email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
"Are You There Alone?""How Come Boys Get to Keep Their Noses?""My Madness Saved Me"10% Happier365 Days49 Up56 UpA Beautiful MindA Beautiful MindA Beautiful MindA Book of ReasonsA Can of MadnessA Child's Life and Other StoriesA Dangerous LiaisonA Fight to BeA First-Rate MadnessA Good Enough DaughterA Heartbreaking Work of Staggering GeniusA Lethal InheritanceA Lethal InheritanceA Life ShakenA Life Worth LivingA Little PregnantA Message from JakieA Million Little PiecesA Numerate LifeA Pocket History of Sex in the Twentieth CenturyA Slant of SunA Special EducationA Tribe ApartAbout FaceAddicted Like MeADHD & MeAEIOUAgainst Medical AdviceAgents in My BrainAileen - Life and Death of a Serial KillerAlgernon, Charlie and IAll Out!All Seasons PassAlphavilleAlways Too Much And Never EnoughAlzheimer'sAn Anthropologist on MarsAn EducationAn Unquiet MindAngela's AshesAngelheadAnna Freud: A BiographyAnnie's GhostsAnother Bullshit Night in Suck CityAnthology of a Crazy LadyApples and OrangesApproaching NeverlandAre You There, Vodka? It's Me, ChelseaAs I Live and BreatheAs Nature Made HimAt Home in the Heart of AppalachiaAt the End of WordsAvalancheBad BoyBad GirlBeautiful BoyBeautiful WreckBecoming AnnaBen Behind His VoicesBequest and BetrayalBereftBertrand RussellBlackoutBlanketsBloodlettingBodies in Motion and at RestBoneBorn on a Blue DayBoyBoy AloneBoyleBrain on FireBreaking ApartBreaking the SilenceBrokenBulimics on BulimiaBuzzCamus and SartreCharles DarwinChasing the HighCheeverCherryCity of OneCluesClumsyComfortComplications Compulsive ActsConfessions of a Cereal EaterConfessions of a Former ChildConfessions of a Grieving ChristianConfessions of the Other MotherConfidingConquering the Beast WithinContesting ChildhoodCrackedCrazyCry Depression, Celebrate RecoveryDamned to EternityDancing at the Shame PromDante's CureDaughter of the Queen of ShebaDavid Sedaris Live at Carnegie HallDays With My FatherDefeating the VoicesDementia Caregivers Share Their StoriesDepression and NarrativeDescartesDetourDevil in the DetailsDiagnosis: SchizophreniaDirty DetailsDirty SecretDivided MindsDivine MadnessDon't Get Too ComfortableDown Came the RainDress Your Family in Corduroy and DenimDrinkingDriving My FatherDrunkardDryEarly Embraces IIIEarly ExposuresEinsteinEinstein and OppenheimerElectroboyElegy for IrisElijah's CupElliott Smith and the Big NothingElsewhereEnough About YouEpilepticEvery Girl Tells a StoryEverything In Its PlaceExamined LivesExiting NirvanaFaces of Huntington'sFamily BoundFast GirlFearless ConfessionsFind MeFinding Iris ChangFirst Person Accounts of Mental Illness and RecoveryFirst Person PluralFixing My GazeFlanneryFolie a DeuxFor the Love of ItFortress of My YouthFrank Ramsey (1903-1930)Franz KafkaFraudFree RefillsFreudFreudFreudFriedrich NietzscheFrom Joy Division to New OrderFumblingFun HomeFuriously HappyGalileo Get Me Out of HereGirl in Need of a TourniquetGirl Walking BackwardsGirl, InterruptedGirl, InterruptedGirls on the VergeGoing BlindGoing Through Hell Without Help From AboveGraysonGrowing Up JungGuttedHalf a Brain Is EnoughHardcore from the HeartHead CasesHeal & ForgiveHeal & Forgive IIHeavier than HeavenHeinz KohutHeinz KohutHello from Heaven!Hello to All ThatHer HusbandHer Last DeathHigh PriceHole in My LifeHolidays On IceHolidays on IceHope's BoyHouse of Happy EndingsHouse of Happy EndingsHow I Stayed Alive When My Brain Was Trying to Kill MeHow to Lose Friends & Alienate