email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
A Theory of Feelings Addictions Memory and the Self"Intimate" Violence against Women1001 Solution-Focused Questions101 Healing Stories101 Things I Wish I'd Known When I Started Using Hypnosis50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God8 Keys to Body Brain BalanceA Brief History of Modern PsychologyA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Conceptual History of Psychology: Exploring the Tangled Web A Cooperative SpeciesA Guide to Teaching Introductory PsychologyA History of Modern Experimental PsychologyA History of Psychology in AutobiographyA History of Social PsychologyA History of the BrainA History of the MindA Hole in the HeadA Matter of SecurityA Mind of Its OwnA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Place for ConsciousnessA Short Introduction to Promoting Resilience in ChildrenA Social History of PsychologyA Stroll With William JamesA System Architecture Approach to the BrainA Theory of FreedomA Very Bad WizardAbductedAbout FacesAccounts of InnocenceAction, Emotion and WillAdapting MindsADHD & MeADHD in AdultsAdieu to GodAdolescence and Body ImageAdult Bipolar DisordersAdvances in Culture and PsychologyAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAffect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of SelfAffective MappingAgainst EmpathyAgainst HappinessAges and StagesAll Joy and No FunAll Out!All We Have to FearAlterations of ConsciousnessAmerican Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical NeurosciencesAn Argument for MindAncient Bodies, Modern LivesAnimal Tool BehaviorAnimals in TranslationAnomalous CognitionAping MankindArtificial ConsciousnessAspects of PsychologismAsperger Syndrome and Your ChildAsperger Syndrome, Adolescence, and IdentityAssessment and Treatment of Childhood Problems, Second EditionAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAttachedAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutism and the Myth of the Person AloneAutopsy of a Suicidal MindBecoming an Effective PsychotherapistBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing No OneBelievingBetween Two WorldsBeyond AppearanceBeyond BlueBeyond BullyingBeyond MadnessBeyond the BrainBeyond the DSM StoryBig DreamsBiofeedback for the BrainBipolar ChildrenBipolar DisorderBipolar KidsBlackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive DevelopmentBlind SpotsBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlubberlandBlushBodiesBody ConsciousnessBody Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity in YouthBody SenseBody WorkBorderline Personality DisorderBorderline Personality Disorder and the Conversational ModelBorn DigitalBorn to Be GoodBorn Together - Reared ApartBounceBoundaries in Human RelationshipsBounded RationalityBozo SapiensBrain and CultureBrain and the GazeBrain Arousal and Information TheoryBrain BugsBrain Change TherapyBrain Circuitry and Signaling in PsychiatryBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-Based Therapy with AdultsBrain-WiseBrainstormBrainstormingBraintrustBrainwashingBrandedBreaking Murphy's LawBright-SidedBuddha's BrainBullying and TeasingBuyologyCaptureCare of the PsycheCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCerebrum 2007Cerebrum 2010Cerebrum 2015Cerebrum Anthology 2013Changing the SubjectCharacter Strengths and VirtuesCheating LessonsChild and Adolescent Psychological DisordersChildren’s Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness Chomsky NotebookClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyClinical Psychology in Practice ClosureCognition and PerceptionCognition and the BrainCognitive BiologyCognitive DissonanceCognitive FictionsCognitive Mechanisms of Belief ChangeCognitive PragmaticsCognitive ScienceCognitive ScienceCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Therapy of Anxiety DisordersCognitive Unconscious and Human RationalityCold-Blooded KindnessComing of Age in Second LifeCommunication Issues In Autism And Asperger SyndromeCompassion and Healing in Medicine and SocietyComplementary and Alternative Therapies ResearchComprehending ColumbineConfessions of a SociopathConquering Shame and CodependencyConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the Social BrainConsciousness EmergingConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Self-Consciousness, and the Science of Being HumanContemporary Debates in Cognitive ScienceConversations on ConsciousnessConviction of the InnocentCooperation and Its EvolutionCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCredit and BlameCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychologyCritical Thinking About PsychologyCross-Cultural PsychologyCrowdsourcingCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCuriousDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous and Severe Personality DisorderDaniel DennettDaughters of MadnessDeafness In MindDeath and ConsciousnessDeath of a ParentDecomposing the WillDeep Brain StimulationDeep ChinaDefining DifferenceDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions of GenderDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDeparting from DevianceDescartes' BabyDescartes's Changing MindDescribing Inner Experience?Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Destructive EmotionsDevelopment of Geocentric Spatial Language and CognitionDevelopment of PsychopathologyDialogues on DifferenceDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Digital HemlockDirty MindsDisgust and Its DisordersDisorders of VolitionDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Doing without ConceptsDrunk Tank PinkEducating People to Be Emotionally IntelligentEffective IntentionsEffective Writing in PsychologyEffortless AttentionEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbracing MindEmbracing UncertaintyEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotionally InvolvedEmotionsEmotionsEmotions and LifeEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions RevealedEmotions, Aggression, and Morality in ChildrenEmotions, Stress, and HealthEmpathyEnjoymentErotic MoralityEscape Your Own PrisonEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthically Challenged ProfessionsEveryday Mind ReadingEvidence for PsiEvidence-Based Mental Health PracticeEvil MenEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution and LearningEvolution, Games, and GodEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolutionary Psychology as Maladapted PsychologyExacting BeautyExperiences of DepressionExperimenterExplaining the BrainExplaining the BrainExplorations in Neuroscience, Psychology and ReligionExploring TranssexualismExpression and the InnerExtending Self-Esteem ResearchExtraordinary BeliefsFact and Value in EmotionFaking ItFatigue as a Window to the BrainFavorite Activities for the Teaching of PsychologyFeeling GoodFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFinding Meaning, Facing FearsFitting In Is OverratedFlourishingFlow: The Psychology of Optimal ExperienceFolk Psychological NarrativesFooling HoudiniForever YoungFormulation in Psychology and PsychotherapyFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Psychological ThoughtFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom EvolvesFrom Axons to IdentityFrom Madness to Mental HealthFrom Neurons to Self-ConsciousnessFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Symptom to SynapseFrontiers of ConsciousnessGay, Straight, and the Reason WhyGenerosityGenes, Environment, and PsychopathologyGenetic Nature/CultureGeniusGetting Under the SkinGlued to GamesGoing SaneGot Parts?Group GeniusGrowing Up GirlGuilt, Shame, and AnxietyGut ReactionsHallucinationHandbook New Sexuality StudiesHandbook of Closeness and IntimacyHandbook of Critical PsychologyHandbook of Emotion RegulationHandbook of EmotionsHandbook of Personality DisordersHandbook of PsychopathyHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Spatial CognitionHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness at WorkHappiness Is.Happy at LastHard to GetHardwired BehaviorHatredHealing the SplitHidden ResourcesHope and DespairHot ThoughtHot ThoughtHouse and PsychologyHow Animals Affect UsHow Animals GrieveHow Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Doctors ThinkHow Enlightenment Changes Your BrainHow Families Still MatterHow History Made the MindHow Infants Know MindsHow Many Friends Does One Person Need?How Professors ThinkHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Change Someone You LoveHow We ReasonHow We RememberHughes' Outline of Modern PsychiatryHumanHuman BondingHuman Reasoning and Cognitive ScienceHypnotismHysteriaiBrainIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIdentifying the MindiDisorderImagination and the Meaningful BrainImitation and the Social MindImpulse Control DisordersImpulsivityIn an Unspoken VoiceIn Defense of SentimentalityIn DoubtIn Search of HappinessIn the Wake of 9/11Individual and Collective Memory ConsolidationInner Experience and NeuroscienceInner PresenceInside the American CoupleIntegrated Behavioral Health CareIntegrating Evolution and DevelopmentIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntellectual DisabilityIntelligenceIntelligence, Destiny, and EducationIntentions and IntentionalityInterdependent MindsInterpreting MindsInto the Minds of MadmenIntoxicating MindsIntrospection VindicatedIntuitionInventing PersonalityInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIs There Anything Good About Men?Issues for Families, Schools and CommunitiesJane Sexes It UpJoint AttentionJoint AttentionJudgment and Decision MakingJust a DogJust BabiesJuvenile-Onset SchizophreniaKarl JaspersKey Thinkers in PsychologyKidding OurselvesKids of CharacterKilling MonstersLack of CharacterLanguage OriginsLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw, Mind and BrainLess Than HumanLet Kids Be KidsLet's Talk About DeathLiving NarrativeLiving with Mild Cognitive ImpairmentLonelinessLooking for SpinozaLossLOT 2Love at Goon ParkMachine