Psychology
Resources

 email page    print page

All Topic Reviews
A Theory of Feelings Addictions Memory and the Self"Intimate" Violence against Women1001 Solution-Focused Questions101 Healing Stories101 Things I Wish I'd Known When I Started Using Hypnosis50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God8 Keys to Body Brain BalanceA Brief History of Modern PsychologyA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Conceptual History of Psychology: Exploring the Tangled Web A Cooperative SpeciesA Guide to Teaching Introductory PsychologyA History of Modern Experimental PsychologyA History of Psychology in AutobiographyA History of Social PsychologyA History of the BrainA History of the MindA Hole in the HeadA Matter of SecurityA Mind of Its OwnA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Place for ConsciousnessA Short Introduction to Promoting Resilience in ChildrenA Social History of PsychologyA Stroll With William JamesA System Architecture Approach to the BrainA Theory of FreedomA Very Bad WizardAbductedAbout FacesAccounts of InnocenceAction, Emotion and WillAdapting MindsADHD & MeADHD in AdultsAdieu to GodAdolescence and Body ImageAdult Bipolar DisordersAdvances in Culture and PsychologyAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAffect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of SelfAffective MappingAgainst EmpathyAgainst HappinessAges and StagesAll Joy and No FunAll Out!All We Have to FearAlterations of ConsciousnessAmerican Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical NeurosciencesAn Argument for MindAncient Bodies, Modern LivesAnimal Tool BehaviorAnimals in TranslationAnomalous CognitionAping MankindArtificial ConsciousnessAspects of PsychologismAsperger Syndrome and Your ChildAsperger Syndrome, Adolescence, and IdentityAssessment and Treatment of Childhood Problems, Second EditionAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAttachedAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutism and the Myth of the Person AloneAutopsy of a Suicidal MindBecoming an Effective PsychotherapistBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing No OneBelievingBetween Two WorldsBeyond AppearanceBeyond BlueBeyond BullyingBeyond MadnessBeyond the BrainBeyond the DSM StoryBig DreamsBiofeedback for the BrainBipolar ChildrenBipolar DisorderBipolar KidsBlackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive DevelopmentBlind SpotsBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlubberlandBlushBodiesBody ConsciousnessBody Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity in YouthBody SenseBody WorkBorderline Personality DisorderBorderline Personality Disorder and the Conversational ModelBorn DigitalBorn to Be GoodBorn Together - Reared ApartBounceBoundaries in Human RelationshipsBounded RationalityBozo SapiensBrain and CultureBrain and the GazeBrain Arousal and Information TheoryBrain BugsBrain Change TherapyBrain Circuitry and Signaling in PsychiatryBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-Based Therapy with AdultsBrain-WiseBrainstormBrainstormingBraintrustBrainwashingBrandedBreaking Murphy's LawBright-SidedBuddha's BrainBullying and TeasingBuyologyCaptureCare of the PsycheCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCerebrum 2007Cerebrum 2010Cerebrum 2015Cerebrum Anthology 2013Changing the SubjectCharacter Strengths and VirtuesCheating LessonsChild and Adolescent Psychological DisordersChildren’s Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness Chomsky NotebookClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyClinical Psychology in Practice ClosureCognition and PerceptionCognition and the BrainCognitive BiologyCognitive DissonanceCognitive FictionsCognitive Mechanisms of Belief ChangeCognitive PragmaticsCognitive ScienceCognitive ScienceCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Therapy of Anxiety DisordersCognitive Unconscious and Human RationalityCold-Blooded KindnessComing of Age in Second LifeCommunication Issues In Autism And Asperger SyndromeCompassion and Healing in Medicine and SocietyComplementary and Alternative Therapies ResearchComprehending ColumbineConfessions of a SociopathConquering Shame and CodependencyConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the Social BrainConsciousness EmergingConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Self-Consciousness, and the Science of Being HumanContemporary Debates in Cognitive ScienceConversations on ConsciousnessConviction of the InnocentCooperation and Its EvolutionCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCredit and BlameCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychologyCritical Thinking About PsychologyCross-Cultural PsychologyCrowdsourcingCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCuriousDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous and Severe Personality DisorderDaniel DennettDaughters of MadnessDeafness In MindDeath and ConsciousnessDeath of a ParentDecomposing the WillDeep Brain StimulationDeep ChinaDefining DifferenceDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions of GenderDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDeparting from DevianceDescartes' BabyDescartes's Changing MindDescribing Inner Experience?Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Destructive EmotionsDevelopment of Geocentric Spatial Language and CognitionDevelopment of PsychopathologyDialogues on DifferenceDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Digital HemlockDirty MindsDisgust and Its DisordersDisorders of VolitionDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Doing without ConceptsDrunk Tank PinkEducating People to Be Emotionally IntelligentEffective IntentionsEffective Writing in PsychologyEffortless AttentionEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbracing MindEmbracing UncertaintyEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotionally InvolvedEmotionsEmotionsEmotions and LifeEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions RevealedEmotions, Aggression, and Morality in ChildrenEmotions, Stress, and HealthEmpathyEnjoymentErotic MoralityEscape Your Own PrisonEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthically Challenged ProfessionsEveryday Mind ReadingEvidence for PsiEvidence-Based Mental Health PracticeEvil MenEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution and LearningEvolution, Games, and GodEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolutionary Psychology as Maladapted PsychologyExacting BeautyExperiences of DepressionExperimenterExplaining the BrainExplaining the BrainExplorations in Neuroscience, Psychology and ReligionExploring TranssexualismExpression and the InnerExtending Self-Esteem ResearchExtraordinary BeliefsFact and Value in EmotionFaking ItFatigue as a Window to the BrainFavorite Activities for the Teaching of PsychologyFeeling GoodFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFinding Meaning, Facing FearsFitting In Is OverratedFlourishingFlow: The Psychology of Optimal ExperienceFolk Psychological NarrativesFooling HoudiniForever YoungFormulation in Psychology and PsychotherapyFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Psychological ThoughtFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom EvolvesFrom Axons to IdentityFrom Madness to Mental HealthFrom Neurons to Self-ConsciousnessFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Symptom to SynapseFrontiers of ConsciousnessGay, Straight, and the Reason WhyGenerosityGenes, Environment, and PsychopathologyGenetic Nature/CultureGeniusGetting Under the SkinGlued to GamesGoing SaneGot Parts?Group GeniusGrowing Up GirlGuilt, Shame, and AnxietyGut ReactionsHallucinationHandbook New Sexuality StudiesHandbook of Closeness and IntimacyHandbook of Critical PsychologyHandbook of Emotion RegulationHandbook of EmotionsHandbook of Personality DisordersHandbook of PsychopathyHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Spatial CognitionHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness at WorkHappiness Is.Happy at LastHard to GetHardwired BehaviorHatredHealing the SplitHidden ResourcesHope and DespairHot ThoughtHot ThoughtHouse and PsychologyHow Animals Affect UsHow Animals GrieveHow Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Doctors ThinkHow Enlightenment Changes Your BrainHow Families Still MatterHow History Made the MindHow Infants Know MindsHow Many Friends Does One Person Need?How Professors ThinkHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Change Someone You LoveHow We ReasonHow We RememberHughes' Outline of Modern PsychiatryHumanHuman BondingHuman Reasoning and Cognitive ScienceHypnotismHysteriaiBrainIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIdentifying the MindiDisorderImagination and the Meaningful BrainImitation and the Social MindImpulse Control DisordersImpulsivityIn an Unspoken VoiceIn Defense of SentimentalityIn DoubtIn Search of HappinessIn the Wake of 9/11Individual and Collective Memory ConsolidationInner Experience and NeuroscienceInner PresenceInside the American CoupleIntegrated Behavioral Health CareIntegrating Evolution and DevelopmentIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntellectual DisabilityIntelligenceIntelligence, Destiny, and EducationIntentions and IntentionalityInterdependent MindsInterpreting MindsInto the Minds of MadmenIntoxicating MindsIntrospection VindicatedIntuitionInventing PersonalityInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIs There Anything Good About Men?Issues for Families, Schools and CommunitiesJane Sexes It UpJoint AttentionJoint AttentionJudgment and Decision MakingJust a DogJust BabiesJuvenile-Onset SchizophreniaKarl JaspersKey Thinkers in PsychologyKidding OurselvesKids of CharacterKilling MonstersLack of CharacterLanguage OriginsLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw, Mind and BrainLess Than HumanLet Kids Be KidsLet's Talk About DeathLiving NarrativeLiving with Mild Cognitive ImpairmentLonelinessLooking for SpinozaLossLOT 2Love at Goon ParkMachine ConsciousnessMacrocognitionMade for Each OtherMadnessMaking a Good Brain GreatMaking Habits, Breaking HabitsMaking Minds and MadnessMaking Up the MindMale SexualityMan and WomanMan's Search for MeaningMan, Beast, and ZombieManic MindsManlinessMapping the MindMarking the MindMarvelous Learning AnimalMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaningMeaning, Mortality, and ChoiceMedical MusesMeditating SelflesslyMeetings with a Remarkable ManMemoryMemory and DreamsMemory and EmotionMemory And UnderstandingMental BiologyMental IllnessMental Time TravelMetacognitionMetacognition and Theory of MindMethods in MindMindMindMind and BrainMind and ConsciousnessMind Games:Mind in LifeMind TimeMind to MindMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMindful AngerMindfulnessMindfulness and AcceptanceMindfulness-Based Treatment Approaches: Clinician's Guide to Evidence Base and ApplicationsMinding AnimalsMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds, Brains, and LawMindsightMindworldsMirrors in the BrainMistakes Were Made (But Not by Me)Models of MadnessMoodMoral Development and RealityMoral MindsMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Mothers and OthersMotivation and Cognitive ControlMotivational Interviewing: Preparing People For ChangeMovies and the MindMulticulturalism and the Therapeutic ProcessMultiplicityMuses, Madmen, and ProphetsMy Family AlbumMyths about SuicideNarrative IdentitiesNarrative PsychiatryNarratives in PsychiatryNaturalizing Intention in ActionNature and NarrativeNature Via NurtureNeither Bad nor MadNerveNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeurochemistry of ConsciousnessNeurodiversityNeuroethicsNeuroLogicNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroscience and PhilosophyNo Child Left DifferentNo Two AlikeNot By Genes AloneNot Much Just Chillin'Not So Abnormal PsychologyNurturing the Older Brain and MindOn AnxietyOn Being HumanOn Being MovedOn Deep History and the BrainOn DesireOn KillingOn Nature and LanguageOn PaedophiliaOn PersonalityOn the Frontier of AdulthoodOn the Origins of Cognitive ScienceOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOnflowOpen MindsOpening Skinner's BoxOrigin of MindOrigins of PsychopathologyOther