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"Intimate" Violence against Women3 NBS of Julian DrewA Little PregnantA Natural History of RapeA Parent's Guide to Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning AutismA Stir of BonesAbout a BoyAdult Children of Emotionally Immature ParentsAgainst MarriageAgainst MarriageAlmost a PsychopathAlone TogetherAnatomy of LoveAngelsAnother CountryAnxious ParentsApples and OrangesBe Honest--You're Not That Into Him EitherBeing the Other OneBetrayed as BoysBeyond AddictionBipolar DisorderBoys Will Put You on a Pedestal (So They Can Look Up Your Skirt)Breaking ApartBrief Adolescent Therapy Homework PlannerBringing Up ParentsBut I Love HimCaring for a Child with AutismCaring in Remembered WaysCherishmentChildren of the Aging Self-AbsorbedChildren of the Self-AbsorbedChildren, Families, and Health Care Decision MakingClawsCloserCold HitCoping With Difficult PeopleCouple SkillsCruddyDancing in My NuddypantsDivorce PoisonDoing ItDone With The CryingEcstasyEmotional ClaustrophobiaEmotional Fitness for IntimacyEmotional Intelligence at WorkEntwined LivesErotic PassionsEssentials of Premarital CounselingEvery Pot Has a CoverFacts About ADHD ChildrenFamilies Like MineFamilyFamily BoundFamily FirstFear of IntimacyFinal JeopardyFind MeFlashpointFor Lesbian ParentsForgive Your Parents, Heal YourselfGandhi's WayGeorgia Under WaterGetting over Getting MadGetting the Love You WantGetting the Love You Want Audio CompanionGirl in the MirrorGirl StuffGoing Home without Going CrazyHandbook of AttachmentHandbook of Counseling and Psychotherapy with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual ClientsHappiness Sold SeparatelyHard to GetHe's Just Not That Into YouHealing ConversationsHollow KidsHot ButtonsHot Chocolate for the Mystical LoverHow Families Still MatterHow to Create Chemistry with AnyoneHow to Give Her Absolute PleasureHow to Handle a Hard-To-Handle KidHow to Keep Your Teenager Out of Trouble and What to Do If You Can'tI am Not Sick I Don't Need Help!I Don't Know How She Does ItI Hate You-Don't Leave MeI Only Say This Because I Love YouI'm OK, You're My ParentsIn the Mood, AgainInside the American CoupleIntrusive ParentingIt's Called a Breakup Because It's BrokenIt's Love We Don't UnderstandJakarta MissingKeeping Passion AliveKeeping Your Child in MindLet's Get This StraightLiberation's ChildrenLife's WorkLikely to DieLove JunkieLove SickLove Times ThreeLove Works Like ThisLoving Someone With Bipolar DisorderLoving Someone with Borderline Personality DisorderLust in TranslationMaking the RunMaking the RunManic DepressionMars and Venus - Starting Over.Mating in CaptivityMom, Dad, I'm Gay.MotherstylesMurder in the InnMysterious CreaturesNecessary NoiseOdd Girl OutOpenOpening to Love 365 Days a YearOphelia's MomOrgasmsOur Journey Through High Functioning Autism and Asperger SyndromeOut of the DustOvercoming Your Difficult FamilyParenting and the Child's WorldParenting on the GoParenting Your Out-Of-Control TeenagerParents and Digital TechnologyParents Do Make a DifferencePassionate MarriagePlanet JanetPreventing Misbehavior in ChildrenProblem Child or Quirky Kid?Raising AmericaRaising ElijahRaising Kids in an Age of TerrorRaising Kids in the 21st CenturyRaising Resilient ChildrenRay's a LaughRelationship RescueRespect-Me RulesRomantic IntelligenceRoom For JSecrets of a Passionate MarriageSelf-NurtureSelfish, Shallow, and Self-AbsorbedSex Addiction: The Partner's PerspectiveShidduch CrisisSickenedSingleSlut!Socrates in LoveSomeone Like YouSong for EloiseSpecial SiblingsSpiritually Healing the Indigo Children (and Adult Indigos, Too!)Staying Connected to Your TeenagerStaying Sane When Your Family Comes to VisitStop Arguing with Your KidsStop SignsStop Walking on EggshellsStop Walking on EggshellsStrong, Smart, & BoldSummer of the SkunksSurviving a Borderline ParentTaking Charge of AngerTelling SecretsThank You for Being Such a PainThe Anti-Romantic ChildThe AwakeningThe Bastard on the Couch CDThe Birth of PleasureThe Brief Couples Therapy Homework Planner with DiskThe Bully Action