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A Theory of Feelings Anger and Forgiveness"My Madness Saved Me"10 Good Questions about Life and Death12 Modern Philosophers50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a GodA Cabinet of Philosophical CuriositiesA Case for IronyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to Buddhist PhilosophyA Companion to FoucaultA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to HumeA Companion to KantA Companion to Phenomenology and ExistentialismA Companion to PragmatismA Companion to the Philosophy of ActionA Companion to the Philosophy of BiologyA Companion to the Philosophy of LiteratureA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Critical Overview of Biological FunctionsA Critique of Naturalistic Philosophies of MindA Cursing Brain?A Delicate BalanceA Farewell to AlmsA Frightening LoveA Future for PresentismA Guide to the Good LifeA History of PsychiatryA History of the MindA Life Worth LivingA Manual of Experimental PhilosophyA Map of the MindA Metaphysics of PsychopathologyA Mind So RareA Natural History of Human MoralityA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Natural History of VisionA Parliament of MindsA Philosopher Looks at The Sense of HumorA Philosophical DiseaseA Philosophy of BoredomA Philosophy of Cinematic ArtA Philosophy of CultureA Philosophy of EmptinessA Philosophy of FearA Philosophy of PainA Physicalist ManifestoA Place for ConsciousnessA Question of TrustA Research Agenda for DSM-VA Revolution of the MindA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Stroll With William JamesA Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Theory of FreedomA Thousand MachinesA Universe of ConsciousnessA Very Bad WizardA Virtue EpistemologyA World Full of GodsA World Without ValuesAbout FaceAbout the Beginning of the Hermeneutics of the SelfAction and ResponsibilityAction in ContextAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionAction, Contemplation, and HappinessAction, Emotion and WillAdam SmithAdaptive DynamicsAddictionAddictionAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction Is a ChoiceAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAftermathAfterwarAgainst AdaptationAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HappinessAgainst HealthAgency and ActionAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and EmbodimentAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAl-JununAlain BadiouAlain BadiouAlasdair MacIntyreAlien Landscapes?Altered EgosAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Ethics for TodayAn Intellectual History of CannibalismAn Interpretation of DesireAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy An Introduction to Philosophy of EducationAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of PsychologyAn Introductory Philosophy of MedicineAn Odd Kind of FameAnalytic FreudAnalytic Philosophy in AmericaAncient AngerAncient Models of MindAncient Philosophy of the SelfAngerAnimal LessonsAnimal MindsAnimals Like UsAnnihilationAnother PlanetAnswers for AristotleAnti-ExternalismAnti-Individualism and KnowledgeAntigone’s ClaimAntipsychiatryAre We Hardwired?Are Women Human?Arguing about DisabilityArguing About Human NatureAristotle and the Philosophy of FriendshipAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's ChildrenAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle, Emotions, and EducationArt & MoralityArt After Conceptual ArtArt in Three DimensionsArt, Self and KnowledgeArtificial ConsciousnessArtificial HappinessAspects of PsychologismAsylum to ActionAtonement and ForgivenessAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutobiography as PhilosophyAutonomyAutonomy and Mental DisorderAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismBabies by DesignBackslidingBadiouBadiou's DeleuzeBadiou, Balibar, Ranciere: Rethinking EmancipationBare Facts And Naked TruthsBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBattlestar Galactica and PhilosophyBeautyBecoming a SubjectBecoming HumanBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing AmoralBeing HumanBeing Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory Being No OneBeing Realistic about ReasonsBeing ReducedBeing YourselfBelief's Own EthicsBending Over BackwardsBerlin Childhood around 1900Bernard WilliamsBertrand RussellBetter than BothBetter Than WellBetween Two WorldsBeyond HealthBeyond Hegel and NietzscheBeyond KuhnBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond PostmodernismBeyond ReductionBeyond the DSM StoryBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics in the ClinicBiological Complexity and Integrative PluralismBiology Is TechnologyBiosBipolar ExpeditionsBlackwell Companion to the Philosophy of EducationBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlues - Philosophy for EveryoneBlushBob Dylan and PhilosophyBody ConsciousnessBody Image And Body SchemaBody ImagesBody LanguageBody MattersBody WorkBody-Subjects and Disordered MindsBoundBoundaries of the MindBoyleBrain Evolution and CognitionBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-WiseBrainchildrenBrains, Buddhas, and BelievingBrainstormingBrave New WorldsBreakdown of WillBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and FaithBrief Therapy Homework PlannerBritain on the CouchBrute RationalityBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyBut Is It Art?Camus and SartreCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCarving Nature at Its JointsCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsCassandra's DaughterCato's TearsCausation and CounterfactualsCauses, Laws, and Free WillChanging Conceptions of the Child from the Renaissance to Post-ModernityChanging the SubjectChaosophyCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionCharles DarwinCherishmentChildhood and the Philosophy of EducationChildrenChildren, Families, and Health Care Decision MakingChoices and ConflictChoosing Not to ChooseChristmas - Philosophy for EveryoneCinema, Philosophy, BergmanCinematic MythmakingCity and Soul in Plato's RepublicClassifying MadnessClear and Queer ThinkingClinical EthicsClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyCodependent ForevermoreCoffee - Philosophy for EveryoneCognition and the BrainCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognition Through Understanding: Self-Knowledge, Interlocution, Reasoning, ReflectionCognitive BiologyCognitive FictionsCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Systems and the Extended Mind Cognitive Theories of Mental IllnessCoherence in Thought and ActionCollected Papers, Volume 1Collected Papers, Volume 2College SexComedy IncarnateCommitmentCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentConcealment And ExposureConceptual Analysis and Philosophical NaturalismConceptual Art and PaintingConceptual Issues in Evolutionary BiologyConfessionsConfucianismConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConquest of AbundanceConscience and ConvenienceConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the SelfConsciousness EmergingConsciousness EvolvingConsciousness ExplainedConsciousness in ActionConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Color, and ContentConsole and ClassifyConstructing the WorldConstructive AnalysisContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Philosophy of BiologyContemporary Debates in Philosophy of MindContemporary Debates in Political PhilosophyContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContemporary Perspectives on Natural LawContested Knowledge: Social Theory TodayContesting PsychiatryContext and the AttitudesContinental Philosophy of ScienceControlControlling Our DestiniesConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCopernicus, Darwin and FreudCrazy for YouCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCreating ConsilienceCreating HysteriaCreating Mental IllnessCreating Scientific ConceptsCreating the American JunkieCreation, Rationality and AutonomyCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCrimes of ReasonCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychiatryCritical PsychologyCritical ResistanceCritical Thinking About PsychologyCritical VisionsCross and KhoraCruel CompassionCTRL [SPACE]Cultural Psychology of the SelfCultural Theory: An IntroductionCulture and Psychiatric DiagnosisCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCulture of DeathCultures of NeurastheniaCurious EmotionsCurrent Controversies in Experimental PhilosophyCustom and Reason in HumeCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCutting God in Half - And Putting the Pieces Together AgainCylons in AmericaDamaged IdentitiesDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous EmotionsDaniel DennettDaniel DennettDark AgesDarwin and DesignDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDarwin, God and the Meaning of LifeDarwinian PsychiatryDarwinian ReductionismDarwinizing CultureDating: Philosophy for EveryoneDeathDeathDeath and CharacterDeath and CompassionDeath and the AfterlifeDebating DesignDebating HumanismDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecomposing the WillDeconstructing PsychotherapyDeconstruction and DemocracyDeeper Than DarwinDeeper than ReasonDefending Science - within ReasonDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDegrees of BeliefDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions and Other Irrational BeliefsDelusions and the Madness of the MassesDementiaDemons, Dreamers, and MadmenDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDennett’s PhilosophyDepression Is a ChoiceDepression, Emotion and the SelfDepthDerrida, Deleuze, PsychoanalysisDescartesDescartes and the Passionate MindDescartes' CogitoDescartes's Changing MindDescartes's Concept of MindDescribing Inner Experience?Descriptions and PrescriptionsDesembodied Spirits and Deanimated Bodies Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Desire and AffectDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDiagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersDialectics of the SelfDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital SoulDimensional Models of Personality DisordersDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDisjunctivismDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDispatches from the Freud WarsDisrupted LivesDistractionDisturbed ConsciousnessDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Do We Still Need Doctors?