MindsOut of Our HeadsOut of the WoodsOvercoming Depersonalization DisorderPanpsychism and the Religious AttitudePanpsychism in the WestParenting and the Child's WorldPassionate EnginesPathologies of the WestPatient-Based Approaches to Cognitive NeurosciencePediatric PsychopharmacologyPeople Types and Tiger StripesPerception & CognitionPerception beyond InferencePerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPersonal Development and Clinical PsychologyPerspectives on ImitationPhantoms in the BrainPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhrenologyPhysical RealizationPhysics in MindPieces of LightPlaying with FirePositive PsychologyPositive PsychologyPostcards from the Brain MuseumPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPoverty and Brain Development During ChildhoodPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical Management of Personality DisorderPractical Management of Personality DisorderPredicative MindsPredictably IrrationalPreference, Belief, and SimilarityPrenatal Testosterone in MindPrivileged AccessProcrastinationProust Was a NeuroscientistPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsychological AgencyPsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychological Dimensions of the SelfPsychologists Defying the CrowdPsychologyPsychologyPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology for ScreenwritersPsychology of Women: A Handbook of Issues and TheoriesPsychology's GhostsPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology's TerritoriesPsychopathologyPsychopathyPsychosis and EmotionPsychotherapy, American Culture, and Social PolicyPutnam CampPutting a Name to ItQuantum Memory PowerQuietRadical DistortionRadical Embodied Cognitive ScienceRadical ExternalismRadical GraceRapeRe-Visioning PsychiatryReal MaterialismReality CheckReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecovery in Mental IllnessRecreative MindsRedirectReducing Adolescent RiskRegulating EmotionsRelational BeingRelational Mental HealthRelational Suicide AssessmentReliability in Cognitive NeuroscienceRemembering HomeRemembering Our ChildhoodResearch Advances in Genetics and GenomicsResearching Children's ExperienceResilience in ChildrenRestoring ResilienceRethinking ADHDRethinking Learning DisabilitiesRethinking Middle YearsRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfRevolution in PsychologyRoadmap to ResilienceRomance and Sex in Adolescence and Emerging AdulthoodSchizophrenia RevealedSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologySecond NatureSecond NatureSecond That EmotionSecond-order Change in PsychotherapySecrets of the MindSee What I'm SayingSee What I'm SayingSeeing and VisualizingSeeing RedSelf and SocietySelf Comes to MindSelf Control in Society, Mind, and BrainSelf-Awareness Deficits in Psychiatric PatientsSelf-CompassionSelf-RegulationSelf-Representational Approaches to ConsciousnessSelfless InsightSelvesSerial KillersSex at DawnSex on the BrainSex, Time and PowerSexual Coercion in Primates and HumansSexual DisordersSexual FluiditySexual ReckoningsSexualized BrainsShame and GuiltShatteredSimulating MindsSisyphus's BoulderSNAPSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial Psychology and DiscourseSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSoul DustSparkSpiral of EntrapmentSplendors and Miseries of the BrainSports Hypnosis in PracticeStanding at Water's EdgeStich and His CriticsStillpowerStop OverreactingStructure and Agency in Everyday LifeStructures of AgencyStuffStumbling on HappinessSubjectivity and SelfhoodSubstance Abuse and EmotionSupersizing the MindSweet DreamsSynaptic SelfTales from Both Sides of the BrainTalking Oneself SoberTalking to BabiesTaming the Troublesome ChildTargeting AutismTeaching Problems and the Problems of TeachingTeleological RealismTen Years of Viewing from WithinThat's DisgustingThe 5 Elements of Effective ThinkingThe Accidental MindThe Age of EmpathyThe Altruism EquationThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Clinical PsychiatryThe Anatomy of BiasThe Anxious BrainThe Archaeology of MindThe Art and Science of MindfulnessThe Art InstinctThe Art of HypnosisThe Asymmetrical BrainThe Bifurcation of the SelfThe Big Book of ConceptsThe Big DisconnectThe Birth of IntersubjectivityThe Birth of the MindThe Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge ManagementThe Blank SlateThe Body Has a Mind of Its OwnThe Bounds of CognitionThe Boy Who Was Raised as a DogThe BrainThe Brain and the Meaning of LifeThe Brain SupremacyThe Brain That Changes ItselfThe Brain's Way of HealingThe Brain: Big Bangs, Behaviors, and BeliefsThe Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive ScienceThe Cambridge Handbook of Situated CognitionThe Character of ConsciousnessThe Chemistry Between UsThe Choice EffectThe Clinical Science of Suicide PreventionThe Cognitive Approach to Conscious MachinesThe Cognitive Behavioral Workbook for Anxiety: A Step-By-Step ProgramThe Cognitive NeurosciencesThe Cognitive-Emotional BrainThe College Fear FactorThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Compass of PleasureThe Concepts of ConsciousnessThe Conscious BrainThe Conscious SelfThe Consuming InstinctThe Creating BrainThe Creative BrainThe Crucible of ConsciousnessThe Crucible of ExperienceThe Cure WithinThe Dao of NeuroscienceThe Developing MindThe Developing MindThe Development of PsychopathologyThe Disappearance of the Social in American Social PsychologyThe Dissolution of MindThe Duty to ProtectThe Educated ParentThe Ego TunnelThe Elephant in the RoomThe Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human ExperienceThe Emotional Journey of the Alzheimer's FamilyThe Encultured BrainThe Encyclopedia of StupidityThe Enduring Self in People with Alzheimer'sThe Epidemiology of SchizophreniaThe Essential DifferenceThe Ethical BrainThe Evolution of ChildhoodThe Evolution of CooperationThe Evolution of LanguageThe Evolution of MindThe Evolving BrainThe Executive BrainThe Faces of TerrorismThe Feeling BrainThe Feeling of What HappensThe First IdeaThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Foundations of