotivational Interviewing: Preparing People For ChangeMovies and the MindMulticulturalism and the Therapeutic ProcessMultiplicityMuses, Madmen, and ProphetsMy Family AlbumMyths about SuicideNarrative IdentitiesNarrative PsychiatryNarratives in PsychiatryNaturalizing Intention in ActionNature and NarrativeNature Via NurtureNeither Bad nor MadNerveNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeurochemistry of ConsciousnessNeurodiversityNeuroethicsNeuroLogicNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroscience and PhilosophyNo Child Left DifferentNo Two AlikeNot By Genes AloneNot Much Just Chillin'Not So Abnormal PsychologyNurturing the Older Brain and MindOn AnxietyOn Being HumanOn Being MovedOn Deep History and the BrainOn DesireOn KillingOn Nature and LanguageOn PaedophiliaOn PersonalityOn the Frontier of AdulthoodOn the Origins of Cognitive ScienceOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOnflowOpen MindsOpening Skinner's BoxOrigin of MindOrigins of PsychopathologyOther MindsOut of Our HeadsOut of the WoodsOvercoming Depersonalization DisorderPanpsychism and the Religious AttitudePanpsychism in the WestParenting and the Child's WorldPassionate EnginesPathologies of the WestPatient-Based Approaches to Cognitive NeurosciencePediatric PsychopharmacologyPeople Types and Tiger StripesPerception & CognitionPerception beyond InferencePerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPersonal Development and Clinical PsychologyPerspectives on ImitationPhantoms in the BrainPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhrenologyPhysical RealizationPhysics in MindPieces of LightPlaying with FirePositive PsychologyPositive PsychologyPostcards from the Brain MuseumPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPoverty and Brain Development During ChildhoodPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical Management of Personality DisorderPractical Management of Personality DisorderPredicative MindsPredictably IrrationalPreference, Belief, and SimilarityPrenatal Testosterone in MindPrivileged AccessProcrastinationProust Was a NeuroscientistPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsychological AgencyPsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychological Dimensions of the SelfPsychologists Defying the CrowdPsychologyPsychologyPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology for ScreenwritersPsychology of Women: A Handbook of Issues and TheoriesPsychology's GhostsPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology's TerritoriesPsychopathologyPsychopathyPsychosis and EmotionPsychotherapy, American Culture, and Social PolicyPutnam CampPutting a Name to ItQuantum Memory PowerQuietRadical DistortionRadical Embodied Cognitive ScienceRadical ExternalismRadical GraceRapeRe-Visioning PsychiatryReal MaterialismReality CheckReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecovery in Mental IllnessRecreative MindsRedirectReducing Adolescent RiskRegulating EmotionsRelational BeingRelational Mental HealthRelational Suicide AssessmentReliability in Cognitive NeuroscienceRemembering HomeRemembering Our ChildhoodResearch Advances in Genetics and GenomicsResearching Children's ExperienceResilience in ChildrenRestoring ResilienceRethinking ADHDRethinking Learning DisabilitiesRethinking Middle YearsRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfRevolution in PsychologyRoadmap to ResilienceRomance and Sex in Adolescence and Emerging AdulthoodSchizophrenia RevealedSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologySecond NatureSecond NatureSecond That EmotionSecond-order Change in PsychotherapySecrets of the MindSee What I'm SayingSee What I'm SayingSeeing and VisualizingSeeing RedSelf and SocietySelf Comes to MindSelf Control in Society, Mind, and BrainSelf-Awareness Deficits in Psychiatric PatientsSelf-CompassionSelf-RegulationSelf-Representational Approaches to ConsciousnessSelfless InsightSelvesSerial KillersSex at DawnSex on the BrainSex, Time and PowerSexual Coercion in Primates and HumansSexual DisordersSexual FluiditySexual ReckoningsSexualized BrainsShame and GuiltShatteredSimulating MindsSisyphus's BoulderSNAPSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial Psychology and DiscourseSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSoul DustSparkSpiral of EntrapmentSplendors and Miseries of the BrainSports Hypnosis in PracticeStanding at Water's EdgeStich and His CriticsStillpowerStop OverreactingStructure and Agency in Everyday LifeStructures of AgencyStuffStumbling on HappinessSubjectivity and SelfhoodSubstance Abuse