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Does the Woman Exist?Doing without ConceptsDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDonald DavidsonDonald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the MentalDoubting Darwin?Dreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR CasebookDworkin and His CriticsDying to KnowDynamics in ActionDysthymia and the Spectrum of Chronic DepressionsEccentricsEducational MetamorphosesEffective IntentionsElbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth WantingEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbodied RhetoricsEmbodied Selves and Divided MindsEmbryos under the MicroscopeEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotionEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion and PsycheEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotional ReasonEmotional ReasonEmotional TruthEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions, Value, and AgencyEmpathyEmpathy and AgencyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpathy in the Context of PhilosophyEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEnchanted LoomsEngaging BuddhismEngineering the Human GermlineEnjoymentEnvyEpicureanismEpistemic LuckEpistemologyEpistemology and EmotionsEpistemology and the Psychology of Human JudgmentEros and the GoodErotic MoralityEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssays in the Metaphysics of Mind Essays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEssays on Nonconceptual ContentEssays on Philosophical CounselingEssays on Reference, Language, and MindEssays on the Concept of Mind in Early-Modern PhilosophyEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEsssential Philosophy of PsychiatryEternal Sunshine of the Spotless MindEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in Human CloningEthical TheoryEthicsEthicsEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics in Plain EnglishEthics in PracticeEthics in Psychiatric ResearchEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEuropean Review of Philosophy. Vol. 5Everyday IrrationalityEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolutionEvolution and the Human MindEvolution's RainbowEvolutionary Origins of MoralityEvolutionary PsychologyExamined LifeExamined LivesExistential AmericaExistentialismExistentialism and Romantic LoveExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and NaturalismExperiments in EthicsExplaining ConsciousnessExplaining the BrainExplaining the Computational MindExplanatory PluralismExploding the Gene MythExploring HappinessExploring the SelfExpression and the InnerExpressions of JudgmentFaces of IntentionFact and ValueFact and Value in EmotionFacts, Values, and NormsFads and Fallacies in the Social SciencesFaith and Wisdom in ScienceFatherhoodFear of KnowledgeFearless SpeechFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFeelings of BeingFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminism and Philosophy of ScienceFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist Interpretations of Rene DescartesFeminist TheoryField Notes from ElsewhereFinding Consciousness in the BrainFingerprints of GodFlesh in the Age of ReasonFolk Psychological NarrativesFolk Psychology Re-AssessedForces of HabitForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and RetributionFoucault 2.0Foucault and PhilosophyFoucault NowFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in PsychologyFour Views on Free WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree Will and Action ExplanationFree Will and LuckFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree: Why Science Hasn't Disproved Free WillFreedomFreedom and DeterminismFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom and ResponsibiltyFreedom and ValueFreedom EvolvesFreedom RegainedFreedom vs. InterventionFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFreudFreud and the Question of PseudoscienceFreud As PhilosopherFreud's AnswerFreud, the Reluctant PhilosopherFriedrich NietzscheFrom Chance to ChoiceFrom Clinic to ClassroomFrom Complexity to LifeFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution for Science and the HumanitiesFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrontiers of ConsciousnessFrontiers of JusticeFurnishing the MindGalileo in PittsburghGenderGender and Mental HealthGender in the MirrorGender TroubleGenesGenes, Women, EqualityGenetic Nature/CultureGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetic SecretsGenocide's AftermathGenomes and What to Make of ThemGerman Idealism and the JewGerman PhilosophyGetting HookedGilles DeleuzeGlobal PhilosophyGluttonyGod and Phenomenal ConsciousnessGoffman's LegacyGoing Amiss in Experimental ResearchGoodness & AdviceGrassroots SpiritualityGrave MattersGrave MattersGreedGreek Models of Mind and SelfGut ReactionsHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHabits of MindHallucinationHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of EmotionsHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness and EducationHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHappiness, Death, and the Remainder of LifeHard LuckHarmful ThoughtsHaving the World in ViewHealing PsychiatryHealing the Soul in the Age of the BrainHealth, Illness and DiseaseHealth, Science, and Ordinary LanguageHegelHeidegger and a Metaphysics of FeelingHeidegger, Metaphysics and the Univocity of BeingHermann von Helmholtz's MechanismHermeneutics As PoliticsHeterophobiaHeterosyncraciesHeuristics and BiasesHeuristics and the LawHidden ResourcesHidden SelvesHiding from HumanityHigh Art LiteHistorical OntologyHistory of Psychiatry and Medical PsychologyHistory, Historicity And ScienceHobbesHomosexualitiesHope and Dread in PsychoanalysisHot ThoughtHow Can I Be Trusted?How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains?How Do We Know Who We Are?How Emotions WorkHow Emotions WorkHow History Made the MindHow Images ThinkHow is Nature Possible?How Propaganda WorksHow Science WorksHow Scientific Practices MatterHow Scientists Explain DiseaseHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Make Opportunity EqualHow to Solve the Mind-Body Problemhow to stop timeHow to Think More About SexHow We HopeHow We ReasonHuman CloningHuman Development, Language and the Future of MankindHuman EnhancementHuman Evolution, Reproduction, and MoralityHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman NatureHuman NatureHuman Nature and the Limits of ScienceHuman-Built WorldHumanismHumanism, What's That?HumanityHumans, Animals, MachinesHumeHumeHume on Motivation and VirtueHusserlHystoriesI of the VortexI Was WrongIdeas that MatterIdentifying the MindIdentity and Agency in Cultural WorldsIgnorance and ImaginationIllnessImagination and Its PathologiesImagination and the Meaningful BrainImagining NumbersImmortal RemainsImproving Nature?In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of HealthIn Defense of SentimentalityIn Love With LifeIn Praise of Athletic BeautyIn Praise of the WhipIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of HappinessIn the Name of GodIn the Name of IdentityIn the Space of ReasonsIn Two MindsIncompatibilism's AllureIndividual Differences in Conscious ExperienceInfinity and PerspectiveInformation ArtsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchIngmar Bergman, Cinematic PhilosopherInhuman ThoughtsInner PresenceInsanityIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntelligent VirtueIntentionIntentionality, Deliberation and AutonomyIntentions and IntentionalityIntentions and IntentionalityInterpreting MindsInterpreting NietzscheIntroducing Greek PhilosophyIntrospection and ConsciousnessIntrospection VindicatedIntuition, Imagination, and Philosophical MethodologyIntuitionismInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIrrationalityIs Academic Feminism Dead?Is It Me or My Meds?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is Oedipus Online?Is Science Neurotic?Is Science Value Free?Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion?Is There a Duty to Die?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJacques LacanJacques RancièreJacques RanciereJean-Paul SartreJohn McDowellJohn SearleJohn Searle's Ideas About Social RealityJohn Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill and the Writing of CharacterJoint AttentionJokesJonathan EdwardsJudging and UnderstandingJustice for ChildrenJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeKantKant and MiltonKant and the Fate of AutonomyKant and the Limits of AutonomyKant and the Role of Pleasure in Moral ActionKant on Freedom, Law, and HappinessKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Anatomy of EvilKant's Anatomy of the Intelligent MindKant's Theory of VirtueKarl JaspersKarl PopperKey Concepts in PhilosophyKierkegaardKierkegaard as PhenomenologistKierkegaard's Concept of DespairKinds of MindsKinds, Things, and StuffKnowing, Knowledge and BeliefsKnowledge MonopoliesKnowledge, Belief, and CharacterKnowledge, Possibility, and ConsciousnessLacanLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLanguageLanguage in ContextLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Culture, and MindLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw and the BrainLaw, Liberty, and PsychiatryLaws, Mind, and Free WillLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberatory PsychiatryLife and ActionLife at the Texas State Lunatic Asylum, 1857-1997Life Is Not a Game of PerfectLife of the MindLife's FormLife, Death, & MeaningLife, Death, and Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of UtilityLife, Sex, and IdeasLight in the Dark RoomLike a Splinter in Your MindLiving and Dying WellLiving NarrativeLiving Outside Mental IllnessLiving with DarwinLiving With One’s PastLockeLocke LockeLogic and the Art of Memory Loneliness in Philosophy, Psychology, and LiteratureLooking for SpinozaLooking for The StrangerLost SoulsLOT 2LoveLoveLove's ConfusionsLove's VisionLove, Friendship, and the SelfLove, Sex & TragedyLuckyLudwig WittgensteinLustLyingMachine ConsciousnessMad for FoucaultMad TravelersMade with WordsMadness And Death In PhilosophyMadness and DemocracyMadness at HomeMadness Is CivilizationMaking Natural KnowledgeMaking Sense of EvolutionMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMaking the DSM-5Making the Social WorldMaking TruthMale Female EmailMan, Beast, and ZombieMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManiaManic Depression and CreativityMapping the Edges and the In-betweenMapping the Future of BiologyMarcus AureliusMaster PassionsMatters of the MindMe++Meaning and Moral OrderMeaning and Value in a Secular AgeMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeaning, Basic Self-Knowledge, and MindMeasuring HappinessMeasuring PsychopathologyMedia MadnessMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedicine of the PersonMedicine, Mental Health, Religion, Science and Well-BeingMelancholy