Cognitive ArchaeologyThe Fundamentalist MindsetThe GapThe Gender TrapThe Geography of BlissThe Gift of ShynessThe Good LifeThe Good LifeThe Happiness HypothesisThe Happiness of PursuitThe Health Psychology HandbookThe Healthy Aging BrainThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of PsychologyThe Human FaceThe Human SparkThe Hypomanic EdgeThe Imagery DebateThe Immeasurable MindThe Imprinted BrainThe Incredible Shrinking MindThe Innate MindThe Innate MindThe Integrated SelfThe Intentional BrainThe Language of ThoughtThe Languages of the BrainThe Lexicon of Adlerian PsychologyThe Lie DetectorsThe Lives of the BrainThe Lonely AmericanThe Lust for BloodThe Madness of WomenThe Male BrainThe Man Who Lost His LanguageThe Man Who Shocked the WorldThe Man Who Tasted ShapesThe Man Who Wasn't ThereThe Matter of the MindThe Mature MindThe Mean Girl MotiveThe Meaning of EvilThe Meaning of OthersThe Meaning of the BodyThe Measure of MadnessThe Measure of MindThe Medicalization of Everyday LifeThe Mind and the BrainThe Mind in ContextThe Mind of the ChildThe Mind of the HorseThe Mind's EyeThe Mind, the Body and the WorldThe Mind-Gut ConnectionThe Mindful BrainThe Misleading MindThe Moral MindThe Most Dangerous AnimalThe Most Human HumanThe Mother FactorThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of Depression as DiseaseThe Myth of Mirror NeuronsThe Myth of Self HelpThe Myth of Self-EsteemThe Myth of the Spoiled ChildThe Nature of the SelfThe Necessity Of MadnessThe Neuro RevolutionThe Neuropsychology of the UnconsciousThe Neuroscience of Human RelationshipsThe Neuroscience of PsychotherapyThe Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social BrainThe New BrainThe New Science of DreamingThe New Science of the MindThe New UnconsciousThe Normal PersonalityThe Origins of FairnessThe Overflowing BrainThe Oxford Companion to the MindThe Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of MindThe Paradoxical PrimateThe Perfectionist's HandbookThe Peripheral MindThe Phenomenology ReaderThe Philosopher's Secret FireThe Philosophical BabyThe Political MindThe Politics of HappinessThe Positive Side of Negative EmotionsThe Postnational SelfThe Postpartum EffectThe Power of PlayThe Praeger Handbook of TranssexualityThe Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday LifeThe Primate MindThe Prism of GrammarThe Psychobiology of Trauma and Resilience Across the LifespanThe Psychological Construction of EmotionThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of HappinessThe Psychology of LifestyleThe Psychology of Religious FundamentalismThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of SpiritualityThe Psychology of StereotypingThe Psychology of SuperheroesThe Psychophysiology of Self-AwarenessThe Pursuit of PerfectThe Quest for Mental HealthThe Rational ImaginationThe Ravenous BrainThe Reasons of LoveThe Righteous MindThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Science of EvilThe Science of Intimate RelationshipsThe Science of Shame and its Treatment The Second SelfThe Secret History of EmotionThe Secret Lives of BoysThe Self and Its EmotionsThe Self-Sabotage CycleThe Sensitive SelfThe Shape of ThoughtThe Social AnimalThe Social Nature of Mental IllnessThe Social Neuroscience of EmpathyThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Story of Intellectual DisabilityThe Structure of ThinkingThe Survivors ClubThe Talking ApeThe Teenage BrainThe Tell-Tale BrainThe Temperamental ThreadThe Tender CutThe Tending InstinctThe Time ParadoxThe Trauma MythThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe True PathThe Truth About GriefThe Turing TestThe Uncertain SciencesThe Undoing ProjectThe Unhappy ChildThe Upside of IrrationalityThe War for Children's MindsThe Well-Tuned BrainThe Wild Girl, Natural Man, and the MonsterThe Winner's BrainThe Wisdom in FeelingThe Woman RacketThe World in My Mind, My Mind in the WorldThe Wow ClimaxThe Yipping TigerThemes, Issues and Debates in PsychologyTheoretical Issues in Psychology: An IntroductionTheory of AddictionTheory of MindThings and PlacesThink CatThink Confident, Be ConfidentThinking about AddictionThinking and SeeingThis Emotional Life: In Search of Ourselves...and HappinessThought and LanguageThought in a Hostile WorldTo Have and To Hurt:Toward an Evolutionary Biology of LanguageToward Replacement Parts for the BrainTrauma and Human ExistenceTrauma, Tragedy, TherapyTreating Attachment DisordersTreating Self-InjuryTreating Self-Injury: A Practical GuideTrue to Our FeelingsTrusting the Subject?Understanding and Treating Borderline Personality DisorderUnderstanding ConsciousnessUnderstanding ParanoiaUnderstanding PeopleUnderstanding TerrorismUndoing Perpetual StressUnlock the Genius WithinUnsettled MindsUnstrange MindsUnthinkingUs and ThemViolent PartnersVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVision and MindVisual AgnosiaWarrior's DishonourWe Who Are DarkWednesday Is Indigo BlueWelcome to Your BrainWhat Do Women Want?What Dying People WantWhat Have We DoneWhat Intelligence Tests MissWhat Is an Emotion: Classic and Contemporary ReadingsWhat Is Emotion?What is Intelligence?What Is Mental Illness?What Is Thought?What Makes Your Brain Happy and Why You Should Do the Opposite What the Best College Students DoWhat the Dog SawWhat We Know about Emotional IntelligenceWhat We Say MattersWhat's Wrong With Morality?When Boys Become BoysWhen Perfect Isn't Good EnoughWhen the Impossible HappensWhen Walls Become DoorwaysWho's Been Sleeping in Your HeadWho's in Charge?Why Humans Like to CryWhy Love MattersWhy Lyrics LastWhy People CooperateWhy People Die by SuicideWhy Sex Matters: A Darwinian Look at Human BehaviorWhy Smart People Can Be So StupidWhy the Mind is Not a ComputerWhy Us?Why We LieWhy We LoveWider than the SkyWilliam James at the BoundariesWilling, Wanting, WaitingWittgenstein And PsychologyWomen and Child Sexual AbuseWorking MindsYoga and PsychologyYou Are What You RememberYoung Minds in Social WorldsYour Brain on CubsYour Brain on FoodYour Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings,Your Brain on YogaYour Child in the BalanceZombies and Consciousness