PeopleHow to Make Love Like a Porn Starhow to stop timeHumeHunger Makes Me a Modern GirlHurry Down SunshineI Am I Am I AmI Feel Bad About My NeckI Never Promised You a Rose GardenI Remain in DarknessI'd Rather Eat ChocolateI'd Rather LaughIf I Die Before I WakeImagining RobertIn Search of FatimaIn the Realms of the UnrealIn the Wake of SuicideInside TherapyInternInvisible No MoreIt Happened to NancyIt Takes a Worried ManJack Cole and Plastic ManJean-Paul SartreJohn Stuart MillJourneys with the Black DogJust CheckingKafkaKantLa SierraLab GirlLast Flight OutLearning to FallLet Me Make It GoodLife As We Know ItLife InterruptedLife ReimaginedLimboLincoln's MelancholyListening in the Silence, Seeing in the DarkLittle PeopleLive For Your Listening PleasureLive Through ThisLiving in the Shadow of the Freud FamilyLiving With SchizophreniaLiving with SchizophreniaLockeLonelyLong ShotLook Me in the EyeLooking for The StrangerLoose GirlLosing Mum and PupLosing My MindLove Is a Mix TapeLove SickLove Times ThreeLove Works Like ThisLove You, Mean ItLuckyLudwig WittgensteinLyingMad HouseMad PrideMadame ProustMadnessMagical ThinkingMalignant SadnessManicMarcel ProustMarcus AureliusMary BarnesMaverick MindMe Talk Pretty One DayMeaningMelanie KleinMemoirMemoirs of an Addicted BrainMemoirs of My Nervous IllnessMen-ipulationMisconceptionsMiss American PieMockingbird YearsMomma and the Meaning of LifeMommies Who DrinkMonkey MindMore, Now, AgainMortificationMy Age of AnxietyMy Body PoliticMy Brain Tumour AdventuresMy DepressionMy Father's HeartMy First Cousin Once RemovedMy Flesh and BloodMy Horizontal LifeMy Life Among the Serial KillersMy Sister LifeMy Stroke of InsightName All the AnimalsNeural MisfireNietzscheNietzsche: The Man and His PhilosophyNinety DaysNo Hurry to Get HomeNo Impact ManNo More ShavesNo One Cares About Crazy PeopleNolaNotebooks 1951-1959NothingOdd Girl Speaks OutOedipus WreckedOf Spirits & MadnessOn Being RapedOn the Edge of DarknessOn the MoveOne Hour in ParisOne Hundred DaysOphelia SpeaksPagan TimePassing for NormalPeople Who Eat DarknessPerfect ChaosPerfect ExamplePermanent Present TensePersepolisPlanet of the BlindPlaying with FirePlease Don't Kill the FreshmanPoisoned LovePollockPOPismPortraits of Huntington'sPoster ChildProzac DiaryPsychiatrist on the RoadPsychosis in the FamilyPuppy Chow Is Better Than ProzacQuitting the Nairobi TrioRaising BlazeReasons to Stay AliveRebuiltRecovered, Not CuredRelative StrangerRescuing JeffreyRestricted AccessRevengeRewind, Replay, RepeatRichard RortyRiding the Bus With My SisterRobert Lowell, Setting the River on FireRoom For JRosemaryRough MagicRunning After AntelopeRunning with ScissorsScattershotSchizophreniaSchopenhauerSecond OpinionsSectionedSeeing EzraSeeing the CrabSet the Boy FreeSex & Single GirlsSex ObjectShakespeareShe Bets Her LifeShe Got Up Off the CouchShut the DoorSickenedSilencing the VoicesSimone de BeauvoirSinging in the FireSkin GameSlackjawSlut!SmashedSome Assembly RequiredSome Kind of GeniusSometimes Amazing Things HappenSometimes Madness Is WisdomSongs from the Black ChairSongs of the Gorilla NationSoren KierkegaardSpeak to MeSpeaking Our Minds: Revised EditionSpecial SiblingsSpentStandbyStick FigureStill LivesStretchSunset StorySurviving OpheliaSwing LowTales from Both Sides of the BrainTales of PsychotherapyTalk to HerTell Me Everything You Don't RememberTellingTelling Tales About DementiaThe Accidental BillionairesThe AddictThe Anatomy of HopeThe Anti-Romantic ChildThe