And the Care of the SoulMelancholy and the Otherness of GodMementoMemory and NarrativeMental ActionsMental CausationMental Causation and OntologyMental HealthMental Health At The CrossroadsMental Health Policy in BritainMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMerleau-PontyMerleau-Ponty and the Possibilities of PhilosophyMetacognition and Theory of MindMetacreationMetaethical SubjectivismMetaethicsMetal and FleshMetaphors of MemoryMetapoliticsMethods in MindMichel FoucaultMill's UtilitarianismMindMindMind and ConsciousnessMind and CosmosMind and MechanismMind GamesMind in a Physical WorldMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind in LifeMind TimeMind's LandscapeMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMind, Brain, and Free WillMind, Reason and ImaginationMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds and PersonsMinds, Brains, and LawMinds, Ethics, and ConditionalsMindshapingMindsightMindworldsMirror, MirrorMixed FeelingsMockingbird YearsModels of the SelfModern Social ImaginariesModern Theories of JusticeModernity and SubjectivityModernity and TechnologyMoody Minds DistemperedMoral DimensionsMoral FailureMoral ImaginationMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral ParticularismMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology and Human AgencyMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Moral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMotherhoodMotive and RightnessMoving Beyond Prozac, DSM, and the New PsychiatryMultiple Analogies in Science and PhilosophyMultiple Identities & False MemoriesMusic, Madness, and the Unworking of LanguageMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Double UnveiledMy WayNarrativeNarrative and IdentityNarrative MedicineNarrative PsychiatryNarrative Theory and the Cognitive SciencesNatural Ethical FactsNatural Kinds and Conceptual ChangeNatural MindsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalism and the First-Person PerspectiveNaturalism and the Human ConditionNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalized BioethicsNaturalizing the MindNatureNature and NarrativeNear Death ExperienceNeither Bad nor MadNeither Victim nor SurvivorNeuro-Philosophy and the Healthy MindNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neurophilosophy at WorkNeurophilosophy of Free WillNeuropoliticsNeuropsychoanalysis in PracticeNeuroscience and PhilosophyNew Essays on the Explanation of ActionNew Philosophy for a New MediaNew Versions of VictimsNew Waves in Philosophy of ActionNietzscheNietzsche and Buddhist PhilosophyNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNietzsche's TherapyNietzsche, Culture and EducationNietzsche: The Man and His PhilosophyNihil UnboundNoir AnxietyNormative EthicsNormativityNorms of NatureNotebooks 1951-1959Notes Toward a Performative Theory of AssemblyNothing So AbsurdOblivionOn AnxietyOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn Being AuthenticOn BeliefOn BetrayalOn BullshitOn DelusionOn DesireOn EmotionsOn HashishOn Human RightsOn Loving Our EnemiesOn Nature and LanguageOn PersonalityOn ReflectionOn Romantic LoveOn the EmotionsOn the Freud WatchOn the Government of the LivingOn the Human ConditionOn the InternetOn the Meaning of LifeOn the Philosophy of LawOn the Pragmatics of CommunicationOn the Punitive SocietyOn TruthOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne Hundred DaysOnflowOnly a Promise of HappinessOntology of ConsciousnessOpen MindedOpen Your EyesOrgans without BodiesOther MindsOur Last Great IllusionOur Own MindsOur Posthuman FutureOur StoriesOut of Its MindOut of Our HeadsOxford Guide to the MindOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPanic DisorderPanpsychism in the WestPartialityPassionate EnginesPassionate EnginesPathologies of BeliefPathologies of ReasonPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perceiving the WorldPerception & CognitionPerception and Basic BeliefsPerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPerceptual ExperiencePerfecting VirtuePerplexities of ConsciousnessPersistencePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal IdentityPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonal Identity and Fractured SelvesPersonhood and Health CarePersonsPersons and BodiesPersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPersons, Souls and DeathPerspectives on ImitationPerspectives on PragmatismPessimismPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenal ConsciousnessPhenomenal IntentionalityPhenomenology and ExistentialismPhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophersPhilosophers on MusicPhilosophers without GodsPhilosophical CounselingPhilosophical Counselling and the UnconsciousPhilosophical DevicesPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical History and the Problem of ConsciousnessPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in Psychiatry IIPhilosophical MethodologyPhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophical Myths of the FallPhilosophical Perspectives on DepictionPhilosophical Perspectives on Technology and PsychiatryPhilosophical PracticePhilosophical Reflections on DisabilityPhilosophizing About Sex Philosophizing the EverydayPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy and LivingPhilosophy and PsychiatryPhilosophy and PsychotherapyPhilosophy and Science FictionPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the Interpretation of Pop CulturePhilosophy and the Moving ImagePhilosophy and the NeurosciencesPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy As FictionPhilosophy BitesPhilosophy Bites BackPhilosophy for Counselling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy for LifePhilosophy in a New CenturyPhilosophy in an Age of SciencePhilosophy in Children's LiteraturePhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BodyPhilosophy of Film and Motion PicturesPhilosophy of LovePhilosophy of Love, Sex, and MarriagePhilosophy of MindPhilosophy of Mind and CognitionPhilosophy of Personal Identity and Multiple PersonalityPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy of Public HealthPhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhilosophy of the Social SciencesPhilosophy on TapPhilosophy PracticePhilosophy the Day after TomorrowPhilosophy's Role in Counseling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhilosophy, Politics, DemocracyPhotography and PhilosophyPhysical RealizationPhysicalism and Its DiscontentsPhysicalism and Mental CausationPhysicalism, or Something Near EnoughPhysician-Assisted DyingPillar of SaltPin-up GrrrlsPlatoPlatoPlato, Not Prozac!Platonic Ethics, Old and NewPluralistic CasuistryPolarities of ExperiencesPolitical EmotionsPopper, Objectivity and the Growth of KnowledgePornPorn StudiesPornography, Sex, and FeminismPortrait of the Psychiatrist as a Young ManPostcolonial DisordersPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPower and the SelfPower SplitPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical ConflictsPractical Identity and Narrative AgencyPractical PhilosophyPractical RulesPractical Tortoise RaisingPractically ProfoundPracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPragmatic BioethicsPragmatismPragmatism, Old And NewPraise and BlamePredicative MindsPreferences and Well-BeingPrescriptions for the MindPresocraticsPrimary and Secondary QualitiesPrimates and PhilosophersPrivacyPrivileged AccessProblems in MindProblems of RationalityProzac As a Way of LifeProzac BacklashProzac on the CouchPsyche and SomaPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric Cultures ComparedPsychiatric Diagnosis and ClassificationPsychiatric EthicsPsychiatric PowerPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry and Philosophy of SciencePsychiatry and ReligionPsychiatry as a Human SciencePsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry in SocietyPsychiatry in the New MilleniumPsychiatry in the Scientific ImagePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsycho-Physical Dualism TodayPsychoanalysis and Narrative MedicinePsychoanalysis and the Philosophy of SciencePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and PhilosophyPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, and the Politics of Human RelationshipsPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPsychotherapy As PraxisPublic PhilosophyPunishmentPure ImmanencePurple HazePursuing MeaningQuality of Life and Human DifferenceQueer PhilosophyQuestions for FreudQuestions for FreudQuine and Davidson on Language, Thought and RealityRaceRace in Contemporary MedicineRadiant CoolRadical AlterityRadical ExternalismRadical HopeRational and Social AgencyRational CausationRational Choice in an Uncertain WorldRationality + Consciousness = Free WillRationality and FreedomRationality and the Reflective MindRationality in ActionRawls, Dewey, and ConstructivismRe-creating MedicineRe-EmergenceRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReading AutobiographyReading Bernard WilliamsReading SartreReadings in the Philosophy of TechnologyReal MaterialismReal Natures and Familiar ObjectsReal ScienceRealism in ActionReason & EmancipationReason in ActionReason in PhilosophyReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReasoning About Rational AgentsReasoning in Biological DiscoveriesReasons from WithinReasons without RationalismReclaiming CognitionReclaiming the SoulReconceiving SchizophreniaReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecreative MindsRediscovering EmotionRediscovering EmpathyReference and ExistenceReference and the Rational MindReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRegulating SexReinventing the SoulRelativism and Human RightsRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyReliable ReasoningReligion without GodRelying on OthersRemembering HomeResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsRestraining RageRethinking ExpertiseRethinking IntrospectionRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeRethinking the DSMRethinking the Sociology of Mental HealthRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfReturn to ReasonRevolt, She SaidRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard Rorty's New PragmatismRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRise And Fall of Soul And SelfRitalin NationRobert NozickRousseauRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Derrida on DeconstructionRules, Reason, and Self-KnowledgeSaints, Scholars, and Schizophrenics: Mental 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Foucault 2.0Review - Foucault 2.0
Beyond Power and Knowledge
by Eric Paras
Other Press, 2006
Review by Nader N. Chokr, Ph.D.
Oct 10th 2006 (Volume 10, Issue 41)