Related Topics
Emotion ExperienceReview - Emotion Experience
Journal of Consciousness Studies
by Evan Thompson and Giovanna Colombetti (Editors)
Imprint Academic, 2005
Review by Dina Mendonça
Aug 8th 2006 (Volume 10, Issue 32)

The selection of papers presented in this special issue of The Journal of Consciousness embodies a genuine interdisciplinary dialogue on emotion. Though the collection may look too diverse because it includes various issues and disciplines, there is thematic unity by attention to some crucial topics of emotion theory, which build bridges between the empirical research on emotion and the philosophical analysis of emotion experience. Among the several common threads running throughout the volume, the reader can find: the role of affect in emotion experience, the status of the unconscious aspect of emotion experience, whether it is possible to demarcate emotion experience from other experiences, the role of emotion in practical reasoning and how to establish a fruitful dialogue between the various disciplines that crucially contribute to emotion research. 

In '' Are Emotions Feelings?'', Jesse Prinz continues to argue for his version of the feeling theory, presenting evidence in support of William James' claim that emotions are perceptions of pattern of changes in the body. Prinz begins by describing the cognitive position of philosophy of emotion, and how they all accept the 'Fundamental Axiom' that emotions are not feelings. He wants to argue that the Fundamental Axiom is both accurate and inaccurate in describing emotions. Then, he moves on to present three bodies of evidence that support the feeling theory of emotions. The first showing that there is evidence to suggest that emotions co-occur with bodily changes; the second that the disruption of interceptive responses leads to diminution of emotion; the third that the interceptive states are sufficient to have an emotion, as the studies on drug effects on emotional states as well as bodily feedback influence on emotions testify. Though Prinz recognizes that none of the bodies of evidence counts as a conclusive proof of the Jamesian Theory he remains hopeful that one day there will be such a proof, and states that the fact that these evidences provide a circumstantial case for the Feeling theory is enough reason for such optimism. At the end of the paper Prinz explains briefly how perceptual states can become conscious.  That is he offers a theory of how emotions become felt, an instance of a more general theory of phenomenal consciousness called the AIR theory, proposing that when perceptions are conscious they qualify as feelings, while when they occur unconsciously emotions are unfelt.

The second paper, ''Emotion in Human Consciousness Is Built on Core Affect'' by James A. Russell, puts forward the idea that Core Affect is what provides the emotional quality to any conscious state. In this article Russell elaborates and clarifies his account presented in a previous paper (Russell 2003), which offers a different way of thinking about emotional feelings. Russell's account dissents from the accounts that assume a set of basic emotions as distinct causal entities. Being closer to a Jamesian account of emotion, Russell differs from James in his addition of the Core Affect, and by dispensing with the term 'emotion'. One of the interesting takes of this paper is how it makes sense to question the role of feeling in emotions, without immediately denying it as the cognitive theories do. Russell begins by explaining that emotional life consists of continuous fluctuations in simple primitive feelings that he calls Core Affect [feeling good or bad, energized etc.], and in the perception of the affective qualities of objects and events.  As Russell states, when one considers emotional life in this way one comes to understand that emotions are psychological rather than genetically or culturally construed. Then, Russell distinguishes primary from secondary states. He gives several examples, showing how, in his account, feeling bad is a primary state while feeling afraid is secondary because it typically consists of an anticipation of feeling bad. Continuing to elaborate on his account, Russell provides a descriptive model of Core Affect, where the horizontal dimension, pleasure-displeasure, ranges from one extreme [agony] to its opposite extreme [ecstasy], and the vertical dimension, activation-deactivation, ranges from sleep to frantic excitement. He concludes the paper by placing the account provided into the broader context of theories of emotions, and arguing that his account can reconcile different positions because it does not treat emotion concepts as scientific terms, which require rather than provide explanation.