Art of MisdiagnosisThe Bastard on the Couch CDThe BeastThe Bell JarThe Best Seat in the HouseThe Big FixThe Body SilentThe Boy on the Green BicycleThe Boy Who Loved Too MuchThe Boy Who Loved WindowsThe Bright HourThe Buddha & The BorderlineThe Burn JournalsThe Camera My Mother Gave MeThe Cancer Monologue ProjectThe Center Cannot HoldThe Chelsea WhistleThe Churkendoose AnthologyThe Day the Voices StoppedThe Devil WithinThe DisappearanceThe Discomfort ZoneThe Doctor Is InThe Eden ExpressThe Family SilverThe Farm Colonies: Caring for New York City's Mentally Ill In Long Island's State HospitalsThe Fasting GirlThe First Man-Made ManThe First TimeThe Geography of BlissThe Glass CastleThe Good DoctorsThe Hillside Diary and Other WritingsThe Incantations of Daniel JohnstonThe Infidel and the ProfessorThe Last AsylumThe Last Good FreudianThe Last Time I Wore a DressThe Liars' ClubThe Lives and Loves of Daisy and Violet HiltonThe Lives They Left BehindThe LobotomistThe Long GoodbyeThe Looked After Kid: Memoirs from a Children's HomeThe Loony-Bin TripThe Madness of Our LivesThe Making of a PhilosopherThe Making of Friedrich NietzscheThe Man Who Couldn't EatThe Man Who Shocked the WorldThe Man Who Tasted ShapesThe Marvelous Hairy GirlsThe Maximum Security Book ClubThe Me in the MirrorThe Memory PalaceThe Mercy PapersThe Mistress's DaughterThe Mother of Black HollywoodThe Naked Bird WatcherThe Naked Lady Who Stood on Her HeadThe Night of the GunThe Noonday DemonThe Notebook GirlsThe NursesThe Only Girl in the CarThe Orchid ThiefThe Other HollywoodThe OutsiderThe Philosopher's Autobiography The Philosophical Breakfast ClubThe Philosophical IThe Pits and the PendulumThe Pornographer's GriefThe Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner The Professor and the MadmanThe Psychopath TestThe Quiet RoomThe Red DevilThe Rescue of Belle and SundanceThe Ride TogetherThe Rules of the TunnelThe Secret of LifeThe Shaking Woman or A History of My NervesThe Shared HeartThe Shiniest JewelThe Siren's DanceThe Statistical Life of MeThe Story of My FatherThe Strange Case of Hellish NellThe Summer of a DormouseThe SurrenderThe Talking CureThe Thought that CountsThe Three of UsThe Undoing ProjectThe Vagina MonologuesThe Velveteen FatherThe Winter of Our DisconnectThe Woman Who Walked into the SeaThe Years of Silence are PastThe Yellow HouseThe Yipping TigerThick As ThievesThinThis Close to HappyThomas S. SzaszTiger, TigerTits, Ass, and Real EstateTo Redeem One Person Is to Redeem the WorldTo Walk on EggshellsTransforming MadnessTrue CompassTruth & BeautyTruth Comes in BlowsTuesdays with MorrieTweakTwitch and ShoutUltimate JudgementUndercurrentsUnholy GhostUnlikelyVoices of AlcoholismVoices Of Alzheimer'sVoices of CaregivingVoices of RecoveryVoluntary MadnessWaiting for DaisyWar FareWashing My Life AwayWastedWaveWe're Going to Need More WineWe're Not MonstersWeather Reports from the Autism FrontWeekends at BellevueWhat Did I Do Last Night?What Goes UpWhat I Learned in Medical SchoolWhat's Normal?When a Crocodile Eats the SunWhen Breath Becomes AirWhen Do I Get My Shoelaces Back?.....When It Gets DarkWhen the Piano StopsWhen You Are Engulfed in FlamesWhere Did It All Go Right?Where is the Mango Princess?Where the Roots Reach for WaterWhile the City SleptWhile They SleptWho Was Jacques Derrida?Why I Left, Why I StayedWhy I'm Like ThisWildWill's ChoiceWinnicottWinnieWish I Could Be ThereWith Their EyesWomen Living with Self-InjuryWomen, Body, IllnessWrestling with the AngelYou Must Be DreamingYour Voice in My HeadZeldaZor
