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ParadiseReview - Paradise
A Novel
by A.L. Kennedy
Knopf, 2005
Review by Tony O'Brien
Nov 30th 2005 (Volume 9, Issue 48)

Paradise is the fifth novel by A. L. Kennedy, one of Scotland's foremost authors. The ironic title of the novel belies its theme; there is little of paradise about the life of narrator Hannah Luckraft, unless you count the bliss of yet another alcoholic stupor. For Hannah though, being drunk is the only way the world makes sense. And Kennedy describes her drinking in such sensuous, limpid prose that you can see what Hannah means, although you know, as Hannah does, that each blissful sip of whisky takes her one step further from heaven.

The novel begins in a room somewhere. That's about as much orientation as you get until you follow Hannah's bit-by-bit reconstruction of her last day, her last week, her life so far. Hannah has had another blackout, and her most reliable guide back to her life is what memory she has of other blackouts, the clues they provide, the likely confusions that await her, the lies and deceit that will be necessary to extract her from her latest predicament. From here, in a somewhat fragmented fashion, we pick up the strands of Hannah's life; a life that unravels over the course of the book. Told in the first person, with a great deal of interior monologue, the narrative is as compelling as it is relentless. At every point where Kennedy provides some room for hope we simply can't see how hope can be maintained. When Hannah pours a drink after a period of sobriety we are as relieved as she is that we no longer need to sustain the tension of wondering when.

So why would a reader engage with such a desperate and depressing individual? The answer lies in Kennedy's skill in creating an unsentimental character who, for all her self-justified scheming and duplicity, possesses a genuinely moral nature, real emotions, and real disappointments. Not that she lets this stop her stealing and lying, and exploiting yet again the kindness of her parents. But there is also a sense that she experiences real guilt and shame, and genuine affection for her alcoholic partner, Robert.

Robert is a dentist, but not the sort you would want doing your root canal work. The relationship is characterized by the peculiar honesty possible only between two alcoholics. Denied the refuge of deceit, Robert and Hannah accept each other's addiction, even planning weekend benders in which they get away from it all by getting drunk in Dublin and London, rather than at home in Scotland. They also accept the occasional lapse into sobriety; they're always there to assist each other in the recovery back to normal drinking. Together they enumerate the varieties of drunkenness, from the warm and biddable sweet drunk, to Robert's invention of water drunk "Where the air, without warning, becomes liquid, this causing you to fall, unnaturally slowly, to the ground." The relationship between Robert and Hannah is one of the more optimistic aspects of the story. They share a palpable fondness, are genuinely hurt when let down by each other, and when they declare their love you believe them, even while thinking love won't get them through. The descriptions of their lovemaking are both visceral and tender.

Hannah frequently reflects on her childhood love for her parents, and her younger brother Simon. She recalls imagining that she and Simon would have a life together, and feels bitter that Simon has been influenced by his wife Allison to distance himself somewhat from her. Allison is portrayed as tut tutting goody two-shoes who has come between the siblings and turned little brother Simon into a self-righteous prat. She gloats over Hannah's self-debasing search for a drink in her (Allison's) house, and forbids contact with her baby. She's something of a caricature. We know enough about her puritanical type to hate it, but we don't know enough about Allison to hate her in a personal sense. While Kennedy allows us to feel sympathy for Hannah, there is no such consideration shown to Allison.

During a sojourn at a sanatorium with the thoroughly absurd but perfectly likely name of "Clear Spring" Hannah recovers from the horrors of delirium tremens to face the even worse horrors of amateur Freudians practicing group therapy. I suppose there are such places, where acute withdrawal is left untreated, and nurses make banal sexual interpretations of damn near everything. But Hannah had come to Clear Spring after several alcohol-free days at brother Simon's, and so would not have been in withdrawal. And in such an 'Ultra-Puritanical' establishment, miles from anywhere, why would the delightfully Korsakovian Mr. Hitt be allowed to carry hundreds of dollars in cash, and why wouldn't some drug seeking loser have relieved him of it? I was left with a sense that Clear Spring was something of a device to advance the plot, but a distraction from the real business. Ironic that the only point of slippage in the novel coincides with one of Hannah's two periods of sobriety.

Hannah is not only a recorder of her own self destruction; she is a acerbic, at time spiteful commentators on the foibles on others. Her views are no doubt colored by the fact that she finds herself drawn, through her own lifestyle, into the company, the lives, and the beds of people, especially men, whom she despises. Nevertheless, the language and acute observations that Kennedy provides in Hannah's dialogue are both amusing and entertaining. A man she has slept with the night before is described as having "long, yellowish, curly hair, which was, perhaps, cute at some time in his youth, but has thinned now into a wispy embarrassment." A fellow passenger on an interminable trans Canadian train journey says, with the breezy cheerfulness of a railway enthusiast "We're all equal, eh? You can talk to anyone on a train. Anyone at all." But Hannah tells us that "he is called Mary Kershaw, that he used to work for Canadian Pacific, and that he cannot succumb to a fatal heart attack remotely soon enough."

Kennedy sustains what would otherwise be a remorselessly depressing narrative with deft use of humor and wit. On a visit to her mother, a new neighbor, Mrs. Anderson, inquires as to what Hannah does for a living. Hannah has been fired from her job selling cardboard packaging, so her mother explains: "She used to be in cardboard, but now she's moved on." In another passage Hannah buys a bottle of water and tells us: "The water says 'best before 2027.' Ordinarily I don't like to drink things intended to last that long." There are passages of poetic language in which common objects and experiences are brought to life with such clarity and precision that you feel you must have been there yourself, with Kennedy looking over your shoulder.

Kennedy offers no explanation for Hannah's alcoholic life pattern. There are enough scenes involving her parents and brother to get a fair idea of her upbringing, but there is little about it that would account for such a catastrophic life course. Her parents' marriage contains no more than the normal dysfunction, with her father seeking refuge in his shed, occasionally sleeping there the night. But neither parent is alcoholic, there is no abuse or trauma, and Hannah gets on well with Simon. But her drinking began at school and seems always to have been excessive. In the one sustained moment of sobriety we are shown, there is no revelation of a long-suppressed conflict that might hold the key to Hannah's alcoholism. We are left to accept, as Hannah does, that she finds herself in a world to which she doesn't belong, and so she drinks: "I am delicate and the world is impossibly wrong, is unthinkable and I am not forewarned, forearmed, equipped. I cannot manage. If there was something useful I could do, I would - but there isn't. So I drink."

Paradise is not for everyone. The dissolution of a human life can never be described as pleasant, and those who insist that stories are redemptive and uplifting, with happy endings, are not going to enjoy this book. But for those who enjoy a taut narrative, believable, if not altogether wholesome, characters, and above all the inventive and original use of language, this is a great read.

 

© 2005 Tony O'Brien

 

Tony O'Brien is a short story writer, and lecturer in mental health nursing at the University of Auckland, New Zealand: a.obrien@auckland.ac.nz


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