The third paper by Mathew Ratcliffe, entitled ''The Feeling of Being'', introduces the notion of 'existential feelings' as a distinct group of feelings because they are bodily states that influence one's awareness, and they constitute the structure of one's relationship with the world. Ratcliffe offers an analysis of 'existential feelings', which shows how they are both bodily feelings and part of the structure of intentionality. Building on Goldie's distinction between bodily feelings and feelings towards, Ratcliffe proposes that existential feelings are 'feelings towards', but suggests that Goldie's distinction is a double-counting case, concluding that bodily feelings are just feelings towards -- except that some feelings are towards the body or parts of it, and others toward things outside the body. After claiming that certain existential feelings constitute the ways of finding ourselves in the world, Ratcliffe moves on to a section where he discusses how work in phenomenology, neurophysiology and psychopathology supports the case for existential feelings. First, Ratcliffe describes how Heidegger's claim that experience presupposes a sense of 'attunement', which is embodied in a mood, in order to indicate how Heidegger's concept of mood is close to the sense of existential feelings. Second, he concentrates his attention on Damasio's work, specifically on Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis, and how it may be seen as support for the existence of existential feelings. The most compelling evidence for Ratcliffe appears in psychopathology work, where reports and studies on schizophrenic patients illustrate how the structure of experience can be altered, and how those changes are related to modifications in bodily feelings. Finally, Ratcliff ends his paper by tentatively suggesting that an appreciation of the existence and role of  ''existential feelings'' might further our understanding of the nature of philosophical thought.

The next article, ''At The Source of Time. Valence and the Constitutional Dynamics of Affect'' by Francisco J. Varela and Natalie Depraz, stands as a step in the analysis of the key role of affect and emotions as the original source of the living present, and provides an insight into how affect-emotion moves the flow of the temporal stream of consciousness. The analysis given by the paper has a double axis: on one hand, it leads to cognitive content by looking at the emergence of reflection; on the other hand, it leads to a basic and specific palette of emotions by looking at self-affection. They start by situating their analysis by showing its Husserlian background and the closeness with five important authors [Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, Levinas, Henry and Marion]. Once the background has been laid, they focus their analysis on a detailed level of resolution of the grain of description, which is first rooted in self-affection as the pro-noetic ground and following its trajectory until it becomes a clear content where emotions are visible. Then, they illustrate their analysis by two concrete examples [Averting Gaze and Musical Exaltation] that give the reader an experiential reading of the analysis given. Finally, they engage in the description of eidetic invariants through a progressive constitutional analysis. The goal of the paper, as Varela and Depraz state in their conclusion, is to combine regressive and progressive analysis of micro-temporality in the transition moment. This analysis points to the conclusion that affect and emotion appear as the original ground for the constitution of temporality [and thus of consciousness altogether], through the key generative layers of valence and domains of concern.

The next paper by Louis C. Charland, ''The Heat of Emotion. Valence and the Demarcation Problem'', argues for the crucial role of valence in emotion science. First, Charland explains how the philosophical discussions about the scientific status of emotion are always framed in terms of questioning whether emotions are a natural kind or not. Charland argues that the direction of the debate is misguided: first because it forces reflection into an endless impasse which draws attention away from the relevant debate in emotion science; second, perhaps more importantly for Charland, because it ignores valence as a central feature of emotion experience. Consequently, Charland point out, philosophers are unable to see that valence is an evaluative reason, giving emotion its central normative feature, and that it is probably the most promising criterion for demarcating emotion from cognition. Building on this, he argues that valence is the moving force of emotions. Charland proposes an alternative philosophical hypothesis that presents emotion as a naturally occurring valenced phenomenon.  Such hypothesis allows us to treat emotion as a natural kind while simultaneously recognizing its normative character, which means that the hypothesis proposed allows a more open-ended trait to emotion, making it possible to understand how it evolves and develops. Valence, Charland argues, is also relational because it can only exist within the context of the encounter of an organism and its environment. Charland also introduces the interesting distinction between affect valence and emotion valence, which bring some clarification to the notion. At the end of his paper, Charland considers the genealogy of valence by giving us two opposite proposals [Damasio and Russell].

Giovanna Colombetti, in ''Appraising Valence'' makes an excellent evaluation of valence. The paper has two parts that, although complementary, can be taken independently. The first part shows how the term 'valence' has been used in more than half a dozen ways since its appearance in psychology and emotion theory. First, Colombetti indicates how 'valence' arrived through a questionable translation in psychology, and how it has been linked to frequency of positive and negative. Then, Colombetti reviews and illustrates the different uses in detail showing how valence of emotion sometimes means object valence, sometimes behavior valence. Also, how valence is attached to aspects of emotional processes such as affect valence, as well as valence of facial expressions, and its connection to evaluation, in terms of the goals of the organism. Finally, she presents how valence has been connected to norms.  In the second part of the paper, clearly more argumentative than the descriptive tone of the first part, Colombetti points to the conceptual problems of having different uses of valence. First, there are the problems that come from conflating the valence of an emotion with the valence of its aspects. Secondly, problems arise from the idea that an emotion, or its aspects, can be clearly and simplistically divided into mutually exclusive opposites, which distorts the complexity of emotional processes.  She concludes that, given the descriptive and critical analysis of the notion of valence, it stands as a hindrance rather than a useful notion to define emotion. Colombetti ends her paper by pointing out that one of the things that comes out from the undergone reflection is the awareness that to fully capture the richness of emotion, emotions research needs to use more complex conceptual tools.