Mary Barnes' autobiography is one of the frankest
and most literal accounts of madness you are likely to read. From her
description of her early family life to the sometimes tediously detailed
description of her day to day experience of regression into psychosis, Barnes
spares herself and the reader little. Interspersed with sections by her
therapist, Joseph Berkes, and with new epilogues added since the publication of
the 1971 edition, the book spans the entire period of Barnes' life until her
death in 2001.
Barnes' story is not simply an
autobiography, but a first-person account (two if you include Berkes') of a
tumultuous time in British psychiatry. The asylum era had faltered under the
weight of internal critique, public distrust, and the seemingly limitless
capacity of society to consign the mentally ill to institutions. New theories
of mental illness, especially schizophrenia, were emerging. In particular,
psychoanalytically oriented theorists were looking at the role of the family in
schizophrenia. Thus Barnes' personal life history followed a path toward, and
then away from the mainstream of British psychiatry.
Barnes begins with the ironic
comment: 'My family was abnormally nice'. From there she recalls a childhood
under the austere gaze of her mother, and her struggle to live with the
conflicts carried into her adult life. She recounts early experiences of her
reaction to her mother's pregnancies, and her sense of rejection, displacement
and rage. Trained as a nurse, and for a time employed teaching nursing, Barnes'
life does not show the trajectory of adolescent role failure often considered
to characterize schizophrenia. Her conversion to Catholicism showed a concern
with questions of meaning that were later to assume almost mystical
proportions. According to her account Barnes achieved considerable success
professionally, but remained troubled by self doubt and at times delusional
ideas about herself, her family, and her effects on the world around her. These
led to hospital admissions and intervention with the standard treatments of the
time, ECT and chlorpromazine. When she met R.D Laing her life changed, and it
is here that the biography takes on and additional social and historical
In 1965 Barnes entered Kingsley
Hall, a therapeutic community set up by antipsychiatrists Laing and Esterson.
The mood was radical; the techniques primitive and untried. Laing considered
psychosis to be a healing experience which, fully experienced would bring about
its own resolution. Laing was the enfant terrible of British psychiatry
in the 1960s. His somewhat precocious The Divided Self set out what he
saw as the basis for an alternative scientific account of schizophrenia, that
of schizophrenia as an indicator of pathological family interaction. Kingsley
Hall was the crucible in which Laing's ideas would be tested. Barnes would
become one of Laing's ambassadors; a voyager into the depths of psychosis, who
would emerge to explain its mysteries to those who would listen. A lot of
people listened. Kingsley Hall, during the time of Mary Barnes residency,
became a magnet for radical thinkers in psychiatry. Visitors included Fritz Perls
and Loren Mosher. As mainstream resistance to Laing's ideas became more
entrenched, his critique took on an explicit political dimension through his
identification with concerns of emancipation and liberation, rather than merely
the alleviation of distress.