and EmotionSupersizing the MindSweet DreamsSynaptic SelfTales from Both Sides of the BrainTalking Oneself SoberTalking to BabiesTaming the Troublesome ChildTargeting AutismTeaching Problems and the Problems of TeachingTeleological RealismTen Years of Viewing from WithinTestosterone RexThat's DisgustingThe 5 Elements of Effective ThinkingThe Accidental MindThe Age of EmpathyThe Altruism EquationThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Clinical PsychiatryThe Anatomy of BiasThe Anxious BrainThe Archaeology of MindThe Art and Science of MindfulnessThe Art InstinctThe Art of HypnosisThe Asymmetrical BrainThe Bifurcation of the SelfThe Big Book of ConceptsThe Big DisconnectThe Birth of IntersubjectivityThe Birth of the MindThe Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge ManagementThe Blank SlateThe Body Has a Mind of Its OwnThe Bounds of CognitionThe Boy Who Was Raised as a DogThe BrainThe BrainThe Brain and the Meaning of LifeThe Brain SupremacyThe Brain That Changes ItselfThe Brain's Way of HealingThe Brain: Big Bangs, Behaviors, and BeliefsThe Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive ScienceThe Cambridge Handbook of Situated CognitionThe Character of ConsciousnessThe Chemistry Between UsThe Choice EffectThe Clinical Science of Suicide PreventionThe Cognitive Approach to Conscious MachinesThe Cognitive Behavioral Workbook for Anxiety: A Step-By-Step ProgramThe Cognitive NeurosciencesThe Cognitive-Emotional BrainThe College Fear FactorThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Compass of PleasureThe Concepts of ConsciousnessThe Conscious BrainThe Conscious SelfThe Consuming InstinctThe Creating BrainThe Creative BrainThe Crucible of ConsciousnessThe Crucible of ExperienceThe Cure WithinThe Dao of NeuroscienceThe Developing MindThe Developing MindThe Development of PsychopathologyThe Disappearance of the Social in American Social PsychologyThe Dissolution of MindThe Duty to ProtectThe Educated ParentThe Ego TunnelThe Elephant in the RoomThe Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human ExperienceThe Emotional Journey of the Alzheimer's FamilyThe Encultured BrainThe Encyclopedia of StupidityThe Enduring Self in People with Alzheimer'sThe Epidemiology of SchizophreniaThe Essential DifferenceThe Ethical BrainThe Evolution of ChildhoodThe Evolution of CooperationThe Evolution of LanguageThe Evolution of MindThe Evolving BrainThe Executive BrainThe Faces of TerrorismThe Feeling BrainThe Feeling of What HappensThe First IdeaThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Foundations of Cognitive ArchaeologyThe Fundamentalist MindsetThe GapThe Gender TrapThe Geography of BlissThe Gift of ShynessThe Good LifeThe Good LifeThe Happiness HypothesisThe Happiness of PursuitThe Health Psychology HandbookThe Healthy Aging BrainThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of PsychologyThe Human FaceThe Human SparkThe Hypomanic EdgeThe Imagery DebateThe Immeasurable MindThe Imprinted BrainThe Incredible Shrinking MindThe Innate MindThe Innate MindThe Integrated SelfThe Intentional BrainThe Language of ThoughtThe Languages of the BrainThe Lexicon of Adlerian PsychologyThe Lie DetectorsThe Lives of the BrainThe Lonely AmericanThe Lust for BloodThe Madness of WomenThe Male BrainThe Man Who Lost His LanguageThe Man Who Shocked the WorldThe Man Who Tasted ShapesThe Man Who Wasn't ThereThe Matter of the MindThe Mature MindThe Mean Girl MotiveThe Meaning of EvilThe Meaning of OthersThe Meaning of the BodyThe Measure of MadnessThe Measure of MindThe Medicalization of Everyday LifeThe Mind and the BrainThe Mind in ContextThe Mind of the ChildThe Mind of the HorseThe Mind's EyeThe Mind, the Body and the WorldThe Mind-Gut ConnectionThe Mindful BrainThe Misleading MindThe Moral MindThe Most Dangerous AnimalThe Most Human HumanThe Mother FactorThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of Depression as DiseaseThe Myth of Mirror NeuronsThe Myth of Self HelpThe Myth of Self-EsteemThe Myth of the Spoiled ChildThe Nature of the SelfThe Necessity Of MadnessThe Neuro RevolutionThe Neuron and the MindThe Neuropsychology of the UnconsciousThe Neuroscience of Human RelationshipsThe Neuroscience of PsychotherapyThe Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social BrainThe New BrainThe New Science of DreamingThe New Science of the MindThe New UnconsciousThe Normal PersonalityThe Origins of FairnessThe Overflowing BrainThe Oxford Companion to the MindThe Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of MindThe Paradoxical PrimateThe Perfectionist's HandbookThe Peripheral