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Maximizing Effectiveness in Dynamic Psychotherapy Self-Compassion in Psychotherapy101 Healing StoriesA Clinician's Guide to Legal Issues in PsychotherapyA Map of the MindA Primer for Beginning PsychotherapyACT With LoveActive Treatment of DepressionAffect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of SelfAlready FreeBad TherapyBecoming an Effective PsychotherapistBecoming MyselfBefore ForgivingBeing a Brain-Wise TherapistBetrayed as BoysBeyond Evidence-Based PsychotherapyBeyond MadnessBeyond PostmodernismBinge No MoreBiofeedback for the BrainBipolar DisorderBody PsychotherapyBoundaries and Boundary Violations in PsychoanalysisBrain Change TherapyBrain Science and Psychological DisordersBrain-Based Therapy with AdultsBrain-Based Therapy with Children and AdolescentsBrief Adolescent Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Therapy Homework PlannerBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyBuilding on BionCare of the PsycheCase Studies in DepressionCaught in the NetChild and Adolescent Treatment for Social Work PracticeChoosing an Online TherapistChronic DepressionClinical Dilemmas in PsychotherapyClinical Handbook of Psychological DisordersClinical Intuition in PsychotherapyClinical Pearls of WisdomCo-Creating ChangeCognitive Therapy for Challenging ProblemsCompassionConfessions of a Former ChildConfidential RelationshipsConfidentiality and Mental HealthConfidingContemplative Psychotherapy EssentialsControlConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCoping with BPDCouch FictionCounseling in GenderlandCounseling with Choice TheoryCouple SkillsCrazy for YouCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCreating HysteriaCritical Issues in PsychotherapyCrucial Choices, Crucial ChangesDeafness In MindDecoding the Ethics CodeDeconstructing PsychotherapyDeep Brain StimulationDemystifying TherapyDepression 101Depression in ContextDialogues on DifferenceDissociative ChildrenDo-It-Yourself Eye Movement Techniques for Emotional HealingDoing CBTE-TherapyEarly WarningEncountering the Sacred in PsychotherapyEnergy Psychology InteractiveErrant SelvesEssays on Philosophical CounselingEssentials of Wais-III AssessmentEthically Challenged ProfessionsEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics in Plain EnglishEthics in Psychotherapy and CounselingExercise-Based Interventions for Mental IllnessExistential PsychotherapyExpectationExploring the Self through PhotographyExpressing EmotionFacing Human SufferingFairbairn's Object Relations Theory in the Clinical SettingFamily TherapyFavorite Counseling and Therapy Homework AssignmentsFear of IntimacyFlourishingFolie a DeuxForms of Intersubjectivity in Infant Reasearch and Adult TreatmentFoundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in PsychologyFreud and the Question of PseudoscienceFrom Morality to Mental HealthFundamentals of Psychoanalytic TechniqueGenes on the CouchGod & TherapyHalf Empty, Half FullHandbook of Clinical Psychopharmacology for TherapistsHandbook of Counseling and Psychotherapy with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual ClientsHandbook of Evidence-Based Therapies for Children and AdolescentsHealing the Heart and Mind with MindfulnessHeinz KohutHelping Children Cope With Disasters and TerrorismHigh RiskHistory of PsychotherapyHow and Why Are Some Therapists Better Than Others?How Clients Make Therapy WorkHow People ChangeHow Psychotherapists DevelopHow to Fail As a TherapistHow to Go to TherapyHypnosis for Inner Conflict ResolutionHypnosis for Smoking CessationI Never Promised You a Rose GardenIf Only I Had KnownIn Others' EyesIn SessionIn Therapy We TrustIn Treatment: Season 1Incorporating Spirituality in Counseling and PsychotherapyInside the SessionInside TherapyIs Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Issues in Philosophical CounselingIt's Not as Bad as It SeemsItís Your HourLearning ACTLearning from Our MistakesLearning Supportive PsychotherapyLetters to a Young TherapistLife CoachingLogotherapy and Existential AnalysisLove's ExecutionerMadness and DemocracyMaking the Big LeapMan's Search for MeaningMaybe You Should Talk to SomeoneMetaphoria: Metaphor and Guided Metaphor for Psychotherapy and HealingMind GamesMindfulnessMindfulness and AcceptanceMindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for DepressionMindworks: An Introduction to NLPMockingbird YearsMoments of EngagementMomma and the Meaning of LifeMotivational Interviewing: Preparing People For ChangeMulticulturalism and the Therapeutic ProcessMultifamily Groups in the Treatment of Severe Psychiatric DisordersNarrative PracticeOn the CouchOne Nation Under TherapyOur Inner WorldOur Last Great IllusionOutsider ArtOutsider Art and Art TherapyOvercoming Destructive Beliefs, Feelings, and BehaviorsOverexposedPathways to SpiritualityPersonality and PsychotherapyPhilosophical CounselingPhilosophical Counselling and the UnconsciousPhilosophical Issues in Counseling and PsychotherapyPhilosophical PracticePhilosophy and PsychotherapyPhilosophy for Counselling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy PracticePhilosophy's Role in Counseling and PsychotherapyPillar of SaltPlan BPlato, Not Prozac!Polarities of ExperiencesPower GamesPractical Psychoanalysis for Therapists and PatientsPrinciples and Practice of Sex TherapyProcess-Based CBTPsychologists Defying the CrowdPsychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, and the Politics of Human RelationshipsPsychosis in the FamilyPsychotherapyPsychotherapyPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPsychotherapy As PraxisPsychotherapy East and WestPsychotherapy for Children and AdolescentsPsychotherapy for Personality DisordersPsychotherapy Is Worth ItPsychotherapy Isn't What You ThinkPsychotherapy with Adolescent Girls and Young WomenPsychotherapy with Children and AdolescentsPsychotherapy without the SelfPsychotherapy, American Culture, and Social PolicyRapid Cognitive TherapyRational Emotive Behavior TherapyRational Emotive Behavior TherapyRationality and the Pursuit of HappinessRebuilding Shattered LivesReclaiming Our ChildrenRecovery OptionsRelationalityRent Two Films and Let's Talk in the MorningSaving the Modern SoulScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologySecond-order Change in PsychotherapySelf-Compassion in PsychotherapySelf-Determination Theory in the ClinicSelf-Disclosure in Psychotherapy and RecoverySerious ShoppingSex, Therapy, and KidsSexual Orientation and Psychodynamic PsychotherapySigns of SafetySoul Murder RevisitedStaring at the SunStraight to JesusStrangers to OurselvesSubjective Experience and the Logic of the OtherTaking America Off DrugsTales of PsychotherapyTales of UnknowingTalk is Not EnoughTalking Cures and Placebo EffectsTelling SecretsThe Behavioral Medicine Treatment PlannerThe Body in PsychotherapyThe Brief Couples Therapy Homework Planner with DiskThe Case Formulation Approach to Cognitive-Behavior TherapyThe Challenge for Psychoanalysis and PsychotherapyThe Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy Treatment PlannerThe Clinical Child Documentation SourcebookThe Clinical Documentation SourcebookThe Complete Adult Psychotherapy Treatment PlannerThe Couch and the TreeThe Couples Psychotherapy Treatment PlannerThe Crucible of ExperienceThe Cure of SoulsThe Death of PsychotherapyThe Education of Mrs. BemisThe Ethical Treatment of DepressionThe Ethics of PsychoanalysisThe Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy Treatment PlannerThe Gift of TherapyThe Great Psychotherapy Debate: The Evidence for What Makes Psychotherapy Work The Healing JourneyThe Heart & Soul of ChangeThe Heroic ClientThe Husbands and Wives ClubThe Love CureThe Making of a TherapistThe Mindful TherapistThe Mirror Crack'dThe Mummy at the Dining Room TableThe Neuroscience of PsychotherapyThe Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social BrainThe New Rational TherapyThe Older Adult Psychotherapy Treatment PlannerThe Other Side of DesireThe Pastoral Counseling Treatment PlannerThe Philosopher's Autobiography The Pornographer's GriefThe Portable CoachThe Portable Ethicist for Mental Health Professionals The Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday LifeThe Problem of EvilThe Problem with Cognitive Behavioural TherapyThe Psychodynamics of Gender and Gender RoleThe Psychotherapy Documentation PrimerThe Psychotherapy Documentation PrimerThe Psychotherapy of HopeThe Real World Guide to Psychotherapy PracticeThe Schopenhauer CureThe Sex Lives of TeenagersThe Talking CureThe Therapeutic "Aha!"The Therapist's Guide to PsychopharmacologyThe Therapist's Guide to Psychopharmacology, Revised EditionThe Therapist's Ultimate Solution BookThe Trauma of Everyday LifeThe Trouble with IllnessThe UnsayableThe Way of the JournalTheory and Practice of Brief TherapyTherapy with ChildrenTherapy's DelusionsTheraScribe 3.0 for WindowsTheraScribe 4.0Thinking about ThinkingThinking for CliniciansThinking for CliniciansThoughts Without a ThinkerThriveToward a Psychology of AwakeningTracking Mental Health OutcomesTrauma, Truth and ReconciliationTreating Attachment DisordersTreatment for Chronic DepressionTreatment Plans and Interventions for Depression and Anxiety DisordersUnderstanding Child MolestersUnspeakable Truths and Happy EndingsWhat the Buddha FeltWhat Works for Whom?What Works for Whom? Second EditionWhen the Body SpeaksWhispers from the EastWise TherapyWittgenstein and PsychotherapyWorking MindsWoulda, Coulda, ShouldaWriting About PatientsYoga Skills for Therapists:Yoga Therapy
According to the editors of this book, the question of whether or not psychotherapy is effective has been positively settled in the affirmative by more than forty years of substantive research. But the question of why it is effective remains a point of contention among both researchers and practitioners. Some researchers assert that specific techniques or treatment approaches can and should be designed for specific disorders or symptoms, and that this "empirically validated treatment" (EVT) approach is what will save psychotherapy in the age of managed care. Other researchers disagree. A primary assertion of this book is that the recent move among some professionals toward EVT is a step in exactly the wrong direction. The authors report that the bulk of the empirical research efforts in this area have failed to correlate positive outcomes with specific techniques, and they suggest that such correlations will likely never be found. The majority of the thirteen articles that make up The Heart and Soul of Change was chosen by the editors to support the position that the effectiveness of psychotherapy is due primarily to client factors and the therapeutic relationship, not to the expertise of, nor the techniques employed by, adherents of specific theoretical orientations.