The next paper by Peter Goldie, ''Imagination and the Distorting Power of Emotion'', considers the role of emotions in practical reasoning. Goldie observes that since emotions can distort practical reasoning in ways which the subject does not realize, predict or plan it raises difficulties in imagining such situations from the inside. In contrast, Goldie suggests another kind of imagination, imagining from an external perspective, which allows subjects to evaluate imagined events in a way that is revealing and helpful for practical reasoning. The external perspective can draw on the dramatic irony where one knows the situation imagined in a way that one also knows the way an imagined emotion can distort one's reasoning. First, he begins by demonstrating that difficulties of central imagining, that is of imagining from the inside, by showing the conceptual and psychological limitations on imaginative counterparts. Disagreeing with Currie and Ravenscoft's conclusion that emotions have no imaginative counterparts, Goldie argues that it is possible to imagine something threatening where the imagined fear is part of the content of what I imagined, and not a response to what I imagine. Goldie then takes us to inquire into how these imagined emotional experiences feature in imagined practical reasoning and imagined action. Goldie answers negatively to what concerns imagination's ability to be a good guide without prior comparable experience, but responds affirmatively to the possibility of imagining oneself engaged in practical reasoning, so that the imagined emotional experience has normative impulse. After establishing this, Goldie turns to the distinction between empathetic and sympathetic audiences, in order to suggest that the awareness of dramatic irony draws one away from imagining oneself from the inside, and draws one to imagine oneself from an external perspective, concluding that imagining from an external perspective allows evaluation to be built into the perspective. Goldie ends the paper by considering the merits of imagining others from an external perspective.

The paper ''The Roles of Imagery and Meta-emotion in deliberate choice and moral psychology'', by Ralph Ellis, is a paper that attempts to ground moral and other deliberate choices in the neuropsychological of imagery and meta-emotions. Ellis' goal is to show that ethics has nothing to fear from neurosciences. He begins by outlining the two main reconciliatory strategies in philosophy of mind that take both neuroscience and ethics seriously, and points out the problems of these strategies. Then, he illustrates how love of truth can be a hardwired sentiment, and how it is simultaneously a trait certainly conducive to survival. Ellis explains how some people do not experience vivid sensory imagery as triggering their first order feelings, but instead feel that something like a 'narrative' of a situation can pull up the feelings allowing the Readiness Potential. Ellis points out that some philosophers, who argue that conscious choice is an illusion, too quickly interpret a "Readiness Potential," which precedes consciousness of action.  He argues that this conclusion is not supported by a deeper look at the neuroscientific understanding of the way the brain works. With this paper Ellis wants to show that to understand the role of emotion in reasoned deliberate choice one needs to understand three components, namely the fact that meta-emotions allow self-generated voluntary narratives that trigger first-order emotions; second, that there are hardwired altruistic sentiments which are necessary but not sufficient; finally that neuropsychology grounds the sentiment of love of truth.

The following paper by Jaak Panksepp, ''On the Embodied neural nature of Core Emotional Affects'', summarizes how we can develop a cross-species affective neuroscience that probes the neural nature of emotional affective states, by studying the instinctual emotional apparatus of the mammalian body and brain. Panksepp begins by presenting a synopsis of the affective neuroscientific strategy showing how animal models allow researchers to empirically analyze the large-scale neural ensembles that generate emotional-action dynamics that are critically important for creating emotional feelings. Panksepp's premise is that affective experience is a deeply neurobiological process, and that scholars who do not invest in the biological sciences have little hope of shedding light on what the effects really are. Then he gives us an overview of different conceptual perspectives [traditional behavioral neuroscience view, traditional cognitive neuroscience, affective neuroscience], pointing out how they represent profound ontological disagreements and make the study of affect generally ignored in basic animal research. Given this scenario, Panksepp goes on to present his premise concerning the nature of emotions, and state that it is the central neural circuit changes that support our emotional feelings. Arguing how his research aspired to provide a coherent theory of the neuro-evolutionary underpinnings of raw emotional feelings, Panksepp indicates that if animals had no affective experiences there would be no obvious reason for them to exhibit learned behavioral preferences. Then he describes how it is reasonable to taxonomize affective experiences into at least three major varieties (1. the homeostatic states of our body signaled by interoceptors as well as other chemical states of the body, 2. the great variety of exteroceptively driven affects such as taste and, 3. the emotional affects so evident in instinctual action dynamics), and how primal emotional processes illustrate such varieties. Panksepp concludes by proposing that the affective and emotional actions may reflect the dynamics of the primal viscero-somatic homunculus of SELF-representation.