GuideThe Burden of SympathyThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe CorrectionsThe Couples Psychotherapy Treatment PlannerThe DisappearanceThe Dream BearerThe Educated ParentThe Emotional RevolutionThe Employee Assistance Treatment PlannerThe EpidemicThe Ethics of ParenthoodThe Ethics of the FamilyThe Gay Baby BoomThe Good DivorceThe Guide for International Intercultural Couples and Families Intercultural MarriageThe Healing Journey for CouplesThe Hostile HospitalThe Husbands and Wives ClubThe Inside Story on Teen GirlsThe Introvert AdvantageThe Little FriendThe Love HexagonThe Moral Intelligence of ChildrenThe Neuroscience of Human RelationshipsThe New I DoThe Normal OneThe Nurture AssumptionThe OASIS Guide to Asperger SyndromeThe Other ParentThe Philosophical ParentThe Psychology of Parental ControlThe Real Rules for GirlsThe Reflective ParentThe Right to Be ParentsThe Secret Lives of WivesThe Spider and the BeeThe State of AffairsThe StepsThe Story of My FatherThe Velveteen FatherThe Virgin BlueThe Visitation HandbookThe Whole ChildTo Have and To Hurt:Two Is EnoughUnderstanding MarriageUnderstanding the Borderline MotherUnhitchedUp in FlamesWe've Got IssuesWhat about the KidsWhat Goes UpWhat Is Secular Humanism?What It Means to Love YouWhat Our Children Teach UsWhen a Parent is DepressedWhen Mars Women DateWhen Someone You Love Is BipolarWhen Someone You Love Is DepressedWhy Are You So Sad?Will You, Won't You?WomanWorking With Emotional IntelligenceWorried All the TimeYes, Your Teen Is Crazy!
Girl Press, the publishing house that issues both of these texts for budding fem-teens, claims to offer "slightly dangerous books for girl mavericks," and does so with these and other titles such as Girl Boss: Running the Show Like the Big Chicks, Girl Director: Making Your Own Chick Flick, and Zine Scene: The Do-It-Yourself Guide to Zines. It's a publishing house with a purpose, as explained in the latter pages of its books: "Girl Press is dedicated to creating books for girls that will make them strong, self-reliant, and ready for life's adventures. Girl Press backs up this message by donating a portion of its proceeds to nonprofit organizations working for girls." A laudable purpose, certainly, and the press gives good effort toward its goals by offering The Real Rules for Girls and Cool Women: The Thinking Girl's Guide to the Hippest Women in History.
It goes without saying (but I'll say it anyway) that the current state of literature for teenage and pre-teen girls is lacking a great deal in the progressive thinking department. Admittedly, I'm not completely up-to-date on today's reading lists for teenage girls, but judging from magazines such as Seventeen and serial novels that are basically prequels to bosom-heaving historical romance schlock, much content directed toward this demographic seems designed to bolster insecurities rather than inner strengths. Pointing out flaws and feeding self-consciousness is a great marketing tool for makers of "feminine" products (cosmetics, hygiene, special diets)-like cigarette companies, they realize it's good to create that false sense of "need" at a young age (it drives things like brand awareness, which can last a lifetime). The "good economy" of the past decade also means that certain young girls have increasingly larger disposable incomes-and insecurity + income = a sure-fire formula for consumption. Additionally, and somewhat ironically, teen-girl content tends to focus on boys (as in the boys the teenage girls must "get" in order to have the proper amount of self-worth) rather than the girls it is marketed to. Occasionally, a Judy Blume or a Reviving Ophelia will come along to present a healthy alternative, but these works are still not the norm. Girl Press seems to be attempting to provide the missing link between mainstream girl-content and feminist theory. Hip layouts and attention-span defying text grab the eye of the increasingly media-savvy teenager, and slip in the power of positive thinking along the way. This is not Feminism 101, but it ain't TeenBeat either.