 In a new and groundbreaking book titled, interestingly enough, Foucault 2.0: Beyond Power and Knowledge, as if to suggest that we are now moving to another level of interpretation of Foucault's work, and another version altogether in the assessment of his legacy, 22 years after his untimely death, Eric Paras takes up the following question --which has preoccupied many contemporary readers, sympathizers and critics alike: "How and why does Foucault go from being a philosopher of the disappearance of the subject to one wholly preoccupied with the subject?" (3).

  His carefully researched, scrupulously documented, well-written and well-structured text, properly inscribed with the intellectual history of contemporary French philosophy, consists essentially of three main parts --preceded by an introduction into the Archive (1-15), and followed by a conclusion characterizing "Foucault's pendulum swing" in the course of his career (149-158). Each part deals with various aspects of Foucault's work around the central notions of Discourse (17-71), Power (73-97), and Subjects (99-148) It also contains abundant notes (159-208) and original translations of new materials heretofore little-known of the broad academic community, as well as a very helpful bibliography of both primary and secondary sources (209-232). 

Paras's central argument is that that many contemporary philosophers have minimized the significance of Foucault's late recovery of a more robust concept of subjectivity either (1) because they did not have access to his lectures--courses at the College de France from 1978 to 1983 (or recorded tapes thereof) or (2) because, like Luc Ferry and Alain Renault,[1] who had a political agenda and a philosophical ax to grind against Foucault and others leading radical French philosophers of the 60s, they doubted the sincerity of Foucault's late conversion or transformation, or simply viewed it as somehow too little too late (157).  Paras contends subsequently that a new reading and interpretation must be articulated, which takes 'Foucault's turn' more seriously by looking into the highly insightful and revealing contents of the lectures and courses at the College de France -- a point that had been made, by the way, by a number of other scholars --e.g., Arnold Davidson, whose contention in this regard is here recognized as "vindicated" (2).