ConsciousnessMacrocognitionMade for Each OtherMadnessMaking a Good Brain GreatMaking Habits, Breaking HabitsMaking Minds and MadnessMaking Up the MindMale SexualityMan and WomanMan's Search for MeaningMan, Beast, and ZombieManic MindsManlinessMapping the MindMarking the MindMarvelous Learning AnimalMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaningMeaning, Mortality, and ChoiceMedical MusesMeditating SelflesslyMeetings with a Remarkable ManMemoryMemory and DreamsMemory and EmotionMemory And UnderstandingMental BiologyMental IllnessMental Time TravelMetacognitionMetacognition and Theory of MindMethods in MindMindMindMind and BrainMind and ConsciousnessMind Games:Mind in LifeMind TimeMind to MindMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMindful AngerMindfulnessMindfulness and AcceptanceMindfulness-Based Treatment Approaches: Clinician's Guide to Evidence Base and ApplicationsMinding AnimalsMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds, Brains, and LawMindsightMindworldsMirrors in the BrainMistakes Were Made (But Not by Me)Models of MadnessMoodMoral Development and RealityMoral MindsMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Mothers and OthersMotivation and Cognitive ControlMotivational Interviewing: Preparing People For ChangeMovies and the MindMulticulturalism and the Therapeutic ProcessMultiplicityMuses, Madmen, and ProphetsMy Family AlbumMyths about SuicideNarrative IdentitiesNarrative PsychiatryNarratives in PsychiatryNaturalizing Intention in ActionNature and NarrativeNature Via NurtureNeither Bad nor MadNerveNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeurochemistry of ConsciousnessNeurodiversityNeuroethicsNeuroLogicNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroscience and PhilosophyNo Child Left DifferentNo Two AlikeNot By Genes AloneNot Much Just Chillin'Not So Abnormal PsychologyNurturing the Older Brain and MindOn AnxietyOn Being HumanOn Being MovedOn Deep History and the BrainOn DesireOn KillingOn Nature and LanguageOn PaedophiliaOn PersonalityOn the Frontier of AdulthoodOn the Origins of Cognitive ScienceOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOnflowOpen MindsOpening Skinner's BoxOrigin of MindOrigins of PsychopathologyOther MindsOut of Our HeadsOut of the WoodsOvercoming Depersonalization DisorderPanpsychism and the Religious AttitudePanpsychism in the WestParenting and the Child's WorldPassionate EnginesPathologies of the WestPatient-Based Approaches to Cognitive NeurosciencePediatric PsychopharmacologyPeople Types and Tiger StripesPerception & CognitionPerception beyond InferencePerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPersonal Development and Clinical PsychologyPerspectives on ImitationPhantoms in the BrainPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhrenologyPhysical RealizationPhysics in MindPieces of LightPlaying with FirePositive PsychologyPositive PsychologyPostcards from the Brain MuseumPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPoverty and Brain Development During ChildhoodPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical Management of Personality DisorderPractical Management of Personality DisorderPredicative MindsPredictably IrrationalPreference, Belief, and SimilarityPrenatal Testosterone in MindPrivileged AccessProcrastinationProust Was a NeuroscientistPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsychological AgencyPsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychological Dimensions of the SelfPsychologists Defying the CrowdPsychologyPsychologyPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology for ScreenwritersPsychology of Women: A Handbook of Issues and TheoriesPsychology's GhostsPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology's TerritoriesPsychopathologyPsychopathyPsychosis and EmotionPsychotherapy, American Culture, and Social PolicyPutnam CampPutting a Name to ItQuantum Memory PowerQuietRadical DistortionRadical Embodied Cognitive ScienceRadical ExternalismRadical GraceRapeRe-Visioning PsychiatryReal MaterialismReality CheckReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecovery in Mental IllnessRecreative MindsRedirectReducing Adolescent RiskRegulating EmotionsRelational BeingRelational Mental HealthRelational Suicide AssessmentReliability in Cognitive NeuroscienceRemembering HomeRemembering Our ChildhoodResearch Advances in Genetics and GenomicsResearching Children's ExperienceResilience in ChildrenRestoring ResilienceRethinking ADHDRethinking Learning DisabilitiesRethinking Middle YearsRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfRevolution in PsychologyRoadmap to ResilienceRomance and Sex in Adolescence and Emerging AdulthoodSchizophrenia RevealedSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologySecond NatureSecond NatureSecond That EmotionSecond-order Change in PsychotherapySecrets of the MindSee What I'm SayingSee What I'm SayingSeeing and VisualizingSeeing RedSelf and SocietySelf Comes to MindSelf Control in Society, Mind, and