Mindy Morgenstern's diminutive book, The Real Rules for Girls, complete with foreword and endorsement by actress Courtney Cox Arquette, juxtaposes crisp, overexposed black-and-white images from the repressive (and glamorous) 1950s with girl-positive text and quotes from famous women. It proceeds by way of two-page spreads which offer a sentence of sage advice in yellow font atop the aforementioned 50s b/w glamour shot on the left-hand side, and a short paragraph of explanatory text surrounded with quotes of varying relevance to the topic-at-hand on the right. Sections include Romance, Work, Social Life, Family, Money, and Life Tips. Advice ranges from somewhat traditional ("Your mom will always make you crazy") to more "maverick" ("The person who tells you to celebrate your period has never had one."). Clearly, this book is set up to be an alternative to that rather backward-thinking text of a few years back, The Rules.
There is content in the Morgenstern book that is right on, such as the spreads on self-esteem (quite relevant in the young girl's life). For instance, the "This is the best part of the head cheerleader's life" spread advises the reader that "chances are, she's peaked while you still have buttloads of time to do great things," couples that advice with a quote from Ms. Steinem herself, "Women whose identity depends more on their outsides than their insides are dangerous when they begin to age," and frames it all with the following vaguely relevant text, "Don't get crazy about results. Everything's not about winning in the classical sense. The key is learning to enjoy the process along the way. Because most times you'll learn something new about yourself in the process and that, my friends, is winning." Although the remark about the cheerleader can be viewed as divisive (surely there is room within the feminist camp for cheerleaders, or at least enlightened ones), the whole cheerleader schtick has undoubtedly become a standard against which teenage girls are measured. The intent of this spread is not to engender unnecessary woman against woman hostility, but rather to offer perspective to girls who aren't enjoying the shallow status and privilege that high school popularity offers. Recalling my own open resentment of cheerleaders and their ilk, it's not that I wanted to be them, but it certainly seemed unfair that simply because they played into the preset "rules" of femininity so well, they were looked upon positively and given a great deal of power within the community of adolescence that we were forced to share. Morgenstern is offering valuable perspective on issues that can cloud young visions.
Despite my overall satisfaction with girl-positive texts such as The Real Rules, I do have some rather serious problems with Morgenstern's approach. At times she seems to forget her audience, while at other times, she inadvertently reaffirms negative stereotypes of girls. Occasionally, the book is far too upperclass, hetero, and upward mobility oriented for me. At its worst, The Real Rules reads like self-help for Morgenstern, at times a bit too self-reflective and personal. Some examples:
"Here's the deal-you'll never use trigonometry again. Ever." Not true for girls going into math and sciences.
"It's worth spending $50,000 on psychotherapy to feel better about your nose than to pay $10,000 for a nose job." How about neither?
"Take a 2nd look at the dweeb." For what purpose? What if the girl is the dweeb? What is a dweeb, anyway? And isn't Morgenstern supposed to be encouraging girls to move beyond directing their lives and friendships for the purpose of landing a "brilliant billionaire"? Whence this male-centeredness in such an allegedly girl-positive text?
"Don't pluck! Wax or electrolysize for God's sake. It is the quick fix, but plucking only makes hair more coarse." For God's sake, don't be hairy. It isn't feminine. You may be empowered, but you must also be presentable/socially acceptable.