Paras' proposed new reading and interpretation of Foucault's philosophical odyssey and ultimate assessment of his legacy, on such a rich and highly documented basis, makes it a strong contender, one that is not easy to impeach. But whether or not it does become the established and widely agreed upon interpretation, or Foucault 2.0 as Paras puts it, remains to be seen. It will depend obviously on how well it passes the test of critical scrutiny in the months and years to come as more scholars have a chance to examine and re-examine the contents of Foucault's lectures and courses. In the meantime however, I believe that one could quite legitimately take issue with a number of his (major and minor) contentions in an effort to suggest already that we may have to consider an alternative interpretation, or Foucault 2.1. This is what I intend to do in a very succinct way in this essay.

If we leave aside the literary productions of Foucault -- especially, during the time of his involvement with the Tel Quel group in the late 50s-early 60s, and focus strictly on the philosophical and historical works of "the early period," then the following well-known published works must unquestionably be included: Madness and Civilization (1961), Birth of the Clinic (1963), The Order of Things (1968), The Archeology of Knowledge (1969), Discipline and Punish (1975), and the History of Sexuality Vol. I: The Will to Know (1976). However, after what we might consider to be a brief period of transition during the 8-years hiatus (1976-1984) between major publications, Foucault delivered a number of very important lectures-courses, starting in 1978, which  are of particular significance for understanding the marked distancing from his earlier interests and "problematics,"[2] and taking a proper measure of the shift that his thinking has undergone in "the late period,"[3] at the end of his career --esp. with regard to his "return to the subject," "the return to morality," his more optimistic ethical-political horizon, and his connection with the legacy of the Enlightenment thinkers.. These are: (a) Security, Territory, and Population (1978); (b) The Birth of Bio-Politics (1979); (c) The Government of the Living (1980); (d) Subjectivity and Truth (1981); (e) The Hermeneutics of the Subject (1982), and (f) The Government of the Self and of Others (1983).[4] Several of these lectures have now been published in French, and are progressively being translated in English.[5]

I agree wholeheartedly with Paras on the two points articulated above, and I believe he performs a valuable service by providing extended discussions of the contents of these lectures [esp., (b)-(c) as well as (d)-(e)] in an effort to reveal the "enormity of the shift" (157) that had taken place in Foucault's thinking. [I also agree that of all these lectures, the one he delivered in 1978 was still framed somehow with the 'problematics' of his genealogical phase, and may therefore be said to correspond to the transition period, when Foucault was arguably still groping for an alternative thrust altogether (92ff)].