Douglas Watt's paper, ''Social Bonds and the Nature of Empathy'', investigates the crucial place of the notion of empathy in affective research, showing that the creation of social bonds is a critical domain of affective research. Watt notes that there is a widespread confusion regarding the role of the cognitive and the affective in empathy. He begins by elaborating on the difficulties of defining empathy, concluding that there are three central components to the various conceptions of empathy. After reviewing some of the models of empathy in cognitive neuroscience and some of its problems, Watt develops a basic model of empathy which arises from resonance induction of others distress accompanied by the motivation to relieve the distress. Assuming that human empathy mixes primitive emotion resonance with later developmental cognitive abilities, Watt establishes four classes of variables that affect empathetic induction: first, the native talent and developed ability; second, the degree of attachment to the object; third, the degree of felt potential vulnerability of the object; and finally, the affective state of the emphasizer. Then, Watt considers some of the clinical disorder of empathy, and how they fit with the basic model proposed. The paper concludes by considering some remaining questions and possible tests for the hypothesis given, pointing out that empathy is a phenomenon which breaths on the cognition-emotion border. Watt ends by pointing out that given that empathy is a concept that covers a large group of processes, and does not denote a single unique process, it will take some time to organize a theoretical coherence for it.

 ''Getting Emotional: A Neural Perspective in Intention and Consciousness'', by Marc Lewis & Rebecca Tood, presents a review of the psychological model of emotional episodes proposing that goal obstruction extends the duration of these episodes while it simultaneously increases cognitive complexity and emotional intensity. They suggest that attention is initially focused on action plans and their obstruction, and argue that it is only when obstruction persists that focal attention comes to include emotional states. Lewis and Tood believe that dynamic systems approaches in emotion theory are the most fruitful ones when they look at biological systems, and go beyond the behavioral level of description. Accordingly, they follow up with a description at a neural level that considers three levels of obstruction in order to show the self-organization of neural activities that hypothetically underlie the evolution of an emotional episode. They suggest that prefrontal activities greatly extend intentional states, while focal attention integrates emotional awareness and goal pursuit in a comprehensive sense of the self in the world. Finally, they inquire into the evolutionary status of the advantage of emotional awareness, exploring different possibilities and concluding that emotional awareness enriches our sense of self, and it also allows us to be attentive to the details of the world and to our movements.

The last paper by David Rudrauf & Antonio Damasio, entitled ''A Conjecture Regarding the Biological Mecahnism of Subjectivity and Feeling'' presents a conjecture regarding the biology of subjectivity and feeling, which aims at providing the beginning of an explanation of why and how we are feeling subjects, based on biophysical and phenomenological considerations. Part of the motivation of this paper is to contribute to the ongoing effort to close the explanatory gap in the study of consciousness. Their hypothesis is that the core of the subjectivity of feeling would come to life as a process of resistance to variance occurring during the cognitive and behavioral processes of the individual. Their hypothesis presupposes certain conditions: that feelings entities must be capable of certain kinds of behaviors namely intentional and emotional behaviors; that feeling entities must have a certain size and a certain degree of complexity; and finally, that a complex, multicomponential nervous system is required. After showing how the notion of affect suggests an underlying process of resistance to variance, they turn their attention to how vigilance, emotional arousal and attention reflect a dynamics of controlled over-excitation related to cognitive integration and control. In this article they characterize the phenomenological, functional and neurocognitive levels at which a dynamics of resistance to variance could be seen as generating basic subjectivity and feeling. At the end of the paper they take up discussion about the impact of their hypothesis as well as its limitations, explaining how the spacialization of the subjectivity [the fact that we feel in a projective way] is more difficult to account for.

The collected essays presented in this volume are a true reflection of the effort to establish a relation of topics and concerns among different fields, and a must for those who want to know and participate in the effort of building an interdisciplinary research on emotions.

 

 

 © 2006 Dina Mendonça

 

Dina Mendonça is a Postdoctoral Fellow of Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal, at the Instituto de Filosofia da Linguagem in the Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Working in a research program on "Pragmatic Analysis of Emotion." This research, of Deweyan inspiration, aims at elaborating a critical interpretation of the philosophy of emotions clarifying: on the one hand, (1) the different methodological approaches to emotions; on the other hand, (2) the topics that surround reflection upon emotion. Among other things, the project aims at the production of a commented bibliography and a research database on philosophy of emotion.


Share

Welcome to MHN's unique book review site Metapsychology. We feature over 7800 in-depth reviews of a wide range of books and DVDs written by our reviewers from many backgrounds and perspectives. We update our front page weekly and add more than thirty new reviews each month. Our editor is Christian Perring, PhD. To contact him, use one of the forms available here.

Can't remember our URL? Access our reviews directly via 'metapsychology.net'


Metapsychology Online reviewers normally receive gratis review copies of the items they review.
Metapsychology Online receives a commission from Amazon.com for purchases through this site, which helps us send review copies to reviewers. Please support us by making your Amazon.com purchases through our Amazon links. We thank you for your support!


Join our e-mail list!: Metapsychology New Review Announcements: Sent out monthly, these announcements list our recent reviews. To subscribe, click here.

Interested in becoming a book reviewer for Metapsychology? Currently, we especially need thoughtful reviewers for books in fiction, self-help and popular psychology. To apply, write to our editor.

Metapsychology Online Reviews

Promote your Page too

Metapsychology Online Reviews
ISSN 1931-5716