MindThe Phenomenology ReaderThe Philosopher's Secret FireThe Philosophical BabyThe Political MindThe Politics of HappinessThe Positive Side of Negative EmotionsThe Postnational SelfThe Postpartum EffectThe Power of PlayThe Praeger Handbook of TranssexualityThe Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday LifeThe Primate MindThe Prism of GrammarThe Psychobiology of Trauma and Resilience Across the LifespanThe Psychological Construction of EmotionThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of HappinessThe Psychology of LifestyleThe Psychology of Religious FundamentalismThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of SpiritualityThe Psychology of StereotypingThe Psychology of SuperheroesThe Psychophysiology of Self-AwarenessThe Pursuit of PerfectThe Quest for Mental HealthThe Rational ImaginationThe Ravenous BrainThe Reasons of LoveThe Righteous MindThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Science of EvilThe Science of Intimate RelationshipsThe Science of Shame and its Treatment The Second SelfThe Secret History of EmotionThe Secret Lives of BoysThe Self and Its EmotionsThe Self-Sabotage CycleThe Sense of SelfThe Sensitive SelfThe Shape of ThoughtThe Social AnimalThe Social Nature of Mental IllnessThe Social Neuroscience of EmpathyThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Story of Intellectual DisabilityThe Structure of ThinkingThe Survivors ClubThe Talking ApeThe Teenage BrainThe Tell-Tale BrainThe Temperamental ThreadThe Tender CutThe Tending InstinctThe Time ParadoxThe Trauma MythThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trouble with IllnessThe True PathThe Truth About GriefThe Turing TestThe Uncertain SciencesThe Undoing ProjectThe Unhappy ChildThe Upside of IrrationalityThe War for Children's MindsThe Well-Tuned BrainThe Wild Girl, Natural Man, and the MonsterThe Winner's BrainThe Wisdom in FeelingThe Woman RacketThe World in My Mind, My Mind in the WorldThe Wow ClimaxThe Yipping TigerThemes, Issues and Debates in PsychologyTheoretical Issues in Psychology: An IntroductionTheory of AddictionTheory of MindThings and PlacesThink CatThink Confident, Be ConfidentThinking about AddictionThinking and SeeingThis Emotional Life: In Search of Ourselves...and HappinessThought and LanguageThought in a Hostile WorldTo Have and To Hurt:Toward an Evolutionary Biology of LanguageToward Replacement Parts for the BrainTrauma and Human ExistenceTrauma, Tragedy, TherapyTreating Attachment DisordersTreating Self-InjuryTreating Self-Injury: A Practical GuideTrue to Our FeelingsTrusting the Subject?Understanding and Treating Borderline Personality DisorderUnderstanding ConsciousnessUnderstanding ParanoiaUnderstanding PeopleUnderstanding TerrorismUndoing Perpetual StressUnlock the Genius WithinUnsettled MindsUnstrange MindsUnthinkingUnthoughtUs and ThemViolent PartnersVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVision and MindVisual AgnosiaWarrior's DishonourWe Who Are DarkWednesday Is Indigo BlueWelcome to Your BrainWhat Do Women Want?What Dying People WantWhat Have We DoneWhat Intelligence Tests MissWhat Is an Emotion: Classic and Contemporary ReadingsWhat Is Emotion?What is Intelligence?What Is Mental Illness?What Is Thought?What Makes Your Brain Happy and Why You Should Do the Opposite What the Best College Students DoWhat the Dog SawWhat We Know about Emotional IntelligenceWhat We Say MattersWhat's Wrong With Morality?When Boys Become BoysWhen Perfect Isn't Good EnoughWhen the Impossible HappensWhen Walls Become DoorwaysWho's Been Sleeping in Your HeadWho's in Charge?Why Humans Like to CryWhy Love MattersWhy Lyrics LastWhy People CooperateWhy People Die by SuicideWhy Sex Matters: A Darwinian Look at Human BehaviorWhy Smart People Can Be So StupidWhy the Mind is Not a ComputerWhy Us?Why We LieWhy We LoveWider than the SkyWilliam James at the BoundariesWilling, Wanting, WaitingWittgenstein And PsychologyWomen and Child Sexual AbuseWorking MindsYoga and PsychologyYou Are What You RememberYoung Minds in Social WorldsYour Brain on CubsYour Brain on FoodYour Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings,Your Brain on YogaYour Child in the BalanceZombies and Consciousness
If you thought the title was about boy meets girl, its not, it's about mum meets baby and baby meets mum in a reciprocal bonding and attachment relationship, and the neuronal plastic adaptations that follow, enabling adult interactions with the social environment. As Luria wrote, more than half a century ago, socialisation ties the cortical knots that make up who we are in our culture.