 However, according to Paras, the result of the still dominant yet deficient interpretation is that Foucault's philosophical career was read like a kind of arrow's flight, with a straight trajectory and an unwavering determination to deconstruct the subject. He refers here for example to Habermas' posthumous analysis (1994) of Foucault' work, whose title presumably implies the metaphor.[6] Nothing could be further from the truth about Foucault's work taken in its totality.

According to Paras, the swing of a pendulum might instead be a more accurate depiction. His alternative metaphor serves his purpose in characterizing Foucault's entire corpus as consisting ultimately of three phases, starting from (1) a position in which he somehow still admitted the possibility of individual experience and subjectivity, then moving on to (2) a period in-between, during which he articulated the 20th century's most devastating critique of the (free) subject, and finally  (3) returning or swinging back (25 years later) to a position that "looked not a little like his starting point" in that he now acknowledged "the existence of a pre-discursive subject, enraptured by literature, politically unaffiliated, and pledged to a kind of experience that pushed the limits of the known" (Paras, 2006: 157-8; italics added).  

Paras assume here, quite rightly I think, that period (2) covers all of Foucault's well-known archeological and genealogical studies --without however claiming, as other authors have (e.g., Dreyfus and Rabinow (1983), Beatrice Han (2000)), that there is a strong and substantial (methodological and theoretical) discontinuity or rupture between these two phases of his inquiries into regimes of discourse/knowledge and power/knowledge (10-11).

With regards to period (1) above, however, Paras writes: "Arguably, it was his awareness that certain kinds of subjects had been suppressed merely because of the label one had affixed to them --'mad,' 'demented,' 'enraged'--that motivated him to write in the first place" (158). But it is questionable. I believe, whether Foucault's psychological  motivation to write (which may be partially true) could constitute an adequate basis for interpreting the philosophical position he sought to defend in his early works --even if at times his own language bewitched him and betrayed his real intentions and purposes.

Finally, with regards to period (3), Paras claims that Foucault seems to have altogether abandoned his previous methods and adopted instead "a text-driven hermeneutical method."  This is, I believe, a serious point of contention, about which, I will suggest later on, we could have some reasonable disagreement.  He also states, in a somewhat melodramatic way, that "in a voice that by the end trembled from pain and debility, Foucault "liquidated" his critique of the subject.  He goes on to add in the final lines of his book: "For, the notion of the end of subjectivity had offered a kind of cold clarity, as well as an immensely thought-provoking lens through which to view the world. But ultimately, only the notion of strong subjectivity proved warm enough to accommodate an overwhelming passion for life and an inextinguishable belief in the primacy of human liberty" (158).

Paras' discussion seems to imply somehow that there is a straightforward or simplistic recovery of the liberal humanist subject in Foucault's later work. But I don't think this is the case. Foucault was far too paranoid-critical (having gone through the most radical archeological and genealogical deconstructions) to merely return to notions (of subjectivity, experience, agency, autonomy, and critical reflection), as if they could be recovered un-touched and un-informed by his earlier devastating critiques and analyses. Under a certain construal of the principle of charity (Davidson), consistency with what may be reasonably deemed the most likely, general and over-arching thrust of a philosopher's work is bound to constitute a substantial advantage in interpretation. But the interpretation that Paras offers is ultimately problematic, I believe,  because, like so many other reconstructive proposals, it arguably fails to strike a proper and judicious balance between 'abstraction' and 'idealization' in that, paradoxically enough, his reconstructed intellectual history of Foucault's journey both 'leaves out too much' and 'adds too much.'        

This is precisely the point where I part company with Paras, for, I don't think that Foucault had simply returned to the exact same position he previously held -- assuming of course that he previously held the position that Paras attributes to him. Paras' periodization of Foucault's career depends on such a claim (and this is in my view a serious point of contention), according to which Foucault's first major works countenanced a notion of "lived experience" and therefore, of "pre-discursive subjectivity." But, if his early work contained 'traces' attesting to a still lingering concern with "lived experience," that he was not able to dispense with completely, or that he was using, if I may say so, under erasure, it is doubtful that Foucault thereby meant to uphold a notion of "pre-discursive subjectivity" -- let alone rehabilitate it as is in his later works --25 years later. 

Besides, as I suggested earlier, if Foucault's philosophical odyssey is any indication of his philosophical temperament, it is hard to think that he would simply recover and re-validate a position that he held at the beginning of his career. Metaphor for metaphor, a more appropriate and judicious one, I believe, would be that of a flexible spiral, whose end-points don't necessarily touch each other, or coincide, and cannot therefore be said to be indistinguishable, and whereby any return to a previous point must be viewed as going back to a slightly different point. Because it is flexible however, it may be viewed as bending at times in one direction or another -- so as to rectify occasional rhetorical excesses and theoretical tactical exaggerations. [Naturally, the objections and counter-claims made above require more substantial arguments and defense than I can give here. Nevertheless, they are worth entertaining as just that --possible objections and counter-claims].

The philosophical odyssey and career of Foucault has confused and confounded sympathizers and critics alike. This is no doubt due at least in part to the sheer creativity that he was able to display in a relatively short life, exploring different kinds of questions and directions, adopting different methodologies and terminologies, changing focus and emphasis at different times. In part, it was also due to his philosophical temperament, which made him relish the pleasure to surprise his readers by going places where we did not expect to find him.[7] He furthermore affirmed his "intellectual homelessness" or "nomadism" by emphatically stating his right to change his mind as he progressed in his investigations, and showed a boundless propensity and capacity to reinterpret his past efforts and achievements in light of his current concerns and projects, and what's even more confusing, in the conceptual and theoretical terminology and language pertaining to the latter. 