BrainSelf-Awareness Deficits in Psychiatric PatientsSelf-CompassionSelf-RegulationSelf-Representational Approaches to ConsciousnessSelfless InsightSelvesSerial KillersSex at DawnSex on the BrainSex, Time and PowerSexual Coercion in Primates and HumansSexual DisordersSexual FluiditySexual ReckoningsSexualized BrainsShame and GuiltShatteredSimulating MindsSisyphus's BoulderSNAPSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial Psychology and DiscourseSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSoul DustSparkSpiral of EntrapmentSplendors and Miseries of the BrainSports Hypnosis in PracticeStanding at Water's EdgeStich and His CriticsStillpowerStop OverreactingStructure and Agency in Everyday LifeStructures of AgencyStuffStumbling on HappinessSubjectivity and SelfhoodSubstance Abuse and EmotionSupersizing the MindSweet DreamsSynaptic SelfTales from Both Sides of the BrainTalking Oneself SoberTalking to BabiesTaming the Troublesome ChildTargeting AutismTeaching Problems and the Problems of TeachingTeleological RealismTen Years of Viewing from WithinThat's DisgustingThe 5 Elements of Effective ThinkingThe Accidental MindThe Age of EmpathyThe Altruism EquationThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Clinical PsychiatryThe Anatomy of BiasThe Anxious BrainThe Archaeology of MindThe Art and Science of MindfulnessThe Art InstinctThe Art of HypnosisThe Asymmetrical BrainThe Bifurcation of the SelfThe Big Book of ConceptsThe Big DisconnectThe Birth of IntersubjectivityThe Birth of the MindThe Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge ManagementThe Blank SlateThe Body Has a Mind of Its OwnThe Bounds of CognitionThe Boy Who Was Raised as a DogThe BrainThe Brain and the Meaning of LifeThe Brain SupremacyThe Brain That Changes ItselfThe Brain's Way of HealingThe Brain: Big Bangs, Behaviors, and BeliefsThe Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive ScienceThe Cambridge Handbook of Situated CognitionThe Character of ConsciousnessThe Chemistry Between UsThe Choice EffectThe Clinical Science of Suicide PreventionThe Cognitive Approach to Conscious MachinesThe Cognitive Behavioral Workbook for Anxiety: A Step-By-Step ProgramThe Cognitive NeurosciencesThe Cognitive-Emotional BrainThe College Fear FactorThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Compass of PleasureThe Concepts of ConsciousnessThe Conscious BrainThe Conscious SelfThe Consuming InstinctThe Creating BrainThe Creative BrainThe Crucible of ConsciousnessThe Crucible of ExperienceThe Cure WithinThe Dao of NeuroscienceThe Developing MindThe Developing MindThe Development of PsychopathologyThe Disappearance of the Social in American Social PsychologyThe Dissolution of MindThe Duty to ProtectThe Educated ParentThe Ego TunnelThe Elephant in the RoomThe Emotional Journey of the Alzheimer's FamilyThe Encultured BrainThe Encyclopedia of StupidityThe Enduring Self in People with Alzheimer'sThe Epidemiology of SchizophreniaThe Essential DifferenceThe Ethical BrainThe Evolution of ChildhoodThe Evolution of CooperationThe Evolution of LanguageThe Evolution of MindThe Evolving BrainThe Executive BrainThe Faces of TerrorismThe Feeling BrainThe Feeling of What HappensThe First IdeaThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Foundations of Cognitive ArchaeologyThe Fundamentalist MindsetThe GapThe Gender TrapThe Geography of BlissThe Gift of ShynessThe Good LifeThe Good LifeThe Happiness HypothesisThe Happiness of PursuitThe Health Psychology HandbookThe Healthy Aging BrainThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of PsychologyThe Human FaceThe Human SparkThe Hypomanic EdgeThe Imagery DebateThe Immeasurable MindThe Imprinted BrainThe Incredible Shrinking MindThe Innate MindThe Innate MindThe Integrated SelfThe Intentional BrainThe Language of ThoughtThe Languages of the BrainThe Lexicon of Adlerian PsychologyThe Lie DetectorsThe Lives of the BrainThe Lonely AmericanThe Lust for BloodThe Madness of WomenThe Male BrainThe Man Who Lost His LanguageThe Man Who Shocked the WorldThe Man Who Tasted ShapesThe Man Who Wasn't ThereThe Matter of the MindThe Mature MindThe Mean Girl MotiveThe Meaning of EvilThe Meaning of OthersThe Meaning of the BodyThe Measure of MadnessThe Measure of MindThe Medicalization of Everyday LifeThe Mind and the BrainThe Mind in ContextThe Mind of the ChildThe Mind of the HorseThe Mind's EyeThe Mind, the Body and the WorldThe Mind-Gut ConnectionThe Mindful BrainThe Misleading MindThe Moral MindThe Most Dangerous AnimalThe Most Human HumanThe Mother FactorThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of Depression as DiseaseThe Myth of Mirror NeuronsThe Myth of Self HelpThe Myth of Self-EsteemThe Myth of the Spoiled ChildThe Nature of the SelfThe Necessity Of MadnessThe Neuro RevolutionThe Neuropsychology of the UnconsciousThe Neuroscience of Human RelationshipsThe Neuroscience of PsychotherapyThe Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social BrainThe New BrainThe New Science of DreamingThe New Science of the