Now, Cozolino writes that it is the power of being with others that shapes our brains. By attachment, in its reciprocity, we bind to another and establish ourselves in terms of our 'self'. Psychotherapy has long paid attention to bonding, since Bowlby: (see Treating Attachment Disorders: From Theory to Therapy, 1999)
Louis Cozolino has written before about the neuroscience of psychotherapy (see The Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Building and Rebuilding the Human Brain, 2002). In a somewhat similar vein he takes on another psychosocial encounter, but one which is natural, and less contrived. In this book Cozolino evaluates how we live in the perception of the 'I' have relationships, with an influence on the subjective experience of being with others from our perspective, and also how we are created in terms of these encounters, with our evolution as social creatures inextricably bound up with our biology.
The first examination of this topic takes place in the context of the brain as a social creation, first emerging in the 1970's. We survive because initially we have others such as the mother as our primary environ, driven by drives to protect us, and later instruct us, for personal as well as altruistic, group reasons. In many ways the drives that nurture are non-selfish, enhancing the well being and continuity of the group, or immediate species. Here now follows the first of many vignettes that Cozolino uses to illustrate his point. This first one includes a dying father and his distressed child, with Cozolino joining in for a few tears at the deathbed when confronting his and the father's emotions around the emerging affection the therapist felt for the boy. He describes himself as a wooden cello with strings that resonate with the family, in an empathic resonance. As with my readings of the narrative therapists, who also seem to shed a tear or two, I wonder why I have felt like crying at times, but never did, with my patients: in a way I felt it was disrespectful, that I was just visiting their lives, not living it with them, and hence my tears were irrelevant to them. I note the Motivational Interviewing experts do warn against thinking that we are not just visiting their problems. I remain ambivalent. As poignant as the writing is, and as much as I empathise with Cozolino, I hear the words of the old mentor, Kubler-Ross: when you find yourself crying, it's your own unfinished business, not empathy necessarily.
Nevertheless the vignette is poignant, and demonstrates Cozolino's humanness as a social creature, after all, which is I am sure what he is striving for.
The second chapter refers to an evolving brain, namely one which is not born with any real maturity, and thus takes time to evolve with the creature into an independent self. An interesting fact is expressed about the whites of our eyes, which he asserts evolved so that others could see where we were looking, as opposed to those with unicolour eyes, predators, whose prey needed to not see where they were looking.
Other methods that evolved enabling us to demonstrate to others that we are not just blank tablets, include blushing and pupil dilation. He goes on to discuss the triune brain and hemispheric specialisation, and heads for the phenomenon of evolving social communication. This chapter ends with another vignette, briefer, and more to the point about how we engage with our environment.
Part Two and thus Chapter Three covers basic ideas on neuronal systems and then the social changes in that most hectic time for neuronal development, adolescence, namely increases in white matter and decreases in gray matter. He relates this to the changes in social interaction that make demands of the teenager. He carries on in a similar way enlightening on the change in adult brain, and finishes with a vignette about a woman who finds, as recent research has done, that while memory and other functions may slip, the rewards are the disconnected emotional working memory and wisdom strengths that emerge. Another point made here is how essential socialisation is to survival. Most of this is now becoming mainstream information in aging, and valuable in ways to boost the aging brain it seems; (see the video "Brain Health" with Roy Sugarman for a brief summary).
In keeping with the theme, Cozolino moves from chapter 4 onward into a more up close neuronal view of the brain, and the more macro structures and systems of the social brain are examined, in particular the sensory, motor and affective systems and their integration, and again, a vignette of psychophysiological illness to illustrate.