Nevertheless, scholars have for the most part pretty much understood the fundamental challenge that Foucault's early works had posed to the hegemony of 'man,' the sovereignty and autonomy of the 'subject.'[8] But it has been more difficult to understand the second part of his career that followed thereafter, from 1976 to 1984, the year of his untimely death. This is due in part to the fact Foucault had not published any major works until 1984 --when the long-waited volumes II and III of the History of Sexuality (respectively sub-titled The Use of Pleasure and The Care of the Self finally came out, and in another part, to the fact that up until recently most scholars did not have access to his lectures-courses at the College de France, particularly from 1979 until about 1983. This was however a period during which Foucault abandoned the so-called "structuralist program" that he later claimed never to have adopted, but only extended in to an area in which it had theretofore never been applied. [Typical Foucaldian move, some might argue, on a note of skepticism]. This was also the period during which, to the dismay of many, showed a renewed and strong interest in "the speaking, acting and creating subject" as well as in a self-defining, self-creating, self-constituting rather than merely defined, determined, constructed and constituted subjectivity, and many other notions that he had previously worked hard to undermine, or rather, to 'problematize,' such as experience, freedom, individualism, and even human rights. (101-148)

In my view, a close scrutiny of Foucault's later period does indeed reveal a dramatic turn or shift from his earlier more constructivist and deterministic view of the efficacy of disciplinary and normalizing forces. This shift leads to an increased concern with resistance to paranoid totalizing systems and pervasive power-dispositifs, and an exploration of the possibilities for ethico-political action, but I would be prepared to argue at greater length that the latter remain somehow limited and circumscribed --in-formed as they are and will remain by Foucault's earlier archeological and genealogical works. His late works see human beings less as merely "constructed subjects," objects of discipline and control, and more as beings with some capacity for effective and reflective action, self-discipline, self-control and limited critical agency (Veyne, 1992: 340-345).

Again, in contrast to Paras, I don't believe that we can view Foucault's later work as having completely "liquidated" or "repudiated" his early work, or, as having gone beyond power and knowledge. In this sense, one could not compare Foucault's trajectory to that of Wittgenstein, for example, as he moved from the Tractatus to the Philosophical Investigations. While some of the excesses and extremist positions of the early work may have been later tempered and rectified somewhat so as to clear out the theoretical and conceptual space for a different set of questions and inquiries, and for a possible and effective ethical-political action, it is arguably not the case, as Paras contends (12, 138ff), that Foucault has completely abandoned and rejected his archeological and genealogical method in favor a new text-driven hermeneutical method. As Foucault has shown repeatedly, his approach is not that of a methodological chauvinist. If he has in later lectures, for example, made a focused use of the latter method (which he has also used occasionally in previous works), this could not and should not be taken to indicate that he now favors this method over any other he had used before. If when all is said and done, Foucault's entire work is viewed, as he recommends in his own words, merely as "tool box," then one could easily imagine that it will contain different, diverse and heteroclite methods and methodologies suitable for different tasks and purposes, which have been part of his philosophical arsenal.

 In closing, we can therefore observe both continuities and discontinuities between Foucault's earlier investigations of regimes of discourse/knowledge/truth and power/knowledge, and his later focus on (critical) subjects, subjectification and ethics. His later discussions point unquestionably to the possibility of a political ethics that is not identical with, but may be compared to an ethics of self-discipline. Local ethical action may not proceed as far as Foucault would want in dismantling the humanist subject, but by challenging rather than embracing the oppressive systems of the time, neither denying their responsibility nor exaggerating their effectiveness. It is, I believe, in this context (pace Paras (14) that we must understand his statement --which seems to play a central role in Paras' over-arching argument in defense of his interpretation: "Thought is freedom in relation to what one does, the motion by which one detaches oneself from it, establishes it as an object, and reflects on it as a problem." What we can do is to 'problematize,' and we must do so differently from the vantage-point of different subject-positions.  Neutrality is not possible.

Thus, Foucault's work moves from an earlier vision of structured discourses and regimes of discipline and power that precludes autonomy, choice and even change to a vision of a self-disciplined subject with some limited yet more effective ethico-political agency and resistance. Although Foucault ascribe to agents in his late work an ability to distance themselves critically from their historical present, such a limited critical agency does not derive from a return to a humanist, or even purely human, individual subject. Others late postmodern philosophers, such as Luc Ferry and Alain Renault, were probably committed to recuperating the traditional autonomous liberal individual subject. But Foucault, arguably interested in the opposite of such a return, should be read instead as investigating the process of subjectification (in its double, equivocal or ambiguous, meaning) as both possible subject-formations and subject-positions, and trying to propose ways in which people can participate to some extent in re-creating themselves as locally situated ethical and political agents --who are perhaps better apprehended as already situated in a post-humanist and post-postmodern era (see Chokr, 2006).

      

References

Chokr, Nader N. "Foucault on Power and Resistance--Another Take: Toward a Post-postmodern  Political Philosophy." International Conference on 'Resistance' organized by the Society for European Philosophy, Greenwich University, London, UK, August 2004.

________. "Mapping out a Shift in Contemporary French Philosophy."  Yeditepe de felsefe Vol. 5, 2006 (forthcoming).

Dreyfus, Hubert and Paul Rabinow. Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics. 2nd Edition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1983. 

Faubion, James D. (Ed.) Michel Foucault--Aesthetics, Method and Epistemology. The Essential Works, 1954-1984. Volume 2. New York: The New Free Press. 

_______. Michel Foucault--Power. The Essential Works, 1954-1984. Volume 3. New York: The New Free Press.

Ferry, Luc and Alain Renault. French Philosophy of the Sixties: Essay on Anti-Humanism (1985). Trans. Mary H.S. Cattani. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1990

Foucault. Michel. The Archaeology of Knowledge (1969). Trans. A. M. Sheridan Smith. New York: Harper Books, 1972.

_________. "Polemics, Politics, and Problematizations." (1984). In The Essential Foucault. Ed. Paul Rabinow. New York: The New Press, 2003, pp. 18-24. Reprinted in Paul Rabinow (Ed.), 1994, pp. 111-119; 1989, pp. 381-390.