MindThe New UnconsciousThe Normal PersonalityThe Origins of FairnessThe Overflowing BrainThe Oxford Companion to the MindThe Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of MindThe Paradoxical PrimateThe Perfectionist's HandbookThe Peripheral MindThe Phenomenology ReaderThe Philosopher's Secret FireThe Philosophical BabyThe Political MindThe Politics of HappinessThe Positive Side of Negative EmotionsThe Postnational SelfThe Postpartum EffectThe Power of PlayThe Praeger Handbook of TranssexualityThe Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday LifeThe Primate MindThe Prism of GrammarThe Psychobiology of Trauma and Resilience Across the LifespanThe Psychological Construction of EmotionThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of HappinessThe Psychology of LifestyleThe Psychology of Religious FundamentalismThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of SpiritualityThe Psychology of StereotypingThe Psychology of SuperheroesThe Psychophysiology of Self-AwarenessThe Pursuit of PerfectThe Quest for Mental HealthThe Rational ImaginationThe Ravenous BrainThe Reasons of LoveThe Righteous MindThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Science of EvilThe Science of Intimate RelationshipsThe Science of Shame and its Treatment The Second SelfThe Secret History of EmotionThe Secret Lives of BoysThe Self and Its EmotionsThe Self-Sabotage CycleThe Sensitive SelfThe Shape of ThoughtThe Social AnimalThe Social Nature of Mental IllnessThe Social Neuroscience of EmpathyThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Story of Intellectual DisabilityThe Structure of ThinkingThe Survivors ClubThe Talking ApeThe Teenage BrainThe Tell-Tale BrainThe Temperamental ThreadThe Tender CutThe Tending InstinctThe Time ParadoxThe Trauma MythThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe True PathThe Truth About GriefThe Turing TestThe Uncertain SciencesThe Unhappy ChildThe Upside of IrrationalityThe War for Children's MindsThe Well-Tuned BrainThe Wild Girl, Natural Man, and the MonsterThe Winner's BrainThe Wisdom in FeelingThe Woman RacketThe World in My Mind, My Mind in the WorldThe Wow ClimaxThe Yipping TigerThemes, Issues and Debates in PsychologyTheoretical Issues in Psychology: An IntroductionTheory of AddictionTheory of MindThings and PlacesThink CatThink Confident, Be ConfidentThinking about AddictionThinking and SeeingThis Emotional Life: In Search of Ourselves...and HappinessThought and LanguageThought in a Hostile WorldTo Have and To Hurt:Toward an Evolutionary Biology of LanguageToward Replacement Parts for the BrainTrauma and Human ExistenceTrauma, Tragedy, TherapyTreating Attachment DisordersTreating Self-InjuryTreating Self-Injury: A Practical GuideTrue to Our FeelingsTrusting the Subject?Understanding and Treating Borderline Personality DisorderUnderstanding ConsciousnessUnderstanding ParanoiaUnderstanding PeopleUnderstanding TerrorismUndoing Perpetual StressUnlock the Genius WithinUnsettled MindsUnstrange MindsUnthinkingUs and ThemViolent PartnersVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVision and MindVisual AgnosiaWarrior's DishonourWe Who Are DarkWednesday Is Indigo BlueWelcome to Your BrainWhat Do Women Want?What Dying People WantWhat Have We DoneWhat Intelligence Tests MissWhat Is an Emotion: Classic and Contemporary ReadingsWhat Is Emotion?What is Intelligence?What Is Mental Illness?What Is Thought?What Makes Your Brain Happy and Why You Should Do the Opposite What the Best College Students DoWhat the Dog SawWhat We Know about Emotional IntelligenceWhat We Say MattersWhat's Wrong With Morality?When Boys Become BoysWhen Perfect Isn't Good EnoughWhen the Impossible HappensWhen Walls Become DoorwaysWho's Been Sleeping in Your HeadWho's in Charge?Why Humans Like to CryWhy Love MattersWhy Lyrics LastWhy People CooperateWhy People Die by SuicideWhy Sex Matters: A Darwinian Look at Human BehaviorWhy Smart People Can Be So StupidWhy the Mind is Not a ComputerWhy Us?Why We LieWhy We LoveWider than the SkyWilliam James at the BoundariesWilling, Wanting, WaitingWittgenstein And PsychologyWomen and Child Sexual AbuseWorking MindsYoga and PsychologyYou Are What You RememberYoung Minds in Social WorldsYour Brain on CubsYour Brain on FoodYour Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings,Your Brain on YogaYour Child in the BalanceZombies and Consciousness
Imitation is a hot topic in
developmental psychology, cognitive neuroscience, animal studies, philosophical
considerations of theory of mind and intersubjectivity, as well as educational
studies. Hurley and Chater have collected a large number of first-rate essays
and commentaries, originating in a conference at Royaumont
Abbey, and focused on a variety of themes, gathered together under two
headings: Mechanisms of Imitation and Imitation in Animals (Vol 1) and
Imitation, Human Development, and Culture (Vol 2). The two volumes are
composed of 29 papers and 38 commentaries. The Introduction by Hurley and
Chater is printed in both volumes.