"When I go to a party, I like to pretend I'm not me
try to emulate the personality of a friend or a movie star who's got it going on. How can you fail if you're Cameron Diaz?" If you're not Cameron Diaz, for instance. Incidentally, this tidbit was located on a page above a quote from Janis Joplin: "Don't compromise yourself. You're all you've got." Seems as if Ms. Morgenstern could stand to learn a bit from her own book.
It is this sort of contradictory advice that makes The Real Rules more of a mixed bag of advice to draw from selectively rather than to digest as a whole. Unfortunately, its target audience may not be equipped with the skills for such picking and choosing. The Real Rules is well intended, but definitely lacking.
Cool Women is a more palatable resource than Rules. It's not perfect (Emma Goldman, where are you?), but it makes a valiant effort, and the result is a solid resource/reference text of important female historical (and mythical) figures. The introduction grounds the book firmly within the context in which it was intended to be read, stating "This book is not about heroine worship." Rather than canonizing these women, Cool Women seeks to offer human examples of strength and vision, encouraging young girls toward "takeoff." These are not women presented as unattainable airbrushed ideals of perfection and objects of male lust. The women in Cool Women are doin' it for themselves, and the message is clearly, "If she did it, so can you."
I learned quite a bit from this book. Sure, some of the usual suspects are present (Amelia Earhart, Annie Oakley, Harriet Tubman, Madame Curie), but there are also some controversial choices to spur the critical thinking (Scarlett O'Hara, Evita Peron), as well as women who didn't make it into the conventional western history texts (Gertrude Bell, Babe Didrikson, Althea Gibson, Mother Jones, Lakshmi Bai, Madame C.J. Walker, Wu Zhao, Queen Njinga, Lozen, Margaret Bourke-White, Janet Flanner). Cool Women also offers mythical and fictional female characters for perusal, such as "Cool Goddesses," Nancy Drew, Comic Book Queens, Amazons. Groups of powerful women are also given spreads (Baseball Barnstormers, Soviet Flying Aces, Soldaderas, Suffragists, Lady Spies, Lady Samurais, Harlem Renaissance Women, Blues Divas).
The content of Cool Women places its subjects within historical perspective. For instance, the spread on Rosie the Riveter points out that while Rosie seems to be solely a powerful female image, she was in fact a creation of the WWII propaganda machine. Of course, while Rosie's image did work to shore up the system, it also served as a potent symbol for women that yes they could exist and flourish within the public sphere of the workplace. Negativity is not ignored-- Cool Women is careful to point out that approximately 50,000 Japanese-American women were denied the privilege of Rosie-like aspiration, spending the war confined to interment camps. A sidebar titled "Thanks for Nothing" points out the double-standard that flourished after (and during) the War despite the fact that women had proved themselves capable, strong, and invaluable workers: "After the war, the women pilots who had stepped in to fly planes while the men were away were offered airline jobs-as stewardesses." So yes, "Rosie had started a revolution," but it was an unintended revolution, and the reader is provided with the proper information that enables her to fully appreciate this irony.
The graphical layout of Cool Women tends toward the obnoxious. Overuse of conflicting fonts, strange positioning of text, graphical underlays, and clashing colors belie an obvious attempt to make the book "hip" and appealing to web- and zine-friendly teens. Each subject gets a two-page spread (similar to Rules) that consists of photos or drawings of the woman or women along with several blurbs relating the figure's historical importance. At first glance, the brevity and conversational tone of the blurbs seems shallow, but this book serves as an introduction and a resource, not a stand-along reference text. Suggestions are given throughout for further reading, and the appendix of the book provides a list of selected resources for more in-depth examination. Design issues aside, Cool Women was a fascinating read, and I look forward to the second installment.
Leigh Shoemaker has an MA in Philosophy from the University of Kentucky, Lexington and another master's degree in library science from the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. She contributed a chapter on "Part Animal, Part Machine: Self-Definition, Rollins Style" to Third Wave Agenda : Being Feminist, Doing Feminism, (University of Minnesota Press, 1997), and she has written for Bitch zine. She lives and works in Knoxville, TN, and has recently opened a downtown performance space/house of ill repute called "The Pilot Light."