Habermas, Jürgen. "Taking Aim at the Heart of the Present." In Michael Kelly (Ed.). Critique and Power. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1994, pp. 149-156.

Han, Beatrice. Foucault's Critical Project: Between the Transcendental and the Historical. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2002.

Rabinow, Paul and Nikolas Rose (Eds.). The Essential Foucault. Selections from Essential Works of Foucault, 1954-1984. New York: The New Press, 2003.

Rabinow, Paul (Ed.). The Foucault Reader. New York: Pantheon Books, 1984.

_______. Michel Foucault--Ethics: Subjectivity and Truth. The Essential Works, 1954-1984. Volume 1. New York: The New Free Press, 1994.

Veyne, Paul. "Foucault and Going Beyond (or the Fulfillment of) Nihilism." In Timothy Armstrong (Ed.). Michel Foucault: Philosopher. New York: Routledge, 1992, pp. 340-344.

 

 

© 2006 Nader N. Chokr

 

Nader N. Chokr, Professor of Philosophy & Social Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, China

 



[1] They represent only two of the most vocal and eloquent critics of the radical French philosophers of the 60s, including Foucault, Derrida, Bourdieu, and Lacan, etc. They deliberately set out to recover and rehabilitate a number of concepts and notions such as history, the subject, rights, and man himself that had seemed irretrievably lost at the end of the 60s. In their highly polemical and controversial book, French Philosophy in the Sixties: An Essay an Anti-Humanism (1985/1990), they take aim at the radical anti-humanist critiques of these various authors in an effort to show why their respective views are either untenable or inconsistent and contradictory, and therefore not worth taking seriously -- despite the obvious tentative by some of the targets here in question to qualify and substantiate their newly evolving positions in defense of some 'recovered' or 'qualified' notion of subject and subjectivity.  

[2] This term along with that of 'problematization' become part of Foucault's terminological, conceptual and epistemological tools in the later part of his career, as he now seeks to characterize his inquiries as concerned with what these terms designate --i.e., the manner or modality in terms of which an object of thought is apprehended as a problem, and in terms of which "a problem" is formulated, what makes such a formulation in terms of 'problems" (with alternative possible solutions) meaningful, what assumptions are made, what constraints are set in place by the manner in which a problem or a "problematique" is articulated?  One might say more generally speaking that Foucault is now interested in formulating different ways of setting up the problem differently and in different ways, if only to show that a number of consequences follow there from. See one his last interviews with Paul Rabinow, titled "Polemics, Politics, and Problematizations." (1989, 1994, 2003).

[3]  It has been a common practice among scholars to distinguish between the early and late works of Foucault, and debate the question of continuity and discontinuity that may or may not exist in his entire corpus, as well as the significance, if any, that may (or not) be attributed to the various shifts, turns, or mere changes in emphasis and focus in his work --particularly with reference to the return of subject and morality  (Chokr, 2004).

[4] Though the titles of Foucault's lectures are often deliberately misleading (an indication perhaps of his playfulness and sly sense of humor) and misnomers for the actual specific contents that he ends up covering, they are nevertheless a good indication that something is afoot in his thinking --i.e., that a shift is visibly taking place. 

[5] See for example, James D. Faubion and Paul Rabinow, (eds.). Essential Works of Foucault, 1954-1984 Vol. I-II-III titled respectively: Ethics: Subjectivity and Truth; Aesthetics, Method and Epistemology, and Power). 

[6] Interestingly enough, Habermas' piece is titled: Taking Aim at the Heart of the Present" (1994).

[7] His statements in the introduction to the Archeology of Knowledge are quite telling in this regard, as well as about his distinctive sense of humor. Here is what he writes in response to the questions of an imaginary interviewer: "Aren't you sure of what you're saying? Are you going to change yet again, shift your position according to the questions that are put to you, and say that the objections are not really directed at the place from which you are speaking? Are you going to declare yet again that you have never been what you have been reproached with being? Are you already preparing the way out that will enable you in your next book to spring up somewhere else and declare as you are now doing: no, no, I am not there where you are lying in wait for me, but over here, looking on and laughing at you?" In response, Foucault says: "What, do you imagine that I would take so much trouble and so much pleasure in writing, do you think that I would keep so persistently to my task, if I were not preparing -with a rather shaky hand- a labyrinth into which I could venture, in which I could move my discourse, opening up underground passages, forcing it to go far from itself, finding overhangs that reduce and deform its itinerary, in which I can lose myself and appear at last to eyes that I will never have to meet again. I am no doubt not the only one who writes in order to have no face. Do not ask who I am and do not ask me to remain the same. Leave it to our bureaucrats and our police to see that our papers are in order. At least spare us their morality when we write" (1969: 28; 1972; 17; italics added). Despite Foucault's affirmation of his right to constantly re-invent himself, to change his mind, and dart off in unpredictable directions, we are also right to seek to "pin him down," and hold him to some minimal rules of consistency. Foucault himself has certainly not made this task easy as his intellectual modus operandi was quintessentially Nietzschean. He was fiercely anti-systematic as a philosopher, who viewed consistency as "the hobgoblin of small minds," and restrictive of his freedom of thought.  See his take on both notions of "freedom" and "thought" later on in the text.

[8] It should be perhaps noted, in passing, that some authors object to leaving out the literary works (such as Raymond Roussel for example) for, they claim, these productions already contain precursor signs and motifs of what Foucault will end up developing in his more philosophical-historical writings. Others authors (e.g., Paras 2006) believe that the so-called early phase of Foucault's career must in fact be divided into two moments --from, say 1961 to 1965, and from 1966 to 1976): in the first moment, they claim, Foucault still countenanced a notion of "lived experience" (of the mad or the patient, for example) and had not yet completely done away with all terms redolent of individual subjectivity and agency, as he would do in the second moment—from 1966 to 1976. In this regard, I would merely point out that while this periodization may well be helpful in some sense, and supported by textual evidence and even corroborated by future research and scholarship, I doubt however that one may impute such a view (as the one implied here) to Foucault other than as a 'residual' influence from the predominant schools of philosophy and literary dispositions of the time to which he had been subjected in his formative years.


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