Rather than try to rehearse all of
the papers, or touch on all of the topics covered in these volumes (something that
Hurley and Chater do nicely in the Introduction, and something I won't try to
imitate), I will be selective and discuss three issues that are raised in this
collection. First, can animals imitate? Second, how does imitation facilitate
social interaction in humans? And third, how is imitation related to moral
Can animals imitate?
As you may expect, this depends on
how one defines imitation. There is a diversity of definitions offered in
these volumes. Rizzolatti, for example, follows Thorndike and defines
imitation as "learning to do an act from seeing it done" (I, 55).
Meltzoff offers a more complex characterization. Imitation must meet three
conditions: "(1) the observer produces behavior similar to the model, (2)
the perception of an act causes the observer's response, and (3) the
equivalence between the acts of self and other plays a role in generating a
response" (II, 55). One person's concept of imitation, however, is
another person's concept of perceptual priming, simulation, mirroring, contagion
or emulation. Thus, Jesse Prinz defines imitation as "a process by which
one organism comes to exhibit a state or behavior exhibited by another organism
through perceiving the other organism exhibit that state or behavior" (II,
276). But he immediately adds that it requires mentally mediated replication.
This is still, as he indicates, a broad definition that includes crying
contagion, although it is not clear why one should consider crying contagion a
form of mentally mediated replication. Others, like Tomasello (cited by
Prinz), offer a narrow definition, in which imitation requires a duplication of
both the means and the end of an action.
On a wide definition it seems clear
that animals imitate; on a narrow definition, perhaps they can't. Thomas
Zentall nicely captures this thought in his commentary on Anisfeld. Zentall
cites his study of Japanese quail who, after observing another quail step on a
treadle or peck at a treadle, will respectively step or peck when given access
to the treadle. Stepping and pecking turn out to accomplish the same result --
a specific movement of the treadle. Quail are also capable of deferred
imitation: imitating the behavior after a certain amount of time. Zentall
focuses on the "two-action method" of showing imitation. Using this
methodology, two groups of individuals watch a model behavior that accomplishes
the same task (moving the treadle), but each model uses a different action
(stepping vs. pecking). If each group of individuals tends to match the
behavior that is demonstrated, this is considered to be imitation. On this
operational definition, as Richard Byrne points out, "a growing list of
species are now claimed to show imitation" (I, 226). The list includes
Japanese quails, budgerigars, and human neonates. Byrne points out important
complications involved in some of the experiments on learning by imitation
conducted with animals. In some cases, there are no attempts to find out about
preexisting repertoire. In a study of four chimpanzees and six gorillas
(conducted by Stoinski and colleagues), the chimps were likely acculturated in
a human environment, whereas the gorillas were zoo animals. The chimps learned
a sequence of actions whereas the gorillas did not. Is there a firm conclusion
to be drawn from this? Other studies have shown that great apes who are
brought up by human caregivers can acquire "human" behaviors (I,
227). Sorting out imitation from perceptual priming, efficiency of behavior,
social facilitation, stimulus enhancement, or emulation is difficult, however.
Irene Pepperberg offers what she
considers to be a clear case of auditory imitation that cannot be confounded
with priming, social facilitation, stimulus enhancement, or anything else.
Namely, the replication of human speech in the African Grey Parrot. How
precise is their imitation? Pepperberg offers a detailed phonological account
to show that Alex the parrot shows good fidelity of vowel and stop imitation,
limited only by differences in mechanisms of vocal tract, supporting her
contention that Alex physically imitates her speech. The fact that Alex's
vocalizations are not merely phonetic reproductions, but are also referential
is important to distinguish "mere" mimicry from true imitation.
"If an act is performed
because the imitator understands its purpose -- to reach a goal, be it an
object or intentional communication, that is otherwise impossible to obtain --
then the imitation is intentional and complex, most likely indicating cognitive
processing" (I, 248).
Pepperberg offers a helpful
discussion of the neurological correlates of imitation (mirror neurons),
distinguishing between simple mimicry (relatively meaningless copying),
low-level imitation (involving some social interaction), and high-level
imitation (involving reference to goals or creation of improbable acts).