Chapter Five is taken up by 'social and emotional laterality'. By this, he means the emergence of the hemispheric biases of the brain, with left leaning more toward approach, social emotions and positive affect, the right toward bonding, avoidance, self awareness, personal emotions, negative affect, facial expression and reading gaze, facial recognition and intonation. Here, he documents how the growth spurts between birth and 12 years wind their way back and forward between the right and left sides, always in concert with the environmental interactions and stimuli. Emotions and cognition integrate, and 'Pedro' rounds off the chapter. Interestingly, with one side of his face paralysed, Pedro cannot feel the full valence of his emotions. If you want to know which side, you will have to buy the book, but any Neuropsychologist will tell you which it is most likely to be, contralateral to which hemisphere. Or you could email Michael Gazzaniga.
Part Three refers to the social synapse, or what Cozolino will investigate in terms of neuronal plasticity that is dependent on socialisation. Predictably and reasonably, this begins with the influence of parenting and protection early in the postnatal period, and the focus on social engagement in the maturing child. The vagal system as a regulating 'brake' is closely annotated, and Charlie, who was “born to be wild”, is the vignette of note here. Worryingly is the return to parent blaming, with a referral to good-enough parenting, without much other than passing comment. From here on, Cozolino will introduce one part or system of the brain as a putative neuronal substrate for the topic, a little taste of modern localization-ism.
Chapter Seven begins with an examination of the primal sources of attachment, the unspoken things that begin right away and drive connectedness. These include smells, pheromones, sounds and sights, instincts, and as with a vagal focus in the previous chapter, he focuses here on the cingulate cortex and its putative role in monitoring and labelling salience in interpersonal interactions. Joaquin is helped to understand the body-brain-mind interactions.
Chapter Eight deals with love: attention is given to the role of social regulators and chemical modulators, including here neurotransmitters and other chemistry. An interesting foray into the biochemistry of social motivation is a focus here, in terms of how we analyse rewards as opposed to just feeling them, a novel approach I think. In this way relationships come to regulate us in the same way that biological rewards did, earlier on. We won't mention Stan here, who was “addicted to love”. I think Cozolino dates himself here, with a wide range in music from The Easy Rider to Robert Palmer, but we are spared more catchy titles in later vignettes.
Systems of memory, such as implicit memory, are reinvented with social memory added in and on. A brief chapter, some interesting assertions, fleshed out with Brian, who has a headache of sorts.
Bowlby is finally introduced in Chapter Ten by way of a quote. The chapter covers ways of bonding, meant here as the practice of measuring attachment by observation of mothers in various interactions both past and present, as relationships become biological structure, another very brief chapter with the inevitable illustrative vignette, this time about a couple, as opposed to a single patient. I wonder however about the role of Dads in this modern age, and how attachment applies to males in a patriarchal world, or at least one where men feel 'Stiffed' in the Susan Faludi genre. After all, how does this all work when men increasingly take paternity leave, where the idea of a mothering instinct has long been trashed, where parents are more likely to be of mature age, and most fathers today have never seen Peter Fonda fall off his motorcycle while dying to be wild. It seems that older theories do not account for fathering, and less bonding in tighter nuclear families, in a post-modern and post-feminist world, with all of its backlashes. In a modern world, with its social interactions, families are speaking with different voices, as Carol Gilligan would agree, and as far as narrative goes, it is different now, and perhaps Bowlby and others who followed would see the family and parenting a little differently. Certainly, more interesting philosophies are flowing from the primates in Elizabeth Gould's laboratory in Stanford, primates she goes nowhere near, but reinforcing Cozolino's insights into the brain-social environ interaction. Perhaps, more of the Mother-as-social-environment in the modern world would make more sense, with the insights of modern neuroscience, not Bowlby.
Part Four, Chapter Eleven returns to an earlier annotated set of facts, namely that of gaze in evolution, with focus here on the amygdala and a vignette in the middle of the chapter, increasing the place for these as the book hots up.
Faces dominate Chapter Twelve, with a detailed review of facial recognition, both for the structure as well as the function of conveying and recognising emotions. No vignette here.