In the introductory chapter, the editors briefly review previous works and research that have identified what are called "the big four" factors in therapeutic effectiveness. Client factors are reported to make up a substantial 40% of the variance found in treatment outcome; these factors are defined as "what clients bring to the therapy room and what influences their lives outside it" (p. 9), e.g., personal history and personality characteristics. Relationship factors, meaning the pan-theoretical qualities of the therapist, such as warmth, caring, empathy and etc., are said to account for another 30% of outcome variance. Placebo effects, hope and expectancy represent another 15% of outcome variance, with only the last 15% left to account for variance associated with theoretical models or specific techniques. The chapters that follow are broadly divided into four sections: (1) the existing empirical support for the common factors view of therapy effectiveness, (2) a detailed examination of each of the four factors, (3) the role of these factors in a variety of domains and settings, and (4) the implications of the common factors position for reimbursement systems and clinicians.
The first sections review of the research on therapy outcome affirms that psychotherapy has been shown effective with a broad range of problems and with many types of clients. This is very reassuring news for both clients and therapists and, possibly, for third-party payers. However, an effectively operationalized definition of positive outcome is not provided in this book, and a serious consideration of this issue would have been very welcome to the reader. Treatment success is global and abstract rather than specific and clear, as shown in the explanation in one of the books chapters that "[i]n most cases, clients are not cured, but helped to achieve improved functioning . . . and more productive or meaningful relationships" (p. 165).
In fact, although this book does not take up the issue, the definition of treatment success is a matter of some abstraction in the professional literature as well. Major sources of difficulty involve definition and measurement. Is success to be measured in client satisfaction? One author in this book observes, "there is no reason to believe that a high degree of [client] satisfaction is necessarily a sign of successful outcome" (p. 395). Functional or real-life changes would be a more precise indicator of success, but because of the obvious and numerous problems to be overcome in the measurement of such real-life outcomes, the primary tool used to measure therapy success is client self-report. Unfortunately, the serious threats to validity in self-report methods are difficult, perhaps impossible, to adequately manage. (See, for example, Schwarz, 1999.) In managed care and community mental health settings, successful outcome is also often couched in terms of cost containment the client who requires significantly fewer services this year than last has received successful treatment.
The second section of Heart and Soul provides chapters that address in more detail the most relevant client factors, the therapeutic relationship, and the role of hope or expectancy. An additional article discusses the usefulness of therapy models, even in the absence of empirical data that supports one model over another. Of particular note in one chapter is the claim that "it is now possible to predict who signs up, shows up, finishes up, and ends up better off as a result of therapy" (p. 228). If one accepts the premise that certain client characteristics are essential to predicting therapy success, and if it is truly possible to identify which clients currently show such characteristics, then the client recruitment and selection processes can be refined and treatment success rates can be maximized. This would be of equal interest to therapists, researchers and managed-care funding sources.
The chapters of the "Special Applications" section of the book are not as directly relevant to the general psychotherapist but are interesting nonetheless. The role of the placebo effect is explored and related to the positive client characteristics of optimism, expectancy and hope. The use of psychoactive medications is discussed, and the correlations of their effects with other therapeutic and situational factors are noted: "Medication response can be readily altered by who delivers the drug, how its properties are described [to the patient], the degree of familiarity with the setting in which it is presented, and the ethnic identity or socioeconomic status of the person ingesting it" (p. 301). This may help explain why medications and therapy are sometimes found to be more effective than either alone.
The final section of the book highlights the growing importance of therapy outcome research to managed care and third party reimbursers. Important findings derived from the rapidly growing therapy client database include the remarkable variability of therapy success overall, the unhelpfulness (so far at least) of the EVT approach, the significant differences among the outcomes achieved by different therapists and systems, and the predictability of eventual therapy outcome after only a few sessions.
One nagging question that remains after finishing this provocative book, if the authors claims about the centrality of client factors are correct, is whether there is really much value in the rigorous training of therapists, at least in the areas of technical skills and theoretical models. Perhaps training programs could more profitably select trainees based on their personal characteristics and provide to this select group of apprentices an abbreviated course of preparation largely focused on general relationship skills and professional ethics, and that would be enough. Both the increasing demand of the marketplace to know the value of what is bought, and the growing predilection of public mental health departments to design programs around paraprofessionals suggest this question is not just academic.
Schwarz, N. (1999). Self-Reports: How the Questions Shape the Answers. American Psychologist, 54(2), 93-105.
Keith Harris, PhD, is a clinical psychologist and supervisor of Victor Valley Behavioral Health Center in San Bernardino county, California. Hisinterests include clinical supervision, the empirical basis forpsychotherapy research (and its design), human decision-making processes,and the shaping of human nature by evolutionary forces.