Throughout the discussions of
animal imitation reference is constantly made to human neonate imitation, as
demonstrated in experiments by Meltzoff and Moore. This raises questions about
the importance of the link between cultural settings and imitation, and
concepts of animal culture. Whiten et al. are thus motivated to point out that
"even though a substantial cultural repertoire may be acquired by
imitative copying, neither children nor chimpanzees copy all they see others
around them doing" (I, 264), and thus the question arises: What determines
what is imitated or not imitated? They note that in studies of chimp
imitation only parts of what is modeled gets copied, but that this is less the
case for infant imitation. In both cases, however, there is selectivity, and
this suggests that there is something that we might call "smart"
imitation. For example, a subject might smartly ignore irrelevant details of
particular movements and imitate only those aspects that are goal related; or a
subject may be able to represent, for meaning, specific aspects of meaningful
movement in alternative (non-motor) fashion, and therefore not need to imitate
that aspect. This kind of "adaptive flexibility" is explored
experimentally by Whiten et al. as a way to provide substance to the distinction
between emulation (which has a high degree of selectivity) and imitation (which
is less selective). The interesting question that they pose is whether animals
who partially imitate are poor imitators, or are actually smartly emulating
behavior. Their experiments suggest that both animals and children engage in
degrees of emulation, and that in some contexts chimps engage in a higher
degree of emulation than 3-year old humans. They conclude that apes
"appraise the 'meaning' of components of an act they see associated with
desirable outcomes" (I, 279), and thus imitate intelligently.
Is the problem of intersubjectivity
equivalent to the problem of "other minds," in regard to which we
must make inferences because other minds are otherwise not accessible? Or is
it equivalent to the problem of understanding the perceived embodied actions of
others? Many of the authors writing in Perspectives on Imitation start
from embodied actions and work their way towards the minds of others. Pursuing
this strategy, the concept of simulation constitutes not only an important tool
(in the context of experiments, for example, where subjects may be asked
"to mentally simulate an action" [Decety and Chaminade, I, 127]), but
also the solution to the puzzle (as one finds explicated in simulation theory
[ST] approaches to theory of mind). This is a frequent strategy found in
neuroscientific accounts of understanding and empathizing with others. Decety
and Chaminade, for example, introduce the notion of explicit simulation as
found in ST (as in Goldman, who compares explicit simulation and imitation, II,
92; see Hurley and Chater II, 26-27), and describe how this concept comes to be
used in the social neuroscience of mirror neurons, shared (neural) representations,
and perception-action common coding mechanisms. Vittorio Gallese equates these
processes with "automatic, implicit, and nonreflexive simulation
mechanisms" and, following Adolphs, calls them "as if body
loops" (I, 117). Robert Gordon equates this "constitutive
mirroring" with simulation (II, 100ff; see Hurley I, 189). Authors of two
other chapters in Vol 1, Marco Iacoboni and Giacomo Rizzolatti respectively,
have elsewhere employed the same terminology.
"Mirror neurons allow us to
grasp the minds of others not through conceptual reasoning but by direct
simulation. By feeling, not by thinking" (Rizzolatti,
quoted by Blakeslee 2006).
you see me perform an action - such as picking up a baseball - you
automatically simulate the action in your own brain" (Icoboni, quoted in
two questions to ask in regard to equating sub-personal neural processes with
simulation. Both questions relate to the very concept of simulation as it is
developed in ST, that is, in discussions that take ST to be a solution to the
problem of intersubjectivity or mind-reading. Simulation, as it is developed
in those discussions, is consistently characterized as having two aspects. (1)
The instrumental aspect: the simulation is a model that we purposively
use to understand something that we do not understand, namely, the other
person's mind. And (2) the pretense aspect: the simulation involves
off-line pretend states, and has the status of the subjunctive "as
if." I pretend to believe or act "as if" I were you. These two
aspects are obvious enough to anyone familiar with this literature, and I won't
try to make the case here (but see Gallagher, in press).
questions should now be obvious, however. First, in what sense can we regard
sub-personal automatic neuronal processes to be something that I (or the brain)
use(s) instrumentally as a model of something else? At the very least we can
note, as Gordon does (II, 104-106), that "the mirroring phenomena ... are
not "my own" in the requisite sense. If I am aware of them at all, I
am aware of them as underlying the other's behavior, not my own" (105).
Indeed, we should make this a stronger claim. We do not activate or control
activation of the neuronal processes, nor does the brain, in any proactive way;
rather, in instances relevant to intersubjectivity, the actions of other people
elicit that neuronal activity. There is no instrumental control or use
of these processes by the subject, or even the subject's brain. A claim such
as the following, for example, can be made only by reading personal level
vocabulary into subpersonal processes:
"Using our own motor
capacities to understand the actions performed by others is at the core of the
simulation theory. ... the neural motor system involved in the preparation and
execution of action, is also part of a simulation network which is used
to interpret the perceived actions performed by others" (Chaminade, Meary,
Orliaguet, Decety 2001; emphasis added).