Just as I was wondering, having seen him refer to mirror neurons and empathy before, he brings it back in Chapter Thirteen, with the unfortunate subtitle of 'monkey see, monkey do' a kind of cheap shot in many ways, our referential primates being who they are, namely apes, there are no monkeys in my heritage as far as I know, looking at my resume. Nelson is the vignette here, with theory of mind, as well as language, reviewed briefly here. A nice addition is the brain regions involved in Theory Of Mind.
Chapter Fourteen is a further exploration of Empathy and related topics such as resonance and 'attunement', redolent of his earlier referral to himself as a wooden cello with strings: I think he means cognition with emotion, which are separate issues in our heads. By now, the vignettes are in the middle of the chapter, and Suzanne who was depressed, and cared too much, equally does well. The neural focus here, most helpful, as always in his chapters, is the insula and its activations.
Chapter Fifteen and Part Five study disorders of the brain, with an interpersonal, social perspective. This begins with the impact of early stress, including prenatal stress and maternal depression. These are reviewed as interactive, not focussed on individual pathology. The HPA axis is predictably the focus here, and Stephan leads us into a discussion of childhood abuse and neglect as interpersonal trauma in Chapter 16. References predicably include De Bellis and Teicher, as well as Perry, but Danya Glaser's excellent review is missing, which I think he would have enjoyed. He focuses on the hippocampus here, but the HPA axis would have been a good repeat analysis to explain why the dissociation in his two chapters is a feature.
A good place to go to now is exactly where he does, with social phobia dominating Chapter 17. The vignette is understandably upfront, given the controversy in this diagnosis on both sides of the Atlantic, with differing epidemiology as to incidence. The amygdala is brought back for a guest focus, with fast and slow circuits examined, which is good. A surprising inclusion is racism, as a form of social phobia, again a good idea I think.
Again, prediction dictates Borderline Personality Disorder should now be introduced, and it is, in Chapter 18, and again, a good idea to have the vignette of Jasmine up front. Brains of the borderline sufferers are discussed, and opinions rendered on self harm and self loathing. Endorphins, earlier discussed in respect to bonding, are reintroduced as evidence of the anaesthesia of self injurious behaviour, but no mention of glutamate and other excito-toxic mechanisms that may have explained the damage seen on scans by Teicher and others.
Chapter 19 looks at psychopathy and the antisocial brain, with the focus on the prefrontal cortex. Autism, Aspergers, Williams and other syndromes are discussed, before Part Six and Chapter 21 emerge. Now, he becomes more serious and detailed, with the messenger systems of the brain discussed in humans, and the regulatory effect this has on facilitation of human interpersonal connection and regulation, from neurons to narrative, as he terms it. This emerges via an integration of systems, with elements of metaphor and narrative used as vehicles as we attempt to regulate our emotions and experience of challenges, such as the little engine that could. The 'planes' of neural integration are represented here by a simplistic reductionist graphic, but he uses this well to illustrate what he means in terms of neuronal integration at different levels of abstraction. He will argue in the rest of the chapter for such integration, and the ways in which neuroscience may advance the practice of therapy but not neglecting the brain, a theme from a previous book noted above.
To this end, the next chapter is devoted to healing relationships, and one can again see the continuity of his prior books, and this one. He refers to loving and fearing brains, with love activating the brain's social engagement and reward systems, fear doing the opposite and creating other problems. Healing relationships thus involve learning to not be afraid, and also learning to love and I presume, trust.
Chapter 23 is the last, where it would be expected that he brings together his thoughts on social brain, and 'group mind', he instead focuses on culture, and storytelling, wisdom and the evolution of consciousness, all in brief, and the book ends.
Overall an interesting and readable book, with a lot of more in depth information that if included, would've have strengthened the previous book on the neuroscience of psychotherapy, that left one most dissatisfied. This is much better, but his next edition should include a musing sense of closure, rather than introducing a whole host of fascinating stuff, which he hardly then deals with. A closing, summarising of all of the complex and novel things he introduces, would strengthen the book.
I am also wary of the way he uses older theories with more modern information, a reasonable and interesting approach, but one which produces more questions than answers, and at times seems tenuous no matter how he jazzes it up with useful vignettes.
However, when you finish this book, you would have learned a lot that you already knew, just put differently, and in a readable form, and with some valuable insights for both student and graduate, worth the money, if not right on the money.
© 2007 Roy Sugarman
Roy Sugarman PhD, Director of Clinical and Neuropsychological Services, Brain Resource Company, Ultimo, Australia