According to Berkes' account,
doctors working at Kingsley Hall were exhorted to drop their medical persona,
and instead engage with their clients as one human being to another. There
seems to be little that is problematic about such an attitude. Many doctors of
the day, especially those who were psychoanalytically trained, would probably
have agreed that the relationship between doctor and patient is the prime
ingredient of psychiatric care. Michael Balint's 1957 The Doctor, his Patient and the Illness certainly took such ideas seriously in applying them to
general medicine. However it is not entirely clear that Laing and others were
prepared to abandon the status arising from their background as doctors. Their
role as therapists appears in large part derived from their medical authority,
augmented by a considerable dose of personal charisma. At one point in Berkes'
therapy with Mary Barnes, Berkes lashed out in frustration at Barnes' childish
demands, bloodying her nose. What is notable about his response is his
consternation at finding himself thinking in terms of the ethical framework of
medicine. He is later relieved that Barnes thanked him for the assault and said
“she loved me more than ever”.
As she emerged from the cocoon of
psychosis Barnes' discovered a talent for art. She became a productive and
respected painter, not merely in the 'art of the insane' tradition, but in her
own right, as an artist of the unconscious. The book contains several reproductions
of her work, and they certainly have evocative power. One painting, 'The
resurrection' seems clearly modelled on Munch's The Scream, but the
embryo-like figure suggests the idea of rebirth which was a cornerstone of Laingian
therapy. Roman Catholic iconography is strongly represented in her art, with
the fingerpainted works on Peter, the Nativity, and The Blinding of Paul having
a primal quality in both the colors and the interpretations of their themes.
Two Accounts of a Journey
through Madness is at times a slow read. There is little evidence of
professional editing, which may be a reflection of the Barnes' view that
madness speaks directly, and should not be filtered through objective the
frames of reference for the convenience of others. Whatever the reason for its
publication in this form, the authentic voice of Barnes contributes in large
measure to the book's appeal. While there are passages in which the tone of her
writing is prosaic, there are others that show the poetic sensitivity that inspired
her art. Her view of herself is that: 'Much of me was twisted and buried,
and turned in on itself, like a tangled skein of wool, to which the end had
been lost.' (p. 13).
Mary Barnes was never cured.
Perhaps she was never ill. She lived a productive, fulfilled life, albeit one
interrupted by her admissions to hospital and her sponsored descents into
psychosis at Kingsley Hall. She contemplated death with equanimity. It is hard
to imagine the events of her life being repeated. That is not to say that psychiatry
has been reformed by the lessons of the antipsychiatrists. If anything, the
ideological position of biological psychiatrists has been strengthened, rather
than weakened over the past few decades. Psychiatry, especially State
psychiatry, has redrawn its boundaries, and is now less concerned with
dysfunctional families, and more with using narrow diagnostic criteria to limit
access to services.
It is not at all clear that Laing's
radicalism has made an enduring, independent contribution to psychiatry. His
focus on understanding the experience distress is part of an interpersonal
tradition that predates Kingsley Hall, reaching back to Tuke and other
practitioners of moral therapy. Kingsley Hall folded in 1970, and so was never
able to provide the sort of sustained programs of intervention that might have
tested Laing's theories more fully In the years after Kingsley Hall Laing never
recaptured the status he enjoyed as a counter culture figure.
A biography is a story of a life.
While Barnes' book, especially the chapters by Berke, provides a critique of
mainstream psychiatry, it is as biography that the book is most successful.
From the intensely subjective descriptions of her childhood experiences, to the
frank and at times naively honest recollections of her adulthood, Barnes'
account is direct and compelling account of one woman's life.
© 2005 Tony O'Brien
O'Brien, M Phil., Lecturer, Mental Health Nursing, University of Auckland