The second question is this: In
what sense can we regard subpersonal automatic neuronal processes to be
"as-if" processes? Is there something like neuronal pretense or a
neuronal subjunctive? Notwithstanding Gordon's suggestion that neurons can
respond "as if I were carrying out the behavior" (II, 96),
there really is not an "as if it were I" or an "as if I were
you" at the neuronal level. As vehicles, neurons simply fire; they don't
pretend to fire. And in terms of what they "represent", there is now
general consensus that mirror neurons and shared representations are neutral,
that is, they represent neither first-person (my action) nor third-person (your
action), but simply action (for which a "who" is not yet determined;
see, e.g., Gallese I, 110-111). If there is no "I" or
"you" represented, it would be difficult to claim that there is a
representation of "as if I were you".
In both of these regards, then,
subpersonal neuronal processes of the mirroring kind fail to meet the
requirements for what makes a simulation a simulation as specified by ST.
How is imitation related to moral development?
The relation between imitation and
moral development has been an important topic of philosophical discussion, at
least since the time of Plato. What is fascinating in these two volumes of
essays is the recent empirical research and the various contexts in which this
relationship comes to be explicated. If we think of moral contexts as
involving action and relations to others, then imitation seems central.
Consider the variety of relevant contexts. Imitation has been shown to be
positively related to whether two people like each other, with empirical
evidence that shows that when others imitate us, our liking of them increases
(Dijksterhuis II, 210). Likewise, when we desire to affiliate with another
person, our imitation of them increases. Dijksterhuis cites a study by van
Baaren et al (2003) that shows the positive effects of verbal imitation on the
amount of tips received by waiters in a restaurant. Research also shows the link
between imitation and non-conscious trait inferences and stereotyping. The
famous experiment by Bargh et al. (1996) involved priming stereotypical
"old people" vocabulary (e.g., gray, bingo, Florida), resulting in a
slower pace of walking in the primed subjects. Dijksterhuis and van
Knippenberg (1998) showed that after subjects thought about typical behaviors
and attributes of college professors (or in contrast soccer hooligans), the
subjects were able to do better (or worse if they thought of soccer hooligans)
on general knowledge games. As a professor in Florida, these studies have some
practical interest for me. I now understand why, when I meet people, they seem
very smart, but walk very slow.
Other topics related to questions
of moral context concern deceptive imitation (Gambetta II, 221ff), the
importance of emotion in the role played by imitation in moral development (J.
Prinz II, 267ff), and the effect of violence portrayed in the mass media. In
regard to the latter, although it is very difficult to measure or show
causality, Eldridge draws a reasonable conclusion based on existing evidence:
"childhood exposure to violence in the media has lasting effects on
behavior through a high-level process of imitation in which cognitions that control
aggressive behavior are acquired" (II, 264). Several other essays (Donald,
Sugden, Gil-White, Greenberg, Chater, and many other commentators on these
essays) tell the evolutionary story of how we move from mimesis and imitation
to adopting the values of our tribe, and thence to the effects of broader
cultural memes for shaping our rationality and our cultural practices.
These various discussions all point
to the importance of imitation in moral development, a view that would
certainly support the Aristotelian conception of practical wisdom. For
Aristotle, to become a good person one must mix with good people and do what
they do. That is, one must imitate and practice good actions while
understanding and appreciating the worth of the ends accomplished by these
actions. Aristotle also pointed out that despite our general sense that this
is the way to attain virtue, there is no science of ethics. In part, this
means that there are no rules that will necessarily lead us to the good life.
This also seems to be confirmed in the various empirical studies of imitation.
There are no guaranteed, clear, or strong predictions that we can make about
any individual concerning whether they will imitate what they see, or whether
imitation, if it occurs, will shape their behavior in the right way.
Blakeslee, S. 2006. Cells that
read minds. New York Times (online) January 10, 2006.
Chaminade, T., Meary, D., Orliaguet, JP, and Decety, J.
2001. Is visual anticipation a motor simulation? A PET study. NeuroReport. 12:
(in press). Logical and phenomenological arguments
against simulation theory. In D. Hutto and M. Ratcliffe (eds.), Minding
our Practice: Folk Psychology Re-assessed. Springer Publishers.
© 2006 Shaun Gallagher
Shaun Gallagher, Ph.D., Professor
of Philosophy and Cognitive Science at The University of Central Florida.